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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->

<chapter id="virtualization">
  <chapterinfo>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
        <firstname>Murray</firstname>
	<surname>Stokely</surname>
	<contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
    <!-- Mar 2007 -->
  </chapterinfo>

  <title>Virtualization</title>
  
  <sect1 id="virtualization-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>
    
    <para>Virtualization software allows multiple operating systems
      to run simultaneously on the same computer.  Such software
      systems for PCs often involve a host operating system which runs
      the virtualization software and supports any number of guest
      operating systems.</para>
    
    <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>The difference between a host operating system and a
	  guest operating system.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to install &os; on an &intel;-based &apple; &macintosh;
	  computer.</para>
      </listitem>

<!--
  Note:  There is no working/end-user ready Xen support for FreeBSD as of 07-2010.
         Hide all information regarding Xen under FreeBSD.

      <listitem>
	<para>How to install &os; on Linux with <application>&xen;</application>.</para>
      </listitem>
-->
      <listitem>
	<para>How to install &os; on &microsoft.windows; with
	  <application>Virtual PC</application>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to tune a &os; system for best performance under
	  virtualization.</para>
      </listitem>

    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Understand the basics of &unix; and &os; (<xref
	    linkend="basics">).</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem><para>Know how to install &os; (<xref
      linkend="install">).</para></listitem>

      <listitem><para>Know how to set up your network connection (<xref
      linkend="advanced-networking">).</para></listitem>

      <listitem><para>Know how to install additional third-party
        software (<xref linkend="ports">).</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

  </sect1>



  <sect1 id="virtualization-guest">
    <title>&os; as a Guest OS</title>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-guest-parallels">
      <title>Parallels on MacOS</title>

      <para><application>Parallels Desktop</application> for &mac; is a
	commercial software product available for &intel; based &apple;
	&mac; computers running &macos; 10.4.6 or higher.  &os; is a
	fully supported guest operating system.
	Once <application>Parallels</application> has been installed on &macos;
        X, the user must configure a virtual machine and then install
        the desired guest operating system.</para>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-parallels-install">
	  <title>Installing &os; on Parallels/&macos; X</title>

	  <para>The first step in installing &os; on &macos;
	    X/<application>Parallels</application> is to create a new virtual
	    machine for installing &os;.  Select <guimenuitem>&os;</guimenuitem>
	    as the <guimenu>Guest OS Type</guimenu> when prompted:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd1">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>And choose a reasonable amount of disk and
	    memory depending on your plans for this virtual &os;
	    instance.  4GB of disk space and 512MB of RAM work well for most
	    uses of &os; under <application>Parallels</application>:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd2">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd3">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd4">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd5">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Select the type of networking and a network
	    interface:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd6">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd7">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Save and finish the configuration:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd8">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd9">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>After your &os; virtual machine has been created,
	    you will need to install &os; on it.  This is best done
	    with an official &os; CDROM or with an ISO image
	    downloaded from an official FTP site.  When you have the
	    appropriate ISO image on your local &mac; filesystem or a
	    CDROM in your &mac;'s CD drive, click on the disc icon in the
	    bottom right corner of your &os;
	    <application>Parallels</application> window.  This
	    will bring up a window that allows you to associate the
	    CDROM drive in your virtual machine with an ISO file on
	    disk or with your real CDROM drive.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd11">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Once you have made this association with your CDROM
	    source, reboot your &os; virtual machine as normal by
	    clicking the reboot icon.
	    <application>Parallels</application> will reboot with a
	    special BIOS that first checks if you have a CDROM just as a
	    normal BIOS would do.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd10">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>In this case it will find the &os; installation media
	    and begin a normal <application>sysinstall</application> based
	    installation as described in <xref linkend="install">.  You
	    may install, but do not attempt to configure X11 at
	    this time.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd12">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>When you have finished the installation, reboot
	    into your newly installed &os; virtual machine.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/parallels-freebsd13">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-parallels-configure">
	  <title>Configuring &os; on &macos; X/Parallels</title>

	  <para>After &os; has been successfully installed on &macos;
	    X with <application>Parallels</application>, there are a number
	    of configuration steps that can be taken to optimize the system
	    for virtualized operation.</para>

