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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml,v 1.69 2000/01/16 02:51:01 obrien Exp $
-->

<chapter id="ports">
  <title>Installing Applications: The Ports collection</title>

  <para><emphasis>Rewritten by &a.jim;, 22 November 1999.  Original work
    by various people.</emphasis></para>

  <sect1>
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>The FreeBSD Ports collection allows you to compile and install a
      very wide range of applications with a minimum amount of
      effort.</para>

    <para>In general, it is a group of <link
      linkend="ports-skeleton">skeletons</link>
      which contain a minimal set of items needed to make an application
      compile and install cleanly on FreeBSD.</para>

    <para>Even with all the hype about open standards, getting a program
      to compile on various UNIX platforms can be a tricky task.
      Occasionally, you might be lucky enough to find that the program you
      want compiles cleanly on  your system, install everything into all
      the right directories, and run flawlessly
      &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;, but this behavior is somewhat rare.
      Most of the time, you find yourself needing to make modifications in
      order to get the program to work.  This is where the FreeBSD Ports
      collection comes to the rescue.</para>

    <para>The general idea behind the Ports collection is to eliminate all
      of the messy steps involved with making things work properly so that
      the installation is simple and very painless.  With the Ports
      collection, all of the hard work has already been done for you, and
      you are able to install any of the Ports collection ports by simply
      typing <command>make install</command>.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="ports-using">
    <title>Using the Ports Collection</title>

    <para>The following sections provide basic instructions on using the
      ports collection to install or remove programs from your
      system.</para>

    <sect2 id="ports-skeleton">
      <title>Installing Ports</title>

      <para>The first thing that should be explained
        when it comes to the Ports collection is what is actually meant
	by a &ldquo;skeleton&rdquo;.  In a nutshell, a port skeleton is a
	minimal set of files that are needed for a program to compile and
	install cleanly on FreeBSD.  Each port skeleton includes:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>A <filename>Makefile</filename>.  The
	    <filename>Makefile</filename> contains various statements that
	    specify how the application should be compiled and where it
	    should be installed on your system</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>A <filename>files</filename> directory.  The
	    <filename>files</filename> directory contains a file named
	    <filename>md5</filename>.  This file is named after the MD5
	    algorithm used to determine ports checksums.  A checksum is a
	    number generated by adding up all the data in the file you
	    want to check.  If any characters change, the checksum will
	    differ from the original and an error message will be
	    displayed so you are able to investigate the changes.</para>

	  <para>The <filename>files</filename> directory can also contain
	    other files that are required by the port but do not belong
	    elsewhere in the directory structure.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>A <filename>patches</filename> directory.  This directory
	    contains patches to make the program compile and install on
	    your FreeBSD system.  Patches are basically small files that
	    specify changes to particular files.  They are in plain text
	    format, and basically say &ldquo;Remove line 10&rdquo; or
	    &ldquo;Change line 26 to this ...&rdquo;.  Patches are also
	    known as &ldquo;diffs&rdquo; because they are generated by the
	    <application>diff</application> program.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>A <filename>pkg</filename> directory.  This directory
	    normally contains three files.  Occasionally, there will be
	    more than three, but it depends on the port.  Most only
	    require three.  The files are:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para><filename>COMMENT</filename>.  This is a one-line
	        description of the program.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para><filename>DESCR</filename>.  This is a more detailed,
	        often multiple-line, description of the program.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para><filename>PLIST</filename>.  This is a list of all the
	        files that will be installed by the port.  It also tells
		the ports system what files to remove upon
		deinstallation.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>Now that you have enough background information to know what
        the Ports collection is used for, you are ready to install your
	first port.  There are two ways this can be done, and each is
	explained below.</para>

      <para>Before we get into that however, you will need to choose a
        port to install.  There are a few ways to do this, with the
	easiest method being the <ulink
	url="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/">ports listing on the FreeBSD
	web site</ulink>.  You can browse through the ports listed there
	or use the search function on the site.  Each port also includes
	a description so you can read a bit about each port before
	deciding to install it.</para>

      <para>Another method is to use the <command>whereis</command>
        command.  To use <command>whereis</command>, simply type
	&ldquo;<command>whereis &lt;program you want to
	install&gt;&rdquo;</command> at the prompt, and if it is found on
        your system, you will be told where it is, like so:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>whereis xchat</userinput>
xchat: /usr/ports/irc/xchat
&prompt.root;</screen>

      <para>This tells us that xchat (an irc client) can be found in the
        <filename>/usr/ports/irc/xchat</filename> directory.</para>

      <para>Yet another way of finding a particular port is by using the
        Ports collection's built-in search mechanism.  To use the search
        feature, you will need to be in the
	<filename>/usr/ports</filename> directory.  Once in that
	directory, run <command>make search key=program-name</command>
	where &ldquo;program-name&rdquo; is the name of the program you
	want to find.  For example, if you were looking for xchat:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make search key=xchat</userinput>
Port:   xchat-1.3.8
Path:   /usr/ports/irc/xchat
Info:   An X11 IRC client using the GTK+ toolkit, and optionally, GNOME
Maint:  jim@FreeBSD.org
Index:  irc
B-deps: XFree86-3.3.5 bzip2-0.9.5d gettext-0.10.35 giflib-4.1.0 glib-1.2.6 gmake-3.77 gtk-1.2.6
		imlib-1.9.8 jpeg-6b png-1.0.3 tiff-3.5.1
R-deps: XFree86-3.3.5 gettext-0.10.35 giflib-4.1.0 glib-1.2.6 gtk-1.2.6 imlib-1.9.8 jpeg-6b
		png-1.0.3 tiff-3.5.1</screen>

      <para>The part of the output you want to pay particular attention
        to is the &ldquo;Path:&rdquo; line, since that tells you where to
	find it.  The other information provided is not needed in order
	to install the port directly, so it will not be covered
	here.</para>

      <note>
        <para>You must be the <username>root</username> user to install
          ports.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Now that you have found a port you would like to install, you
        are ready to do the actual installation.</para>

      <sect3 id="ports-cd">
        <title>Installing ports from a CDROM</title>

        <para>As you may have guessed from the title, everything
	  described in this section assumes you have a FreeBSD CDROM set.
	  If you do not, you can order one from the <ulink
	  url="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD Mall</ulink>.</para>

        <para>Assuming that your FreeBSD CDROM is in the drive and is
	  mounted on <filename>/cdrom</filename> (and the mount point
	  <emphasis>must</emphasis> be <filename>/cdrom</filename>),
	  you are ready to install the port.  To begin, change directories
	  to the directory where the port you want to install lives:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/irc/xchat</userinput></screen>

        <para>Once inside the xchat directory, you will see the port
	  skeleton.  The next step is to compile (also called build) the
	  port.  This is done by simply typing <command>make</command> at
	  the prompt.  Once you have done so, you should see something
	  like this:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make</userinput>
&gt;&gt; xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 doesn't seem to exist on this system.
&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from file:/cdrom/ports/distfiles/.
===&gt;  Extracting for xchat-1.3.8
&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2.
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on executable: bzip2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on executable: gmake - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: gtk12.2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: Imlib.5 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: X11.6 - found
===&gt;  Patching for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;  Applying FreeBSD patches for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;  Configuring for xchat-1.3.8
...
[configure output snipped]
...
===&gt;  Building for xchat-1.3.8
...
[compilation snipped]
...
&prompt.root;</screen>

        <para>Take notice that once the compile is complete you are
	  returned to your prompt.  The next step is to install the
	  port.  In order to install it, you simply need to tack one word
	  onto the <command>make</command> command, and that word is
	  <command>install</command>:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput>
===&gt;  Installing for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: gtk12.2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: Imlib.5 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: X11.6 - found
...
[install routines snipped]
...
===&gt;   Generating temporary packing list
===&gt;   Installing xchat docs in /usr/X11R6/share/doc/xchat
===&gt;   Registering installation for xchat-1.3.8
&prompt.root;</screen>

        <para>Once you are returned to your prompt, you should be able to
          run the application you just installed.</para>

        <note>
          <para>You can save an extra step by just running <command>make
            install</command> instead of <command>make</command> and
	    <command>make install</command> as two separate steps.</para>
        </note>

        <note>
          <para>Please be aware that the licenses of a few ports do not
            allow for inclusion on the CDROM.  This could be for various
	    reasons, including things such as as registration form needs
	    to be filled out before downloading, if redistribution is not
	    allowed, and so on.  If you wish to install a port not
	    included on the CDROM, you will need to be online in order to
	    do so (see the <link linkend="ports-inet">next
	    section</link>).</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="ports-inet">
      <title>Installing ports from the Internet</title>

        <para>As with the last section, this section makes an assumption
          that you have a working Internet connection.  If you do not,
	  you will need to do the <link linkend="ports-cd">CDROM
	  installation</link>.</para>

        <para>Installing a port from the Internet is done exactly the same
	  way as it would be if you were installing from a CDROM.  The
	  only difference between the two is that the program's source
	  code is downloaded from the Internet instead of pulled from the
	  CDROM.</para>

        <para>The steps involved are identical:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput>
&gt;&gt; xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 doesn't seem to exist on this system.
&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from http://xchat.org/files/v1.3/.
Receiving xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 (305543 bytes): 100%
305543 bytes transferred in 2.9 seconds  (102.81 Kbytes/s)
===&gt;  Extracting for xchat-1.3.8
&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2.
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on executable: bzip2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on executable: gmake - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: gtk12.2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: Imlib.5 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: X11.6 - found
===&gt;  Patching for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;  Applying FreeBSD patches for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;  Configuring for xchat-1.3.8
...
[configure output snipped]
...
===&gt;  Building for xchat-1.3.8
...
[compilation snipped]
...
===&gt;  Installing for xchat-1.3.8
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: gtk12.2 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: Imlib.5 - found
===&gt;   xchat-1.3.8 depends on shared library: X11.6 - found
...
[install routines snipped]
...
===&gt;   Generating temporary packing list
===&gt;   Installing xchat docs in /usr/X11R6/share/doc/xchat
===&gt;   Registering installation for xchat-1.3.8
&prompt.root;</screen>

        <para>As you can see, the only difference is the line that tells
	  you where the system is fetching the port from.</para>

        <para>That about does it for installing ports onto your system.
	  In the section you will learn how to remove a port from your
          system.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="ports-removing">
      <title>Removing Installed Ports</title>

      <para>Now that you know how to install ports, you are probably
        wondering how to remove them, just in case you install one and
	later on you decided that you installed the wrong port.  The next
	few paragraphs will cover just that.</para>

      <para>Now we will remove our previous example (which was xchat for
        those of you not paying attention).  As with installing ports,
	the first thing you must do is change to the port directory,
	which if you remember was
	<filename>/usr/ports/irc/xchat</filename>.  After you change
	directories, you are ready to uninstall xchat.  This is done with
	the <command>make deinstall</command> command (makes sense
	right?):</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/irc/xchat</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make deinstall</userinput>
===&gt;  Deinstalling for xchat-1.3.8
&prompt.root;</screen>

      <para>That was easy enough.  You have now managed to remove xchat
        from your system.  If you would like to reinstall it, you can do
	so by running <command>make reinstall</command> from the
        <filename>/usr/ports/irc/xchat</filename> directory.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="ports-trouble">
    <title>Troubleshooting</title>

    <para>The following sections cover some of the more frequently asked
      questions about the Ports collection and some basic troubleshooting
      techniques, and what do to if a <link
      linkend="ports-broken">port is broken.</link></para>

    <sect2 id="ports-questions">
      <title>Some Questions and Answers</title>

      <qandaset>
        <qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I thought this was going to be a discussion about
	    modems??!</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Ah, you must be thinking of the serial ports on the back
	    of your computer.  We are using &ldquo;port&rdquo; here to
	    mean the result of &ldquo;porting&rdquo; a program from one
	    version of UNIX to another.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I thought you were supposed to use packages to install
	    extra programs?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yes, that is usually the quickest and easiest way of
	    doing it.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>So why bother with ports then?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Several reasons:</para>

	  <orderedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>The licensing conditions of some software
	        distributions forbids binary distribution.  They must be
		distributed as source code.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>Some people do not trust binary distributions.  At
	        least with source code, you can (in theory) read through
		it and look for potential problems yourself.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>If you have local patches, you will need the source in
	        order to apply them.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>You might have opinions on how a program should be
	        compiled that differ from the person who did the
		package&mdash;some people have strong views on what
		optimization settings should be used, whether to build
		debug versions and then strip them or not, etc.,
		etc..</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>Some people like having code around, so they can read
	        it if they get bored, hack it, borrow from it (license
		permitting, of course), and so on.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>If you ain't got the source, it ain't software!
		<!-- smiley -->;-)</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </orderedlist>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para id="ports-patch">What is a patch?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>A patch is a small file that specifies how to go from
	    one version of a file to another.  It contains plain text,
	    and basically says things like &ldquo;delete line 23&rdquo;,
	    &ldquo;add these two lines after line 468&rdquo;, or
	    &ldquo;change line 197 to this&rdquo;.  They are also known
	    as diffs because they are generated by the
	    <application>diff</application> program.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para id="ports-tarball">What is all this about
	    tarballs?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>It is a file ending in <filename>.tar</filename>, or
	    with variations such as <filename>.tar.gz</filename>,
	    <filename>.tar.Z</filename>, <filename>.tar.bz2</filename>,
	    and even <filename>.tgz</filename>.</para>

	  <para>Basically, it is a directory tree that has been archived
	    into a single file (<filename>.tar</filename>) and
	    optionally compressed (<filename>.gz</filename>).  This
	    technique was originally used for <emphasis>T</emphasis>ape
	    <emphasis>AR</emphasis>chives (hence the name
	    <command>tar</command>), but it is a widely used way of
	    distributing program source code around the Internet.</para>

	  <para>You can see what files are in them, or even extract them
	    yourself by using the standard UNIX tar program, which comes
	    with the base FreeBSD system, like this:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>tar tvzf foobar.tar.gz</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>tar xzvf foobar.tar.gz</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>tar tvf foobar.tar</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>tar xvf foobar.tar</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para id="ports-checksum">And a checksum?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>It is a number generated by adding up all the data in
	    the file you want to check.  If any of the characters
	    change, the checksum will no longer be equal to the total,
	    so a simple comparison will allow you to spot the
	    difference.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I did what you said for compiling ports from a CDROM and
	    it worked great until I tried to install the kermit
	    port.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput>
&gt;&gt; cku190.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist on this system.
&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://kermit.columbia.edu/kermit/archives/.</screen>

	  <para>Why can it not be found?  Have I got a dud CDROM?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>As was explained in the <link
	    linkend="ports-cd">compiling ports from CDROM</link>
	    section, some ports are unable to be put on the CDROM set
	    due to licensing restrictions.  Kermit is an example of
	    that.  The licensing terms for kermit do not allow us to put
	    the tarball for it on the CDROM, so you will have to fetch
	    it by hand&mdash;sorry!</para>

	  <para>The reason why you got all those error messages was
	    because you were not connected to the Internet at the time.
	    Once you have downloaded it from any of the MASTER_SITES
	    (listed in the Makefile), you can restart the install
	    process.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I did that, but when I tried to put it into
	    <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> I got some error
	    about not having permission.</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>The ports mechanism looks for the tarball in
	    <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>, but you will not
	    be able to copy anything there because it is symlinked to
	    the CDROM, which is read-only.  You can tell it to look
	    somewhere else by doing:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make DISTDIR=<replaceable>/where/you/put/it</replaceable> install</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>Does the ports scheme only work if you have everything
	    in <filename>/usr/ports</filename>?  My system administrator
	    says I must put everything under
	    <filename>/u/people/guests/wurzburger</filename>, but it
	    does not seem to work.</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>You can use the <makevar>PORTSDIR</makevar> and
	    <makevar>PREFIX</makevar> variables to tell the ports
	    mechanism to use different directories.  For
	    instance,</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make PORTSDIR=/u/people/guests/wurzburger/ports install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>will compile the port in
	    <filename>/u/people/guests/wurzburger/ports</filename> and
	    install everything under
	    <filename>/usr/local</filename>.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make PREFIX=/u/people/guests/wurzburger/local install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>will compile it in <filename>/usr/ports</filename> and
	    install it in
	    <filename>/u/people/guests/wurzburger/local</filename>.</para>

	  <para>And of course,</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make PORTSDIR=.../ports PREFIX=.../local install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>will combine the two (it is too long to write fully on
	    the page, but it should give you the general idea).</para>

	  <para>If you do not fancy typing all that in every time you
	    install a port, it is a good idea to put these variables
	    into your environment.  Read the man page for your shell for
	    instructions on doing so.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I do not have a FreeBSD CDROM, but I would like to have
	    all the tarballs handy on my system so I do not have to wait
	    for a download every time I install a port.  Is there any
	    way to get them all at once?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>To get every single tarball for the Ports collection,
	    do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make fetch</userinput></screen>

	  <para>For all the tarballs for a single ports directory,
	    do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/<replaceable>directory</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make fetch</userinput></screen>

