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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->
<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="testing">

  <title>Testing the Port</title>

  <sect1 xml:id="make-describe">
    <title>Running <command>make describe</command></title>

    <para>Several of the &os; port maintenance tools, such as
      &man.portupgrade.1;, rely on a database called
      <filename>/usr/ports/INDEX</filename> which keeps track of such
      items as port dependencies.  <filename>INDEX</filename> is
      created by the top-level <filename>ports/Makefile</filename> via
      <command>make index</command>, which descends into each port
      subdirectory and executes <command>make describe</command>
      there.  Thus, if <command>make describe</command> fails in any
      port, no one can generate <filename>INDEX</filename>, and many
      people will quickly become unhappy.</para>

    <note>
      <para>It is important to be able to generate this file no matter
	what options are present in <filename>make.conf</filename>, so
	please avoid doing things such as using
	<literal>.error</literal> statements when (for instance) a
	dependency is not satisfied.  (See
	<xref linkend="dads-dot-error"/>.)</para>
    </note>

    <para>If <command>make describe</command> produces a string rather
      than an error message, everything is probably safe.  See
      <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> for the meaning of the string
      produced.</para>

    <para>Also note that running a recent version of
      <command>portlint</command> (as specified in the next section)
      will cause <command>make describe</command> to be run
      automatically.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="testing-portlint">
    <title>Portlint</title>

    <para>Do check the port with <link
	linkend="porting-portlint"><command>portlint</command></link>
      before submitting or committing it.  <command>portlint</command>
      warns about many common errors, both functional and
      stylistic.  For a new (or repocopied) port,
      <command>portlint -A</command> is the most thorough; for an
      existing port, <command>portlint -C</command> is
      sufficient.</para>

    <para>Since <command>portlint</command> uses heuristics to try to
      figure out errors, it can produce false positive warnings.  In
      addition, occasionally something that is flagged as a problem
      really cannot be done in any other way due to limitations in the
      ports framework.  When in doubt, the best thing to do is ask on
      &a.ports;.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="testing-porttools">
    <title>Port Tools</title>

    <para>The <package role="port">ports-mgmt/porttools</package>
      program is part of the Ports Collection.</para>

    <para><command>port</command> is the front-end script, which can
      help simplify the testing job.  Whenever a new port or an update
      to an existing one needs testing, use
      <command>port test</command> to test the port, including the
      <link
	linkend="testing-portlint"><command>portlint</command></link>
      checking.  This command also detects and lists any files that
      are not listed in <filename>pkg-plist</filename>.  For
      example:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>port test /usr/ports/net/csup</userinput></screen>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="porting-prefix">
    <title><varname>PREFIX</varname> and
      <varname>DESTDIR</varname></title>

    <para><varname>PREFIX</varname> determines where the port will be
      installed.  It defaults to <filename>/usr/local</filename>, but
      can be set by the user to a custom path like
      <filename>/opt</filename>.  The port must respect the value of
      this variable.</para>

    <para><varname>DESTDIR</varname>, if set by the user, determines
      the complete alternative environment, usually a jail or an
      installed system mounted somewhere other than
      <filename>/</filename>.  A port will actually install into
      <filename>DESTDIR/PREFIX</filename>, and register with the
      package database in <filename>DESTDIR/var/db/pkg</filename>.  As
      <varname>DESTDIR</varname> is handled automatically by the ports
      infrastructure with &man.chroot.8;.  There is no need for
      modifications or any extra care to write
      <varname>DESTDIR</varname>-compliant ports.</para>

    <para>The value of <varname>PREFIX</varname> will be set to
      <varname>LOCALBASE</varname> (defaulting to
      <filename>/usr/local</filename>).  If
      <varname>USE_LINUX_PREFIX</varname> is set,
      <varname>PREFIX</varname> will be <varname>LINUXBASE</varname>
      (defaulting to <filename>/compat/linux</filename>).</para>

    <para>Avoiding hard-coded <filename>/usr/local</filename> paths in
      the source makes the port much more flexible and able to cater
      to the needs of other sites.  Often, this can be accomplished by
      replacing occurrences of <filename>/usr/local</filename>
      in the port's various <filename>Makefile</filename>s with
      <literal>&dollar;{PREFIX}</literal>.  This variable is
      automatically passed down to every stage of the build and
      install processes.</para>

