aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/handbook/hw.sgml
blob: e2f48d8b41ee991d35aa36308ef1801009d9a70c (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
<!-- $Id: hw.sgml,v 1.6.2.6 1996-07-16 16:01:34 jkh Exp $ -->
<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->

<!--
<!DOCTYPE chapt PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN"> -->
 
<chapt><heading>PC Hardware compatibility<label id="hw"></heading>

  <p>Issues of hardware compatibility are among the most
    troublesome in the computer industry today and FreeBSD is by
    no means immune to trouble.  In this respect, FreeBSD's
    advantage of being able to run on inexpensive commodity PC
    hardware is also its liability when it comes to support for
    the amazing variety of components on the market.  While it
    would be impossible to provide a exhaustive listing of
    hardware that FreeBSD supports, this section serves as a
    catalog of the device drivers included with FreeBSD and the
    hardware each drivers supports.  Where possible and
    appropriate, notes about specific products are included.

    As FreeBSD is a volunteer project without a funded testing
    department, we depend on you, the user, for much of the
    information contained in this catalog.  If you have direct
    experience of hardware that does or does not work with
    FreeBSD, please let us know by sending e-mail to
    <tt>doc@freebsd.org</tt>.  Questions about supported hardware
    should be directed to <tt>questions@freebsd.org</tt> (see
    <ref id="eresources:mail" name="Mailing Lists"> for more
    information).  When submitting information or asking a
    question, please remember to specify exactly what version of
    FreeBSD you are using and include as many details of your
    hardware as possible.

<sect><heading>Sample Configurations<label id="hw:configs"></heading>
<p>The following list of sample hardware configurations by no means
constitutes an endorsement of a given hardware vendor or product by
<em>The FreeBSD Project</em>.  This information is provided only as a public
service and merely catalogs some of the experiences that various individuals
have had with different hardware combinations.  Your mileage may vary.
Slippery when wet.  Beware of dog.

 <sect1><heading>Jordan's Picks</heading>
    <p>I have had fairly good luck building workstation and server
    configurations with the following components.  I can't guarantee that
    you will too, nor that any of the companies here will remain "best buys"
    forever.  I will try, when I can, to keep this list up-to-date but
    cannot obviously guarantee that it will be at any given time.

  <sect2><heading>Motherboards</heading>
    <p>The <htmlurl url="http://asustek.asus.com.tw/" name="ASUS">
    <htmlurl url="http://asustek.asus.com.tw/FTP/ASUS/Info/Spec/pi-p55tp4xe.txt"
     name="P55TP4XE">
    motherboard appears to be a good choice for mid-to-high range Pentium
    server and workstation systems.  If you're really looking for performance,
    be also sure to get the <htmlurl url="http://asustek.asus.com.tw/Products/TB/mem-0002.html" name="pipelined burst cache module">.  I feel that it's worth
    the extra cost.  If you're looking for a 486 class motherboard, you might
    also investigate ASUS's <htmlurl url="http://asustek.asus.com.tw/FTP/ASUS/Info/Spec/pvi-486sp3.txt" name="486SP3G"> offering (Note:  These have become
    increasingly hard to get as ASUS apparently no longer manufactures them).

    NOTE:  The Intel <htmlurl url="http://asustek.asus.com.tw/Products/TB/triton-intro.html" name="Triton"> chip-set based motherboards do not offer memory
    parity logic, making it almost impossible to detect when a memory error
    has occurred.  Those wishing to build more fault-tolerant systems should
    therefore buy one of the newer Triton II based motherboards, which offer
    both better performance and parity checking.

  <sect2><heading>Disk Controllers</heading>
    <p>This one is a bit trickier, and while I used to recommend the
    <htmlurl url="http://www.buslogic.com" name="Buslogic"> controllers
    unilaterally for everything from ISA to PCI, now I tend to lean
    towards the <htmlurl url="http://www.adaptec.com" name="Adaptec">
    1542CF for ISA, Buslogic Bt747c for EISA and Adaptec 2940 for PCI.

  <sect2><heading>Disk drives</heading>
    <p>In this particular game of Russian roulette, I'll make few specific
    recommendations except to say "SCSI over IDE whenever you can afford it."
    Even in small desktop configurations, SCSI often makes more sense since it
    allows you to easily migrate drives from server to desktop as falling drive
    prices make it economical to do so.  If you have more than one machine
    to administer then think of it not simply as storage, think of it as a
    food chain!

    <p>I do not currently see SCSI WIDE drives as a necessary expense unless
    you're putting together an NFS or NEWS server that will be doing a lot
    of multiuser disk I/O.  

  <sect2><heading>CDROM drives</heading>
    <p>My SCSI preferences extend to SCSI CDROM drives as well, and the
    <htmlurl url="http://www.toshiba.com" name="Toshiba"> XM-3501B (now
    released in a caddy-less model called the XM-5401B) drive has always
    performed well for me.  Generally speaking, most SCSI CDROM drives I've 
    seen have been of pretty solid construction (probably because they don't 
    occupy the lower end of the market, due to their higher price) and you
    probably won't go wrong with an HP or NEC SCSI CDROM drive either.

  <sect2><heading>Tape drives</heading>
   <p>I've had pretty good luck with both
   <htmlurl url="http://www.Exabyte.COM:80/Products/8mm/8505XL/Rfeatures.html"
   name="8mm drives"> from <htmlurl url="http://www.exabyte.com"
   name="Exabyte"> and 
   <htmlurl url="http://www-dmo.external.hp.com:80/tape/_cpb0001.htm" 
   name="4mm (DAT)"> drives from <htmlurl url="http://www.hp.com" name="HP">.
   
   <p>For backup purposes, I'd have to give the higher recommendation to the
   Exabyte due to the more robust nature (and higher storage capacity) of
   8mm tape.

  <sect2><heading>Video Cards</heading>
    <p>If you can also afford to buy a commercial X server for US&dollar;99 from
    <htmlurl url="http://www.xinside.com/" name="X Inside"> then I
    can heartily recommend the <htmlurl url="http://www.matrox.com/"
    name="Matrox"> <htmlurl url="http://www.matrox.com/mgaweb/brochure.htm"
    name="Millenium"> card.  If free X servers are more to your
    liking, you certainly can't go wrong with one of <htmlurl url="http://www.nine.com/" name="Number 9's"> cards - their S3 Vision 868 and 968 based cards 
    (the 9FX series) are pretty fast cards as well, and are supported by
    <htmlurl url="http://www.xfree86.org" name="XFree86">'s S3 server.

  <sect2><heading>Monitors</heading>
    <p>I have had very good luck with the <htmlurl url="http://cons3.sel.sony.com/SEL/ccpg/display/ms17se2.html"
    name="Sony Multiscan 17SE monitors">, as have I with 
    the Viewsonic offering in the same (trinitron) tube.  For larger than
    17", all I can recommend at the time of this writing is to not spend
    any less than U.S. &dollar;2,500 for a 21" monitor if that's what you really
    need.  There are good monitors available in the >=20" range and there
    are also cheap monitors in the >=20" range.  Unfortunately, none are
    both cheap and good!