          <procedure>
	    <step>
	      <title>Set boot loader variables</title>

	      <para>The most important step is to reduce the
	        <option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
		of &os; under the <application>Parallels</application>
		environment.  This is accomplished by adding the following
		line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

	  	<programlisting>kern.hz=100</programlisting>

	      <para>Without this setting, an idle &os;
	        <application>Parallels</application> guest
		OS will use roughly 15% of the CPU of a single
		processor &imac;.  After this change the usage will be
		closer to a mere 5%.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>

	      <para>You can remove all of the SCSI, FireWire, and USB
	        device drivers.  <application>Parallels</application>
		provides a virtual network
	        adapter used by the &man.ed.4; driver, so
	        all other network devices except for
	        &man.ed.4; and &man.miibus.4; can be
	        removed from the kernel.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Setup networking</title>

	      <para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
	        using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
	        local area network as your host &mac;.  This can be
	        accomplished by adding
	        <literal>ifconfig_ed0="DHCP"</literal> to
	        <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.  More advanced
		networking setups are described in <xref
		linkend="advanced-networking">.</para>
	    </step>
          </procedure>

      </sect3>

    </sect2>
<!--
Deactive/hide this section as the instruction in there do NOT work anyore:
- FreeBSD 7.0 has reached its EOL a long time ago.
- The needed files from www.fsmware.com are not available anymore, as the
  server is dead.  So it is impossible to follow the instructions in here.

jkois@FreeBSD.org, 2010-06-18

    <sect2 id="virtualization-guest-xen">
      <sect2info>
	<authorgroup>
	  <author>
            <firstname>Fukang</firstname>
	    <surname>Chen (Loader)</surname>
	    <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>

      </sect2info>

      <title>&os; with &xen; on Linux</title>

	<para>The <application>&xen;</application> hypervisor is an open
	  source paravirtualization product which is now supported by the
	  commercial XenSource company.  Guest operating systems are known
	  as domU domains, and the host operating system is known as dom0.
	  The first step in running a virtual &os; instance under Linux
	  is to install <application>&xen;</application> for Linux dom0.
	  The host operating system will be a Slackware Linux
	  distribution.</para>

	<sect3 id="xen-slackware-dom0">
	  <title>Setup &xen; 3 on Linux dom0</title>

	  <procedure>
	    <step>
	      <title>Download &xen; 3.0 from XenSource</title>

	      <para>Download <ulink
	        url="http://bits.xensource.com/oss-xen/release/3.0.4-1/src.tgz/xen-3.0.4_1-src.tgz">xen-3.0.4_1-src.tgz</ulink>
	        from <ulink url="http://www.xensource.com/"></ulink>.</para>

	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Unpack the tarball</title>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd xen-3.0.4_1-src</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>KERNELS="linux-2.6-xen0 linux-2.6-xenU" make world</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>

            <note>
	      <para>To re-compile the kernel for dom0:</para>

	      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd xen-3.0.4_1-src/linux-2.6.16.33-xen0</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make menuconfig</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>

	      <para>Older version of <application>&xen;</application> may need to specify
	        <command>make ARCH=xen menuconfig</command></para>
	    </note>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Add a menu entry into Grub menu.lst</title>

	      <para>Edit <filename>/boot/grub/menu.lst</filename> and
		add the following lines:</para>

	      <programlisting>title Xen-3.0.4
root (hd0,0)
kernel /boot/xen-3.0.4-1.gz dom0_mem=262144
module /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.16.33-xen0 root=/dev/hda1 ro</programlisting>
            </step>

            <step>
              <title>Reboot your computer into &xen;</title>

	      <para>First, edit
		<filename>/etc/xen/xend-config.sxp</filename>, and add
		the following line:</para>

	      <programlisting>(network-script 'network-bridge netdev=eth0')</programlisting>

	      <para>Then, we can launch
		<application>&xen;</application>:</para>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/etc/init.d/xend start</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>/etc/init.d/xendomains start</userinput></screen>

	      <para>Our dom0 is running:</para>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>xm list</userinput>
Name                                      ID   Mem VCPUs      State   Time(s)
Domain-0                                   0   256     1     r&ndash;&ndash;&ndash;&ndash;&ndash;  54452.9</screen>
            </step>
          </procedure>
        </sect3>