    <para>Make sure the application is not installing things in
      <filename>/usr/local</filename> instead of
      <varname>PREFIX</varname>.  A quick test for such hard-coded
      paths is:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>make clean; make package PREFIX=/var/tmp/`make -V PORTNAME`</userinput></screen>

    <para>If anything is installed outside of
      <varname>PREFIX</varname>, the package creation process will
      complain that it cannot find the files.</para>

    <para>In addition, it is worth checking the same with the stage
      directory support (see <xref linkend="staging"/>):</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>make stage &amp;&amp; make check-plist &amp;&amp; make stage-qa &amp;&amp; make package</userinput></screen>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para><buildtarget>check-plist</buildtarget> checks for files
	  missing from the plist, and files in the plist that are not
	  installed by the port.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><buildtarget>stage-qa</buildtarget> checks for common
	  problems like bad shebang, symlinks pointing outside the
	  stage directory, setuid files, and non-stripped
	  libraries...</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>These tests will not find hard-coded paths inside the port's
      files, nor will it verify that <varname>LOCALBASE</varname> is
      being used to correctly refer to files from other ports.  The
      temporarily-installed port in
      <filename>/var/tmp/`make -V PORTNAME`</filename> must be
      tested for proper operation to make sure there are no problems
      with paths.</para>

    <para><varname>PREFIX</varname> must not be set explicitly in a
      port's <filename>Makefile</filename>.  Users installing the port
      may have set <varname>PREFIX</varname> to a custom location, and
      the port must respect that setting.</para>

    <para>Refer to programs and files from other ports with the
      variables mentioned above, not explicit pathnames.  For
      instance, if the port requires a macro <literal>PAGER</literal>
      to have the full pathname of <command>less</command>, do not use
      a literal path of <filename>/usr/local/bin/less</filename>.
      Instead, use <literal>&dollar;{LOCALBASE}</literal>:</para>

    <programlisting>-DPAGER=\"&dollar;{LOCALBASE}/bin/less\"</programlisting>

    <para>The path with <varname>LOCALBASE</varname> is more likely to
      still work if the system administrator has moved the whole
      <filename>/usr/local</filename> tree somewhere else.</para>

    <tip>
      <para>All these tests are done automatically when running
	<command>poudriere testport</command> or <command>poudriere
	  bulk -t</command>.  It is highly recommended that every
	ports contributor install and test their ports with it.  See
	<xref linkend="testing-poudriere"/> for more
	information.</para>
    </tip>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="testing-poudriere">
    <title><application>Poudriere</application></title>

    <para>For a ports contributor,
      <application>Poudriere</application> is one of the most
      important and helpful testing and build tools.  Its main
      features include:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Bulk building of the entire ports tree, specific subsets
	  of the ports tree, or a single port including its
	  dependencies</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Automatic packaging of build results</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Generation of build log files per port</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Providing a signed &man.pkg.8; repository</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Testing of port builds before submitting a patch to the
	  &os; bug tracker or committing to the ports tree</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Testing for successful ports builds using different
	  options</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Because <application>Poudriere</application> performs its
      building in a clean &man.jail.8; environment and uses
      &man.zfs.8; features, it has several advantages over traditional
      testing on the host system:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>No pollution of the host environment: No leftover files,
	  no accidental removals, no changes of existing configuration
	  files.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Verify <filename>pkg-plist</filename> for missing or
	  superfluous entries</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Ports committers sometimes ask for a
	  <application>Poudriere</application> log alongside a patch
	  submission to assess whether the patch is ready for
	  integration into the ports tree</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>It is also quite straightforward to set up and use, has no
      dependencies, and will run on any supported &os; release.  This
      section shows how to install, configure, and run
      <application>Poudriere</application> as part of the normal
      workflow of a ports contributor.</para>