  <sect2><heading>Networking</heading>
    <p>I can recommend the <htmlurl url="http://www.smc.com/" name="SMC">
    Ultra 16 controller for any ISA application and the SMC EtherPower
    or Compex ENET32 cards for any serious PCI based networking.  Both of
    the PCI cards are based around DEC's DC21041 Ethernet controller
    chip and other cards using it, such as the Zynx ZX342 or DEC DE435,
    will generally work as well.  For 100Mbit networking, either the
    SMC SMC9332DST 10/100MB or Intel EtherExpress Pro/100B cards will do
    a fine job.

   <sect2><heading>Serial</heading>
    <p>If you're looking for high-speed serial networking solutions, then
    <htmlurl url="http://www.dgii.com/" name="Digi International">
    makes the <htmlurl url="http://www.dgii.com/prodprofiles/profiles-prices/digiprofiles/digispecs/sync570.html" name="SYNC/570"> series, with drivers now in
    FreeBSD-current. <htmlurl url="http://www.etinc.com"
    name="Emerging Technologies"> also manufactures a board with T1/E1
    capabilities, using software they provide.

    <p>Multiport card options are somewhat more numerous, though it has to be
    said that FreeBSD's support for <htmlurl url="http://www.cyclades.com/"
    name="Cyclades">'s products is probably the tightest, primarily as a result
    of that company's committment to making sure that we are adequately supplied
    with evaluation boards and technical specs.  I've heard that the Cyclom-16Ye
    offers the best price/performance, though I've not checked the prices lately.
    Other multiport cards I've heard good things about are the BOCA and AST
    cards, and <htmlurl url="http://www.stallion.com/" name="Stallion
    Technologies"> apparently offers an unofficial driver for their 
    cards at <htmlurl url="ftp://ftp.stallion.com/drivers/unsupported/freebsd/stalbsd-0.0.4.tar.gz" name="this"> location.

   <sect2><heading>Audio</heading>
    <p>I currently use the <htmlurl url="http://www.gravis.com/" name="Gravis">
    Ultrasound MAX due to its high sound quality and full-duplex audio
    capabilities (dual DMA channels).  Support for Windows NT and OS/2 is
    fairly anemic, however, so I'm not sure that I can recommend it as an
    all-around card for a machine that will be running both FreeBSD and NT
    or OS/2.  In such a scenario, I might recommend the <htmlurl url="http://www.creaf.com/" name="Creative Labs"> AWE32 instead.

   <sect2><heading>Video</heading>
   <p>For video capture, there's really only once choice - the
   <htmlurl url="http://www.matrox.com/" name="Matrox">
   <htmlurl url="http://www.matrox.com/imgweb/meteor.htm" name="Meteor">
   card.  FreeBSD also supports the older video spigot card from
   Creative Labs, but those are getting somewhat difficult to find
   and the Meteor is a more current generation frame-grabber with
   a higher-speed PCI interface.  I use one for broadcasting video
   on the MBONE and it works quite well!

<sect><heading>Core/Processing<label id="hw:core"></heading>

<sect1><heading>Motherboards, busses, and chipsets</heading>
  <sect2><heading>* ISA</heading>
  <sect2><heading>* EISA</heading>
  <sect2><heading>* VLB</heading>
  <sect2><heading>PCI</heading>

	  <p><em>Contributed by &a.rgrimes;.<newline>25 April 1995.</em></p>

	  <p>Of the Intel PCI chip sets, the following list describes
	    various types of known-brokenness and the degree of
            breakage, listed from worst to best.
	    </p>

	  <p><descrip>

	      <tag>Mercury:</tag> Cache coherency problems,
		especially if there are ISA bus masters behind
		the ISA to PCI bridge chip.  Hardware flaw, only
		known work around is to turn the cache
		off.

	      <tag>Saturn-I <em>(ie, 82424ZX at rev 0, 1 or 2)</em>:</tag>
		Write back cache coherency
		problems.  Hardware flaw, only known work around
		is to set the external cache to write-through
		mode.  Upgrade to Saturn-II.

	      <tag>Saturn-II <em>(ie, 82424ZX at rev 3 or 4)</em>:</tag>
                Works fine, but many MB
		manufactures leave out the external dirty bit
		SRAM needed for write back operation.  Work
		arounds are either run it in write through mode,
		or get the dirty bit SRAM installed.  (I have
		these for the ASUS PCI/I-486SP3G rev 1.6 and
		later boards).

	      <tag>Neptune:</tag> Can not run more than 2 bus
		master devices.  Admitted Intel design flaw.
		Workarounds include do not run more than 2 bus
		masters, special hardware design to replace the
		PCI bus arbiter (appears on Intel Altair board
		and several other Intel server group MB's).  And
		of course Intel's official answer, move to the
		Triton chip set, we ``fixed it there''.

	      <tag>Triton:</tag> No known cache coherency or bus
		master problems, chip set does not implement
		parity checking.  Workaround for parity issue.
		Wait for Triton-II.

	      <tag>Triton-II:</tag> Unknown, not yet shipping.

	    </descrip>
	  </p>

<sect1><heading>* CPUs/FPUs</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Memory</heading>
<sect1><heading>* BIOS</heading>

<sect><heading>Input/Output Devices<label id="hw:io"></heading>

<sect1><heading>* Video cards</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Sound cards</heading>
<sect1><heading>Serial ports and multiport cards</heading>

	&uart;
	&sio;
	&cy;

<sect1><heading>* Parallel ports</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Modems</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Network cards</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Keyboards</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Mice</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Other</heading>

<sect><heading>Storage Devices<label id="hw:storage"></heading>
&esdi;
&scsi;

<sect1><heading>* Disk/tape controllers
	<label id="hw:storage:controllers"></heading>
  <sect2><heading>* SCSI</heading>
  <sect2><heading>* IDE</heading>
  <sect2><heading>* Floppy</heading>

<sect1><heading>* Hard drives</heading>
<sect1><heading> Tape drives</heading>
	  <p><em>Contributed by &a.jmb;.<newline>2 July 1996.</em></p>
  <sect2><heading> General tape access commands</heading>
	<p><tt>mt(1)</tt> provides generic access to the tape
drives.  Some of the more common commands are <tt>rewind</tt>,
<tt>erase</tt>, and <tt>status</tt>.  See the <tt>mt(1)</tt>
manual page for a detailed description.

  <sect2><heading> Controller Interfaces</heading>
	<p>There are several different interfaces that support
tape drives.  The interfaces are SCSI, IDE, Floppy and Parallel
Port.  A wide variety of tape drives are available for these
interfaces.  Controllers are discussed in
	 <ref id="hw:storage:controllers" name="Disk/tape controllers">

  <sect2><heading> SCSI drives</heading>
       <p>The <tt>st(4)</tt> driver provides support for 8mm
	(Exabyte), 4mm (DAT: Digital Audio Tape), QIC (Quarter-Inch
	Cartridge), DLT (Digital Linear Tape), QIC Minicartridge
	and 9-track (remember the big reels that you see spinning
	in Hollywood computer rooms) tape drives. See the
	<tt>st(4)</tt> manual page for a detailed description. 