        <sect3>
          <title>&os; 7-CURRENT domU</title>

          <para>Download the &os; domU kernel for <application>&xen; 3.0</application> and
	    disk image from <ulink
            url="http://www.fsmware.com/">http://www.fsmware.com/</ulink></para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><ulink url="http://www.fsmware.com/xenofreebsd/7.0/download/kernel-current">kernel-current</ulink></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><ulink url="http://www.fsmware.com/xenofreebsd/7.0/download/mdroot-7.0.bz2">mdroot-7.0.bz2</ulink></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><ulink url="http://www.fsmware.com/xenofreebsd/7.0/download/config/xmexample1.bsd">xmexample1.bsd</ulink></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>Put the configuration file <filename>xmexample1.bsd</filename>
	into <filename>/etc/xen/</filename> and modify the related
	entries about where the kernel and the disk image are stored.
	It should look like the following:</para>

      <programlisting>kernel = "/opt/kernel-current"
memory = 256
name = "freebsd"
vif = [ '' ]
disk = [ 'file:/opt/mdroot-7.0,hda1,w' ]
#on_crash    = 'preserve'
extra = "boot_verbose"
extra += ",boot_single"
extra += ",kern.hz=100"
extra += ",vfs.root.mountfrom=ufs:/dev/xbd769a"</programlisting>

      <para>The <filename>mdroot-7.0.bz2</filename> file should be 
	uncompressed.</para>

      <para>Next, the __xen_guest section in <filename>kernel-current</filename>
	needs to be altered to add the VIRT_BASE that
	<application>&xen; 3.0.3</application> requires:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>objcopy kernel-current -R __xen_guest</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>perl -e 'print "LOADER=generic,GUEST_OS=freebsd,GUEST_VER=7.0,XEN_VER=xen-3.0,BSD_SYMTAB,VIRT_BASE=0xC0000000\x00"' &gt; tmp</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>objcopy kernel-current &ndash;&ndash;add-section __xen_guest=tmp</userinput></screen>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>objdump -j __xen_guest -s kernel-current</userinput>

kernel-current:     file format elf32-i386

Contents of section __xen_guest:
 0000 4c4f4144 45523d67 656e6572 69632c47  LOADER=generic,G
 0010 55455354 5f4f533d 66726565 6273642c  UEST_OS=freebsd,
 0020 47554553 545f5645 523d372e 302c5845  GUEST_VER=7.0,XE
 0030 4e5f5645 523d7865 6e2d332e 302c4253  N_VER=xen-3.0,BS
 0040 445f5359 4d544142 2c564952 545f4241  D_SYMTAB,VIRT_BA
 0050 53453d30 78433030 30303030 3000      SE=0xC0000000. </screen>

      <para>We are, now, ready to create and launch our domU:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>xm create /etc/xen/xmexample1.bsd -c</userinput>
Using config file "/etc/xen/xmexample1.bsd".
Started domain freebsd
WARNING: loader(8) metadata is missing!
Copyright (c) 1992-2006 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
FreeBSD 7.0-CURRENT #113: Wed Jan  4 06:25:43 UTC 2006
    kmacy@freebsd7.gateway.2wire.net:/usr/home/kmacy/p4/freebsd7_xen3/src/sys/i386-xen/compile/XENCONF
WARNING: DIAGNOSTIC option enabled, expect reduced performance.
Xen reported: 1796.927 MHz processor.
Timecounter "ixen" frequency 1796927000 Hz quality 0
CPU: Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 1.80GHz (1796.93-MHz 686-class CPU)
  Origin = "GenuineIntel"  Id = 0xf29  Stepping = 9
  Features=0xbfebfbff&lt;FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,PAE,MCE,CX8,APIC,SEP,MTRR,PGE,MCA,CMOV,PAT,PSE36,CLFLUSH,
  DTS,ACPI,MMX,FXSR,SSE,SSE2,SS,HTT,TM,PBE&gt;
  Features2=0x4400&lt;CNTX-ID,&lt;b14&gt;&gt;
real memory  = 265244672 (252 MB)
avail memory = 255963136 (244 MB)
xc0: &lt;Xen Console&gt; on motherboard
cpu0 on motherboard
Timecounters tick every 10.000 msec
[XEN] Initialising virtual ethernet driver.
xn0: Ethernet address: 00:16:3e:6b:de:3a
[XEN] 
Trying to mount root from ufs:/dev/xbd769a
WARNING: / was not properly dismounted
Loading configuration files.
No suitable dump device was found.
Entropy harvesting: interrupts ethernet point_to_point kickstart.
Starting file system checks:
/dev/xbd769a: 18859 files, 140370 used, 113473 free (10769 frags, 12838 blocks, 4.2% fragmentation)
Setting hostname: demo.freebsd.org.
lo0: flags=8049&lt;UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
	  inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 
	  inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2 
	  inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 
Additional routing options:.
Mounting NFS file systems:.
Starting syslogd.
/etc/rc: WARNING: Dump device does not exist.  Savecore not run.
ELF ldconfig path: /lib /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib /usr/local/lib
a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout
Starting usbd.
usb: Kernel module not available: No such file or directory
Starting local daemons:.
Updating motd.
Starting sshd.
Initial i386 initialization:.
Additional ABI support: linux.
Starting cron.
Local package initialization:.
Additional TCP options:.
Starting background file system checks in 60 seconds.