	  <para>and for just one port&mdash;well, I think you have
	    guessed already.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I know it is probably faster to fetch the tarballs from
	    one of the FreeBSD mirror sites close by.  Is there any way
	    to tell the port to fetch them from servers other than the
	    ones listed in the MASTER_SITES?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yes.  If you know, for example, <hostid
	    role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> is much closer than
	    sites listed <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>, do as
	    follows:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/<replaceable>directory</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE=ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/ fetch</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I want to know what files <command>make</command> is
	    going to need before it tries to pull them down.</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para><command>make fetch-list</command> will display a list
	    of the files needed for a port.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>Is there any way to stop the port from compiling?  I
	    want to do some hacking on the source before I install it,
	    but it is a bit tiresome to watch it and hit control-C every
	    time.</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
            <para>Doing <command>make extract</command> will stop it
	      after it has fetched and extracted the source code.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I am trying to make my own port and I want to be able
	    to stop it compiling until I have had a chance to see if my
	    patches worked properly.  Is there something like
	    <command>make extract</command>, but for patches?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yep, <command>make patch</command> is what you want.
	    You will probably find the <makevar>PATCH_DEBUG</makevar>
	    option useful as well.  And by the way, thank you for your
	    efforts!</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I have heard that some compiler options can cause bugs.
	    Is this true?  How can I make sure that I compile ports
	    with the right settings?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yes, with version 2.6.3 of <command>gcc</command> (the
	    version shipped with FreeBSD 2.1.0 and 2.1.5), the
	    <option>-O2</option> option could result in buggy code
	    unless you used the <option>-fno-strength-reduce</option>
	    option as well.  (Most of the ports do not use
	    <option>-O2</option>).  You <emphasis>should</emphasis> be
	    able to specify the compiler options used by something
	    like:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make CFLAGS='-O2 -fno-strength-reduce' install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>or by editing <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>, but
	    unfortunately not all ports respect this.  The surest way
	    is to do <command>make configure</command>, then go into
	    the source directory and inspect the Makefiles by hand, but
	    this can get tedious if the source has lots of
	    sub-directories, each with their own Makefiles.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>There are so many ports it is hard to find the one I
	    want.  Is there a list anywhere of what ports are
	    available?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Look in the <filename>INDEX</filename> file in
	    <filename>/usr/ports</filename>.  If you would like to
	    search the ports collection for a keyword, you can do that
	    too.  For example, you can find ports relevant to the LISP
	    programming language using:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>make search key=lisp</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I went to install the <literal>foo</literal> port but
	    the system suddenly stopped compiling it and starting
	    compiling the <literal>bar</literal> port.  What is going
	    on?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>The <literal>foo</literal> port needs something that is
	    supplied with <literal>bar</literal> &mdash; for instance,
	    if <literal>foo</literal> uses graphics,
	    <literal>bar</literal> might have a library with useful
	    graphics processing routines.  Or <literal>bar</literal>
	    might be a tool that is needed to compile the
	    <literal>foo</literal> port.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para id="ports-remove">  I installed the
	    <literal>grizzle</literal> program from the ports and
	    frankly it is a complete waste of disk space.  I want to
	    delete it but I do not know where it put all the files.
	    Any clues?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>No problem, just do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_delete grizzle-6.5</userinput></screen>

	  <para>Alternatively, you can do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd <replaceable>/usr/ports/somewhere/grizzle</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make deinstall</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>Hang on a minute, you have to know the version number
	    to use that command.  You do not seriously expect me to
	    remember that, do you??</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Not at all, you can find it out by doing:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_info -a | grep grizzle</userinput>Information for grizzle-6.5:
grizzle-6.5 - the combined piano tutorial, LOGO interpreter and shoot 'em up arc
ade game.</screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>Talking of disk space, the ports directory seems to be
	    taking up an awful lot of room.  Is it safe to go in there
	    and delete things?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yes, if you have installed the program and are fairly
	    certain you will not need the source again, there is no
	    point in keeping it hanging around.  The best way to do
	    this is:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make clean</userinput></screen>

	  <para>which will go through all the ports subdirectories and
	    delete everything except the skeletons for each
	    port.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I tried that and it still left all those tarballs or
	    whatever you called them in the
	    <filename>distfiles</filename> directory.  Can I delete
	    those as well?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Yes, if you are sure you have finished with them,
	     those can go as well.  They can be removed manually, or by
	     using <command>make distclean</command>.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I like having lots and lots of programs to play with.
	    Is there any way of installing all the ports in one
	    go?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Just do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>OK, I tried that, but I thought it would take a very
	    long time so I went to bed and left it to get on with it.
	    When I looked at the computer this morning, it had only
	    done three and a half ports.  Did something go
	    wrong?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>No, the problem is that some of the ports need to ask
	    you questions that we cannot answer for you (eg &ldquo;Do
	    you want to print on A4 or US letter sized paper?&rdquo;)
	    and they need to have someone on hand to answer
	    them.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>I really do not want to spend all day staring at the
	    monitor.  Any better ideas?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>OK, do this before you go to bed/work/the local
	    park:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make -DBATCH install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>This will install every port that does
	    <emphasis>not</emphasis> require user input.  Then, when
	    you come back, do:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make -DIS_INTERACTIVE install</userinput></screen>

	  <para>to finish the job.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>At work, we are using <literal>frobble</literal>, which
	    is in your Ports collection, but we have altered it quite a
	    bit to get it to do what we need.  Is there any way of making
	    our own packages, so we can distribute it more easily around
	    our sites?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>No problem, assuming you know how to make patches for
	    your changes:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd <replaceable>/usr/ports/somewhere/frobble</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make extract</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd work/frobble-2.8</userinput>
[Apply your patches]
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd ../..</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make package</userinput></screen>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	  <para>This ports stuff is really clever.  I am desperate to
	    find out how you did it.  What is the secret?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	  <para>Nothing secret about it at all, just look at the
	    <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> and
	    <filename>bsd.port.subdir.mk</filename> files in your
	    <ulink url="file://localhost/usr/ports/Mk/">makefiles
	    directory.</ulink></para>

	  <para>Readers with an aversion to intricate shell-scripts are
	    advised not to follow this link...)</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>
      </qandaset>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="ports-broken">
      <title>Help!  This port is broken!</title>

      <para>If you come across a port that doesn't work for you, there are
        a few things you can do, including:</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
	  <para>Fix it!  The <link linkend="porting">&ldquo;how to make a
	    port&rdquo;</link> section should help you do this.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Gripe&mdash;<emphasis>by email only!</emphasis>  Send
	    email to the maintainer of the port first.  Type <command>make
	    maintainer</command> or read the <filename>Makefile</filename>
	    to find the maintainter's email address.  Remember to include
	    the name and version of the port (sending the
	    <literal>$FreeBSD:</literal> line from the
	    <filename>Makefile</filename> and the output leading up to the
	    error when you email the maintainer.  If you do not get a
	    response from the maintainer, you can use
	    <command>send-pr</command> to submit a bug report.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Forget about it.  This is the easiest route&mdash;very
	  few ports can be classified as &ldquo;essential&rdquo;.  There's
	  also a good chance any problems will be fixed in the next
	  version when the port is updated.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Grab the package from an ftp site near you.  The
	    &ldquo;master&rdquo; package collection is on <hostid
	    role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> in the <ulink
	    URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/">packages
	    directory</ulink>, but be sure to check your local mirror
	    <emphasis>first!</emphasis>  These are more likely to work
	    than trying to compile from source and are alot faster as
	    well.  Use the &man.pkg.add.1; program to install the package
	    on your system.</para>
	</listitem>
      </orderedlist>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="porting">
    <title>Advanced Topics</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>Making a port yourself</title>

      <para>So, now you are interested in making your own port or
        upgrading an existing one?  Great!</para>

      <para>What follows are some guidelines for creating a new port for
        FreeBSD.  If you want to upgrade an existing port, you should
	read this and then read <xref linkend="port-upgrading">.</para>

      <para>When this document is not sufficiently detailed, you should
        refer to <filename>/usr/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk</filename>, which
	all port Makefiles include.  Even if you do not hack Makefiles
	daily, it is well commented, and you will still gain much
	knowledge from it.  Additionally, you may send specific questions
	to &a.ports;.</para>

      <note>
        <para>Only a fraction of the variables
          (<makevar><replaceable>VAR</replaceable></makevar>) that can be
          overridden are mentioned in this document.  Most (if not all)
	  are documented at the start of <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>.
	  This file uses a non-standard tab setting.
	  <application>Emacs</application> and
	  <application>Vim</application> should recognize the setting on
	  loading the file.  Both <command>vi</command> and
	  <command>ex</command> can be set to use the correct value by
	  typing <command>:set tabstop=4</command> once the file has been
	  loaded.</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="quick-porting">
      <title>Quick Porting</title>

      <para>This section tells you how to do a quick port.  In many cases, it
        is not enough, but we will see.</para>

      <para>First, get the original tarball and put it into
        <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar>, which defaults to
        <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>.</para>

      <note>
        <para>The following assumes that the software compiled out-of-the-box,
          i.e., there was absolutely no change required for the port to work
          on your FreeBSD box.  If you needed to change something, you will
          have to refer to the next section too.</para>
      </note>

      <sect3>
        <title>Writing the <filename>Makefile</filename></title>

        <para>The minimal <filename>Makefile</filename> would look something
          like this:</para>

        <programlisting>
# New ports collection makefile for:   oneko
# Version required:    1.1b
# Date created:        5 December 1994
# Whom:                asami
#
# &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;
#

DISTNAME=      oneko-1.1b
CATEGORIES=    games
MASTER_SITES=  ftp://ftp.cs.columbia.edu/archives/X11R5/contrib/

MAINTAINER=    asami@FreeBSD.org

MAN1=          oneko.1
MANCOMPRESSED= yes
USE_IMAKE=     yes

.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting>

        <para>See if you can figure it out.  Do not worry about the contents
          of the <literal>&dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;</literal> line, it will be
          filled in automatically by CVS when the port is imported to our main
          ports tree.  You can find a more detailed example in the <link
            linkend="porting-samplem">sample Makefile</link> section.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Writing the description files</title>

        <para>There are three description files that are required for any
          port, whether they actually package or not. They are
          <filename>COMMENT</filename>, <filename>DESCR</filename>, and
          <filename>PLIST</filename>, and reside in the
          <filename>pkg</filename> subdirectory.</para>

        <sect4>
          <title><filename>COMMENT</filename></title>

          <para>This is the one-line description of the port.
            <emphasis>Please</emphasis> do not include the package name (or
            version number of the software) in the comment.  The comment
            should begin with a capital, and end without a period.  Here
            is an example:</para>

          <programlisting>
A cat chasing a mouse all over the screen</programlisting>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><filename>DESCR</filename></title>

          <para>This is a longer description of the port.  One to a few
            paragraphs concisely explaining what the port does is
            sufficient.</para>

          <note>
            <para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a manual or an in-depth
              description on how to use or compile the port! <emphasis>Please
                be careful if you are copying from the
                <filename>README</filename> or manpage</emphasis>; too often
              they are not a concise description of the port or are in an
              awkward format (e.g., manpages have justified spacing).  If the
              ported software has an official WWW homepage, you should list it
              here.  Prefix <emphasis>one</emphasis> of the websites with
              <literal>WWW:</literal> so that automated tools will work
              correctly.</para>
          </note>

          <para>It is recommended that you sign your name at the end of this
            file, as in:</para>

          <programlisting>
This is a port of oneko, in which a cat chases a poor mouse all over
the screen.
 :
(etc.)

WWW: http://www.oneko.org/

- Satoshi
asami@cs.berkeley.edu</programlisting>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><filename>PLIST</filename></title>

          <para>This file lists all the files installed by the port.  It is
            also called the &ldquo;packing list&rdquo; because the package is
            generated by packing the files listed here.  The pathnames are
            relative to the installation prefix (usually
            <filename>/usr/local</filename> or
            <filename>/usr/X11R6</filename>).  If you are using the
            <makevar>MAN<replaceable>n</replaceable></makevar> variables (as
            you should be), do not list any manpages here.</para>

          <para>Here is a small example:</para>

          <programlisting>
bin/oneko
lib/X11/app-defaults/Oneko
lib/X11/oneko/cat1.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/cat2.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko</programlisting>

          <para>Refer to the &man.pkg.create.1; man page for details on the
            packing list.</para>

          <note>
            <para>You should list all the files, but not the name directories,
              in the list.  Also, if the port creates directories for itself
              during installation, make sure to add <literal>@dirrm</literal>
              lines as necessary to remove them when the port is
              deleted.</para>

            <para>It is recommended that you keep all the filenames in this
              file sorted alphabetically.  It will make verifying the changes
              when you upgrade the port much easier.</para>

            <para>Creating a packing list manually can be a very tedious
              task.  If the port installs a large numbers of files, <link
                linkend="porting-autoplist">creating the packing list
                automatically</link> might save time.</para>
          </note>
        </sect4>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Creating the checksum file</title>

        <para>Just type <command>make makesum</command>. The ports make rules
          will automatically generate the file
          <filename>files/md5</filename>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-testing">
        <title>Testing the port</title>

        <para>You should make sure that the port rules do exactly what you
          want it to do, including packaging up the port.  These are the
          important points you need to verify.</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para><filename>PLIST</filename> does not contain anything not
              installed by your port</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><filename>PLIST</filename> contains everything that is
              installed by your port</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>Your port can be installed multiple times using the
              <maketarget>reinstall</maketarget> target</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>Your port <link linkend="porting-cleaning">cleans up</link>
              after itself upon deinstall</para>
          </listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

        <procedure>
          <title>Recommended test ordering</title>

          <step>
            <para><command>make install</command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>make package</command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>make deinstall</command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>pkg_add <replaceable>package-name</replaceable>
              </command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>make deinstall</command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>make reinstall</command></para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para><command>make package</command></para>
          </step>
        </procedure>

        <para>Make sure that there are not any warnings issued in any of the
          <maketarget>package</maketarget> and
          <maketarget>deinstall</maketarget> stages, After step 3, check to
          see if all the new directories are correctly deleted.  Also, try
          using the software after step 4, to ensure that is works correctly
          when installed from a package.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-portlint">
        <title>Checking your port with <command>portlint</command></title>

        <para>Please use <command>portlint</command> to see if your port
          conforms to our guidelines.  The <command>portlint</command> program
          is part of the ports collection.  In particular, your may want to
          check if the <link linkend="porting-samplem">Makefile</link> is in
          the right shape and the <link
            linkend="porting-pkgname">package</link> is named
          appropriately.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-submitting">
        <title>Submitting the port</title>

        <para>First, make sure you have read the <link
            linkend="porting-dads">Do's and Dont's</link> section.</para>

        <para>Now that you are happy with your port, the only thing remaining
          is to put it in the main FreeBSD ports tree and make everybody else
          happy about it too.  We do not need your <filename>work</filename>
          directory or the <filename>pkgname.tgz</filename> package, so delete
          them now.  Next, simply include the output of <command>shar `find
            port_dir`</command> in a bug report and send it with the
            &man.send-pr.1; program (see <link linkend="contrib-general">Bug
            Reports and General Commentary</link> for more information about
            &man.send-pr.1;.  If the uncompressed port is larger than 20KB,
          you should compress it into a tarfile and use &man.uuencode.1;
          before including it in the bug report (uuencoded tarfiles are
          acceptable even if the bug report is smaller than 20KB but are not
          preferred).  Be sure to classify the bug report as category
          <literal>ports</literal> and class
          <literal>change-request</literal>.  (Do not mark the report
          <literal>confidential</literal>!)</para>

        <para>One more time, <emphasis>do not include the original source
            distfile, the <filename>work</filename> directory, or the package
            you built with <command>make package</command></emphasis>.</para>

        <note>
          <para>In the past, we asked you to upload new port submissions in
            our ftp site (<hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid>). This
            is no longer recommended as read access is turned off on that
            <filename>incoming/</filename> directory of that site due to the
            large amount of pirated software showing up there.</para>
        </note>

        <para>We will look at your port, get back to you if necessary, and put
          it in the tree.  Your name will also appear in the list of
          &ldquo;Additional FreeBSD contributors&rdquo; on the FreeBSD
          Handbook and other files. Isn't that great?!? <!-- smiley
          -->:-)</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Slow Porting</title>

      <para>Ok, so it was not that simple, and the port required some
        modifications to get it to work.  In this section, we will explain,
        step by step, how to modify it to get it to work with the ports
        paradigm.</para>

      <sect3>
        <title>How things work</title>

        <para>First, this is the sequence of events which occurs when the user
          first types <command>make</command> in your port's directory, and
          you may find that having <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> in another
          window while you read this really helps to understand it.</para>

        <para>But do not worry if you do not really understand what
          <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> is doing, not many people do...
          <!-- smiley --><emphasis>:-&gt;</emphasis></para>

        <procedure>

          <step>
            <para>The <maketarget>fetch</maketarget> target is run.  The
              <maketarget>fetch</maketarget> target is responsible for making
              sure that the tarball exists locally in
              <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar>. If <maketarget>fetch</maketarget>
              cannot find the required files in <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> it
              will look up the URL <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>, which is
              set in the Makefile, as well as our main ftp site at <ulink
                url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/</ulink>,
              where we put sanctioned distfiles as backup.  It will then
              attempt to fetch the named distribution file with
              <makevar>FETCH</makevar>, assuming that the requesting site has
              direct access to the Internet.  If that succeeds, it will save
              the file in <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> for future use and
              proceed.</para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para>The <maketarget>extract</maketarget> target is run.  It
              looks for your port's distribution file (typically a gzip'd
              tarball) in <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> and unpacks it into a
              temporary subdirectory specified by <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar>
              (defaults to <filename>work</filename>).</para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para>The <maketarget>patch</maketarget> target is run.  First,
              any patches defined in <makevar>PATCHFILES</makevar> are
              applied.  Second, if any patches are found in
              <makevar>PATCHDIR</makevar> (defaults to the
              <filename>patches</filename> subdirectory), they are applied at
              this time in alphabetical order.</para>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para>The <maketarget>configure</maketarget> target is run.  This
              can do any one of many different things.</para>