	<p>The drives listed below are currently being used by
members of the FreeBSD community.  They are not the only drives
that will work with FreeBSD.  They just happen to be the ones
that we use.

     <sect3><heading> 4mm (DAT: Digital Audio Tape)</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:python" name="Archive Python"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:exb2501" name="Exabyte 2501"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp1533a" name="HP C1533A">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp1534a" name="HP C1534A">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp35450a" name="HP 35450A">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp35470a" name="HP 35470A">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp35480a" name="HP 35480A">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:sdt5000"  name="SDT-5000">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:wangtek6200" name="Wangtek 6200"

     <sect3><heading> 8mm (Exabyte)</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:exb8200" name="EXB-8200">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:exb8500" name="EXB-8500">
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:exb8505" name="EXB-8505">

     <sect3><heading> QIC (Quarter-Inch Cartridge)</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:anaconda" name="Archive Ananconda 2750"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:viper60" name="Archive Viper 60"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:viper150" name="Archive Viper 150"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:viper2525" name="Archive Viper 2525"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:tandberg3600" name="Tandberg TDC 3600"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:tandberg3620" name="Tandberg TDC 3620"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:tandberg4222" name="Tandberg TDC 4222"
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:wangtek5525es" name="Wangtek 5525ES"
     <sect3><heading> DLT (Digital Linear Tape)</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:dectz87" name="Digital TZ87"
     <sect3><heading> Mini-Cartridge</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:ctms3200" name="Conner CTMS 3200"
     <sect3><heading> Autoloaders/Changers</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:hp1553a" name="Hewlett-Packard HP
C1553A Autoloading DDS2">
	
  <sect2><heading>* IDE drives</heading>
  <sect2><heading> Floppy drives</heading>
	<p><ref id="hw:storage:conner420r" name="Conner 420R"
  <sect2><heading>* Parallel port drives</heading>
  <sect2><heading> Detailed Information </heading>

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:anaconda">
Archive Ananconda 2750</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "ARCHIVE
ANCDA 2750 28077 -003 type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 1.35GB when using QIC-1350 tapes.
This drive will read and write QIC-150 (DC6150), QIC-250
(DC6250), and QIC-525 (DC6525) tapes as well.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 350kB/s using <tt>dump(8)</tt>.
Rates of 530kB/s have been reported when using <ref
id="hw:storage:amanda" name="Amanda">
	<p>Production of this drive has been discontinued.
	<p>The SCSI bus connector on this tape drive is reversed
from that on most other SCSI devices.  Make sure that you have
enough SCSI cable to twist the cable one-half turn before and
after the Archive Anaconda tape drive, or turn your other SCSI
devices upside-down.
	<p>Two kernel code changes are required to use this
drive.  This drive will not work as delivered.
	<p>If you have a SCSI-2 controller, short jumper 6.
Otherwise, the drive behaves are a SCSI-1 device.  When operating
as a SCSI-1 device, this drive, "locks" the SCSI bus during some
tape operations, including: fsf, rewind, and rewoffl.
	<p>If you are using the NCR SCSI controllers, patch the
file /usr/src/sys/pci/ncr.c (as shown below).  Build and install
a new kernel.

<tscreen><verb>
*** 4831,4835 ****
                };
  
!               if (np->latetime>4) {
                        /*
                        **      Although we tried to wake it up,
--- 4831,4836 ----
                };
  
!               if (np->latetime>1200) {
                        /*
                        **      Although we tried to wake it up,

</verb></tscreen>
	<p>Reported by: Jonathan M. Bresler jmb@FreeBSD.ORG


	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:python">
Archive Python</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "ARCHIVE
Python 28454-XXX4ASB" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "density code
0x8c, 512-byte blocks"
	<p>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 2.5GB on 90m tapes.
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXX.
	<p>This drive was repackaged by Sun Microsystems as model 411.
	<p>Reported by: Bob Bishop rb@gid.co.uk

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:viper60">
Archive Viper 60</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "ARCHIVE
VIPER 60 21116 -007" "type 1 removable SCSI 1"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 60MB.
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXX.
	<p>Production of this drive has been discontinued.
	<p>Reported by: Philippe Regnauld regnauld@hsc.fr

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:viper150">
Archive Viper 150</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "ARCHIVE
VIPER 150 21531 -004" "Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue" "type
1 removable SCSI 1".  A multitude of firmware revisions exist
for this drive. Your drive may report different numbers (e.g
"21247 -005".
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 150/250MB.  Both 150MB (DC6150)
and 250MB (DC6250) tapes have the recording format.  The 250MB
tapes are approximately 67% longer than the 150MB tapes.  This
drive can read 120MB tapes as well.  It can not write 120MB tapes.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 100kB/s
	<p>This drive reads and writes DC6150 (6150MB) and DC6250
(250MB) tapes.
	<p>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the
scsi tape device driver (<tt>st(4)</tt>).
	<p>Under FreeBSD 2.2-current, use <tt>mt blocksize
512</tt> to set the blocksize.  (The particular drive had
firmware revision 21247 -005.  Other firmware revisions may
behave differently) Previous versions of FreeBSD did not have
this problem.
	<p>Production of this drive has been discontinued.
	<p>Reported by: Pedro A M Vazquez vazquez@IQM.Unicamp.BR
	<p>             Mike Smith msmith@atrad.adelaide.edu.au

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:viper2525">
Archive Viper 2525</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "ARCHIVE
VIPER 2525 25462 -011" "type 1 removable SCSI 1"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 525MB.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 180kB/s at 90 inches/sec.
	<p>The drive reads QIC-525, QIC-150, QIC-120 and QIC-24 tapes.
Writes QIC-525, QIC-150, and QIC-120.
	<p>Firmware revisions prior to "25462 -011" are bug
ridden and will not function properly.
	<p>Production of this drive has been discontinued.
	<p>Reported by: Hellmuth Michaelis hm@kts.org

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:conner420r">
Conner 420R</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "Conner tape".
	<p>This is a floppy controller, minicartridge tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is XXXX
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXX
	<p>The drive uses QIC-80 tape cartridges.
	<p>Reported by: Mark Hannon mark@seeware.DIALix.oz.au

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:ctms3200">
Conner CTMS 3200</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "CONNER
CTMS  3200 7.00" "type 1 removable SCSI 2".
	<p>This is a minicartridge tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is XXXX
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXX
	<p>The drive uses QIC-3080 tape cartridges.
	<p>Reported by: Thomas S. Traylor tst@titan.cs.mci.com