Sun Apr  1 02:11:43 UTC 2007

FreeBSD/i386 (demo.freebsd.org) (xc0)

login: </screen>

      <para>The domU should run the &os;&nbsp;7.0-CURRENT
	kernel:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>uname -a</userinput>
FreeBSD demo.freebsd.org 7.0-CURRENT FreeBSD 7.0-CURRENT #113: Wed Jan  4 06:25:43 UTC 2006     
kmacy@freebsd7.gateway.2wire.net:/usr/home/kmacy/p4/freebsd7_xen3/src/sys/i386-xen/compile/XENCONF  i386</screen>

      <para>The network can now be configured on the domU.  The &os;
	domU will use a specific interface called
	<devicename>xn0</devicename>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig xn0 10.10.10.200 netmask 255.0.0.0</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig</userinput>
xn0: flags=843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX&gt; mtu 1500
    inet 10.10.10.200 netmask 0xff000000 broadcast 10.255.255.255
    ether 00:16:3e:6b:de:3a
lo0: flags=8049&lt;UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
      inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 
      inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x2 
      inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000 </screen>

      <para>On dom0 Slackware, some <application>&xen;</application>
	dependant network interfaces should show up:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig</userinput>
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 00:07:E9:A0:02:C2  
          inet addr:10.10.10.130  Bcast:0.0.0.0  Mask:255.0.0.0
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:815 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:1400 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:204857 (200.0 KiB)  TX bytes:129915 (126.8 KiB)

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:16436  Metric:1
          RX packets:99 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:99 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:9744 (9.5 KiB)  TX bytes:9744 (9.5 KiB)

peth0     Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr FE:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF  
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:1853349 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:952923 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:2432115831 (2.2 GiB)  TX bytes:86528526 (82.5 MiB)
          Base address:0xc000 Memory:ef020000-ef040000 

vif0.1    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr FE:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF  
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:1400 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:815 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:129915 (126.8 KiB)  TX bytes:204857 (200.0 KiB)

vif1.0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr FE:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF  
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:2 errors:0 dropped:157 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1 
          RX bytes:140 (140.0 b)  TX bytes:158 (158.0 b)

xenbr1    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr FE:FF:FF:FF:FF:FF  
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING NOARP  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:4 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:112 (112.0 b)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)</screen>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>brctl show</userinput>
bridge name     bridge id           STP enabled         interfaces
xenbr1          8000.feffffffffff   no                  vif0.1
                                                        peth0
                                                        vif1.0</screen>
      </sect3>

    </sect2>
-->
    <sect2 id="virtualization-guest-virtualpc">
      <title>Virtual PC on &windows;</title>

      <para><application>Virtual PC</application> for &windows; is a
	&microsoft; software product available for free download.  See <ulink
	url="http://www.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/virtualpc/sysreq.mspx">
	system requirements</ulink>.  Once <application>Virtual PC</application>
	has been installed on &microsoft.windows;, the user must configure a
	virtual machine and then install the desired guest operating
	system.</para>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-virtualpc-install">
	  <title>Installing &os; on Virtual PC/&microsoft.windows;</title>

	  <para>The first step in installing &os; on &microsoft.windows;
	    /<application>Virtual PC</application> is to create a new virtual
	    machine for installing &os;.  Select <guimenuitem>Create a
	    virtual machine</guimenuitem> when prompted:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd1">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd2">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>And select <guimenuitem>Other</guimenuitem> as the
	    <guimenuitem>Operating system</guimenuitem> when prompted:</para>
	    