            <orderedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>If it exists, <filename>scripts/configure</filename> is
                  run.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>If <makevar>HAS_CONFIGURE</makevar> or
                  <makevar>GNU_CONFIGURE</makevar> is set,
                  <filename><makevar>WRKSRC</makevar>/configure</filename> is
                  run.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>If <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar> is set,
                  <makevar>XMKMF</makevar> (default: <command>xmkmf
                    -a</command>) is run.</para>
              </listitem>
            </orderedlist>
          </step>

          <step>
            <para>The <maketarget>build</maketarget> target is run.  This is
              responsible for descending into the port's private working
              directory (<makevar>WRKSRC</makevar>) and building it.  If
              <makevar>USE_GMAKE</makevar> is set, GNU <command>make</command>
              will be used, otherwise the system <command>make</command> will
              be used.</para>
          </step>
        </procedure>

        <para>The above are the default actions.  In addition, you can define
          targets
          <maketarget>pre-<replaceable>something</replaceable></maketarget> or
          <maketarget>post-<replaceable>something</replaceable></maketarget>,
          or put scripts with those names, in the <filename>scripts</filename>
          subdirectory, and they will be run before or after the default
          actions are done.</para>

        <para>For example, if you have a <maketarget>post-extract</maketarget>
          target defined in your Makefile, and a file
          <filename>pre-build</filename> in the <filename>scripts</filename>
          subdirectory, the <maketarget>post-extract</maketarget> target will
          be called after the regular extraction actions, and the
          <filename>pre-build</filename> script will be executed before the
          default build rules are done.  It is recommended that you use
          <filename>Makefile</filename> targets if the actions are simple
          enough, because it will be easier for someone to figure out what
          kind of non-default action the port requires.</para>

        <para>The default actions are done by the
          <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> targets
          <maketarget>do-<replaceable>something</replaceable></maketarget>.
          For example, the commands to extract a port are in the target
          <maketarget>do-extract</maketarget>.  If you are not happy with the
          default target, you can fix it by redefining the
          <maketarget>do-<replaceable>something</replaceable></maketarget>
          target in your <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>

        <note>
          <para>The &ldquo;main&rdquo; targets (e.g.,
            <maketarget>extract</maketarget>,
            <maketarget>configure</maketarget>, etc.) do nothing more than
            make sure all  the stages up to that one are completed and call
            the real targets or scripts, and they are not intended to be
            changed.  If you want to fix the extraction, fix
            <maketarget>do-extract</maketarget>, but never ever touch
            <maketarget>extract</maketarget>!</para>
        </note>

        <para>Now that you understand what goes on when the user types
          <command>make</command>, let us go through the recommended steps to
          create the perfect port.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Getting the original sources</title>

        <para>Get the original sources (normally) as a compressed tarball
          (<filename><replaceable>foo</replaceable>.tar.gz</filename> or
          <filename><replaceable>foo</replaceable>.tar.Z</filename>) and copy
          it into <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar>.  Always use
          <emphasis>mainstream</emphasis> sources when and where you
          can.</para>

        <para>If you cannot find a ftp/http site that is well-connected to the
          net, or can only find sites that have irritatingly non-standard
          formats, you might want to put a copy on a reliable ftp or http
          server that you control (e.g., your home page).  Make sure you set
          <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar> to reflect your choice.</para>

        <para>If you cannot find somewhere convenient and reliable to put the
          distfile (if you are a FreeBSD committer, you can just put it in
          your <filename>public_html/</filename> directory on
          <hostid>freefall</hostid>), we can &ldquo;house&rdquo; it ourselves
          by putting it on
          <filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/</filename>
          as the last resort.  Please refer to this location as
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_LOCAL</makevar>.  Send mail to the &a.ports; if
          you are not sure what to do.</para>

        <para>If your port's distfile changes all the time for no good reason,
          consider putting the distfile in your home page and listing it as
          the first <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>.  This will prevent users
          from getting <errorname>checksum mismatch</errorname> errors, and
          also reduce the workload of maintainers of our ftp site.  Also, if
          there is only one master site for the port, it is recommended that
          you house a backup at your site and list it as the second
          <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>.</para>

        <para>If your port requires some additional `patches' that are
          available on the Internet, fetch them too and put them in
          <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar>.  Do not worry if they come from a site
          other than where you got the main source tarball, we have a way to
          handle these situations (see the description of <link
            linkend="porting-patchfiles">PATCHFILES</link> below).</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Modifying the port</title>

        <para>Unpack a copy of the tarball in a private directory and make
          whatever changes are necessary to get the port to compile properly
          under the current version of FreeBSD.  Keep <emphasis>careful
            track</emphasis> of everything you do, as you will be automating
          the process shortly.  Everything, including the deletion, addition
          or modification of files should be doable using an automated script
          or patch file when your port is finished.</para>

        <para>If your port requires significant user interaction/customization
          to compile or install, you should take a look at one of Larry Wall's
          classic <application>Configure</application> scripts and perhaps do
          something similar yourself.  The goal of the new ports collection is
          to make each port as &ldquo;plug-and-play&rdquo; as possible for the
          end-user while using a minimum of disk space.</para>

        <note>
          <para>Unless explicitly stated, patch files, scripts, and other
            files you have created and contributed to the FreeBSD ports
            collection are assumed to be covered by the standard BSD copyright
            conditions.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Patching</title>

        <para>In the preparation of the port, files that have been added or
          changed can be picked up with a recursive diff for later feeding to
          patch.  Each set of patches you wish to apply should be collected
          into a file named
          <filename>patch-<replaceable>xx</replaceable></filename> where
          <replaceable>xx</replaceable> denotes the sequence in which the
          patches will be applied &mdash; these are done in
          <emphasis>alphabetical order</emphasis>, thus <literal>aa</literal>
          first, <literal>ab</literal> second and so on.  These files should
          be stored in <makevar>PATCHDIR</makevar>, from where they will be
          automatically applied.  All patches should be relative to
          <makevar>WRKSRC</makevar> (generally the directory your port's
          tarball unpacks itself into, that being where the build is done).
          To make fixes and upgrades easier, you should avoid having more than
          one patch fix the same file (e.g., <filename>patch-aa</filename> and
          <filename>patch-ab</filename> both changing
          <filename><makevar>WRKSRC</makevar>/foobar.c</filename>).</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Configuring</title>

        <para>Include any additional customization commands to your
          <filename>configure</filename> script and save it in the
          <filename>scripts</filename> subdirectory.  As mentioned above, you
          can also do this as <filename>Makefile</filename> targets and/or
          scripts with the name <filename>pre-configure</filename> or
          <filename>post-configure</filename>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Handling user input</title>

        <para>If your port requires user input to build, configure or install,
          then set <makevar>IS_INTERACTIVE</makevar> in your Makefile.  This
          will allow &ldquo;overnight builds&rdquo; to skip your port if the
          user sets the variable <envar>BATCH</envar> in his environment (and
          if the user sets the variable <envar>INTERACTIVE</envar>, then
          <emphasis>only</emphasis> those ports requiring interaction are
          built).</para>

        <para>It is also recommended that if there are reasonable default
          answers to the questions, you check the
          <makevar>PACKAGE_BUILDING</makevar> variable and turn off the
          interactive script when it is set.  This will allow us to build the
          packages for CD-ROMs and ftp.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Configuring the Makefile</title>

      <para>Configuring the Makefile is pretty simple, and again we suggest
        that you look at existing examples before starting. Also, there is a
        <link linkend="porting-samplem">sample Makefile</link> in this
        handbook, so take a look and please follow the ordering of variables
        and sections in that template to make your port easier for others to
        read.</para>

      <para>Now, consider the following problems in sequence as you design
        your new Makefile:</para>

      <sect3>
        <title>The original source</title>

        <para>Does it live in <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> as a standard gzip'd
          tarball? If so, you can go on to the next step.  If not, you should
          look at overriding any of the <makevar>EXTRACT_CMD</makevar>,
          <makevar>EXTRACT_BEFORE_ARGS</makevar>,
          <makevar>EXTRACT_AFTER_ARGS</makevar>,
          <makevar>EXTRACT_SUFX</makevar>, or <makevar>DISTFILES</makevar>
          variables, depending on how alien a format your port's distribution
          file is.  (The most common case is
          <literal>EXTRACT_SUFX=.tar.Z</literal>, when the tarball is
          condensed by regular compress, not gzip.)</para>

        <para>In the worst case, you can simply create your own
          <maketarget>do-extract</maketarget> target to override the default,
          though this should be rarely, if ever, necessary.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>DISTNAME</makevar></title>

        <para>You should set <makevar>DISTNAME</makevar> to be the base name
          of your port.  The default rules expect the distribution file list
          (<makevar>DISTFILES</makevar>) to be named
          <makevar>DISTNAME</makevar><makevar>EXTRACT_SUFX</makevar> which, if
          it is a normal tarball, is going to be something like
          <literal>foozolix-1.0.tar.gz</literal> for a setting of
          <literal>DISTNAME=foozolix-1.0</literal>.</para>

        <para>The default rules also expect the tarball(s) to extract into a
          subdirectory called
          <filename>work/<makevar>DISTNAME</makevar></filename>, e.g.
          <filename>work/foozolix-1.0/</filename>.</para>

        <para>All this behavior can be overridden, of course; it simply
          represents the most common time-saving defaults.  For a port
          requiring multiple distribution files, simply set
          <makevar>DISTFILES</makevar> explicitly.  If only a subset of
          <makevar>DISTFILES</makevar> are actual extractable archives, then
          set them up in <makevar>EXTRACT_ONLY</makevar>, which will override
          the <makevar>DISTFILES</makevar> list when it comes to extraction,
          and the rest will be just left in <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> for
          later use.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>PKGNAME</makevar></title>

        <para>If <makevar>DISTNAME</makevar> does not conform to our <link
            linkend="porting-pkgname">guidelines for a good package
            name</link>, you should set the <makevar>PKGNAME</makevar>
          variable to something better.  See the abovementioned guidelines for
          more details.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>CATEGORIES</makevar></title>

        <para>When a package is created, it is put under
          <filename>/usr/ports/packages/All</filename> and links are made from
          one or more subdirectories of
          <filename>/usr/ports/packages</filename>.  The names of these
          subdirectories are specified by the variable
          <makevar>CATEGORIES</makevar>.  It is intended to make life easier
          for the user when he is wading through the pile of packages on the
          ftp site or the CD-ROM.  Please take a look at the existing <link
            linkend="porting-categories">categories</link> and pick the ones
          that are suitable for your port.</para>

        <para>This list also determines where in the ports tree the port is
          imported.  If you put more than one category here, it is assumed
          that the port files will be put in the subdirectory with the name in
          the first category.  See the <link
            linkend="porting-categories">categories</link> section for more
          discussion about how to pick the right categories.</para>

        <para>If your port truly belongs to something that is different from
          all the existing ones, you can even create a new category name.  In
          that case, please send mail to the &a.ports; to propose a new
          category.</para>

        <note>
          <para>There is no error checking for category names.  <command>make
              package</command> will happily create a new directory if you
            mistype the category name, so be careful!</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar></title>

        <para>Record the directory part of the ftp/http-URL pointing at the
          original tarball in <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>.  Do not forget
          the trailing slash (<filename>/</filename>)!</para>

        <para>The <command>make</command> macros will try to use this
          specification for grabbing the distribution file with
          <makevar>FETCH</makevar> if they cannot find it already on the
          system.</para>

        <para>It is recommended that you put multiple sites on this list,
          preferably from different continents.  This will safeguard against
          wide-area network problems, and we are even planning to add support
          for automatically determining the closest master site and fetching
          from there!</para>

        <para>If the original tarball is part of one of the following popular
          archives: X-contrib, GNU, Perl CPAN, TeX CTAN, or Linux Sunsite, you
          refer to those sites in an easy compact form using
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB</makevar>,
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_GNU</makevar>,
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_PERL_CPAN</makevar>,
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_TEX_CTAN</makevar>, and
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_SUNSITE</makevar>.  Simply set
          <makevar>MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR</makevar> to the path with in the
          archive.  Here is an example:</para>

        <programlisting>
MASTER_SITES=         ${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=   applications</programlisting>

        <para>The user can also set the <makevar>MASTER_SITE_*</makevar>
          variables in <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> to override our
          choices, and use their favorite mirrors of these popular archives
          instead.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-patchfiles">
        <title><makevar>PATCHFILES</makevar></title>

        <para>If your port requires some additional patches that are available
          by ftp or http, set <makevar>PATCHFILES</makevar> to the names of
          the files and <makevar>PATCH_SITES</makevar> to the URL of the
          directory that contains them (the format is the same as
          <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>).</para>

        <para>If the patch is not relative to the top of the source tree
          (i.e., <makevar>WRKSRC</makevar>) because it contains some extra
          pathnames, set <makevar>PATCH_DIST_STRIP</makevar> accordingly. For
          instance, if all the pathnames in the patch have an extra
          <literal>foozolix-1.0/</literal> in front of the filenames, then set
          <literal>PATCH_DIST_STRIP=-p1</literal>.</para>

        <para>Do not worry if the patches are compressed, they will be
          decompressed automatically if the filenames end with
          <filename>.gz</filename> or <filename>.Z</filename>.</para>

        <para>If the patch is distributed with some other files, such as
          documentation, in a gzip'd tarball, you cannot just use
          <makevar>PATCHFILES</makevar>.  If that is the case, add the name
          and the location of the patch tarball to
          <makevar>DISTFILES</makevar> and <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar>.
          Then, from the <maketarget>pre-patch</maketarget> target, apply the
          patch either by running the patch command from there, or copying the
          patch file into the <makevar>PATCHDIR</makevar> directory and
          calling it
          <filename>patch-<replaceable>xx</replaceable></filename>.</para>

        <note>
          <para>Note the tarball will have been extracted alongside the
            regular source by then, so there is no need to explicitly extract
            it if it is a regular gzip'd or compress'd tarball. If you do the
            latter, take extra care not to overwrite something that already
            exists in that directory.  Also do not forget to add a command to
            remove the copied patch in the <maketarget>pre-clean</maketarget>
            target.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>MAINTAINER</makevar></title>

        <para>Set your mail-address here.  Please.  <!-- smiley
          --><emphasis>:-)</emphasis></para>

        <para>For detailed description of the responsibility of maintainers,
          refer to <link linkend="policies-maintainer">MAINTAINER on
            Makefiles</link> section.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Dependencies</title>

        <para>Many ports depend on other ports.  There are five variables that
          you can use to ensure that all the required bits will be on the
          user's machine.  There are also some pre-supported dependency
          variables for common cases, plus a few more to control the behaviour
          of dependencies.</para>

        <sect4>
          <title><makevar>LIB_DEPENDS</makevar></title>

          <para>This variable specifies the shared libraries this port depends
            on.  It is a list of
            <replaceable>lib</replaceable>:<replaceable>dir</replaceable><optional><replaceable>:target</replaceable></optional>
            tuples where <replaceable>lib</replaceable> is the name of the
            shared library, and <replaceable>dir</replaceable> is the
            directory in which to find it in case it is not available, and
            <replaceable>target</replaceable> is the target to call in that
            directory.  For example, <programlisting> LIB_DEPENDS=
              jpeg.9:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg:install</programlisting>
            will check for a shared jpeg library with major version 9, and
            descend into the <filename>graphics/jpeg</filename> subdirectory
            of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.
            The <replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is
            equal to <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar> (which defaults to
            <literal>install</literal>).</para>

          <note>
            <para>The <replaceable>lib</replaceable> part is an argument given
              to <command>ldconfig -r | grep -wF</command>.  There shall be no
              regular expressions in this variable.</para>
          </note>

          <para>The dependency is checked twice, once from within the
            <maketarget>extract</maketarget> target and then from within the
            <maketarget>install</maketarget> target.  Also, the name of the
            dependency is put in to the package so that
            <command>pkg_add</command> will automatically install it if it is
            not on the user's system.</para>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><makevar>RUN_DEPENDS</makevar></title>

          <para>This variable specifies executables or files this port depends
            on during run-time.  It is a list of
            <replaceable>path</replaceable>:<replaceable>dir</replaceable><optional><replaceable>:target</replaceable></optional>
            tuples where <replaceable>path</replaceable> is the name of the
            executable or file, and <replaceable>dir</replaceable> is the
            directory in which to find it in case it is not available, and
            <replaceable>target</replaceable> is the target to call in that
            directory.  If <replaceable>path</replaceable> starts with a slash
            (<literal>/</literal>), it is treated as a file and its existence
            is  tested with <command>test -e</command>; otherwise, it is
            assumed to be an executable, and <command>which -s</command> is
            used to determine if the program exists in the user's search
            path.</para>

          <para>For example,</para>

            <programlisting>
RUN_DEPENDS=   ${PREFIX}/etc/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \
               wish8.0:${PORTSDIR}/x11-toolkits/tk80</programlisting>

          <para>will check if the file or directory
            <filename>/usr/local/etc/innd</filename> exists, and build and
            install it from the <filename>news/inn</filename> subdirectory of
            the ports tree if it is not found.  It will also see if an
            executable called <command>wish8.0</command> is in your search
            path, and descend into the <filename>x11-toolkits/tk80</filename>
            subdirectory of your ports tree to build and install it if it is
            not found.</para>