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:dectz87">
	<htmlurl
url="http://www.digital.com/info/Customer-Update/931206004.txt.html"
name="DEC TZ87"></heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "DEC
TZ87 (C) DEC 9206" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "density code 0x19"
	<p>This is a DLT tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 10GB.
	<p>This drive supports hardware data compression.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 1.2MB/s.
	<p>This drive is identical to the Quantum DLT2000.  The
drive firmware can be set to emulate several well-known drives,
including an Exabyte 8mm drive.
	<p>Reported by: Wilko Bulte wilko@yedi.iaf.nl

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:exb2501">
	<htmlurl
url="http://www.Exabyte.COM:80/Products/Minicartridge/2501/Rfeatures.html"
name="Exabyte EXB-2501"></heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is ""
	<p>This is a mini-cartridge tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 1GB when using MC3000XL minicartridges.
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXX
	<p>This drive can read and write DC2300 (550MB), DC2750
(750MB), MC3000 (750MB), and MC3000XL (1GB) minicartridges.
	<p>WARNING: This drive does not meet the SCSI-2
specifications.  The drive locks up completely in response to a
SCSI MODE_SELECT command unless there is a formatted tape in the
drive.  Before using this drive, set the tape blocksize with
<tt>mt -f /dev/st0ctl.0 blocksize 1024</tt>.  Before using a
minicartridge for the first time, the minicartridge must be
formated. FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE and earlier: <tt>/sbin/scsi -f
/dev/rst0.ctl -s 600 -c "4 0 0 0 0 0"</tt> (alternatively, fetch
a copy of the <tt>scsiformat</tt> shell script from FreeBSD
2.2). FreeBSD 2.2 and later: <tt>/sbin/scsiformat -q -w
/dev/rst0.ctl</tt>
	<p>Reported by: Bob Beaulieu ez@eztravel.com

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:exb8200"> Exabyte
EXB-8200</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "EXABYTE
EXB-8200 252X" "type 1 removable SCSI 1"
	<p>This is an 8mm tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 2.3GB.  
	<p>Data transfer rate is 270kB/s.
	<p>This drive is fairly slow in responding to the SCSI
bus during boot.  A custom kernel may be required (set SCSI_DELAY
to 10 seconds). 
	<p>There are a large number of firmware configurations
for this drive, some have been customized to a particular
vendor's hardware.  The firmware can be changed via EPROM
replacement.
	<p>Production of this drive has been discontinued.
	<p>Reported by: Mike Smith msmith@atrad.adelaide.edu.au

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:exb8500">
Exabyte EXB-8500</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "EXABYTE
EXB-8500-85Qanx0 0415" "type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is an 8mm tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 5GB.  
	<p>Data transfer rate is 300kB/s.
	<p>Reported by: Greg Lehey grog@lemis.de

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:exb8505">
	<htmlurl
url="http://www.Exabyte.COM:80/Products/8mm/8505XL/Rfeatures.html"
name="Exabyte EXB-8505"></Heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "EXABYTE
EXB-85058SQANXR1 05B0" "type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is an 8mm tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 2GB.  
	<p>The drive supports hardware data compression.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 300kB/s.
	<p>Reported by: Glen Foster gfoster@gfoster.com

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp1533a">
Hewlett-Packard HP C1533A</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "HP
C1533A 9503" "type 1 removable SCSI 2".
	<p>This is a DDS-2 tape drive.  DDS-2 means hardware data
compression and narrower tracks for increased data capacity.
	<p>Native capacity is 4GB when using 120m tapes.  This drive
supports hardware data compression.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 510kB/s.
	<p>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore
6000eU and 6000i tape drives and C1533A DDS-2 DAT drive.
	<p>The drive has a block of 8 dip switches.  The proper
settings for FreeBSD are: 1 ON; 2 ON; 3 OFF; 4 ON; 5 ON; 6 ON; 7
ON; 8 ON.
<tscreen><verb>
switch	1	2	Result
	ON	ON	Compression enabled at power-on, with host control
	ON	OFF	Compression enabled at power-on, no host
control
	OFF	ON	Compression disabled at power-on; the
host is allowed to control compression
	OFF	OFF	Compression disabled at power-on, no host
control
</verb></tscreen>
	<p>Switch 3 controls MRS (Media Recognition System).  MRS
tapes have stripes on the transparent leader.  These identify the
tape as DDS (Digital Data Storage) grade media.  Tapes
that do not have the stripes will be treated as write-protected.
Switch 3 OFF enables MRS.  Switch 3 ON disables MRS.
	<p><em>Warning:</em> Quality control on these drives
varies greatly.  One FreeBSD core-team member has returned 2 of
these drives.  Neither lasted more than 5 months.
	<p>Reported by: Stefan Esser se@ZPR.Uni-Koeln.DE

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp1534a">
Hewlett-Packard HP 1534A</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "HP
HP35470A T503" type 1 removable SCSI 2" "Sequential-Access
density code 0x13, variable blocks".
	<p>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.  DDS-1 is the original DAT
tape format.
	<p>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.
	<p>The same mechanism is used in Hewlett-Packard's
SureStore <htmlurl url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst2000.htm"
name="2000i"> tape drive, C35470A DDS format DAT drive, C1534A DDS
format DAT drive and HP C1536A DDS format DAT drive.
	<p>The HP C1534A DDS format DAT drive has two indicator
lights, one green and one amber.  The green one indicates tape
action: slow flash during load, steady when loaded, fast flash
during read/write operations.  The amber one indicates warnings:
slow flash when cleaning is required or tape is nearing the end
of its useful life, steady indicates an hard fault.  (factory
service required?)
	<p>Reported by Gary Crutcher gcrutchr@nightflight.com

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp1553a">
Hewlett-Packard HP C1553A Autoloading DDS2</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "".
	<p>This is a DDS-2 tape drive.  DDS-2 means hardware data
compression and narrower tracks for increased data capacity.
	<p>Native capacity is 24GB when using 120m tapes.  This
drive supports hardware data compression.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 510kB/s (native).
	<p>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore
<htmlurl url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst12000.htm"
name="12000e"> tape drive.
	<p>The drive has two selectors on the rear panel.  The
selector closer to the fan is SCSI id.  The other selector should
be set to 7.
	<p>There are four internal switches.  These should be
set: 1 ON; 2 ON; 3 ON; 4 OFF.
	<p>At present the kernel drivers do not automatically
change tapes at the end of a volume.  This shell script can be
used to change tapes:

<tscreen><verb>
#!/bin/sh
PATH="/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin"; export PATH

usage()
{
      echo "Usage: dds_changer [123456ne] raw-device-name
      echo "1..6 = Select cartridge"
      echo "next cartridge"
      echo "eject magazine"
      exit 2
}

if [ $# -ne 2 ] ; then
    usage
fi

cdb3=0
cdb4=0
cdb5=0

case $1 in
     [123456])
       cdb3=$1
       cdb4=1
       ;;
     n)
       ;;
     e)
       cdb5=0x80
       ;;
     ?)
       usage
       ;;
esac

scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"
</verb></tscreen>

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp35450a">
Hewlett-Packard HP 35450A</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "HP
HP35450A -A C620" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "Sequential-Access
density code 0x13"
	<p>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.  DDS-1 is the original DAT
tape format.
	<p>Native capacity is 1.2GB.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 160kB/s.
	<p>Reported by: mark thompson mark.a.thompson@pobox.com