	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd3">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>
	  
	  <para>Then, choose a reasonable amount of disk and
	    memory depending on your plans for this virtual &os;
	    instance.  4GB of disk space and 512MB of RAM work well for most
	    uses of &os; under <application>Virtual PC</application>:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd4">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd5">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Save and finish the configuration:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd6">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Select your &os; virtual machine and click
	    <guimenu>Settings</guimenu>, then set the type of networking and a
	    network interface:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd7">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd8">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>After your &os; virtual machine has been created,
	    you will need to install &os; on it.  This is best done
	    with an official &os; CDROM or with an ISO image
	    downloaded from an official FTP site.  When you have the
	    appropriate ISO image on your local &windows; filesystem or a
	    CDROM in your CD drive, double click on your &os;
	    virtual machine to boot.  Then, click <guimenu>CD</guimenu> and
	    choose <guimenu>Capture ISO Image...</guimenu> on
	    <application>Virtual PC</application> window.  This
	    will bring up a window that allows you to associate the
	    CDROM drive in your virtual machine with an ISO file on
	    disk or with your real CDROM drive.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd9">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd10">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Once you have made this association with your CDROM
	    source, reboot your &os; virtual machine as normal by
	    clicking the <guimenu>Action</guimenu> and
	    <guimenu>Reset</guimenu>.  <application>Virtual PC</application>
	    will reboot with a special BIOS that first checks if you have a
	    CDROM just as a normal BIOS would do.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd11">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>In this case it will find the &os; installation media
	    and begin a normal <application>sysinstall</application> based
	    installation as described in <xref linkend="install">.  You
	    may install, but do not attempt to configure X11 at
	    this time.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd12">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>When you have finished the installation, remember to eject
	    CDROM or release ISO image. Finally, reboot into your newly
	    installed &os; virtual machine.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/virtualpc-freebsd13">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-virtualpc-configure">
	  <title>Configuring &os; on &microsoft.windows;/Virtual PC</title>

	  <para>After &os; has been successfully installed on
	    &microsoft.windows; with <application>Virtual PC</application>,
	    there are a number of configuration steps that can be taken to
	    optimize the system for virtualized operation.</para>

          <procedure>
	    <step>
	      <title>Set boot loader variables</title>

	      <para>The most important step is to reduce the
	        <option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
		of &os; under the <application>Virtual PC</application>
		environment.  This is accomplished by adding the following
		line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

	  	<programlisting>kern.hz=100</programlisting>

	      <para>Without this setting, an idle &os;
	        <application>Virtual PC</application> guest
		OS will use roughly 40% of the CPU of a single
		processor computer.  After this change the usage will be
		closer to a mere 3%.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>

	      <para>You can remove all of the SCSI, FireWire, and USB
	        device drivers.  <application>Virtual PC</application>
		provides a virtual network
	        adapter used by the &man.de.4; driver, so
	        all other network devices except for
	        &man.de.4; and &man.miibus.4; can be
	        removed from the kernel.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Setup networking</title>

	      <para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
	        using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
	        local area network as your host &microsoft.windows;.  This can
		be accomplished by adding
	        <literal>ifconfig_de0="DHCP"</literal> to
	        <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.  More advanced
		networking setups are described in <xref
		linkend="advanced-networking">.</para>
	    </step>
          </procedure>

      </sect3>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-guest-vmware">
      <title>VMware on MacOS</title>

      <para><application>VMware Fusion</application> for &mac; is a
	commercial software product available for &intel; based &apple;
	&mac; computers running &macos; 10.4.9 or higher.  &os; is a
	fully supported guest operating system.  Once
	<application>VMware Fusion</application> has been installed on
	&macos; X, the user must configure a virtual machine and then
	install the desired guest operating system.</para>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-vmware-install">
	  <title>Installing &os; on VMware/&macos; X</title>