          <note>
            <para>In this case, <command>innd</command> is actually an
              executable; if an executable is in a place that is not expected
              to be in a normal user's search path, you should use the full
              pathname.</para>
          </note>

          <para>The dependency is checked from within the
            <maketarget>install</maketarget> target.  Also, the name of the
            dependency is put in to the  package so that
            <command>pkg_add</command> will automatically install it if it is
            not on the user's system.  The <replaceable>target</replaceable>
            part can be omitted if it is the same
            <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar>.</para>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><makevar>BUILD_DEPENDS</makevar></title>

          <para>This variable specifies executables or files this port
            requires to build.  Like <makevar>RUN_DEPENDS</makevar>, it is a
            list of
            <replaceable>path</replaceable>:<replaceable>dir</replaceable><optional><replaceable>:target</replaceable></optional>
            tuples. For example, <programlisting> BUILD_DEPENDS=
              unzip:${PORTSDIR}/archivers/unzip</programlisting> will check
            for an executable called <command>unzip</command>, and descend
            into the <filename>archivers/unzip</filename> subdirectory of your
            ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.</para>

          <note>
            <para>&ldquo;build&rdquo; here means everything from extracting to
              compilation.  The dependency is checked from within the
              <maketarget>extract</maketarget> target.  The
              <replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is
              the same as <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar></para>
          </note>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><makevar>FETCH_DEPENDS</makevar></title>

          <para>This variable specifies executables or files this port
            requires to fetch.  Like the previous two, it is a list of
            <replaceable>path</replaceable>:<replaceable>dir</replaceable><optional><replaceable>:target</replaceable></optional>
            tuples.  For example, <programlisting> FETCH_DEPENDS=
              ncftp2:${PORTSDIR}/net/ncftp2</programlisting> will check for an
            executable called <command>ncftp2</command>, and descend into the
            <filename>net/ncftp2</filename> subdirectory of your ports tree to
            build and install it if it is not found.</para>

          <para>The dependency is checked from within the
            <maketarget>fetch</maketarget> target.  The
            <replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is the
            same as <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar>.</para>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title><makevar>DEPENDS</makevar></title>

          <para>If there is a dependency that does not fall into either of the
            above four categories, or your port requires to have the source of
            the other port extracted in addition to having them installed,
            then use this variable.  This is a list of
            <replaceable>dir</replaceable><optional><replaceable>:target</replaceable></optional>,
            as there is nothing to check, unlike the previous four.  The
            <replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is the
            same as <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar>.</para>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title>Common dependency variables</title>

          <para>Define <literal>USE_XLIB=yes</literal> if your port requires
            the X Window System to be installed (it is implied by
            <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar>).  Define
            <literal>USE_GMAKE=yes</literal> if your port requires GNU
            <command>make</command> instead of BSD <command>make</command>.
            Define <literal>USE_AUTOCONF=yes</literal> if your port requires
            GNU autoconf to be run.  Define <literal>USE_QT=yes</literal> if
            your port uses the latest qt toolkit.  Use
            <literal>USE_PERL5=yes</literal> if your port requires version 5
            of the perl language.  (The last is especially important since
            some versions of FreeBSD has perl5 as part of the base system
            while others do not.)</para>
        </sect4>

        <sect4>
          <title>Notes on dependencies</title>

          <para>As mentioned above, the default target to call when a
            dependency is required is <maketarget>DEPENDS_TARGET</maketarget>.
            It defaults to <literal>install</literal>.  This is a user
            variable; it is never defined in a port's
            <filename>Makefile</filename>.  If your port needs a special way
            to handle a dependency, use the <literal>:target</literal> part of
            the <makevar>*_DEPENDS</makevar> variables instead of redefining
            <makevar>DEPENDS_TARGET</makevar>.</para>

          <para>When you type <command>make clean</command>, its dependencies
            are automatically cleaned too.  If you do not wish this to happen,
            define the variable <makevar>NOCLEANDEPENDS</makevar> in your
            environment.</para>

          <para>To depend on another port unconditionally, it is customary to
            use the string <literal>nonexistent</literal> as the first field
            of <makevar>BUILD_DEPENDS</makevar> or
            <makevar>RUN_DEPENDS</makevar>.  Use this only when you need to
            the to get to the source of the other port.  You can often save
            compilation time by specifying the target too.  For
            instance

            <programlisting>
BUILD_DEPENDS=   /nonexistent:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg:extract</programlisting>

            will always descend to the JPEG port and extract it.</para>

          <para>Do not use <makevar>DEPENDS</makevar> unless there is no other
            way the behaviour you want can be accomplished.  It will cause the
            other port to be always build (and installed, by default), and the
            dependency will go into the packages as well.  If this is really
            what you need, I recommend you write it as
            <literal>BUILD_DEPENDS</literal> and
            <literal>RUN_DEPENDS</literal> instead&mdash;at least the
            intention will be clear.</para>
        </sect4>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Building mechanisms</title>

        <para>If your package uses GNU <command>make</command>, set
          <literal>USE_GMAKE=yes</literal>.  If your package uses
          <command>configure</command>, set
          <literal>HAS_CONFIGURE=yes</literal>.  If your package uses GNU
          <command>configure</command>, set
          <literal>GNU_CONFIGURE=yes</literal> (this implies
          <literal>HAS_CONFIGURE</literal>).  If you want to give some extra
          arguments to <command>configure</command> (the default argument list
          <literal>--prefix=&dollar;{PREFIX}</literal> for GNU
          <command>configure</command> and empty for non-GNU
          <command>configure</command>), set those extra arguments in
          <makevar>CONFIGURE_ARGS</makevar>.  If your package uses GNU
          <command>autoconf</command>, set
          <literal>USE_AUTOCONF=yes</literal>.  This implies
          <makevar>GNU_CONFIGURE</makevar>, and will cause
          <command>autoconf</command> to be run before
          <command>configure</command>.</para>

        <para>If your package is an X application that creates
          <filename>Makefile</filename>s from <filename>Imakefile</filename>s
          using <command>imake</command>, then set
          <literal>USE_IMAKE=yes</literal>.  This will cause the configure
          stage to automatically do an <command>xmkmf -a</command>.  If the
          <option>-a</option> flag is a problem for your port, set
          <literal>XMKMF=xmkmf</literal>. If the port uses
          <command>imake</command> but does not understand the
          <maketarget>install.man</maketarget> target,
          <literal>NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES=yes</literal> should be set. In
          addition, the author of the original port should be shot. <!--
          smiley --><emphasis>:-&gt;</emphasis></para>

        <para>If your port's source <filename>Makefile</filename> has
          something else than <maketarget>all</maketarget> as the main build
          target, set <makevar>ALL_TARGET</makevar> accordingly.  Same goes
          for <maketarget>install</maketarget> and
          <makevar>INSTALL_TARGET</makevar>.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Special considerations</title>

      <para>There are some more things you have to take into account when you
        create a port.  This section explains the most common of those.</para>

      <sect3 id="porting-ldconfig">
        <title><command>ldconfig</command></title>

        <para>If your port installs a shared library, add a
          <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> target to your
          <filename>Makefile</filename> that runs <literal>&dollar;{LDCONFIG}
            -m</literal> on the directory where the new library is installed
          (usually <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/lib</filename>) to
          register it into the shared library cache.</para>

        <para>Also, add a matching <literal>@exec /sbin/ldconfig -m</literal>
          and <literal>@unexec /sbin/ldconfig -R</literal> pair to your
          <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename> file so that a user who installed the
          package can start using the shared library immediately and
          deinstallation will not cause the system to still believe the
          library is there.  These lines should immediately follow the line
          for the shared library itself, as in:</para>

        <programlisting>
lib/libtvl80.so.1
@exec /sbin/ldconfig -m %D/lib
@unexec /sbin/ldconfig -R</programlisting>

        <para>Never, ever, <emphasis>ever</emphasis> add a line that says
          <literal>ldconfig</literal> without any arguments to your
          <filename>Makefile</filename> or <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename>.
          This will reset the shared library cache to the contents of
          <filename>/usr/lib</filename> only, and will royally screw up the
          user's machine ("Help, xinit does not run anymore after I install
          this port!").  Anybody who does this will be shot and cut in 65,536
          pieces by a rusty knife and have is liver chopped out by a bunch of
          crows and will eternally rot to death in the deepest bowels of hell
          (not necessarily in that order&hellip;)</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>ELF support</title>

      <para>Since FreeBSD is moving to ELF shortly after 3.0-RELEASE, we need
        to convert many ports that build shared libraries to support ELF.
        Complicating this task is that a 3.0 system can run as both ELF and
        a.out, and we wish to unofficially support the 2.2 as long as
        possible.  Below are the guidelines on how to convert a.out only ports
        to support both a.out and ELF compilation.</para>

      <para>Some part of this list is only applicable during the conversion,
        but will be left here for awhile for reference in case you have come
        across some old port you wish to upgrade.</para>

      <sect3>
        <title>Moving a.out libraries out of the way</title>

        <para>Any a.out libraries should be moved out of
          <filename>/usr/local/lib</filename> and similar to an
          <filename>aout</filename> subdirectory.  (If you do not move them out
          of the way, ELF ports will happily overwrite a.out libraries.) The
          <maketarget>move-aout-libs</maketarget> target in the 3.0-CURRENT
          <filename>src/Makefile</filename> (called from
          <maketarget>aout-to-elf</maketarget>) will do this for you.  It will
          only move a.out libs so it is safe to call it on a system with both
          ELF and a.out libs in the standard directories.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Format</title>

        <para>The ports tree will build packages in the format the machine is
          in.  This means a.out for 2.2 and a.out or ELF for 3.0 depending on
          what <command>`objformat`</command> returns.  Also, once users move
          a.out libraries to a subdirectory, building a.out libraries will be
          unsupported.  (I.e., it may still work if you know what you are
          doing, but you are on your own.)</para>

        <note>
          <para>If a port only works for a.out, set
            <makevar>BROKEN_ELF</makevar> to a string describing the reason
            why.  Such ports will be skipped during a build on an ELF
            system.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar></title>

        <para><filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> will set
          <makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar> to <literal>aout</literal> or
          <literal>elf</literal> and export it in the environments
          <envar>CONFIGURE_ENV</envar>, <envar>SCRIPTS_ENV</envar> and
          <envar>MAKE_ENV</envar>.  (It's always going to be
          <literal>aout</literal> in 2.2-STABLE).  It is also passed to
          <maketarget>PLIST_SUB</maketarget> as
          <literal>PORTOBJFORMAT=${PORTOBJFORMAT}</literal>.  (See comment on
          <literal>ldconfig</literal> lines below.)</para>

        <para>The variable is set using this line in
          <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>:</para>

        <programlisting>
PORTOBJFORMAT!= test -x /usr/bin/objformat && /usr/bin/objformat || echo aout</programlisting>

        <para>Ports' make processes should use this variable to decide what to
          do.  However, if the port's <filename>configure</filename> script
          already automatically detects an ELF system, it is not necessary to
          refer to <makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Building shared libraries</title>

        <para>The following are differences in handling shared libraries for
          a.out and ELF.</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para>Shared library versions</para>

            <para>An ELF shared library should be called
              <filename>libfoo.so.<replaceable>M</replaceable></filename>
              where <replaceable>M</replaceable> is the single version number,
              and an a.out library should be called
              <filename>libfoo.so.<replaceable>M</replaceable>.<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>
              where <replaceable>M</replaceable> is the major version and
              <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the the minor version number.
              Do not mix those; <emphasis>never</emphasis> install an ELF
              shared library called
              <filename>libfoo.so.<replaceable>N</replaceable>.<replaceable>M</replaceable></filename>
              or an a.out shared library (or symlink) called
              <filename>libfoo.so.<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>Linker command lines</para>

            <para>Assuming <command>cc -shared</command> is used rather than
              <command>ld</command> directly, the only difference is that you
              need to add
              <option>-Wl,-<replaceable>soname,libfoo.so.M</replaceable></option
>
              on the command line for ELF.</para>
            </listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

        <para>You need to install a symlink from
          <filename>libfoo.so</filename> to
          <filename>libfoo.so.<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename> to make
          ELF linkers happy.  Since it should be listed in
          <filename>PLIST</filename> too, and it won't hurt in the a.out case
          (some ports even require the link for dynamic loading), you should
          just make this link regardless of the setting of
          <makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>LIB_DEPENDS</makevar></title>

        <para>All port Makefiles are edited to remove minor numbers from
          <makevar>LIB_DEPENDS</makevar>, and also to have the regexp support
          removed.  (E.g., <literal>foo\\.1\\.\\(33|40\\)</literal> becomes
          <literal>foo.2</literal>.)  They will be matched using <command>grep
            -wF</command>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><filename>PLIST</filename></title>

        <para><filename>PLIST</filename> should contain the short (ELF) shlib
          names if the a.out minor number is zero, and the long (a.out) names
          otherwise.  <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> will automatically add
          <literal>.0</literal> to the end of short shlib lines if
          <makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar> equals <literal>aout</literal>, and
          will delete the minor number from long shlib names if
          <makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar> equals
          <literal>elf</literal>.</para>

        <para>In cases where you really need to install shlibs with two
          versions on an ELF system or those with one version on an a.out
          system (for instance, ports that install compatibility libraries for
          other operating systems), define the variable
          <makevar>NO_FILTER_SHLIBS</makevar>.  This will turn off the editing
          of <filename>PLIST</filename> mentioned in the previous
          paragraph.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><literal>ldconfig</literal></title>

        <para>The <literal>ldconfig</literal> line in Makefiles should
          read:</para>

        <programlisting>
${SETENV} OBJFORMAT=${PORTOBJFORMAT} ${LDCONFIG} -m ....</programlisting>

        <para>In <filename>PLIST</filename> it should read;</para>

        <programlisting>
@exec /usr/bin/env OBJFORMAT=%%PORTOBJFORMAT%% /sbin/ldconfig -m ...
@unexec /usr/bin/env OBJFORMAT=%%PORTOBJFORMAT%% /sbin/ldconfig -R</programlisting>

        <para>This is to ensure that the correct <command>ldconfig</command>
          will be called depending on the format of the package, not the
          default format of the system.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-masterdir">
      <title><makevar>MASTERDIR</makevar></title>

      <para>If your port needs to build slightly different versions of
        packages by having a variable (for instance, resolution, or paper
        size) take different values, create one subdirectory per package to
        make it easier for users to see what to do, but try to share as many
        files as possible between ports.  Typically you only need a very short
        <filename>Makefile</filename> in all but one of the directories if you
        use variables cleverly.  In the sole <filename>Makefiles</filename>,
        you can use <makevar>MASTERDIR</makevar> to specify the directory
        where the rest of the files are.  Also, use a variable as part of
        <link linkend="porting-pkgname"><makevar>PKGNAME</makevar></link> so
        the packages will have different names.</para>

      <para>This will be best demonstrated by an example.  This is part of
        <filename>japanese/xdvi300/Makefile</filename>;</para>

      <programlisting>
PKGNAME=       ja-xdvi${RESOLUTION}-17
 :
# default
RESOLUTION?=   300
.if ${RESOLUTION} != 118 && ${RESOLUTION} != 240 && \
       ${RESOLUTION} != 300 && ${RESOLUTION} != 400
       @${ECHO} "Error: invalid value for RESOLUTION: \"${RESOLUTION}\""
       @${ECHO} "Possible values are: 118, 240, 300 (default) and 400."
       @${FALSE}
.endif</programlisting>

      <para><filename>japanese/xdvi300</filename> also has all the regular
        patches, package files, etc.  If you type <command>make</command>
        there, it will take the default value for the resolution (300) and
        build the port normally.</para>

      <para>As for other resolutions, this is the <emphasis>entire</emphasis>
        <filename>xdvi118/Makefile</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>
RESOLUTION=     118
MASTERDIR=      ${.CURDIR}/../xdvi300

.include ${MASTERDIR}/Makefile</programlisting>

      <para>(<filename>xdvi240/Makefile</filename> and
        <filename>xdvi400/Makefile</filename> are similar).  The
        <makevar>MASTERDIR</makevar> definition tells
        <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> that the regular set of
        subdirectories like <makevar>PATCHDIR</makevar> and
        <makevar>PKGDIR</makevar> are to be found under
        <filename>xdvi300</filename>.  The <literal>RESOLUTION=118</literal>
        line will override the <literal>RESOLUTION=300</literal> line in
        <filename>xdvi300/Makefile</filename> and the port will be built with
        resolution set to 118.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Shared library versions</title>

      <para>First, please read our <link linkend="policies-shlib">policy on
          shared library versioning</link> to understand what to do with
        shared library versions in general.  Do not blindly assume software
        authors know what they are doing; many of them do not.  It is very
        important that these details are carefully considered, as we have
        quite a unique situation where we are trying to have dozens of
        potentially incompatible software pairs co-exist. Careless port
        imports have caused great trouble regarding shared libraries in the
        past (ever wondered why the port <filename>jpeg-6b</filename> has a
        shared library version of 9.0?). If in doubt, send a message to the
        &a.ports;.  Most of the time, your job ends by determining the right
        shared library version and making appropriate patches to implement
        it.</para>