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp35470a">
Hewlett-Packard HP 35470A</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "HP
HP35470A 9 09" type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.  DDS-1 is the original DAT
tape format.
	<p>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.
	<p>The same mechanism is used in Hewlett-Packard's
SureStore <htmlurl url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst2000.htm"
name="2000i"> tape drive, C35470A DDS format DAT drive, C1534A
DDS format DAT drive, and HP C1536A DDS format DAT drive.
	<p><em>Warning:</em> Quality control on these drives
varies greatly.  One FreeBSD core-team member has returned 5 of
these drives.  None lasted more than 9 months.
	<p>Reported by: David Dawes dawes@rf900.physics.usyd.edu.au (9 09)

	<Sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:hp35480a">
Hewlett-Packard HP 35480A</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "HP
HP35480A 1009" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "Sequential-Access
density code 0x13".
	<p>This is a DDS-DC tape drive.  DDS-DC is DDS-1 with
hardware data compression.  DDS-1 is the original DAT tape
format.
	<p>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes.  This
drive supports hardware data compression
	<p>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.
	<p>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore
<htmlurl url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst5000.htm" name=
"5000eU"> and <htmlurl
url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst5000.htm" name="5000i"> tape
drives and C35480A DDS format DAT drive..
	<p>This drive will occasionally hang during a tape eject
operation (<tt>mt offline</tt>).  Pressing the front panel button
will eject the tape and bring the tape drive back to life.
	<p>WARNING: HP 35480-03110 only.  On at least two
occasions this tape drive when used with FreeBSD 2.1.0, an IBM
Server 320 and an 2940W SCSI controller resulted in all SCSI disk
partitions being lost.  The problem has not be analyzed or
resolved at this time.

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:sdt5000">
	<htmlurl
url="http://www.sel.sony.com/SEL/ccpg/storage/tape/t5000.html"
name="Sony SDT-5000"</heading>
	<p>There are at least two significantly different models: one is
a DDS-1 and the other DDS-2.  The DDS-1 version is "SDT-5000 3.02".  The
DDS-2 version is "SONY SDT-5000 327M".  The DDS-2 version has a
1MB cache.  This cache is able to keep the tape streaming in almost any
circumstances. 
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "SONY
SDT-5000 3.02" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "Sequential-Access
density code 0x13"
	<p>Native capacity is 4GB when using 120m tapes.  This
drive supports hardware data compression.
	<p>Data transfer rate is depends upon the model or
	the drive.  The rate is 630kB/s for the "SONY SDT-5000 327M"
	while compressing the data.  For the "SONY SDT-5000 3.02", the
	data transfer rate is 225kB/s.
	<p>In order to get this drive to stream, set the
blocksize to 512 bytes (<tt>mt blocksize 512</tt>) reported by
Kenneth Merry ken@ulc199.residence.gatech.edu"
	<p>"SONY SDT-5000 327M" information reported by Charles Henrich
	henrich@msu.edu
	<p>Reported by: Jean-Marc Zucconi jmz@cabri.obs-besancon.fr

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tandberg3600">
Tandberg TDC 3600</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is
"TANDBERG  TDC 3600 =08:" "type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 250MB.
	<p>This drive has quirks which are known and work around
code is present in the scsi tape device driver (<tt>st(4)</tt>).
Upgrading the firmware to XXX version will fix the quirks and
provide SCSI 2 capabilities.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 80kB/s.
	<p>IBM and Emerald units will not work.  Replacing the
firmware EPROM of these units will solve the problem.
	<p>Reported by: Michael Smith msmith@atrad.adelaide.edu.au

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tandberg3620">
Tandberg TDC 3620</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is
"XXX" "XXX"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is MB.  XXX ???
	<p>Data transfer rate is XXXkB/s.
	<p>Reported by: J"org Wunsch joerg_wunsch@uriah.heep.sax.de

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tandberg4222">
Tandberg TDC 4222</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is
"TANDBERG  TDC 4222 =07" "type 1 removable SCSI 2"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 1.5GB.  The drive will read all
cartridges from the 60 MB (DC600A) upwards, and write 150 MB
(DC6150) upwards.
	<p>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the
scsi tape device driver (<tt>st(4)</tt>) beginning with FreeBSD
2.2-current.  For previous versions of FreeBSD, use <tt>mt</tt>
to read one block from the tape, rewind the tape, and then
execute the backup program (<tt>mt fsr 1; mt rewind; dump ...</tt>)
	<p>Data transfer rate is 600kB/s.
	<p>Reported by: J"org Wunsch joerg_wunsch@uriah.heep.sax.de

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:wangtek5525es">
Wangtek 5525ES</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "WANGTEK
5525ES SCSI REV7 3R1" "type 1 removable SCSI 1" "density code 0x11, 1024-byte
blocks"
	<p>This is a QIC tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 525MB.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 180kB/s.
	<p>The drive reads 60, 120, 150, and 525MB tapes.  The
drive will not write 60MB (DC600 cartridge) tapes.  In order to
overwrite 120 and 150 tapes reliably, first erase (<tt>mt
erase</tt>) the tape.  120 and 150 tapes used a wider track
(fewer tracks per tape) than 525MB tapes. The "extra" width of
the previous tracks is not overwritten, as a result the new data
lies in a band surrounded on both sides by the previous data
unless the tape have been erased.
	<p>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the
scsi tape device driver (<tt>st(4)</tt>).
	<p>Other firmware revisions that are known to work are: M75D
	<p>Reported by: Marc van Kempen marc@bowtie.nl  "REV73R1"
                        Andrew Gordon Andrew.Gordon@net-tel.co.uk "M75D"

	<sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:wangtek6200">
Wangtek 6200</heading>
	<p>The boot message identifier for this drive is "WANGTEK
6200-HS 4B18" "type 1 removable SCSI 2" "Sequential-Access density code 0x13"
	<p>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.
	<p>Native capacity is 2GB using 90m tapes.
	<p>Data transfer rate is 150kB/s.
	<p>Reported by: Tony Kimball alk@Think.COM

  <sect2><heading>* Problem drives</heading>

<sect1><heading>* CD-ROM drives</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Other</heading>

<sect1><heading>* Adding and reconfiguring disks</heading>
<sect1><heading> Tapes and backups<label id="hw:storage:tapebackups"></heading>
  <sect2><heading>* What about backups to floppies?</heading>
  <sect2><heading> Tape Media</heading>
     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tapebackups:4mm">
 4mm (DDS: Digital Data Storage)</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p>4mm tapes are replacing QIC as the workstation backup
media of choice.  This trend accelerated greatly when Conner
purchased Archive, a leading manufacturer of QIC drives, and then
stopped production of QIC drives.  4mm drives are small and quiet
but do not have the reputation for reliability that is enjoyed by 8mm drives.
The cartridges are less expensive and smaller (3 x 2 x 0.5
inches, 76 x 51 x 12 mm) than 8mm cartridges.  4mm, like 8mm, has
comparatively short head life for the same reason, both use
helical scan.