	  <para>The first step is to start VMware Fusion, the Virtual
	    Machine Library will load.  Click "New" to create the VM:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd01">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>This will load the New Virtual Machine Assistant to help
	    you create the VM, click Continue to proceed:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd02">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Select <guimenuitem>Other</guimenuitem> as the
	    <guimenuitem>Operating System</guimenuitem> and
	    <guimenuitem>&os;</guimenuitem> or
	    <guimenuitem>&os; 64-bit</guimenuitem>, depending on if
	    you want 64-bit support, as the <guimenu>Version</guimenu>
	    when prompted:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd03">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Choose the Name of the VM Image and the Directory where
	    you would like it saved:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd04">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Choose the size of the Virtual Hard Disk for the VM:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd05">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Choose the method you would like to install the VM,
	    either from an ISO image or from a CD:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd06">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Once you click Finish, the VM will boot:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd07">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Install &os; like you normally would, or by following the
	    directions in <xref linkend="install">:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd08">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>Once the install is complete you can modify the settings
	    of the VM, such as Memory Usage:</para>

          <note>
	    <para>The System Hardware settings of the VM cannot be modified
	      while the VM is running.</para>
          </note>

	  <mediaobject>
            <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd09">
            </imageobject>
          </mediaobject>

	  <para>The number of CPUs the VM will have access to:</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd10">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>The status of the CD-Rom Device. Normally you can disconnect
	    the CD-Rom/ISO from the VM if you will not be needing it anymore.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd11">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>The last thing to change is how the VM will connect to
	    the Network. If you want to allow connections to the VM from
	    other machines besides the Host, make sure you choose the
	    <guimenuitem>Connect directly to the physical network
	    (Bridged)</guimenuitem>. Otherwise <guimenuitem>Share the
	    host's internet connection (NAT)</guimenuitem> is preferred
	    so that the VM can have access to the Internet, but the network
	    cannot access the VM.</para>

	  <mediaobject>
	    <imageobject>
	      <imagedata fileref="virtualization/vmware-freebsd12">
	    </imageobject>
	  </mediaobject>

	  <para>After you have finished modifying the settings, boot the
	    newly installed &os; virtual machine.</para>
        </sect3>

	<sect3 id="virtualization-guest-vmware-configure">
	  <title>Configuring &os; on &macos; X/VMware</title>

	  <para>After &os; has been successfully installed on &macos;
	    X with <application>VMware</application>, there are a number
	    of configuration steps that can be taken to optimize the system
	    for virtualized operation.</para>

          <procedure>
	    <step>
	      <title>Set boot loader variables</title>

	      <para>The most important step is to reduce the
	        <option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
		of &os; under the <application>VMware</application>
		environment.  This is accomplished by adding the following
		line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

	  	<programlisting>kern.hz=100</programlisting>

	      <para>Without this setting, an idle &os;
	        <application>VMware</application> guest
		OS will use roughly 15% of the CPU of a single
		processor &imac;.  After this change the usage will be
		closer to a mere 5%.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>

	      <para>You can remove all of the FireWire, and USB device
	        drivers.  <application>VMware</application> provides a
		virtual network adapter used by the &man.em.4; driver,
		so all other network devices except for &man.em.4; can
		be removed from the kernel.</para>
	    </step>

	    <step>
	      <title>Setup networking</title>

	      <para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
	        using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
	        local area network as your host &mac;.  This can be
	        accomplished by adding
	        <literal>ifconfig_em0="DHCP"</literal> to
	        <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.  More advanced
		networking setups are described in <xref
		linkend="advanced-networking">.</para>
	    </step>
          </procedure>

      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-guest-virtualbox-guest-additions">
      <title>&virtualbox; Guest Additions on a &os; Guest</title>

      <para>The <application>&virtualbox;</application> guest additions
	provide support for:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Clipboard sharing</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Mouse pointer integration</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Host time synchronization</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Window scaling</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Seamless mode</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <note>
	<para>The following commands are run in the &os; guest.</para>
      </note>

      <para>First, install the <filename
	  role="package">emulators/virtualbox-ose-additions</filename>
	package in the &os; guest.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/emulators/virtualbox-ose-additions && make install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para>Add these lines to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>vboxguest_enable="YES"
vboxservice_enable="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>If &man.ntpd.8; or &man.ntpdate.8; will be used, host time
	synchronization should be disabled:</para>

      <programlisting>vboxservice_flags="--disable-timesync"</programlisting>

      <para>The <literal>vboxvideo_drv</literal> should be recognized by
	<command>Xorg -configure</command>.  If not, modify
	<filename>xorg.conf</filename> for the
	<application>&virtualbox;</application> video card:</para>