      <para>However, if there is a port which is a different version of the
        same software already in the tree, the situation is much more complex.
        In short, the FreeBSD implementation does not allow the user to
        specify to the linker which version of shared library to link against
        (the linker will always pick the highest numbered version).  This
        means, if there is a <filename>libfoo.so.3.2</filename> and
        <filename>libfoo.so.4.0</filename> in the system, there is no way to
        tell the linker to link a particular application to
        <filename>libfoo.so.3.2</filename>.  It is essentially completely
        overshadowed in terms of compilation-time linkage.  In this case, the
        only solution  is to rename the <emphasis>base</emphasis> part of the
        shared library.  For instance, change
        <filename>libfoo.so.4.0</filename> to
        <filename>libfoo4.so.1.0</filename> so both version 3.2 and 4.0 can be
        linked from other ports.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-manpages">
      <title>Manpages</title>

      <para>The <makevar>MAN[1-9LN]</makevar> variables will automatically add
        any manpages to <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename> (this means you must
        <emphasis>not</emphasis> list manpages in the
        <filename>PLIST</filename>&mdash;see <link
          linkend="porting-plist">generating PLIST</link> for more).  It also
        makes the install stage automatically compress or uncompress manpages
        depending on the setting of <makevar>NOMANCOMPRESS</makevar> in
        <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>.</para>

      <para>If your port tries to install multiple names for manpages using
        symlinks or hardlinks, you must use the <makevar>MLINKS</makevar>
        variable to identify these.  The link installed by your port will
        be destroyed and recreated by <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>
        to make sure it points to the correct file.  Any manpages
        listed in MLINKS must not be listed in the
        <filename>PLIST</filename>.</para>

      <para>To specify whether the manpages are compressed upon installation,
        use the <makevar>MANCOMPRESSED</makevar> variable. This variable can
        take three values, <literal>yes</literal>, <literal>no</literal> and
        <literal>maybe</literal>. <literal>yes</literal> means manpages are
        already installed compressed, <literal>no</literal> means they are
        not, and <literal>maybe</literal> means the software already respects
        the value of <makevar>NOMANCOMPRESS</makevar> so
        <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> does not have to do anything
        special.</para>

      <para><makevar>MANCOMPRESSED</makevar> is automatically set to
        <literal>yes</literal> if <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar> is set and
        <makevar>NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES</makevar> is not set, and to
        <literal>no</literal> otherwise.  You do not have to explicitly define
        it unless the default is not suitable for your port.</para>

      <para>If your port anchors its man tree somewhere other than
        <makevar>PREFIX</makevar>, you can use the
        <makevar>MANPREFIX</makevar> to set it.  Also, if only manpages in
        certain sections go in a non-standard place, such as some Perl modules
        ports, you can set individual man paths using
        <makevar>MAN<replaceable>sect</replaceable>PREFIX</makevar> (where
        <replaceable>sect</replaceable> is one of <literal>1-9</literal>,
        <literal>L</literal> or <literal>N</literal>).</para>

      <para>If your manpages go to language-specific subdirectories, set the
        name of the languages to <makevar>MANLANG</makevar>.  The value of
        this variable defaults to <literal>""</literal> (i.e., English
        only).</para>

      <para>Here is an example that puts it all together.</para>

      <programlisting>
MAN1=          foo.1
MAN3=          bar.3
MAN4=          baz.4
MLINKS=        foo.1 alt-name.8
MANLANG=       "" ja
MAN3PREFIX=    ${PREFIX}/share/foobar
MANCOMPRESSED= yes</programlisting>

      <para>This states that six files are installed by this port;</para>

          <programlisting>
${PREFIX}/man/man1/foo.1.gz
${PREFIX}/man/ja/man1/foo.1.gz
${PREFIX}/share/foobar/man/man3/bar.3.gz
${PREFIX}/share/foobar/man/ja/man3/bar.3.gz
${PREFIX}/man/man4/baz.4.gz
${PREFIX}/man/ja/man4/baz.4.gz</programlisting>

      <para>Additionally <filename>${PREFIX}/man/man8/alt-name.8.gz</filename>
        may or may-not be installed by your port.  Regardless, a
        symlink will be made to join the foo(1) manpage and
        alt-name(8) manpage.</para>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-motif">
      <title>Ports that require Motif</title>

      <para>There are many programs that require a Motif library (available
        from several commercial vendors, while there is a free clone reported
        to be able to run many applications in
        <filename>x11-toolkits/lesstif</filename>) to compile.  Since it is a
        popular toolkit and their licenses usually permit redistribution of
        statically linked binaries, we have made special provisions for
        handling ports that require Motif in a way that we can easily compile
        binaries linked either dynamically (for people who are compiling from
        the port) or statically (for people who distribute packages).</para>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>REQUIRES_MOTIF</makevar></title>

        <para>If your port requires Motif, define this variable in the
          Makefile.  This will prevent people who do not own a copy of Motif
          from even attempting to build it.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>MOTIFLIB</makevar></title>

        <para>This variable will be set by <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> to
          be the appropriate reference to the Motif library.  Please patch the
          source to use this wherever the Motif library is referenced in the
          <filename>Makefile</filename> or
          <filename>Imakefile</filename>.</para>

        <para>There are two common cases:</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para>If the port refers to the Motif library as
              <literal>-lXm</literal> in its <filename>Makefile</filename> or
              <filename>Imakefile</filename>, simply substitute
              <literal>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB}</literal> for it.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>If the port uses <literal>XmClientLibs</literal> in its
              <filename>Imakefile</filename>, change it to
              <literal>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB} &dollar;{XTOOLLIB}
                &dollar;{XLIB}</literal>.</para>
          </listitem>

        </itemizedlist>

        <para>Note that <makevar>MOTIFLIB</makevar> (usually) expands to
          <literal>-L/usr/X11R6/lib -lXm</literal> or
          <literal>/usr/X11R6/lib/libXm.a</literal>, so there is no need to
          add <literal>-L</literal> or <literal>-l</literal> in front.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>X11 fonts</title>

      <para>If your port installs fonts for the X Window system, put them in
        <filename><makevar>X11BASE</makevar>/lib/X11/fonts/local</filename>.
        This directory is new to XFree86 release 3.3.3.  If it does not exist,
        please create it, and print out a message urging the user to update
        their XFree86 to 3.3.3 or newer, or at least add this directory to the
        font path in <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Info files</title>

      <para>The new version of texinfo (included in 2.2.2-RELEASE and onwards)
        contains a utility called <command>install-info</command> to add and
        delete entries to the <filename>dir</filename> file.  If your port
        installs any info documents, please follow this instructions so your
        port/package will correctly update the user's
        <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/info/dir</filename> file.  (Sorry
        for the length of this section, but is it imperative to weave all the
        info files together.  If done correctly, it will produce a
        <emphasis>beautiful</emphasis> listing, so please bear with me!</para>

      <para>First, this is what you (as a porter) need to know</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>install-info --help</userinput>
install-info [OPTION]... [INFO-FILE [DIR-FILE]]
  Install INFO-FILE in the Info directory file DIR-FILE.

Options:
--delete          Delete existing entries in INFO-FILE;
                    don't insert any new entries.
 :
--entry=TEXT      Insert TEXT as an Info directory entry.
 :
--section=SEC     Put this file's entries in section SEC of the directory. :</screen>

      <note>
        <para>This program will not actually <emphasis>install</emphasis> info
          files; it merely inserts or deletes entries in the
          <filename>dir</filename> file.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Here's a seven-step procedure to convert ports to use
        <command>install-info</command>.  I will use
        <filename>editors/emacs</filename> as an example.</para>

      <procedure>
        <step>
          <para>Look at the texinfo sources and make a patch to insert
            <literal>@dircategory</literal> and <literal>@direntry</literal>
            statements to files that do not have them.  This is part of my
            patch:</para>

          <programlisting>
--- ./man/vip.texi.org  Fri Jun 16 15:31:11 1995
+++ ./man/vip.texi      Tue May 20 01:28:33 1997
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@

 @setfilename ../info/vip
 @settitle VIP
+@dircategory The Emacs editor and associated tools
+@direntry
+* VIP: (vip).          A VI-emulation for Emacs.
+@end direntry

 @iftex
 @finalout
 :</programlisting>

          <para>The format should be self-explanatory.  Many authors leave a
            <filename>dir</filename> file in the source tree that contains all
            the entries you need, so look around before you try to write your
            own.  Also, make sure you look into related ports and make the
            section names and entry indentations consistent (we recommend that
            all entry text start at the 4th tab stop).</para>

          <note>
            <para>Note that you can put only one info entry per file because
              of a bug in <command>install-info --delete</command> that
              deletes only the first entry if you specify multiple entries in
              the <email>@direntry</email> section.</para>
          </note>

          <para>You can give the <literal>dir</literal> entries to
            <command>install-info</command> as arguments
            (<option>--section</option> and <option>--entry</option>) instead
            of patching the texinfo sources.  I do not think this is a good
            idea for ports because you need to duplicate the same information
            in <emphasis>three</emphasis> places
            (<filename>Makefile</filename> and
            <literal>@exec</literal>/<literal>@unexec</literal> of
            <filename>PLIST</filename>; see below).  However, if you have a
            Japanese (or other multibyte encoding) info files, you will have
            to use the extra arguments to <command>install-info</command>
            because <command>makeinfo</command> cannot handle those texinfo
            sources.  (See <filename>Makefile</filename> and
            <filename>PLIST</filename> of <filename>japanese/skk</filename>
            for examples on how to do this).</para>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para>Go back to the port directory and do a <command>make clean;
              make</command> and verify that the info files are regenerated
            from the texinfo sources. Since the texinfo sources are newer than
            the info files, they should be rebuilt when you type
            <command>make</command>; but many <filename>Makefile</filename>s
            do not include correct dependencies for info files.  In
            <command>emacs</command>' case, I had to patch the main
            <filename>Makefile.in</filename> so it will descend into the
            <filename>man</filename> subdirectory to rebuild the info
            pages.</para>

          <programlisting>
--- ./Makefile.in.org   Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996
+++ ./Makefile.in       Tue Apr 15 00:15:28 1997
@@ -184,7 +184,7 @@
 # Subdirectories to make recursively.  `lisp' is not included
 # because the compiled lisp files are part of the distribution
 # and you cannot remake them without installing Emacs first.
-SUBDIR = lib-src src
+SUBDIR = lib-src src man

 # The makefiles of the directories in $SUBDIR.
 SUBDIR_MAKEFILES = lib-src/Makefile man/Makefile src/Makefile oldXMenu/Makefile
 lwlib/Makefile
--- ./man/Makefile.in.org       Thu Jun 27 15:27:19 1996
+++ ./man/Makefile.in   Tue Apr 15 00:29:52 1997
@@ -66,6 +66,7 @@
 ${srcdir}/gnu1.texi \
 ${srcdir}/glossary.texi

+all: info
 info: $(INFO_TARGETS)

 dvi: $(DVI_TARGETS)</programlisting>

          <para>The second hunk was necessary because the default target in
            the <filename>man</filename> subdir is called
            <maketarget>info</maketarget>, while the main
            <filename>Makefile</filename> wants to call
            <maketarget>all</maketarget>.  I also deleted the installation of
            the <filename>info</filename> info file because we already have
            one with the same name in <filename>/usr/share/info</filename>
            (that patch is not shown here).</para>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para>If there is a place in the <filename>Makefile</filename> that
            is installing the <filename>dir</filename> file, delete it.  Your
            port may not be doing it.  Also, remove any commands that are
            otherwise mucking around with the <filename>dir</filename>
            file.</para>

          <programlisting>
--- ./Makefile.in.org   Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996
+++ ./Makefile.in       Mon Apr 14 23:38:07 1997
@@ -368,14 +368,8 @@
        if [ `(cd ${srcdir}/info && /bin/pwd)` != `(cd ${infodir} && /bin/pwd)` ]; \
        then \
          (cd ${infodir};  \
-          if [ -f dir ]; then \
-            if [ ! -f dir.old ]; then mv -f dir dir.old; \
-            else mv -f dir dir.bak; fi; \
-          fi; \
           cd ${srcdir}/info ; \
-          (cd $${thisdir}; ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/dir ${infodir}/dir);
\
-          (cd $${thisdir}; chmod a+r ${infodir}/dir); \
           for f in ccmode* cl* dired-x* ediff* emacs* forms* gnus* info* message* mh-e* sc* vip*; do \
             (cd $${thisdir}; \
              ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/$$f ${infodir}/$$f; \
              chmod a+r ${infodir}/$$f); \</programlisting>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para>(This step is only necessary if you are modifying an existing
            port.) Take a look at <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename> and delete
            anything that is trying to patch up <filename>info/dir</filename>.
            They may be in <filename>pkg/INSTALL</filename> or some other
            file, so search extensively.</para>

          <programlisting>
Index: pkg/PLIST
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v
retrieving revision 1.15
diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
--- PLIST       1997/03/04 08:04:00     1.15
+++ PLIST       1997/04/15 06:32:12
@@ -15,9 +15,6 @@
 man/man1/emacs.1.gz
 man/man1/etags.1.gz
 man/man1/ctags.1.gz
-@unexec cp %D/info/dir %D/info/dir.bak
-info/dir
-@unexec cp %D/info/dir.bak %D/info/dir
 info/cl
 info/cl-1
 info/cl-2</programlisting>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para>Add a <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> target to the
            <filename>Makefile</filename> to call
            <maketarget>install-info</maketarget> with the installed
            info files.  (It is no longer necessary to create the
            <filename>dir</filename> file yourself;
            <command>install-info</command> automatically creates this
            file if it does not exist.)</para>

          <programlisting>
Index: Makefile
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/Makefile,v
retrieving revision 1.26
diff -u -r1.26 Makefile
--- Makefile    1996/11/19 13:14:40     1.26
+++ Makefile    1997/05/20 10:25:09     1.28
@@ -20,5 +20,8 @@
 post-install:
 .for file in emacs-19.34 emacsclient etags ctags b2m
        strip ${PREFIX}/bin/${file}
 .endfor
+.for info in emacs vip viper forms gnus mh-e cl sc dired-x ediff ccmode
+       install-info ${PREFIX}/info/${info} ${PREFIX}/info/dir
+.endfor

 .include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para>Edit <filename>PLIST</filename> and add equivalent
            <literal>@exec</literal> statements and also
            <literal>@unexec</literal> for
            <command>pkg_delete</command>.</para>

          <programlisting>
Index: pkg/PLIST
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v
retrieving revision 1.15
diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
--- PLIST       1997/03/04 08:04:00     1.15
+++ PLIST       1997/05/20 10:25:12     1.17
@@ -16,7 +14,14 @@
 man/man1/etags.1.gz
 man/man1/ctags.1.gz
+@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir
 :
+@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir
 info/cl
 info/cl-1
@@ -87,6 +94,18 @@
 info/viper-3
 info/viper-4
+@exec install-info %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir
 :
+@exec install-info %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir
 libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/cvtmail
 libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/digest-doc</programlisting>

          <note>
            <para>The <literal>@unexec install-info --delete</literal>
              commands have to be listed before the info files themselves so
              they can read the files. Also, the <literal>@exec
                install-info</literal> commands have to be after the info
              files and the <literal>@exec</literal> command that creates the
              the <filename>dir</filename> file.</para>
          </note>
        </step>

        <step>
          <para><link linkend="porting-testing">Test</link> and admire your
            work.  <!-- smiley --><emphasis>:-)</emphasis>.  Check the
            <filename>dir</filename> file before and after each step.</para>
        </step>
      </procedure>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>The <filename>pkg/</filename> subdirectory</title>

      <para>There are some tricks we have not mentioned yet about the
        <filename>pkg/</filename> subdirectory that come in handy
        sometimes.</para>

      <sect3 id="porting-message">
        <title><filename>MESSAGE</filename></title>

        <para>If you need to display a message to the installer, you may place
          the message in <filename>pkg/MESSAGE</filename>.  This capability is
          often useful to display additional installation steps to be taken
          after a <command>pkg_add</command> or to display licensing
          information.</para>

        <note>
          <para>The <filename>pkg/MESSAGE</filename> file does not need to be
            added to <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename>.  Also, it will not get
            automatically printed if the user is using the port, not the
            package, so you should probably display it from the
            <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> target yourself.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><filename>INSTALL</filename></title>

        <para>If your port needs to execute commands when the binary package
          is installed with <command>pkg_add</command> you can do this via the
          <filename>pkg/INSTALL</filename> script.  This script will
          automatically be added to the package, and will be run twice by
          <command>pkg_add</command>.  The first time will as <literal>INSTALL
            &dollar;{PKGNAME} PRE-INSTALL</literal> and the second time as
          <literal>INSTALL &dollar;{PKGNAME} POST-INSTALL</literal>.
          <literal>&dollar;2</literal> can be tested to determine which mode
          the script is being run in.  The <envar>PKG_PREFIX</envar>
          environmental variable will be set to the package installation
          directory.  See &man.pkg.add.1; for
          additional information.</para>

        <note>
          <para>This script is not run automatically if you install the port
            with <command>make install</command>.  If you are depending on it
            being run, you will have to explicitly call it from your port's
            <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><filename>REQ</filename></title>

        <para>If your port needs to determine if it should install or not, you
          can create a <filename>pkg/REQ</filename> &ldquo;requirements&rdquo;
          script.  It will be invoked automatically at
          installation/deinstallation time to determine whether or not
          installation/deinstallation should proceed.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-plist">
        <title>Changing <filename>PLIST</filename> based on make
          variables</title>