<!--spec-->
	<p>Data thruput on these drives starts ~150kB/s, peaking
at ~500kB/s.  Data capacity starts at 1.3 GB and ends at 2.0 GB.
Hardware compression, available with most of these drives,
approximately doubles the capacity.  Multi-drive tape library
units can have 6 drives in a single cabinet with automatic tape
changing.  Library capacities reach 240 GB.

<!--tech-->
	<p>4mm drives, like 8mm drives, use helical-scan.  All
the benefits and drawbacks of helical-scan apply to both 4mm and
8mm drives.

	<p>Tapes should be retired from use after 2,000 passes or
100 full backups.

     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tapebackups:8mm">
8mm (Exabyte)</heading>

<!--gen-->
	<p>8mm tapes are the most common SCSI tape drives; they
are the best choice of exchanging tapes.  Nearly every site has
an exabyte 2 GB 8mm tape drive.  8mm drives are reliable,
convienent and quiet.  Cartidges are inexpensive and small (4.8 x
3.3 x 0.6 inches; 122 x 84 x 15 mm).  One downside of 8mm tape is
relatively short head and tape life due to the high rate of
relative motion of the tape across the heads.

<!--spec-->
 	<p>Data thruput ranges from ~250kB/s to ~500kB/s.  Data
sizes start at 300 MB and go up to 7 GB.  Hardware compression,
available with most of these drives, approximately doubles the
capacity.  These drives are available as single units or
multi-drive tape libraries with 6 drives and 120 tapes in a
single cabinet.  Tapes are changed automatically by the unit.
Library capacities reach 840+ GB.

<!--tech-->
	<p>Data is recorded onto the tape using helical-scan, the
heads are positioned at an angle to the media (approximately 6
degrees).  The tape wraps around 270 degrees of the spool that
holds the heads.  The spool spins while the tape slides over the
spool.  The result is a high density of data and closely packed
tracks that angle across the tape from one edge to the other.
 

     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tapebackups:qic">
QIC</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p>QIC-150 tapes and drives are, perhaps, the most common
tape drive and media around.  QIC tape drives are the least
expensive "serious" backup drives.  The downside is the cost of
media.  QIC tapes are expensive compared to 8mm or 4mm tapes, up
to 5 times the price per GB data storage.  But, if your needs can
be satisified with a half-dozen tapes.  QIC may be the correct
choice.  QIC is the <em>most</em> common tape drive.  Every site
has a QIC drive of some density or another.  Therein lies the
rub, QIC has a large number of densities on physically similar
(sometimes identical) tapes. QIC drives are not quiet.  These
drives audibly seek before they begin to record data and are
clearly audible whenever reading, writing or seeking.  QIC tapes
measure (6 x 4 x 0.7 inches; 15.2 x 10.2 x 1.7 mm). <ref
id="hw:storage:tapebackups:mini" name="Mini-cartridges">, which also
use 1/4" wide tape are discussed separately.  Tape libraries and
changers are not available.

<!--spec-->
	<p>Data thruput ranges from ~150kB/s to ~500kB/s.  Data
capacity ranges from 40 MB to 15 GB.  Hardware compression is
available on many of the newer QIC drives.  QIC drives are less
frequently installed; they are being supplanted by DAT drives.

<!--tech-->
	<p>Data is recorded onto the tape in tracks.  The tracks
run along the long axis of the tape media from one end to the
other.  The number of tracks, and therefore the width of a track,
varies with the tape's capacity.

	<p>Tapes should be retired from use after 5,000 backups.

     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tapebackups:mini">
* Mini-Cartridge</heading>

     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:tapebackups:dlt">
DLT</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p>DLT has the faster data transfer rate of all the drive
types listed here.  The 1/2" (12.5mm) tape is contained in a
single spool cartridge (4 x 4 x 1 inches; 100 x 100 x 25 mm). The
cartridge has a swinging gate along one entire side of the
cartridge.  The drive mechanism opens this gate to extract the
tape leader.  The tape leader has an oval hole in it which the
drive uses to "hook" the tape.  The take-up spool is located
inside the tape drive.  All the other tape cartridges listed here
(9 track tapes are the only exception) have both the supply and
take-up spools located inside the tape cartridge itself.

<!--spec-->
	Data thruput is approximately 1.5MB/s, three times the
thruput of 4mm, 8mm, or QIC tape drives.  Data capacities range
from 10GB to 20GB for a single drives.  Drive are available in
both multi-tape changers and multi-tape, multi-drive tape
libraries containing from 5 to 900 tapes over 1 to 20 drives,
providing from 50GB to 9TB of storage.

<!--tech-->
	Data is recorded onto the tape in tracks parallel to the
direction of travel (just like QIC tapes). Two tracks are written
at once.  Read/write head lifetimes are relatively long; once the
tape stops moving, there is no relative motion between the heads
and the tape.

  <sect2><heading> Using a new tape for the first time</heading>
	<p>The first time that you try to read or write a new,
completely blank tape, the operation will fail.  The console
messages should be similar to:
<tscreen><verb>
        st0(ncr1:4:0): NOT READY asc:4,1
        st0(ncr1:4:0):  Logical unit is in process of becoming ready
</verb></tscreen>

The tape does not contain an Identifier Block (block number
0). All QIC tape drives since the adoption of QIC-525 standard
write an Identifier Block to the tape.  There are two
solutions: 
	<p><tt>mt fsf 1</tt> causes the tape drive to write an
Identifier Block to the tape.
	<p>Use the front panel button to eject the tape.
	<p>Re-insert the tape and <tt>dump(8)</tt> data to the
tape.
	<p><tt>dump(8)</tt> will report <tt>DUMP: End of tape
detected</tt> and the console will show: <tt>HARDWARE FAILURE
info:280 asc:80,96</tt>
	<p>rewind the tape using: <tt>mt rewind</tt>
	
	<p>Subsequent tape operations are successful.

  <sect2><heading> Backup Programs</heading>
	<p>The three major programs are <tt>dump(8)</tt>,
<tt>tar(1)</tt>, and <tt>cpio(1)</tt>.

     <sect3><heading> Dump and Restore</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p><tt>dump(8)</tt> and <tt>restore(8)</tt> are the
traditional Unix backup programs.  They operate on the drive as a
collection of disk blocks, below the abstractions of files, links
and directories that are created by the filesystems.
<tt>dump(8)</tt> backs up devices, entire filesystems, not parts
of a filesystem and not directory trees that span more than one
filesystem, using either soft links <tt>ln(1)</tt> or mounting
one filesystem onto another.  <tt>dump(8)</tt> does not write
files and directories to tape, but rather writes the data blocks
that are the building blocks of files and directories.
<tt>dump(8)</tt> has quirks that remain from its early days in
Version 6 of ATT Unix (circa 1975).  The default parameters are
suitable for 9-track tapes (6250 bpi), not the high-density media
available today (up to 62,182 ftpi).  These defaults must be
overridden on the command line to utilize the capacity of current
tape drives.