    <para>The examples in this section show a default file layout, as
      standard in &os;.  Substitute any local changes accordingly.
      The ports tree, represented by <varname>${PORTSDIR}</varname>,
      is located in <filename>/usr/ports</filename>.  Both
      <varname>${LOCALBASE}</varname> and <varname>${PREFIX}</varname>
      are <filename>/usr/local</filename> by default.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-installing">
      <title>Installing <application>Poudriere</application></title>

      <para><application>Poudriere</application> is available in the
	ports tree in <package
	  role="port">ports-mgmt/poudriere</package>.  It can be
	installed using &man.pkg.8; or from ports:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install poudriere</userinput></screen>

      <para>or</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make -C /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/poudriere install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para>There is also a work-in-progress version of
	<application>Poudriere</application> which will eventually
	become the next release.  It is available in <package
	  role="port">ports-mgmt/poudriere-devel</package>.  This
	development version is used for the official &os; package
	builds, so it is well tested.  It often has newer interesting
	features.  A ports committer will want to use the development
	version because it is what is used in production, and has all
	the new features that will make sure everything is exactly
	right.  A contributor will not necessarily need those as the
	most important fixes are backported to released version.  The
	main reason for the use of the development version to build
	the official package is because it is faster, in a way that
	will shorten a full build from 18 hours to 17 hours when using
	a high end 32 <acronym>CPU</acronym> server with 128GB of
	<acronym>RAM</acronym>.  Those optimizations will not matter a
	lot when building ports on a desktop machine.</para>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-setup">
      <title>Setting Up <application>Poudriere</application></title>

      <para>The port installs a default configuration file,
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename>.  Each
	parameter is documented in the configuration file and in
	&man.poudriere.8;.  Here is a minimal example config
	file:</para>

      <programlisting>ZPOOL=tank
ZROOTFS=/poudriere
BASEFS=/poudriere
DISTFILES_CACHE=/usr/ports/distfiles
RESOLV_CONF=/etc/resolv.conf
FREEBSD_HOST=ftp://ftp.freebsd.org
SVN_HOST=svn.FreeBSD.org</programlisting>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>ZPOOL</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The name of the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> storage pool
	      which <application>Poudriere</application> shall use.
	      Must be listed in the output of <command>zpool
		status</command>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>ZROOTFS</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The root of
	      <application>Poudriere</application>-managed file
	      systems.  This entry will cause
	      <application>Poudriere</application> to create
	      &man.zfs.8; file systems under
	      <literal>tank/poudriere</literal>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>BASEFS</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The root mount point for
	      <application>Poudriere</application> file systems.  This
	      entry will cause <application>Poudriere</application> to
	      mount <literal>tank/poudriere</literal> to
	      <literal>/poudriere</literal>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>DISTFILES_CACHE</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Defines where distfiles are stored.  In this
	      example, <application>Poudriere</application> and the
	      host share the distfiles storage directory.  This avoids
	      downloading tarballs which are already present on the
	      system.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>RESOLV_CONF</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Use the host <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>
	      inside jails for <acronym>DNS</acronym>.  This is needed
	      so jails can resolve the <acronym>URL</acronym>s of
	      distfiles when downloading.  It is not needed when using
	      a proxy.  Refer to the default configuration file for
	      proxy configuration.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>FREEBSD_HOST</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The <acronym>FTP</acronym>/<acronym>HTTP</acronym>
	      server to use when the jails are installed from &os;
	      releases and updated with &man.freebsd-update.8;.
	      Choose a server location which is close, for example if
	      the machine is located in Australia, use
	      <literal>ftp.au.freebsd.org</literal>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><varname>SVN_HOST</varname></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The server from where jails are installed and
	      updated when using
	      <application>Subversion</application>.  Also used for
	      ports tree when not using &man.portsnap.8;.  Again,
	      choose a nearby location.  A list of official
	      <application>Subversion</application> mirrors can be
	      found in the <link
		xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/svn.html#svn-mirrors">&os;
		Handbook <application>Subversion</application>
		section</link>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-create-jails">
      <title>Creating <application>Poudriere</application>
	Jails</title>

      <para>Create the base jails which
	<application>Poudriere</application> will use for
	building:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j 111Ramd64 -v 11.1-RELEASE -a amd64</userinput></screen>