        <para>Some ports, particularly the p5- ports, need to change their
          <filename>PLIST</filename> depending on what options they are
          configured with (or version of perl, in the case of p5- ports).  To
          make this easy, any instances in the <filename>PLIST</filename> of
          <literal>%%OSREL%%</literal>, <literal>%%PERL_VER%%</literal>, and
          <literal>%%PERL_VERSION%%</literal> will be substituted for
          appropriately.  The value of <literal>%%OSREL%%</literal> is the
          numeric revision of the operating system (e.g.,
          <literal>2.2.7</literal>).  <literal>%%PERL_VERSION%%</literal> is
          the full version number of perl (e.g., <literal>5.00502</literal>)
          and <literal>%%PERL_VER%%</literal> is the perl version number minus
          the patchlevel (e.g., <literal>5.005</literal>).</para>

        <para>If you need to make other substitutions, you can set the
          <makevar>PLIST_SUB</makevar> variable with a list of
          <literal><replaceable>VAR</replaceable>=<replaceable>VALUE</replaceable></literal>
          pairs and instances of
          <literal>%%<replaceable>VAR</replaceable>%%</literal>' will be
          substituted with <replaceable>VALUE</replaceable> in the
          <filename>PLIST</filename>.</para>

        <para>For instance, if you have a port that installs many files in a
          version-specific subdirectory, you can put something like

          <programlisting>
OCTAVE_VERSION= 2.0.13
PLIST_SUB=      OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}</programlisting>

          in the <filename>Makefile</filename> and use
          <literal>%%OCTAVE_VERSION%%</literal> wherever the version shows up
          in <filename>PLIST</filename>.  That way, when you upgrade the port,
          you will not have to change dozens (or in some cases, hundreds) of
          lines in the <filename>PLIST</filename>.</para>

        <para>This substitution (as well as addition of any <link
            linkend="porting-manpages">man pages</link>) will be done between
          the <maketarget>do-install</maketarget> and
          <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> targets, by reading from
          <makevar>PLIST</makevar> and writing to <makevar>TMPPLIST</makevar>
          (default:
          <filename><makevar>WRKDIR</makevar>/.PLIST.mktmp</filename>).  So if
          your port builds <makevar>PLIST</makevar> on the fly, do so in or
          before <maketarget>do-install</maketarget>.  Also, if your port
          needs to edit the resulting file, do so in
          <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> to a file named
          <makevar>TMPPLIST</makevar>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title id="porting-pkgsubdir">Changing the names of files in the
          <filename>pkg</filename> subdirectory</title>

        <para>All the filenames in the <filename>pkg</filename> subdirectory
          are defined using variables so you can change them in your
          <filename>Makefile</filename> if need be.  This is especially useful
          when you are sharing the same <filename>pkg</filename> subdirectory
          among  several ports or have to write to one of the above files (see
          <link linkend="porting-wrkdir">writing to places other than
            <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar></link> for why it is a bad idea to write
          directly in to the <filename>pkg</filename> subdirectory.</para>

        <para>Here is a list of variable names and their default
          values.</para>

        <informaltable frame="none">
          <tgroup cols="2">
            <thead>
              <row>
                <entry>Variable</entry>
                <entry>Default value</entry>
              </row>
            </thead>

            <tbody>
              <row>
                <entry><makevar>COMMENT</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/DESCR</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>DESCR</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/DESCR</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PLIST</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/PLIST</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PKGINSTALL</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/PKGINSTALL</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PKGDEINSTALL</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/PKGDEINSTALL</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PKGREQ</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/REQ</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PKGMESSAGE</makevar></entry>
                <entry><literal>${PKGDIR}/MESSAGE</literal></entry>
              </row>
            </tbody>
          </tgroup>
        </informaltable>

        <para>Please change these variables rather than overriding
          <makevar>PKG_ARGS</makevar>.  If you change
          <makevar>PKG_ARGS</makevar>, those files will not correctly be
          installed in <filename>/var/db/pkg</filename> upon install from a
          port.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Licensing Problems</title>

      <para>Some software packages have restrictive licenses or can be in
        violation to the law (PKP's patent on public key crypto, ITAR (export
        of crypto software) to name just two of them).  What we can do with
        them varies a lot, depending on the exact wordings of the respective
        licenses.</para>

      <note>
        <para>It is your responsibility as a porter to read the licensing
          terms of the software and make sure that the FreeBSD project will
          not be held accountable of violating them by redistributing the
          source or compiled binaries either via ftp or CD-ROM.  If in doubt,
          please contact the &a.ports;.</para>
      </note>

      <para>There are two variables you can set in the Makefile to handle the
        situations that arise frequently:</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>If the port has a &ldquo;do not sell for profit&rdquo; type of
            license, set the variable <makevar>NO_CDROM</makevar> to a string
            describing the reason why.  We will make sure such ports will not go
            into the CD-ROM come release time.  The distfile and package will
            still be available via ftp.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>If the resulting package needs to be built uniquely for each
            site, or the resulting binary package cannot be distributed due to
            licensing; set the variable <makevar>NO_PACKAGE</makevar> to a
            string describing the reason why.  We will make sure such packages
            will not go on the ftp site, nor  into the CD-ROM come release time.
            The distfile will still be included on both however.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>If the port has legal restrictions on who can use it (e.g.,
            crypto stuff) or has a &ldquo;no commercial use&rdquo; license,
            set the variable <makevar>RESTRICTED</makevar> to be the string
            describing the reason why.  For such ports, the distfiles/packages
            will not be available even from our ftp sites.</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <note>
        <para>The GNU General Public License (GPL), both version 1 and 2,
          should not be a problem for ports.</para>
      </note>

      <note>
        <para>If you are a committer, make sure you update the
          <filename>ports/LEGAL</filename> file too.</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="port-upgrading">
      <title>Upgrading</title>

      <para>When you notice that a port is out of date compared to the latest
        version from the original authors, first make sure you have the latest
        port.  You can find them in the
        <filename>ports/ports-current</filename> directory of the ftp mirror
        sites.  You may also use CVSup to keep your whole ports collection
        up-to-date, as described in <xref linkend="cvsup-config">.</para>

      <para>The next step is to send a mail to the maintainer, if one is
        listed in the port's <filename>Makefile</filename>.  That person may
        already be working on an upgrade, or have a reason to not upgrade the
        port right now (because of, for example, stability problems of the new
        version).</para>

      <para>If the maintainer asks you to do the upgrade or there is not any
        such person to begin with, please make the upgrade and send the
        recursive diff (either unified or context diff is fine, but port
        committers appear to prefer unified diff more) of the new and old
        ports directories to us (e.g., if your modified port directory is
        called <filename>superedit</filename> and the original as in our tree
        is <filename>superedit.bak</filename>, then send us the result of
        <command>diff -ruN superedit.bak superedit</command>).  Please examine
        the output to make sure all the changes make sense.  The best way to
        send us the diff is by including it to &man.send-pr.1; (category
        <literal>ports</literal>).  Please mention any added or deleted files
        in the message, as they have to be explicitly specified to CVS when
        doing a commit.  If the diff is more than about 20KB, please compress
        and uuencode it; otherwise, just include it in as is in the PR.</para>

      <note>
        <para>Once again, please use &man.diff.1; and not &man.shar.1; to send
          updates to existing ports!</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title><anchor id="porting-dads">Do's and Dont's</title>

      <para>Here is a list of common do's and dont's that you encounter during
        the porting process.You should check your own port against this list,
        but you can also check ports in the PR database that others have
        submitted.  Submit any comments on ports you check as described in
        <link linkend="contrib-general">Bug Reports and General
          Commentary</link>.  Checking ports in the PR database will both make
        it faster for us to commit them, and prove that you know what you are
        doing.</para>

      <sect3>
        <title>Strip Binaries</title>

        <para>Do strip binaries.  If the original source already strips the
          binaries, fine; otherwise you should add a
          <literal>post-install</literal> rule to to it yourself.  Here is an
          example;</para>

        <programlisting>
post-install:
        strip ${PREFIX}/bin/xdl</programlisting>

        <para>Use the &man.file.1; command on the installed executable to
          check whether the binary is stripped or not.  If it does not say
          <literal>not stripped</literal>, it is stripped.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>INSTALL_* macros</title>

        <para>Do use the macros provided in <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>
          to ensure correct modes and ownership of files in your own
          <maketarget>*-install</maketarget> targets.  They are:</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para><makevar>INSTALL_PROGRAM</makevar> is a command to install
              binary executables.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><makevar>INSTALL_SCRIPT</makevar> is a command to install
              executable scripts.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><makevar>INSTALL_DATA</makevar> is a command to install
              sharable data.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><makevar>INSTALL_MAN</makevar> is a command to install
              manpages and other documentation (it does not compress
              anything).</para>
          </listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

        <para>These are basically the <command>install</command> command with
          all the appropriate flags.  See below for an example on how to use
          them.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-wrkdir">
        <title><makevar>WRKDIR</makevar></title>

        <para>Do not write anything to files outside
          <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar>.  <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar> is the only
          place that is guaranteed to be writable during the port build (see
          <link linkend="ports-cd">compiling ports from CDROM</link> for an
          example of building ports from a read-only tree).  If you need to
          modify some file in <makevar>PKGDIR</makevar>, do so by <link
            linkend="porting-pkgsubdir">redefining a variable</link>, not by
          writing over it.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-wrkdirprefix">
        <title><makevar>WRKDIRPREFIX</makevar></title>

        <para>Make sure your port honors <makevar>WRKDIRPREFIX</makevar>.
          Most ports do not have to worry about this.  In particular, if you
          are referring to a <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar> of another port, note
          that the correct location is
          <filename><makevar>WRKDIRPREFIX</makevar><makevar>PORTSDIR</makevar>/<replaceable>subdir</replaceable>/<replaceable>name</replaceable>/work</filename> not <filename><makevar>PORTSDIR</makevar>/<replaceable>subdir</replaceable>/<replaceable>name</replaceable>/work</filename> or <filename><makevar>.CURDIR</makevar>/../../<replaceable>subdir</replaceable>/<replaceable>name</replaceable>/work</filename> or some such.</para>

        <para>Also, if you are defining <makevar>WRKDIR</makevar> yourself,
          make sure you prepend
          <literal>&dollar;{WRKDIRPREFIX}&dollar;{.CURDIR}</literal> in the
          front.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-versions">
        <title>Differentiating operating systems and OS versions</title>

        <para>You may come across code that needs modifications or conditional
          compilation based upon what version of UNIX it is running under.  If
          you need to make such changes to the code for conditional
          compilation, make sure you make the changes as general as possible
          so that we can back-port code to FreeBSD 1.x systems and cross-port
          to other BSD systems such as 4.4BSD from CSRG, BSD/386, 386BSD,
          NetBSD, and OpenBSD.</para>

        <para>The preferred way to tell 4.3BSD/Reno (1990) and newer versions
          of the BSD code apart is by using the <literal>BSD</literal> macro
          defined in <filename>&lt;sys/param.h&gt;</filename>.  Hopefully that
          file is already included; if not, add the code:</para>

        <programlisting>
#if (defined(__unix__) || defined(unix)) &amp;&amp; !defined(USG)
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;
#endif</programlisting>

        <para>to the proper place in the <filename>.c</filename> file.  We
          believe that every system that defines these two symbols has
          <filename>sys/param.h</filename>.  If you find a system that
          does not, we would like to know.  Please send mail to the
          &a.ports;.</para>

        <para>Another way is to use the GNU Autoconf style of doing
          this:</para>

        <programlisting>
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_PARAM_H
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;
#endif</programlisting>

        <para>Do not forget to add <literal>-DHAVE_SYS_PARAM_H</literal> to the
          <makevar>CFLAGS</makevar> in the <filename>Makefile</filename> for
          this method.</para>

        <para>Once you have <filename>sys/param.h</filename> included, you may
          use:</para>

        <programlisting>
#if (defined(BSD) &amp;&amp; (BSD &gt;= 199103))</programlisting>

        <para>to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.3 Net2 code base
          or newer (e.g. FreeBSD 1.x, 4.3/Reno, NetBSD 0.9, 386BSD, BSD/386
          1.1 and below).</para>

        <para>Use:</para>

        <programlisting>
#if (defined(BSD) &amp;&amp; (BSD &gt;= 199306))</programlisting>

        <para>to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.4 code base or
          newer (e.g. FreeBSD 2.x, 4.4, NetBSD 1.0, BSD/386 2.0 or
          above).</para>

        <para>The value of the <literal>BSD</literal> macro is
          <literal>199506</literal> for the 4.4BSD-Lite2 code base.  This is
          stated for informational purposes only.  It should not be used to
          distinguish between versions of FreeBSD based only on 4.4-Lite vs.
          versions that have merged in changes from 4.4-Lite2.  The
          <literal>__FreeBSD__</literal> macro should be used instead.</para>

        <para>Use sparingly:</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para><literal>__FreeBSD__</literal> is defined in all versions of
              FreeBSD.  Use it if the change you are making
              <emphasis>only</emphasis> affects FreeBSD.  Porting gotchas like
              the use of <literal>sys_errlist[]</literal> vs
              <function>strerror()</function> are Berkeleyisms, not FreeBSD
              changes.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>In FreeBSD 2.x, <literal>__FreeBSD__</literal> is defined to
              be <literal>2</literal>.  In earlier versions, it is
              <literal>1</literal>.  Later versions will bump it to match
              their major version number.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>If you need to tell the difference between a FreeBSD 1.x
              system and a FreeBSD 2.x or 3.x system, usually the right answer
              is to use the <literal>BSD</literal> macros described above.  If
              there actually is a FreeBSD specific change (such as special
              shared library options when using <command>ld</command>) then it
              is OK to use <literal>__FreeBSD__</literal> and <literal>#if
                __FreeBSD__ &gt; 1</literal> to detect a FreeBSD 2.x and later
              system.  If you need more granularity in detecting FreeBSD
              systems since 2.0-RELEASE you can use the following:</para>

            <programlisting>
#if __FreeBSD__ &gt;= 2
#include &lt;osreldate.h&gt;
#    if __FreeBSD_version &gt;= 199504
         /* 2.0.5+ release specific code here */
#    endif
#endif</programlisting>

            <informaltable frame="none">
              <tgroup cols="2">
                <thead>
                  <row>
                    <entry>Release</entry>
                    <entry><literal>__FreeBSD_version</literal></entry>
                  </row>
                </thead>

                <tbody>
                  <row>
                    <entry>2.0-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>119411</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.1-CURRENT</entry>
                    <entry>199501, 199503</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.0.5-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>199504</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-CURRENT before 2.1</entry>
                    <entry>199508</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.1.0-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>199511</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-CURRENT before 2.1.5</entry>
                    <entry>199512</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.1.5-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>199607</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-CURRENT before 2.1.6</entry>
                    <entry>199608</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.1.6-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>199612</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.1.7-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>199612</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>220000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.1-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>220000 (no change)</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after 2.2.1-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>220000 (no change)</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after texinfo-3.9</entry>
                    <entry>221001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after top</entry>
                    <entry>221002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.2-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>222000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after 2.2.2-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>222001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.5-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>225000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after 2.2.5-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>225001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after ldconfig -R merge</entry>
                    <entry>225002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.6-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>226000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.7-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>227000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after 2.2.7-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>227001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after semctl(2) change</entry>
                    <entry>227002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2.8-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>228000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>2.2-STABLE after 2.2.8-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>228001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT before mount(2) change</entry>
                    <entry>300000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT after mount(2) change</entry>
                    <entry>300001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT after semctl(2) change</entry>
                    <entry>300002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT after ioctl arg changes</entry>
                    <entry>300003</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT after ELF conversion</entry>
                    <entry>300004</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>300005</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-CURRENT after 3.0-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>300006</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.0-STABLE after 3/4 branch</entry>
                    <entry>300007</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.1-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>310000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.1-STABLE after 3.1-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>310001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.1-STABLE after C++ constructor/destructor order
                      change</entry>
                    <entry>310002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.2-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>320000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.2-STABLE</entry>
                    <entry>320001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.2-STABLE after binary-incompatible IPFW and
                      socket changes</entry>
                    <entry>320002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.3-RELEASE</entry>
                    <entry>330000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.3-STABLE</entry>
                    <entry>330001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>3.3-STABLE after adding mkstemps() to libc</entry>
                    <entry>330002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after 3/4 branch</entry>
                    <entry>400000</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after change in dynamic linker
                      handling</entry>
                    <entry>400001</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after C++ constructor/destructor
                      order change</entry>
                    <entry>400002</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after functioning dladdr(3)</entry>
                    <entry>400003</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after __deregister_frame_info dynamic
		      linker bug fix (also 4.0-CURRENT after EGCS 1.1.2
		      integration)
                    </entry>
                    <entry>400004</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after suser(9) API change
                      (also 4.0-CURRENT after newbus)</entry>
                    <entry>400005</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after cdevsw registration change</entry>
                    <entry>400006</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after the addition of so_cred for
                      socket level credentials</entry>
                    <entry>400007</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after the addition of a poll syscall
                      wrapper to libc_r</entry>
                    <entry>400008</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after the change of the kernel's
                    <literal>dev_t</literal> type to <literal>struct
                      specinfo</literal> pointer</entry>
                    <entry>400009</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after fixing a hole in jail(2)</entry>
                    <entry>400010</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after the <literal>sigset_t</literal>
                        datatype change</entry>
                    <entry>400011</entry>
                  </row>

                  <row>
                    <entry>4.0-CURRENT after updating the system compiler to GCC
                        2.95.2</entry>
                    <entry>400012</entry>
                  </row>
                </tbody>
              </tgroup>
            </informaltable>
          </listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