	<p><tt>rdump(8)</tt> and <tt>rrestore(8)</tt> backup data
aross the network to a tape drive attached to another computer.
Both programs rely upon <tt>rcmd(3)</tt> and <tt>ruserok(3)</tt>
to access the remote tape drive.  Therefore, the user performing
the backup must have <tt>rhosts</tt> access to the remote
computer.  The arguments to <tt>rdump(8)</tt> and
<tt>rrestore(8)</tt> must suitable to use on the remote computer.
(e.g. When <tt>rdump</tt>'ing from a FreeBSD computer to an
Exabyte tape drive connected to a Sun called komodo, use: <tt>/sbin/rdump
0dsbfu 54000 13000 126 komodo:/dev/nrst8 /dev/rsd0a 2>&amp;1</tt>)
Beware:  there are security implications to allowing
<tt>rhosts</tt> commands.  Evaluate your situation carefully.



     <sect3><heading> Tar</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p><tt>tar(1)</tt> also dates back to Version 6 of ATT
Unix (circa 1975).  <tt>tar(1)</tt> operates in cooperation with
the filesystem; <tt>tar(1)</tt> writes files and directories to
tape.  <tt>tar(1)</tt> does not support the full range of options
that are available from <tt>cpio(1)</tt>, but <tt>tar(1)</tt>
does not require the unusual command pipeline that
<tt>cpio(1)</tt> uses.  

	<p><tt>tar(1)</tt> does not support backups across the
network.  You can use a pipeline and <tt>rsh(1)</tt> to send the
data to a remote tape drive. (XXX add an example command)

     <sect3><heading> Cpio</heading>
<!--gen-->
	<p><tt>cpio(1)</tt> is the original Unix file interchange
tape program for magnetic media.  <tt>cpio(1)</tt> has options (among
many others) to perform byte-swapping, write a number of
different archives format, and pipe the data to other programs.
This last feature makes <tt>cpio(1)</tt> and excellent choice for
installation media.  <tt>cpio(1)</tt> does not know how to walk
the directory tree and a list of files must be provided thru <tt>STDIN</tt>.

	<p><tt>cpio(1)</tt> does not support backups across the
network.  You can use a pipeline and <tt>rsh(1)</tt> to send the
data to a remote tape drive. (XXX add an example command)

     <sect3><heading><label id="hw:storage:amanda"><htmlurl
url="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/misc.html#amanda-2.2.6.5"
name="Amanda"></heading>
	<p>Amanda (Advanced Maryland Network Disk Archiver) is a
client/server backup system, rather than a single program.  An
Amanda server will backup to a single tape drive any number of
computers that have Amanda clients and network communications
with the Amanda server.  A common problem at locations with a
number of large disks is the length of time required to backup to
data directly to tape exceeds the amount of time available for
the task.  Amanda solves this problem.  Amanda can use a "holding
disk" to backup several filesystems at the same time.  Amanda
creates "archive sets": a group of tapes used over a period of
time to create full backups of all the filesystems listed in
Amanda's configuration file.  The "archive set" also contains
nightly incremental (or differential) backups of all the
filesystems.  Restoring a damaged filesystem requires the most
recent full backup and the incremental backups.

	<p>The configuration file provides fine control backups
and the network traffic that Amanda generates.  Amanda will use
any of the above backup programs to write the data to tape.
Amanda is available as either a port or a package, it is not
installed by default.

     <sect3><heading> Do nothing</heading>
	<p>"Do nothing" is not a computer program, but it is the
most widely used backup strategy.  There are no initial costs.
There is no backup schedule to follow.  Just say no.  If
something happens to your data, grin and bear it!

	<p>If your time and your data is worth little to nothing,
then "Do nothing" is the most suitable backup program for your
computer.  But beware, Unix is a useful tool, you may find that
within six months you have a collection of files that are
valuable to you.

	<p>"Do nothing" is the correct backup method for
<tt>/usr/obj</tt> and other directory trees that can be exactly
recreated by your computer.  An example is the files that
comprise these handbook pages-they have been generated from
<tt>SGML</tt> input files.  Creating backups of these
<tt>HTML</tt> files is not necessary.  The <tt>SGML</tt> source
files are backed up regularly.

     <sect3><heading> Which Backup Program is Best?</heading>
	<p><tt>dump(8)</tt> <em>Period.</em> Elizabeth D. Zwicky
torture tested all the backup programs discussed here.  The clear
choice for preserving all your data and all the peculiarities of
Unix filesystems is <tt>dump(8)</tt>.  Elizabeth created
filesystems containing a large variety of unusual conditions (and
some not so unusual ones) and tested each program by do a backup
and restore of that filesystems.  The peculiarities included:
files with holes, files with holes and a block of nulls, files
with funny characters in their names, unreadable and unwriteable
files, devices, files that change size during the backup, files
that are created/deleted during the backup and more.  She
presented the results at LISA V in Oct. 1991.

  <sect2><heading>Emergency Restore Procedure</heading>
     <sect3><heading> Before the Disaster</heading>
	<p>There are only four steps that you need to perform in
preparation for any disaster that may occur.  

	<p>First, print the disklabel from each of your disks
(<tt>e.g. disklabel sd0 | lpr</tt>), your filesystem table
(<tt>/etc/fstab</tt>) and all boot messages, two copies of each.

	<p>Second, determine the boot and fixit floppies
(boot.flp and fixit.flp) have all your devices.  The easiest way
to check is to reboot your machine with the boot floppy in the
floppy drive and check the boot messages.  If all your devices
are listed and functional, skip on to step three.

	<p>Otherwise, you have to create two custom bootable
floppies which has a kernel that can mount your all of your disks
and access your tape drive.  These floppies must contain:
<tt>fdisk(8)</tt>, <tt>disklabel(8)</tt>, <tt>newfs(8)</tt>,
<tt>mount(8)</tt>, and whichever backup program you use.  These
programs must be statically linked.  If you use <tt>dump(8)</tt>,
the floppy must contain <tt>restore(8)</tt>.

	<p>Third, create backup tapes regularly.
Any changes that you make after your last backup may be
irretrievably lost.  Write-protect the backup tapes.

	<p>Fourth, test the floppies (either boot.flp and
fixit.flp or the two custom bootable floppies you made in step
two.)  and backup tapes.  Make notes of the procedure.  Store
these notes with the bootable floppy, the printouts and the
backup tapes.  You will be so distraught when restoring that the
notes may prevent you from destroying your backup tapes (How?  In
place of <tt>tar xvf /dev/rst0</tt>, you might accidently type
<tt> tar cvf /dev/rst0</tt> and over-write your backup tape).