      <programlisting>Section "Device"
	### Available Driver options are:-
	### Values: &lt;i&gt;: integer, &lt;f&gt;: float, &lt;bool&gt;: "True"/"False",
	### &lt;string&gt;: "String", &lt;freq&gt;: "&lt;f&gt; Hz/kHz/MHz"
	### [arg]: arg optional
	Identifier "Card0"
	Driver "vboxvideo"
	VendorName "InnoTek Systemberatung GmbH"
	BoardName "VirtualBox Graphics Adapter"
	BusID "PCI:0:2:0"
EndSection</programlisting>

      <para>To use <literal>vboxmouse_drv</literal>, adjust the mouse
	section in your <filename>xorg.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>Section "InputDevice"
	Identifier "Mouse0"
	Driver "vboxmouse"
EndSection</programlisting>

      <para><acronym>HAL</acronym> users should create this file at
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/hal/fdi/policy/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename>
	or copy it from <filename>/usr/local/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
&lt;!--
# Sun VirtualBox
# Hal driver description for the vboxmouse driver
# $Id: chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2012-02-15 18:37:26 eadler Exp $

	Copyright (C) 2008-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.

	This file is part of VirtualBox Open Source Edition (OSE, as
	available from http://www.virtualbox.org. This file is free software;
	you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU
	General Public License (GPL) as published by the Free Software
	Foundation, in version 2 as it comes in the "COPYING" file of the
	VirtualBox OSE distribution. VirtualBox OSE is distributed in the
	hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY of any kind.

	Please contact Sun Microsystems, Inc., 4150 Network Circle, Santa
	Clara, CA 95054 USA or visit http://www.sun.com if you need
	additional information or have any questions.
--&gt;
&lt;deviceinfo version="0.2"&gt;
  &lt;device&gt;
    &lt;match key="info.subsystem" string="pci"&gt;
      &lt;match key="info.product" string="VirtualBox guest Service"&gt;
        &lt;append key="info.capabilities" type="strlist"&gt;input&lt;/append&gt;
	&lt;append key="info.capabilities" type="strlist"&gt;input.mouse&lt;/append&gt;
        &lt;merge key="input.x11_driver" type="string"&gt;vboxmouse&lt;/merge&gt;
	&lt;merge key="input.device" type="string"&gt;/dev/vboxguest&lt;/merge&gt;
      &lt;/match&gt;
    &lt;/match&gt;
  &lt;/device&gt;
&lt;/deviceinfo&gt;</programlisting>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="virtualization-host">
    <title>&os; as a Host OS</title>

    <para>For a number of years, &os; was not officially supported as a host
      OS by any of the available virtualization solutions.  Some people were
      using older and mostly obsolete versions of
      <application>VMware</application> (like <filename
	role="package">emulators/vmware3</filename>), which utilized the
      &linux; binary compatibility layer.  Shortly after the release of
      &os;&nbsp;7.2, the Open Source Edition (<acronym>OSE</acronym>) of
      Sun's <application>&virtualbox;</application> appeared in the
      Ports&nbsp;Collection as a native &os; program.</para>

    <para><application>&virtualbox;</application> is an actively developed,
      complete virtualization package, that is available for most operating
      systems including &windows;, &macos;, &linux; and &os;.  It is equally
      capable at running &windows; or &unix; like guests.  It comes in two
      flavors, an open source and a proprietary edition.  From the user's
      point of view, perhaps the most important limitation of the
      <acronym>OSE</acronym> is the lack of USB support.  Other differences
      may be found in the <quote>Editions</quote> page of the
      <application>&virtualbox;</application> wiki, at <ulink
	url="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Editions"></ulink>.
      Currently, only the OSE is available for &os;.</para>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-virtualbox-install">
      <title>Installing &virtualbox;</title>

      <para><application>&virtualbox;</application> is available as a &os; port
	in <filename role="package">emulators/virtualbox-ose</filename>.
	As &virtualbox; is very actively developed, make sure your ports
	tree is up to date before installing.  Install using these
	commands:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/emulators/virtualbox-ose</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para>One useful option in the configuration dialog is the
	<literal>GuestAdditions</literal> suite of programs.  These provide a
	number of useful features in guest operating systems, like mouse
	pointer integration (allowing the mouse to be shared between host
	and guest without the need to press a special keyboard shortcut to
	switch) and faster video rendering, especially in &windows; guests.
	The guest additions are available in the <guimenu>Devices</guimenu>
	menu, after the installation of the guest OS is finished.</para>