        <note>
          <para>Note that 2.2-STABLE sometimes identifies itself as
            &ldquo;2.2.5-STABLE&rdquo; after the 2.2.5-RELEASE.  The pattern
            used to be year followed by the month, but we decided to change it
            to a more straightforward major/minor system starting from 2.2.
            This is because the parallel development on several branches made
            it infeasible to classify the releases simply by their real
            release dates.  If you are making a port now, you do not have to
            worry about old -CURRENTs; they are listed here just for your
            reference.</para>
        </note>

        <para>In the hundreds of ports that have been done, there have only
          been one or two cases where <literal>__FreeBSD__</literal> should
          have been used.  Just because an earlier port screwed up and used it
          in the wrong place does not mean you should do so too.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Writing something after
          <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename></title>

        <para>Do not write anything after the <literal>.include
            &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</literal> line.  It usually can be avoided by
          including <filename>bsd.port.pre.mk</filename> somewhere in the
          middle of your <filename>Makefile</filename> and
          <filename>bsd.port.post.mk</filename> at the end.</para>

        <note>
          <para>You need to include either the
            <filename>pre.mk</filename>/<filename>post.mk</filename> pair or
            <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> only; do not mix these two.</para>
        </note>

        <para><filename>bsd.port.pre.mk</filename> only defines a few
          variables, which can be used in tests in the
          <filename>Makefile</filename>, <filename>bsd.port.post.mk</filename>
          defines the rest.</para>

        <para>Here are some important variables defined in
          <filename>bsd.port.pre.mk</filename> (this is not the complete list,
          please read <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> for the complete
          list).</para>

        <informaltable frame="none">
          <tgroup cols="2">
            <thead>
              <row>
                <entry>Variable</entry>
                <entry>Description</entry>
              </row>
            </thead>

            <tbody>
              <row>
                <entry><makevar>ARCH</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The architecture as returned by <command>uname
                    -m</command> (e.g., <literal>i386</literal>)</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>OPSYS</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The operating system type, as returned by
                  <command>uname -s</command> (e.g.,
                  <literal>FreeBSD</literal>)</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>OSREL</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The release version of the operating system (e.g.,
                  <literal>2.1.5</literal> or
                  <literal>2.2.7</literal>)</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>OSVERSION</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The numeric version of the operating system, same as
                  <link
                    linkend="porting-versions"><literal>__FreeBSD_version</literal></link>.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PORTOBJFORMAT</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The object format of the system
                  (<literal>aout</literal> or <literal>elf</literal></entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>LOCALBASE</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The base of the &ldquo;local&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
                  <literal>/usr/local/</literal>)</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>X11BASE</makevar></entry>
                <entry>The base of the &ldquo;X11&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
                  <literal>/usr/X11R6</literal>)</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><makevar>PREFIX</makevar></entry>
                <entry>Where the port installs itself (see <link
                    linkend="porting-prefix">more on
                    <makevar>PREFIX</makevar></link>).</entry>
              </row>
            </tbody>
          </tgroup>
        </informaltable>

        <note>
          <para>If you have to define the variables
            <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar>, <makevar>USE_X_PREFIX</makevar>, or
            <makevar>MASTERDIR</makevar>, do so before including
            <filename>bsd.port.pre.mk</filename>.</para>
        </note>

        <para>Here are some examples of things you can write after
          <filename>bsd.port.pre.mk</filename>;</para>

        <programlisting>
# no need to compile lang/perl5 if perl5 is already in system
.if ${OSVERSION} > 300003
BROKEN= perl is in system
.endif

# only one shlib version number for ELF
.if ${PORTOBJFORMAT} == "elf"
TCL_LIB_FILE=  ${TCL_LIB}.${SHLIB_MAJOR}
.else
TCL_LIB_FILE=  ${TCL_LIB}.${SHLIB_MAJOR}.${SHLIB_MINOR}
.endif

# software already makes link for ELF, but not for a.out
post-install:
.if ${PORTOBJFORMAT} == "aout"
       ${LN} -sf liblinpack.so.1.0 ${PREFIX}/lib/liblinpack.so
.endif</programlisting>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Install additional documentation</title>

        <para>If your software has some documentation other than the standard
          man and info pages that you think is useful for the user, install it
          under <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/share/doc</filename>.
          This can be done, like the previous item, in the
          <maketarget>post-install</maketarget> target.</para>

        <para>Create a new directory for your port.  The directory name should
          reflect what the port is.  This usually means
          <makevar>PKGNAME</makevar> minus the version part. However, if you
          think the user might want different versions of the port to be
          installed at the same time, you can use the whole
          <makevar>PKGNAME</makevar>.</para>

        <para>Make the installation dependent to the variable
          <makevar>NOPORTDOCS</makevar> so that users can disable it in
          <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>, like this:</para>

        <programlisting>
post-install:
.if !defined(NOPORTDOCS)
        ${MKDIR}${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv
        ${INSTALL_MAN} ${WRKSRC}/docs/xvdocs.ps ${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv
.endif</programlisting>

        <para>Do not forget to add them to <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename> too!
          (Do not worry about <makevar>NOPORTDOCS</makevar> here; there is
          currently no way for the packages to read variables from
          <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>.)</para>

        <para>Also you can use the <filename>pkg/MESSAGE</filename> file to
          display messages upon installation.  See the <link
            linkend="porting-message">using
            <filename>pkg/MESSAGE</filename></link> section for
          details.</para>

        <note>
          <para><filename>MESSAGE</filename> does not need to be added to
            <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename>).</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title><makevar>DIST_SUBDIR</makevar></title>

        <para>Do not let your port clutter
          <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>.  If your port requires a
          lot of files to be fetched, or contains a file that has a name that
          might conflict with other ports (e.g.,
          <filename>Makefile</filename>), set <makevar>DIST_SUBDIR</makevar>
          to the name of the port (<makevar>PKGNAME</makevar> without the
          version part should work fine).  This will change
          <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> from the default
          <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> to
          <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles/<makevar>DIST_SUBDIR</makevar></filename>,
          and in effect puts everything that is required for your port into
          that subdirectory.</para>

        <para>It will also look at the subdirectory with the same name on the
          backup master site at <filename>ftp.FreeBSD.org</filename>.
          (Setting <makevar>DISTDIR</makevar> explicitly in your
          <makevar>Makefile</makevar> will not accomplish this, so please use
          <makevar>DIST_SUBDIR</makevar>.)</para>

        <note>
          <para>This does not affect the <makevar>MASTER_SITES</makevar> you
            define in your Makefile.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Package information</title>

        <para>Do include package information, i.e.
          <filename>COMMENT</filename>, <filename>DESCR</filename>, and
          <filename>PLIST</filename>, in <filename>pkg</filename>.</para>

        <note>
          <para>Note that these files are not used only for packaging anymore,
            and are <emphasis>mandatory</emphasis> now, even if
            <makevar>NO_PACKAGE</makevar> is set.</para>
        </note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>RCS strings</title>

        <para>Do not put RCS strings in patches.  CVS will mangle them when we
          put the files into the ports tree, and when we check them out again,
          they will come out different and the patch will fail.  RCS strings
          are surrounded by dollar (<literal>&dollar;</literal>) signs, and
          typically start with <literal>&dollar;Id</literal> or
          <literal>&dollar;RCS</literal>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Recursive diff</title>

        <para>Using the recurse (<option>-r</option>) option to
          <command>diff</command> to generate patches is fine, but please take
          a look at the resulting patches to make sure you do not have any
          unnecessary junk in there.  In particular, diffs between two backup
          files, <filename>Makefiles</filename> when the port uses
          <command>Imake</command> or GNU <command>configure</command>, etc.,
          are unnecessary and should be deleted.  If you had to edit
          <filename>configure.in</filename> and run
          <command>autoconf</command> to regenerate
          <command>configure</command>, do not take the diffs of
          <command>configure</command> (it often grows to a few thousand
          lines!); define <literal>USE_AUTOCONF=yes</literal> and take the
          diffs of <filename>configure.in</filename>.</para>

        <para>Also, if you had to delete a file, then you can do it in the
          <maketarget>post-extract</maketarget> target rather than as part of
          the patch.  Once you are happy with the resulting diff, please split
          it up into one source file per patch file.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-prefix">
        <title><makevar>PREFIX</makevar></title>

        <para>Do try to make your port install relative to
          <makevar>PREFIX</makevar>.  (The value of this variable will be set
          to <makevar>LOCALBASE</makevar> (default
          <filename>/usr/local</filename>), unless
          <makevar>USE_X_PREFIX</makevar> or <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar> is
          set, in which case it will be <makevar>X11BASE</makevar> (default
          <filename>/usr/X11R6</filename>).)</para>

        <para>Not hard-coding <filename>/usr/local</filename> or
          <filename>/usr/X11R6</filename> anywhere in the source will make the
          port much more flexible and able to cater to the needs of other
          sites.  For X ports that use <command>imake</command>, this is
          automatic; otherwise, this can often be done by simply replacing the
          occurrences of <filename>/usr/local</filename> (or
          <filename>/usr/X11R6</filename> for X ports that do not use imake)
          in the various scripts/Makefiles in the port to read
          <makevar>PREFIX</makevar>, as this variable is automatically passed
          down to every stage of the build and install processes.</para>

        <para>Do not set <makevar>USE_X_PREFIX</makevar> unless your port
          truly require it (i.e., it links against X libs or it needs to
          reference files in <makevar>X11BASE</makevar>).</para>

        <para>The variable <makevar>PREFIX</makevar> can be reassigned in your
          <filename>Makefile</filename> or in the user's environment.
          However, it is strongly discouraged for individual ports to set this
          variable explicitly in the <filename>Makefiles</filename>.</para>

        <para>Also, refer to programs/files from other ports with the
          variables mentioned above, not explicit pathnames.  For instance, if
          your port requires a macro <literal>PAGER</literal> to be the full
          pathname of <command>less</command>, use the compiler flag:

          <programlisting>
-DPAGER=\"&dollar;{PREFIX}/bin/less\"</programlisting>

          or

          <programlisting>
-DPAGER=\"&dollar;{LOCALBASE}/bin/less\"</programlisting>

          if this is an X port, instead of
          <literal>-DPAGER=\"/usr/local/bin/less\".</literal> This way it will
          have a better chance of working if the system administrator has
          moved the whole `/usr/local' tree somewhere else.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Subdirectories</title>

        <para>Try to let the port put things in the right subdirectories of
          <makevar>PREFIX</makevar>.  Some ports lump everything and put it in
          the subdirectory with the port's name, which is incorrect.  Also,
          many ports put everything except binaries, header files and manual
          pages in the a subdirectory of <filename>lib</filename>, which does
          not bode well with the BSD paradigm.  Many of the files should be
          moved to one of the following: <filename>etc</filename>
          (setup/configuration files), <filename>libexec</filename>
          (executables started internally), <filename>sbin</filename>
          (executables for superusers/managers), <filename>info</filename>
          (documentation for info browser) or  <filename>share</filename>
          (architecture independent files).  See man &man.hier.7; for details,
          the rules governing
          <filename>/usr</filename> pretty much apply to
          <filename>/usr/local</filename> too.  The exception are ports
          dealing with USENET &ldquo;news&rdquo;.  They may use
          <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/news</filename> as a destination
          for their files.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 id="porting-cleaning">
        <title>Cleaning up empty directories</title>

        <para>Do make your ports clean up after themselves when they are
          deinstalled.  This is usually accomplished by adding
          <literal>@dirrm</literal> lines for all directories that are
          specifically created by the port.  You need to delete subdirectories
          before you can delete parent directories.</para>

        <programlisting>
 :
lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps/cat.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/sounds/cat.au
 :
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko/pixmaps
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko/sounds
@dirrm lib/X11/oneko</programlisting>

        <para>However, sometimes <literal>@dirrm</literal> will give you
          errors because other ports also share the same subdirectory.  You
          can call <command>rmdir</command> from <literal>@unexec</literal> to
          remove only empty directories without warning.</para>

        <programlisting>
@unexec rmdir %D/share/doc/gimp 2>/dev/null || true</programlisting>

        <para>This will neither print any error messages nor cause
          <command>pkg_delete</command> to exit abnormally even if
          <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/share/doc/gimp</filename> is not
          empty due to other ports installing some files in there.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>UIDs</title>

        <para>If your port requires a certain user to be on the installed
          system, let the <filename>pkg/INSTALL</filename> script call
          <command>pw</command> to create it automatically.  Look at
          <filename>net/cvsup-mirror</filename> for an example.</para>

        <para>If your port must use the same user/group ID number when it is
          installed a binary package as when it was compiled, then you must
          choose a free UID from 50 to 99 and register it below.  Look at
          <filename>japanese/Wnn</filename> for an example.</para>

        <para>Make sure you do not use a UID already used by the system or
          other ports.  This is the current list of UIDs between 50 and
          99.</para>

        <programlisting>
majordom:*:54:54:Majordomo Pseudo User:/usr/local/majordomo:/nonexistent
cyrus:*:60:60:the cyrus mail server:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
gnats:*:61:1:GNATS database owner:/usr/local/share/gnats/gnats-db:/bin/sh
uucp:*:66:66:UUCP pseudo-user:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/libexec/uucp/uucico
xten:*:67:67:X-10 daemon:/usr/local/xten:/nonexistent
pop:*:68:6:Post Office Owner (popper):/nonexistent:/nonexistent
wnn:*:69:7:Wnn:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
ifmail:*:70:66:Ifmail user:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
pgsql:*:70:70:PostgreSQL pseudo-user:/usr/local/pgsql:/bin/sh
ircd:*:72:72:IRCd hybrid:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
alias:*:81:81:QMail user:/var/qmail/alias:/nonexistent
qmaill:*:83:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
qmaild:*:82:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
qmailq:*:85:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
qmails:*:87:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
qmailp:*:84:81:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
qmailr:*:86:82:QMail user:/var/qmail:/nonexistent
msql:*:87:87:mSQL-2 pseudo-user:/var/db/msqldb:/bin/sh
mysql:*:88:88:MySQL Daemon:/var/db/mysql:/sbin/nologin</programlisting>

        <para>Please include a notice when you submit a port (or an upgrade)
          that reserves a new UID or GID in this range.  This allows us to
          keep the list of reserved IDs up to date.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Do things rationally</title>

        <para>The <filename>Makefile</filename> should do things simply and
          reasonably.  If you can make it a couple of lines shorter or more
          readable, then do so.  Examples include using a make
          <literal>.if</literal> construct instead of a shell
          <literal>if</literal> construct, not redefining
          <maketarget>do-extract</maketarget> if you can redefine
          <makevar>EXTRACT*</makevar> instead, and using
          <makevar>GNU_CONFIGURE</makevar> instead of <literal>CONFIGURE_ARGS
            += --prefix=&dollar;{PREFIX}</literal>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Respect <makevar>CFLAGS</makevar></title>

        <para>The port should respect the <makevar>CFLAGS</makevar> variable.
          If it does not, please add <literal>NO_PACKAGE=ignores
            cflags</literal> to the <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Configuration files</title>

        <para>If your port requires some configuration files in
          <filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/etc</filename>, do
          <emphasis>not</emphasis> just install them and list them in
          <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename>.  That will cause
          <command>pkg_delete</command> to delete files carefully edited by
          the user and a new installation to wipe them out.</para>

        <para>Instead, install sample files with a suffix
          (<filename><replaceable>filename</replaceable>.sample</filename>
          will work well) and print out a <link
            linkend="porting-message">message</link> pointing out that the
          user has to copy and edit the file before the software can be made
          to work.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Portlint</title>

        <para>Do check your work with <link
            linkend="porting-portlint"><command>portlint</command></link>
          before you submit or commit it.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Feedback</title>

        <para>Do send applicable changes/patches to the original
          author/maintainer for inclusion in next release of the code.  This
          will only make your job that much easier for the next
          release.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Miscellanea</title>

        <para>The files <filename>pkg/DESCR</filename>,
          <filename>pkg/COMMENT</filename>, and <filename>pkg/PLIST</filename>
          should each be double-checked.  If you are reviewing a port and feel
          they can be worded better, do so.</para>

        <para>Do not copy more copies of the GNU General Public License into
          our system, please.</para>

        <para>Please be careful to note any legal issues! Do not let us
          illegally distribute software!</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>If you are stuck&hellip;</title>

        <para>Do look at existing examples and the
          <filename>bsd.port.mk</filename> file before asking us questions!
          <!-- smiley --><emphasis>;)</emphasis></para>

        <para>Do ask us questions if you have any trouble! Do not just beat
          your head against a wall! <!-- smiley
          --><emphasis>:-)</emphasis></para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-samplem">
      <title>A Sample <filename>Makefile</filename></title>

      <para>Here is a sample <filename>Makefile</filename> that you can use to
        create a new port.  Make sure you remove all the extra comments (ones
        between brackets)!</para>

      <para>It is recommended that you follow this format (ordering of
        variables, empty lines between sections, etc.).  This format is
        designed so that the most important information is easy to locate.  We
        recommend that you use <link
          linkend="porting-portlint">portlint</link> to check the
        <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>

      <programlisting>
[the header...just to make it easier for us to identify the ports.]
# New ports collection makefile for:   xdvi
[the version required header should updated when upgrading a port.]
# Version required:    pl18 [things like "1.5alpha" are fine here too]
[this is the date when the first version of this Makefile was created.
Never change this when doing an update of the port.]
# Date created:                26 May 1995
[this is the person who did the original port to FreeBSD, in particular, the
person who wrote the first version of this Makefile.  Remember, this should
not be changed when upgrading the port later.]
# Whom:                        Satoshi Asami &lt;asami@FreeBSD.org&gt;
#
# &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;
[ ^^^^^^^^^ This will be automatically replaced with RCS ID string by CVS
when it is committed to our repository.  If upgrading a port, do not alter
this line back to "&dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;".  CVS deals with it automatically.]
#

[section to describe the port itself and the master site - DISTNAME
 is always first, followed by PKGNAME (if necessary), CATEGORIES,
 and then MASTER_SITES, which can be followed by MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR.
 After those, one of EXTRACT_SUFX or DISTFILES can be specified too.]
DISTNAME=      xdvi
PKGNAME=       xdvi-pl18
CATEGORIES=    print
[do not forget the trailing slash ("/")!
 if you are not using MASTER_SITE_* macros]
MASTER_SITES=  ${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR= applications
[set this if the source is not in the standard ".tar.gz" form]
EXTRACT_SUFX=  .tar.Z

[section for distributed patches -- can be empty]
PATCH_SITES=   ftp://ftp.sra.co.jp/pub/X11/japanese/
PATCHFILES=    xdvi-18.patch1.gz xdvi-18.patch2.gz

[maintainer; *mandatory*!  This is the person (preferably with commit
 privileges) who a user can contact for questions and bug reports - this
 person should be the porter or someone who can forward questions to the
 original porter reasonably promptly.  If you really do not want to have
 your address here, set it to "ports@FreeBSD.org".]
MAINTAINER=    asami@FreeBSD.org

[dependencies -- can be empty]
RUN_DEPENDS=   gs:${PORTSDIR}/print/ghostscript
LIB_DEPENDS=   Xpm.5:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/xpm

[this section is for other standard bsd.port.mk variables that do not
 belong to any of the above]
[If it asks questions during configure, build, install...]
IS_INTERACTIVE=        yes
[If it extracts to a directory other than ${DISTNAME}...]
WRKSRC=                ${WRKDIR}/xdvi-new
[If the distributed patches were not made relative to ${WRKSRC}, you
 may need to tweak this]
PATCH_DIST_STRIP=      -p1
[If it requires a "configure" script generated by GNU autoconf to be run]
GNU_CONFIGURE= yes
[If it requires GNU make, not /usr/bin/make, to build...]
USE_GMAKE=     yes
[If it is an X application and requires "xmkmf -a" to be run...]
USE_IMAKE=     yes
[et cetera.]