	<p>For an added measure of security, make bootable
floppies and two backup tapes each time.  Store one of each at a
remote location.  A remote location is NOT the basement of the
same office building. A number of firms in the World Trade Center
learned this lesson the hard way.  A remote location should be
physically separated from your computers and disk drives by a
significant distance.

	<p>An example script for creating a bootable floppy:
<tscreen><verb>
 #!/bin/sh
 #
 # create a restore floppy
 #
 # format the floppy
 #
 PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
 
 fdformat -q fd0
 if [ $? -ne 0 ]
 then
	 echo "Bad floppy, please use a new one"
	 exit 1
 fi
 
 # place boot blocks on the floppy
 #
 disklabel -w -B -b /usr/mdec/fdboot -s /usr/mdec/bootfd /dev/rfd0c fd1440
 
 #
 # newfs the one and only partition
 #
 newfs -t 2 -u 18 -l 1 -c 40 -i 5120 -m 5 -o space /dev/rfd0a
 
 #
 # mount the new floppy
 #
 mount /dev/fd0a /mnt
 
 #
 # create required directories 
 #
 mkdir /mnt/dev
 mkdir /mnt/bin
 mkdir /mnt/sbin
 mkdir /mnt/etc
 mkdir /mnt/root
 mkdir /mnt/mnt			# for the root partition
 mkdir /mnt/tmp
 mkdir /mnt/var
 
 #
 # populate the directories
 #
 if [ ! -x /sys/compile/MINI/kernel ] 
 then
	 cat << EOM
 The MINI kernel does not exist, please create one.
 Here is an example config file:
 #
 # MINI -- A kernel to get FreeBSD on onto a disk.
 #
 machine		"i386"
 cpu		"I486_CPU"
 ident		MINI
 maxusers	5
 
 options		INET			# needed for _tcp _icmpstat _ipstat
					 #            _udpstat _tcpstat _udb
 options		FFS			#Berkeley Fast File System
 options		"FAT_CURSOR"		#block cursor in syscons or pccons
 options		"SCSI_DELAY=15"		#Be pessimistic about Joe SCSI device
 options		"NCONS=2"		#1 virtual consoles
 options		USERCONFIG		#Allow user configuration with -c XXX
 
 config		kernel	root on sd0 swap on sd0 and sd1 dumps on sd0
 
 controller	isa0
 controller	pci0
 
 controller	fdc0	at isa? port "IO_FD1" bio irq 6 drq 2 vector fdintr
 disk		fd0	at fdc0 drive 0
 
 controller	ncr0
 
 controller	scbus0
 
 device		sc0	at isa? port "IO_KBD" tty irq 1 vector scintr
 device		npx0	at isa? port "IO_NPX" irq 13 vector npxintr
 
 device		sd0
 device		sd1
 device		sd2
 
 device		st0
 
 pseudo-device	loop		# required by INET
 pseudo-device	gzip		# Exec gzipped a.out's
 EOM
	 exit 1
 fi
 
 cp -f /sys/compile/MINI/kernel /mnt
 
 gzip -c -best /sbin/init > /mnt/sbin/init
 gzip -c -best /sbin/fsck > /mnt/sbin/fsck
 gzip -c -best /sbin/mount > /mnt/sbin/mount
 gzip -c -best /sbin/halt > /mnt/sbin/halt
 gzip -c -best /sbin/restore > /mnt/sbin/restore
 
 gzip -c -best /bin/sh > /mnt/bin/sh
 gzip -c -best /bin/sync > /mnt/bin/sync
 
 cp /root/.profile /mnt/root
 
 cp -f /dev/MAKEDEV /mnt/dev
 chmod 755 /mnt/dev/MAKEDEV
 
 chmod 500 /mnt/sbin/init
 chmod 555 /mnt/sbin/fsck /mnt/sbin/mount /mnt/sbin/halt
 chmod 555 /mnt/bin/sh /mnt/bin/sync
 chmod 6555 /mnt/sbin/restore
 
 #
 # create the devices nodes 
 #
 cd /mnt/dev
 ./MAKEDEV std
 ./MAKEDEV sd0
 ./MAKEDEV sd1
 ./MAKEDEV sd2
 ./MAKEDEV st0
 ./MAKEDEV pty0
 cd /
 
 #
 # create minimum filesystem table
 #
 cat > /mnt/etc/fstab <<EOM
 /dev/fd0a	/	ufs	rw 1 1
 EOM
 
 #
 # create minimum passwd file
 #
 cat > /mnt/etc/passwd <<EOM
 root:*:0:0:Charlie &:/root:/bin/sh
 EOM
 
 cat > /mnt/etc/master.passwd <<EOM
 root::0:0::0:0:Charlie &:/root:/bin/sh
 EOM
 
 chmod 600 /mnt/etc/master.passwd
 chmod 644 /mnt/etc/passwd
 /usr/sbin/pwd_mkdb -d/mnt/etc /mnt/etc/master.passwd
 
 #
 # umount the floppy and inform the user
 #
 /sbin/umount /mnt
</verb></tscreen>

     <sect3><heading>After the Disaster</heading>
	<p>The key question is: did your hardware survive?  You
have been doing regular backups so there is no need to worry
about the software.

	<p>If the hardware has been damaged.  First, replace
those parts that have been damaged.

	<p>If your hardware is okay, check your floppies.  If you
are using a custom boot floppy, boot single-user (type "-s" at
the "boot:" prompt).  If you are using the boot.flp and fixit.flp
floppies, keep reading.  insert the boot.flp floppy in the floppy
drive and boot the computer.  The original install menu is
displayed on the screen.  Select the "fixit XXX" option.  Insert
the fixit.flp when prompted.  <tt>restore</tt> and the other
programs that you need are located in <tt>/mnt2/stand</tt>. Skip
the following paragraph.

	<p>Recover each filesystem separately.

	<p>Try to <tt>mount(8) (e.g. mount /dev/sd0a /mnt) </tt>
the root partition of your first disk.  If the disklabel was
damaged, use <tt>disklabel(8)</tt> to re-partition and label the
disk to match the label that your printed and saved.  Use
<tt>newfs(8)</tt> to re-create the filesystems.  Re-mount the
root partition of the floppy read-write ("<tt>mount -u -o rw
/mnt</tt>").  Use your backup program and backup tapes to recover
the data for this filesystem (e.g. <tt>restore vrf
/dev/st0</tt>).  Unmount the filesystem (e.g. <tt>umount
/mnt</tt>) Repeat for each filesystem that was damaged.

	<p>Once your system is running, backup your data onto new
tapes.  Whatever caused the crash or data loss may strike again.
An another hour spent now, may save you from further distress later.

     <sect3><heading>* I did not prepare for the Disaster, What Now?</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Serial ports</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Sound cards</heading>
<sect1><heading>* PCMCIA</heading>
<sect1><heading>* Other<label id="hw:other"></heading>