      <para>Fetch a <literal>11.1-RELEASE</literal> for
	<literal>amd64</literal> from the <acronym>FTP</acronym>
	server given by <varname>FREEBSD_HOST</varname> in
	<filename>poudriere.conf</filename>, create the zfs file
	system <literal>tank/poudriere/jails/111Ramd64</literal>, mount
	it on <filename>/poudriere/jails/111Ramd64</filename> and
	extract the <literal>11.1-RELEASE</literal> tarballs into this
	file system.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j 11i386 -v stable/11 -a i386 -m svn+https</userinput></screen>

      <para>Create <literal>tank/poudriere/jails/11i386</literal>,
	mount it on <filename>/poudriere/jails/11i386</filename>, then
	check out the tip of the <application>Subversion</application>
	branch of <literal>&os;-11-STABLE</literal> from
	<literal>SVN_HOST</literal> in
	<filename>poudriere.conf</filename> into
	<filename>/poudriere/jails/11i386/usr/src</filename>, then
	complete a <buildtarget>buildworld</buildtarget> and install
	it into <filename>/poudriere/jails/11i386</filename>.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>If a specific <application>Subversion</application>
	  revision is needed, append it to the version string.  For
	  example:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j 11i386 -v stable/11@123456 -a i386 -m svn+https</userinput></screen>
      </tip>

      <note>
	<para>While it is possible to build a newer version of &os; on
	  an older version, most of the time it will not run.  For
	  example, if a <literal>stable/11</literal> jail is needed,
	  the host will have to run <literal>stable/11</literal> too.
	  Running <literal>11.0-RELEASE</literal> is not
	  enough.</para>
      </note>

      <note>
	<para>To create a <application>Poudriere</application> jail
	  for <literal>12.0-CURRENT</literal>:</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j 12amd64 -v head -a amd64 -m svn+https</userinput></screen>

	  <para>In order to run a <literal>12.0-CURRENT</literal>
	    <application>Poudriere</application> jail you must be
	    running <literal>12.0-CURRENT</literal>.  In general, newer
	    kernels can build and run older jails.  For instance, a
	    <literal>12.0-CURRENT</literal> kernel can build and run a
	    <literal>11.1-STABLE</literal>
	    <application>Poudriere</application> jails if the
	    <literal>COMPAT_FREEBSD11</literal> kernel option was
	    compiled in (on by default in
	    <literal>12.0-CURRENT</literal>
	    <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel config).</para>
	</note>

      <caution>
	<para>The default <literal>svn</literal> protocol works but is
	  not very secure.  Using <literal>svn+https</literal> along
	  with verifying the remote server's <acronym>SSL</acronym>
	  fingerprint is advised.  It will ensure that the files used
	  for building the jail are from a trusted source.</para>
      </caution>

      <para>A list of jails currently known to
	<application>Poudriere</application> can be shown with
	<command>poudriere jail -l</command>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -l</userinput>
JAILNAME             VERSION              ARCH    METHOD
111Ramd64             11.1-RELEASE          amd64   ftp
11i386               11.0-STABLE          i386    svn+https</screen>
    </sect2>


    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-maintaining-jails">
      <title>Keeping <application>Poudriere</application> Jails
	Updated</title>

      <para>Managing updates is very straightforward.  The
	command:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -u -j <replaceable>JAILNAME</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>updates the specified jail to the latest version
	available.  For &os; releases, update to the latest patchlevel
	with &man.freebsd-update.8;.  For &os; versions built from
	source, update to the latest
	<application>Subversion</application> revision in the
	branch.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>For jails employing a
	  <literal>svn+<replaceable>*</replaceable></literal> method,
	  it is helpful to add <command>-J
	    <replaceable>NumberOfParallelBuildJobs</replaceable></command>
	  to speed up the build by increasing the number of parallel
	  compile jobs used.  For example, if the building machine has
	  6 <acronym>CPU</acronym>s, use:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -u -J 6 -j <replaceable>JAILNAME</replaceable></userinput></screen>
      </tip>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-ports-tree">
      <title>Setting Up Ports Trees for Use with
	<application>Poudriere</application></title>