[non-standard variables to be used in the rules below]
MY_FAVORITE_RESPONSE=  "yeah, right"

[then the special rules, in the order they are called]
pre-fetch:
        i go fetch something, yeah

post-patch:
        i need to do something after patch, great

pre-install:
        and then some more stuff before installing, wow

[and then the epilogue]
.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-autoplist">
      <title>Automated package list creation</title>

      <para>First, make sure your port is almost complete, with only
        <filename>PLIST</filename> missing.  Create an empty
        <filename>PLIST</filename>.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>touch PLIST</userinput></screen>

      <para>Next, create a new set of directories which your port can be
        installed, and install any dependencies.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mtree -U -f /etc/mtree/BSD.local.dist -d -e -p /var/tmp/<replaceable>port-name</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make depends PREFIX=/var/tmp/<replaceable>port-name</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Store the directory structure in a new file.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>(cd /var/tmp/<replaceable>port-name</replaceable> && find * \! -type d) &gt; OLD-DIRS</userinput></screen>

      <para>If your port honours <makevar>PREFIX</makevar> (which it should)
        you can then install the port and create the package list.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install PREFIX=/var/tmp</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>(cd /var/tmp/<replaceable>port-name</replaceable> && find * \! -type d) &gt; pkg/PLIST</userinput></screen>

      <para>You must also add any newly created directories to the packing
        list.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>(cd /var/tmp/<replaceable>port-name && find * -type d) | comm -13 OLD-DIRS - | sed -e 's#^#@dirrm#' &gt;&gt; pkg/PLIST</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Finally, you need to tidy up the packing list by hand.  I lied
        when I said this was all automated.  Manual pages should be listed in
        the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> under
        <makevar>MAN<replaceable>n</replaceable></makevar>, and not in the
        package list.  User configuration files should be removed, or
        installed as
        <filename><replaceable>filename</replaceable>.sample</filename>.  Any
        libraries installed by the port should be listed as specified in the
        <link linkend="porting-ldconfig">ldconfig</link> section.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-pkgname">
      <title>Package Names</title>

      <para>The following are the conventions you should follow in naming your
        packages.  This is to have our package directory easy to scan, as
        there are already lots and lots of packages and users are going to
        turn away if they hurt their eyes!</para>

      <para>The package name should look like
        <filename><replaceable>language-</replaceable>name<replaceable>-compiled.specifics</replaceable><replaceable>-version.numbers</replaceable></filename>.</para>

      <para>If your <makevar>DISTNAME</makevar> does not look like that, set
        <makevar>PKGNAME</makevar> to something in that format.</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>FreeBSD strives to support the native language of its users.
            The <replaceable>language-</replaceable> part should be a two
            letter abbreviation of the natural language defined by ISO-639 if
            the port is specific to a certain language.  Examples are
            <literal>ja</literal> for Japanese, <literal>ru</literal> for
            Russian, <literal>vi</literal> for Vietnamese,
            <literal>zh</literal> for Chinese, <literal>ko</literal> for
            Korean and <literal>de</literal> for German.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>The <filename>name</filename> part should be all lowercases,
            except for a really large package (with lots of programs in it).
            Things like XFree86 (yes there really is a port of it, check it
            out) and ImageMagick fall into this category.  Otherwise, convert
            the name (or at least the first letter) to lowercase.  If the
            capital letters are important to the name (for example, with
            one-letter names like <literal>R</literal> or
            <literal>V</literal>) you may use capital letters at your
            discretion. There is a tradition of naming Perl 5 modules by
            prepending <literal>p5-</literal> and converting the double-colon
            separator to a hyphen; for example, the
            <literal>Data::Dumper</literal> module becomes
            <literal>p5-Data-Dumper</literal>.  If the software in question
            has numbers, hyphens, or underscores in its name, you may include
            them as well (like <literal>kinput2</literal>).</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>If the port can be built with different <link
              linkend="porting-masterdir">hardcoded defaults</link> (usually
            part of the directory name in a family of ports), the
            <replaceable>-compiled.specifics</replaceable> part should state
            the compiled-in defaults (the hyphen is optional).  Examples are
            papersize and font units.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>The version string should be a period-separated list of
            integers and single lowercase alphabetics.  The only exception is
            the string <literal>pl</literal> (meaning `patchlevel'), which can
            be used <emphasis>only</emphasis> when there are no major and
            minor version numbers in the software.</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <para>Here are some (real) examples on how to convert a
        <makevar>DISTNAME</makevar> into a suitable
        <makevar>PKGNAME</makevar>:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none">
        <tgroup cols="3">
          <thead>
            <row>
              <entry>Distribution Name</entry>
              <entry>Package Name</entry>
              <entry>Reason</entry>
            </row>
          </thead>

          <tbody>
            <row>
              <entry>mule-2.2.2.</entry>
              <entry>mule-2.2.2</entry>
              <entry>No changes required</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>XFree86-3.1.2</entry>
              <entry>XFree86-3.1.2</entry>
              <entry>No changes required</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>EmiClock-1.0.2</entry>
              <entry>emiclock-1.0.2</entry>
              <entry>No uppercase names for single programs</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>gmod1.4</entry>
              <entry>gmod-1.4</entry>
              <entry>Need a hyphen before version numbers</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>xmris.4.0.2</entry>
              <entry>xmris-4.0.2</entry>
              <entry>Need a hyphen before version numbers</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>rdist-1.3alpha</entry>
              <entry>rdist-1.3a</entry>
              <entry>No strings like <literal>alpha</literal>
                allowed</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>es-0.9-beta1</entry>
              <entry>es-0.9b1</entry>
              <entry>No strings like <literal>beta</literal>
                allowed</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>v3.3beta021.src</entry>
              <entry>tiff-3.3</entry>
              <entry>What the heck was that anyway?</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>tvtwm</entry>
              <entry>tvtwm-pl11</entry>
              <entry>Version string always required</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>piewm</entry>
              <entry>piewm-1.0</entry>
              <entry>Version string always required</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>xvgr-2.10pl1</entry>
              <entry>xvgr-2.10.1</entry>
              <entry><literal>pl</literal> allowed only when no
                major/minor version numbers</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>gawk-2.15.6</entry>
              <entry>ja-gawk-2.15.6</entry>
              <entry>Japanese language version</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>psutils-1.13</entry>
              <entry>psutils-letter-1.13</entry>
              <entry>Papersize hardcoded at package build time</entry>
            </row>

            <row>
              <entry>pkfonts</entry>
              <entry>pkfonts300-1.0</entry>
              <entry>Package for 300dpi fonts</entry>
            </row>
          </tbody>
        </tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>If there is absolutely no trace of version information in the
        original source and it is unlikely that the original author will ever
        release another version, just set the version string to
        <literal>1.0</literal> (like the piewm example above).  Otherwise, ask
        the original author or use the date string
        (<literal><replaceable>yy</replaceable>.<replaceable>mm</replaceable>.<replaceable>dd</replaceable></literal>)
	as the version.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="porting-categories">
        <title>Categories</title>

      <para>As you already know, ports are classified in several categories.
        But for this to work, it is important that porters and users understand
        what each category and how we decide what to put in each
        category.</para>

      <sect3>
        <title>Current list of categories</title>

        <para>First, this is the current list of port categories.  Those
          marked with an asterisk (<literal>*</literal>) are
          <emphasis>virtual</emphasis> categories&mdash;those that do not have
          a corresponding subdirectory in the ports tree.</para>

        <note>
          <para>For non-virtual categories, you will find a one-line
            description in the <filename>pkg/COMMENT</filename> file in that
            subdirectory (e.g.,
            <filename>archivers/pkg/COMMENT</filename>).</para>
        </note>

        <informaltable frame="none">
          <tgroup cols="2">
            <thead>
              <row>
                <entry>Category</entry>
                <entry>Description</entry>
              </row>
            </thead>

            <tbody>
              <row>
                <entry><filename>afterstep*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports to support AfterStep window manager</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>archivers</filename></entry>
                <entry>Archiving tools.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>astro</filename></entry>
                <entry>Astronomical ports.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>audio</filename></entry>
                <entry>Sound support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>benchmarks</filename></entry>
                <entry>Benchmarking utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>biology</filename></entry>
                <entry>Biology-related software.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>cad</filename></entry>
                <entry>Computer aided design tools.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>chinese</filename></entry>
                <entry>Chinese language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>comms</filename></entry>
                <entry>Communication software.  Mostly software to talk to
                  your serial port.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>converters</filename></entry>
                <entry>Character code converters.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>databases</filename></entry>
                <entry>Databases.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>deskutils</filename></entry>
                <entry>Things that used to be on the desktop before
                  computers were invented.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>devel</filename></entry>
                <entry>Development utilities.  Do not put libraries here just
                  because they are libraries&mdash;unless they truly do not
                  belong to anywhere else, they should not be in this
                  category.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>editors</filename></entry>
                <entry>General editors.  Specialized editors go in the section
                  for those tools (e.g., a mathematical-formula editor will go
                  in <filename>math</filename>).</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>elisp*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Emacs-lisp ports.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>emulators</filename></entry>
                <entry>Emulators for other operating systems.  Terminal
                  emulators do <emphasis>not</emphasis> belong
                  here&mdash;X-based ones should go to
                  <filename>x11</filename> and text-based ones to either
                  <filename>comms</filename> or <filename>misc</filename>,
                  depending on the exact functionality.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>ftp</filename></entry>
                <entry>FTP client and server utilities.  If your
                  port speaks both FTP and HTTP, put it in
                  <filename>ftp</filename> with a secondary
                  category of <filename>www</filename>.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>games</filename></entry>
                <entry>Games.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>german</filename></entry>
                <entry>German language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>gnome*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports from the GNU Object Model Environment (GNOME)
                  Project.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>graphics</filename></entry>
                <entry>Graphics utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>irc</filename></entry>
                <entry>Internet Chat Relay utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>japanese</filename></entry>
                <entry>Japanese language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>java</filename></entry>
                <entry>Java language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>kde*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports from the K Desktop Environment (KDE)
                  Project.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>korean</filename></entry>
                <entry>Korean language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>lang</filename></entry>
                <entry>Programming languages.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>mail</filename></entry>
                <entry>Mail software.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>math</filename></entry>
                <entry>Numerical computation software and other utilities
                  for mathematics.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>mbone</filename></entry>
                <entry>MBone applications.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>misc</filename></entry>
                <entry>Miscellaneous utilities&mdash;basically things that
                  does not belong to anywhere else.  This is the only category
                  that should not appear with any other non-virtual category.
                  If you have <literal>misc</literal> with something else in
                  your <makevar>CATEGORIES</makevar> line, that means you can
                  safely delete <literal>misc</literal> and just put the port
                  in that other subdirectory!</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>net</filename></entry>
                <entry>Miscellaneous networking software.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>news</filename></entry>
                <entry>USENET news software.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>offix*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports from the OffiX suite.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>palm</filename></entry>
                <entry>Software support for the 3Com Palm(tm) series.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>perl5*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that require perl version 5 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>plan9*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Various programs from Plan9.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>print</filename></entry>
                <entry>Printing software.  Desktop publishing tools
                  (previewers, etc.) belong here too.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>python*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Software written in python.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>russian</filename></entry>
                <entry>Russian language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>security</filename></entry>
                <entry>Security utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>shells</filename></entry>
                <entry>Command line shells.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>sysutils</filename></entry>
                <entry>System utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tcl75*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tcl version 7.5 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tcl76*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tcl version 7.6 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tcl80*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tcl version 8.0 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tcl81*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tcl version 8.1 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>textproc</filename></entry>
                <entry>Text processing utilities.  It does not include
                  desktop publishing tools, which go to print/.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tk41*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tk version 4.1 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tk42*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tk version 4.2 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tk80*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tk version 8.0 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tk81*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use Tk version 8.1 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>tkstep80*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports that use TkSTEP version 8.0 to run.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>vietnamese</filename></entry>
                <entry>Vietnamese language support.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>windowmaker*</filename></entry>
                <entry>Ports to support the WindowMaker window
                  manager</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>www</filename></entry>
                <entry>Software related to the World Wide Web.  HTML language
                  support belong here too.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry>x11</entry>
                <entry>The X window system and friends.  This category is only
                  for software that directly support the window system. Do not
                  put regular X applications here.  If your port is an X
                  application, define <makevar>USE_XLIB</makevar> (implied by
                  <makevar>USE_IMAKE</makevar>) and put it in appropriate
                  categories.  Also, many of them go into other
                  <filename>x11-*</filename> categories (see below).</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-clocks</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 clocks.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-fm</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 file managers.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-fonts</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 fonts and font utilities.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-servers</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 servers.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-toolkits</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 toolkits.</entry>
              </row>

              <row>
                <entry><filename>x11-wm</filename></entry>
                <entry>X11 window managers.</entry>
              </row>
            </tbody>
          </tgroup>
        </informaltable>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
        <title>Choosing the right category</title>

        <para>As many of the categories overlap, you often have to choose
          which of the categories should be the primary category of your port.
          There are several rules that govern this issue.  Here is the list of
          priorities, in decreasing order of precedence.</para>

        <itemizedlist>
          <listitem>
            <para>Language specific categories always come first.  For
              example, if your port installs Japanese X11 fonts, then your
              <makevar>CATEGORIES</makevar> line would read <literal>japanese
                x11-fonts</literal>.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>Specific categories win over less-specific ones.  For
              instance, an HTML editor should be listed as <literal>www
                editors</literal>, not the other way around.  Also, you do not
              need to list <literal>net</literal> when the port belongs to
              either of <literal>irc</literal>, <literal>mail</literal>,
              <literal>mbone</literal>, <literal>news</literal>,
              <literal>security</literal>, or <literal>www</literal>.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><literal>x11</literal> is used as a secondary category only
              when the primary category is a natural language.  In particular,
              you should not put <literal>x11</literal> in the category line
              for X applications.</para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para><application>Emacs</application> modes should be
	      placed in the same ports category as the application
	      supported by the mode, not in
	      <filename>editors</filename>.  For example, an
	      <application>Emacs</application> mode to edit source
	      files of some programming language should go into
	      <filename>lang</filename>.
              </para>
          </listitem>

          <listitem>
            <para>If your port truly does not belong anywhere else, put it in
              <literal>misc</literal>.</para>
          </listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

        <para>If you are not sure about the category, please put a comment to
          that effect in your <command>send-pr</command> submission so we can
          discuss it before import it.  (If you are a committer, send a note
          &a.ports; so we can discuss it first&mdash;too often new ports are
          imported to a wrong category only to be moved right away.)</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Changes to this document and the ports system</title>

      <para>If you maintain a lot of ports, you should consider following the
        &a.ports;.  Important changes to the way ports work will be announced
        there.  You can always find more detailed information on the latest
        changes by looking at <ulink
          url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/ports/Mk/bsd.port.mk"> the
          bsd.port.mk CVS log</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>That is It, Folks!</title>

      <para>Boy, this sure was a long tutorial, wasn't it?  Thanks for
        following us to here, really.  Now that you know how to do a port,
        have at it and convert everything in the world into ports! That
        is the easiest way to start contributing to the FreeBSD Project!
        <!-- smiley --><emphasis>:-)</emphasis></para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>

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