      <para>A few configuration changes are needed before
	<application>&virtualbox;</application> is started for the first time.
	The port installs a kernel module in <filename
	  class="directory">/boot/modules</filename> which must be loaded
	into the running kernel:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload vboxdrv</userinput></screen>

      <para>To ensure the module always gets loaded after a reboot, add the
	following line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>vboxdrv_load="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>To use the kernel modules that allow bridged or host-only
	networking, add the following to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>
	and reboot the computer:</para>

      <programlisting>vboxnet_enable="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>The <groupname>vboxusers</groupname> group is created during
	installation of <application>&virtualbox;</application>.
	All users that need access to <application>&virtualbox;</application>
	will have to be added as members of this group.
	The <command>pw</command> command may be used to add new
	members:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupmod vboxusers -m <replaceable>yourusername</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>The default permissions for <filename
	  class="devicefile">/dev/vboxnetctl</filename> are restrictive and
	need to be changed for bridged networking.</para>

      <para>To test it temporarily:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chown root:vboxusers /dev/vboxnetctl</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>chmod 0660 /dev/vboxnetctl</userinput></screen>

      <para>To make the permissions change permanent, add these
	lines to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>own     vboxnetctl root:vboxusers
perm    vboxnetctl 0660</programlisting>

      <para>To launch <application>&virtualbox;</application>, either select
	the <guimenuitem>Sun VirtualBox</guimenuitem> item from the
	graphic environment's menu, or type the following in a
	terminal:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>VirtualBox</userinput></screen>

      <para>For more information on configuring and using
	<application>&virtualbox;</application>, please visit the official
	website at <ulink url="http://www.virtualbox.org"></ulink>.
	As the &os; port is very recent, it is under heavy development.
	For the latest information and troubleshooting instructions, please
	visit the relevant page in the &os; wiki, at <ulink
	  url="http://wiki.FreeBSD.org/VirtualBox"></ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-virtualbox-usb-support">
      <title>&virtualbox; USB Support</title>

      <note>
	<para>These steps require VirtualBox 4.0.0 or later.</para>
      </note>

      <para>In order to be able to read and write to USB devices, users
	need to be members of the operator group:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupmod operator -m <replaceable>jerry</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Then, add the following to <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename>
	(create it if it does not exist yet):</para>

      <programlisting>[system=10]
add path 'usb/*' mode 0660 group operator</programlisting>

      <para>To load these new rules, add the following to
	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>devfs_system_ruleset="system"</programlisting>

      <para>Then, restart devfs:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/etc/rc.d/devfs restart</userinput></screen>

      <para>USB can now be enabled in the guest operating system.
	USB devices should be visible in the &virtualbox; preferences.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="virtualization-virtualbox-host-dvd-cd-access">
      <title>&virtualbox; Host DVD/CD Access</title>

      <para>The <command>atapicam</command> kernel module needs to be loaded
	by adding the following line to
	<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>atapicam_load="YES"</programlisting>

      <para><acronym>HAL</acronym> needs to run for
	<application>&virtualbox;</application> DVD/CD functions to work,
	so enable it in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and start it
	(if it is not already running):</para>

      <programlisting>hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/local/etc/rc.d/hald start</userinput></screen>

      <para>In order for users to be able to use
	<application>&virtualbox;</application> DVD/CD functions, they need
	access to <filename class="devicefile">/dev/xpt0</filename>,
	<filename
	  class="devicefile">/dev/cd<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>,
	and <filename
	  class="devicefile">/dev/pass<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>.
	Add the following lines to
	<filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>perm cd0 0600
perm xpt0 0660
perm pass0 0660</programlisting>
    </sect2>

<!--
  Note:  There is no working/end-user ready Xen support for FreeBSD as of 07-2010.
         Hide all information regarding Xen under FreeBSD.

    <sect2 id="virtualization-other">
      <title>Other Virtualization Options</title>

      <para>There is ongoing work in getting <application>&xen;</application>
	to work as a host environment on &os;.</para>
    </sect2>
-->
  </sect1>

</chapter>

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