      <para>There are multiple ways to use ports trees in
	<application>Poudriere</application>.  The most
	straightforward way is to have
	<application>Poudriere</application> create a default ports
	tree for itself:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -c</userinput></screen>

      <para>This command creates
	<literal>tank/poudriere/ports/default</literal>, mount it on
	<filename>/poudriere/ports/default</filename>, and populate it
	using &man.portsnap.8;.  Afterward it is included in the list
	of known ports trees:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -l</userinput>
PORTSTREE      METHOD     PATH
default        portsnap   /poudriere/ports/default</screen>

      <note>
	<para>Note that the <quote>default</quote> ports tree is
	  special.  Each of the build commands explained later will
	  implicitly use this ports tree unless specifically specified
	  otherwise.  To use another tree, add <command>-p
	    <replaceable>treename</replaceable></command> to the
	  commands.</para>
      </note>

      <para>While useful for regular bulk builds, having this default
	ports tree with the &man.portsnap.8; method may not be the
	best way to deal with local modifications for a ports
	contributor.  As with the creation of jails, it is possible to
	use a different method for creating the ports tree.  To add an
	additional ports tree for testing local modifications and
	ports development, checking out the tree via
	<application>Subversion</application> is possible:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -c -m svn+https -p subversive</userinput></screen>

      <note>
	<para>The <acronym>http</acronym> and <acronym>https</acronym>
	  methods need <package role="port">devel/subversion</package>
	  built with the <literal>SERF</literal> option enabled.  It
	  is enabled by default.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Creates <literal>tank/poudriere/ports/subversive</literal>
	and mounts it on
	<filename>/poudriere/ports/subversive</filename>.  It is then
	populated using <application>Subversion</application>.
	Finally, it is added to the list of known ports trees:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -l</userinput>
PORTSTREE            METHOD     PATH
default              portsnap   /poudriere/ports/default
subversive           svn+https  /poudriere/ports/subversive</screen>

      <tip>
	<para>The <literal>svn</literal> method allows extra
	  qualifiers to tell <application>Subversion</application>
	  exactly how to fetch data.  This is explained in
	  &man.poudriere.8;.  For instance, <command>poudriere ports
	    -c -m svn+ssh -p subversive</command> uses
	  <application>SSH</application> for the checkout.</para>
      </tip>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-ports-tree-manual">
      <title>Using Manually Managed Ports Trees with Poudriere</title>

      <para>Depending on the workflow, it can be extremely helpful to
	use ports trees which are maintained manually.  For instance,
	if there is a local copy of the ports tree in
	<filename>/work/ports</filename>, point
	<application>Poudriere</application> to the location:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -c -F -f none -M /work/ports -p development</userinput></screen>

      <para>This will be listed in the table of known trees:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -l</userinput>
PORTSTREE    METHOD   PATH
development  -        /work/ports</screen>

      <note>
	<para>The dash in the <literal>METHOD</literal> column means
	  that <application>Poudriere</application> will not update or
	  change this ports tree, ever.  It is completely up to the
	  user to maintain this tree, including all local
	  modifications that may be used for testing new ports and
	  submitting patches.</para>
      </note>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-ports-tree-updating">
      <title>Keeping Poudriere Ports Trees Updated</title>

      <para>As straightforward as with jails described earlier:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -u -p <replaceable>PORTSTREE</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Will update the given
	<replaceable>PORTSTREE</replaceable>, one tree given by the
	output of <command>poudriere -l</command>, to the latest
	revision available on the official servers.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Ports trees without a method, see <xref
	    linkend="testing-poudriere-ports-tree-manual"/>, cannot be
	  updated like this.  They must be updated manually by the
	  porter.</para>
      </note>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-testing-ports">
      <title>Testing Ports</title>

      <para>After jails and ports trees have been set up, the result
	of a contributor's modifications to the ports tree can be
	tested.</para>

      <para>For example, local modifications to the <package
	  role="port">www/firefox</package> port located in
	<filename>/work/ports/www/firefox</filename> can be tested in
	the previously created 11.1-RELEASE jail:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -j 111Ramd64 -p development -o www/firefox</userinput></screen>

      <para>This will build all dependencies of
	<application>Firefox</application>.  If a dependency has been
	built previously and is still up-to-date, the pre-built
	package is installed.  If a dependency has no up-to-date
	package, one will be built with default options in a jail.
	Then <application>Firefox</application> itself is
	built.</para>

      <para>The complete build of every port is logged to
	<filename>/poudriere/data/logs/bulk/111Ri386-development/<replaceable>build-time</replaceable>/logs</filename>.</para>

      <para>The directory name <literal>111Ri386-development</literal>
	is derived from the arguments to <literal>-j</literal> and
	<literal>-p</literal>, respectively.  For convenience, a
	symbolic link
	<filename>/poudriere/data/logs/bulk/111Ri386-development/latest</filename>
	is also maintained.  The link points to the latest
	<replaceable>build-time</replaceable> directory.  Also in this
	directory is an <filename>index.html</filename> for observing
	the build process with a web browser.</para>

      <para>By default, <application>Poudriere</application> cleans up
	the jails and leaves log files in the directories mentioned
	above.  To ease investigation, jails can be kept running after
	the build by adding <option>-i</option> to
	<command>testport</command>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -j 111Ramd64 -p development -i -o www/firefox</userinput></screen>

      <para>After the build completes, and regardless of whether it
	was successful, a shell is provided within the jail.  The
	shell is used to investigate further.
	<application>Poudriere</application> can be told to leave the
	jail running after the build finishes with
	<option>-I</option>.  <application>Poudriere</application>
	will show the command to run when the jail is no longer
	needed.  It is then possible to &man.jexec.8; into it:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -j 111Ramd64 -p development -I -o www/firefox</userinput>
[...]
====>> Installing local Pkg repository to /usr/local/etc/pkg/repos
====>> Leaving jail 111Ramd64-development-n running, mounted at /poudriere/data/.m/111Ramd64-development/ref for interactive run testing
====>> To enter jail: jexec 111Ramd64-development-n env -i TERM=$TERM /usr/bin/login -fp root
====>> To stop jail: poudriere jail -k -j 111Ramd64 -p development
&prompt.root; <userinput>jexec 111Ramd64-development-n env -i TERM=$TERM /usr/bin/login -fp root</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput><replaceable>[do some stuff in the jail]</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>exit</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -k -j 111Ramd64 -p development</userinput>
====>> Umounting file systems</screen>

      <para>An integral part of the &os; ports build infrastructure is
	the ability to tweak ports to personal preferences with
	options.  These can be tested with
	<application>Poudriere</application> as well.  Adding the
	<option>-c</option>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -c -o www/firefox</userinput></screen>

      <para>Presents the port configuration dialog before the port is
	built.  The ports given after <option>-o</option> in the
	format
	<literal><replaceable>category</replaceable>/<replaceable>portname</replaceable></literal>
	will use the specified options, all dependencies will use the
	default options.  Testing dependent ports with non-default
	options can be accomplished using sets, see <xref
	  linkend="testing-poudriere-sets"/>.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>When testing ports where <filename>pkg-plist</filename>
	  is altered during build depending on the selected options,
	  it is recommended to perform a test run with all options
	  selected <emphasis>and</emphasis> one with all options
	  deselected.</para>
      </tip>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-sets">
      <title>Using Sets</title>

      <para>For all actions involving builds, a so-called
	<emphasis>set</emphasis> can be specified using <literal>-z
	  <replaceable>setname</replaceable></literal>.  A set refers
	to a fully independent build.  This allows, for instance,
	usage of <command>testport</command> with non-standard options
	for the dependent ports.</para>

      <para>To use sets, <application>Poudriere</application> expects
	an existing directory structure similar to
	<varname>PORT_DBDIR</varname>, defaults to
	<filename>/var/db/ports</filename> in its configuration
	directory.  This directory is then &man.nullfs.5;-mounted into the
	jails where the ports and their dependencies are built.
	Usually a suitable starting point can be obtained by
	recursively copying the existing <varname>PORT_DBDIR</varname>
	to
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/<replaceable>jailname</replaceable>-<replaceable>portname</replaceable>-<replaceable>setname</replaceable>-options</filename>.
	This is described in detail in &man.poudriere.8;.  For
	instance, testing <package role="port">www/firefox</package>
	in a specific set named <literal>devset</literal>, add the
	<literal>-z devset</literal> parameter to the testport
	command:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -j 111Ramd64 -p development -z devset -o www/firefox</userinput></screen>

      <para>This will look for the existence of these directories in
	this order:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-development-devset-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-devset-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-development-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/devset-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/development-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-options</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/options</filename></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>From this list, <application>Poudriere</application>
	&man.nullfs.5;-mounts the <emphasis>first existing</emphasis>
	directory tree into the <filename>/var/db/ports</filename>
	directory of the build jails.  Hence, all custom options are
	used for all the ports during this run of
	<command>testport</command>.</para>

      <para>After the directory structure for a set is provided, the
	options for a particular port can be altered.  For
	example:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere options -c www/firefox -z devset</userinput></screen>

      <para>The configuration dialog for <package
	  role="port">www/firefox</package> is shown, and options can
	be edited.  The selected options are saved to the
	<literal>devset</literal> set.</para>

      <note>
	<para><application>Poudriere</application> is very flexible in
	  the option configuration.  They can be set for particular
	  jails, ports trees, and for multiple ports by one command.
	  Refer to &man.poudriere.8; for details.</para>
      </note>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-make-conf">
      <title>Providing a Custom <filename>make.conf</filename>
	File</title>

      <para>Similar to using sets,
	<application>Poudriere</application> will also use a custom
	<filename>make.conf</filename> if it is provided.  No special
	command line argument is necessary.  Instead,
	<application>Poudriere</application> looks for existing files
	matching a name scheme derived from the command line.  For
	instance:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere testport -j 111Ramd64 -p development -z devset -o www/firefox</userinput></screen>

      <para>causes <application>Poudriere</application> to check for
	the existence of these files in this order:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/devset-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/development-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-development-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-devset-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-development-devset-make.conf</filename></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>Unlike with sets, all of the found files will be appended,
	<emphasis>in that order</emphasis>, into one
	<filename>make.conf</filename> inside the build jails.  It is
	hence possible to have general make variables, intended to
	affect all builds in
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/make.conf</filename>.
	Special variables, intended to affect only certain jails or
	sets can be set in specialised <filename>make.conf</filename>
	files, such as
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d/111Ramd64-development-devset-make.conf</filename>.</para>

      <example xml:id="testing-poudriere-sets-perl">
	<title>Using <filename>make.conf</filename> to Change Default
	  <application>Perl</application></title>

	<para>To build a set with a non default
	  <application>Perl</application> version, for example,
	  <literal>5.20</literal>, using a set named
	  <literal>perl5-20</literal>, create a
	  <filename>perl5-20-make.conf</filename> with this
	  line:</para>

	<programlisting>DEFAULT_VERSIONS+= perl=5.20</programlisting>

	<note>
	  <para>Note the use of <literal>+=</literal> so that if the
	    variable is already set in the default
	    <filename>make.conf</filename> its content will not be
	    overwritten.</para>
	</note>
      </example>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="testing-poudriere-pruning-distfiles">
      <title>Pruning no Longer Needed Distfiles</title>

      <para><application>Poudriere</application> comes with a built-in
	mechanism to remove outdated distfiles that are no longer used
	by any port of a given tree.  The command</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere distclean -p <replaceable>portstree</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>will scan the distfiles folder,
	<varname>DISTFILES_CACHE</varname> in
	<filename>poudriere.conf</filename>, versus the ports tree
	given by the <literal>-p
	  <replaceable>portstree</replaceable></literal> argument and
	prompt for removal of those distfiles.  To skip the prompt and
	remove all unused files unconditionally, the
	<literal>-y</literal> argument can be added:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere distclean -p <replaceable>portstree</replaceable> -y</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>

    <!--
Tricks


TODO
- ZFS clones for ports tree modifications during builds

    -->

  </sect1>
</chapter>