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<!-- $Id: install.sgml,v 1.9.2.5 1995-10-30 17:48:19 jfieber Exp $ -->
<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->

<!--
<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC '-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN'>
-->
<chapt><heading>Installing FreeBSD<label id="install"></heading>

    <p>So, you would like to try out FreeBSD on your system?
      This section is a quick-start guide for what you need to
      do.  FreeBSD can be installed from a variety of media
      including CD-ROM, floppy disk, magnetic tape, an MS-DOS
      partition, and if you have a network connection, via
      anonymous ftp or NFS.  

      Regardless of the installation media you choose, you can
      get started by downleading the <bf>installation disk</bf>
      as described below.  Booting your computer with disk will
      provide important information about compatibility between
      FreeBSD and your hardware which could dictate which
      installation options are possible.  It can also provide
      early clues to compatibilty problems that could prevent
      FreeBSD running on your system at all.  If you plan on
      installing via anonymous FTP, then this installation disk
      is all you need to download.

      For more information on obtaining the FreeBSD distribution
      itself, please see <ref id="mirrors" name="Obtaining
      FreeBSD"> in the Appendix.

      So, to get the show on the road, follow these steps:
    <enum>

      <item>Review the <ref id="install:hw" name="supported
	  configurations"> section of this installation guide to
	be sure that your hardware is supported by FreeBSD.  It
	  may be helpful to make a list of any special cards you
	  have installed, such as SCSI controllers, etherernet
	  adapters or sound cards.  This list should include
	  relevant configuration parameters such as interrupts
	  (IRQ) and IO port addresses. </item>

      <item>Download the <url
	  url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/2.1-RELEASE/floppies/boot.flp"
	  name="installation boot disk image"> file to your hard
	  drive, and be sure to tell your browser to
	  <em>save</em> rather than <em>display</em>.
	  <bf>Note:</bf> This disk image can be used for
	  <em>both</em> 1.44 megabyte 3.5 inch floppy disks and
	  1.2 megabyte 5.25 inch floppy disks.</item>

      <item>Make the installation boot disk from the image file:
	<itemize>
	  <item>If you are using MS-DOS download 
	    <url 
url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools/dos-tools/rawrite.exe"
	      name="rawrite.exe">, then run it:
<tscreen><verb>
C:\> rawrite
</verb></tscreen> The
	    program will prompt you for the floppy drive
	    containing the disk you want to write to (A: or
	    B:) and the name of the file to put on disk (boot.flp).
	  </item>

	  <item>If you are using a UNIX system:
<tscreen>
% dd if=boot.flp of=<em>disk&lowbar;device</em>
</tscreen>
	    where <em>disk&lowbar;device</em> is the <tt>/dev</tt>
	    entry for the floppy drive.  On FreeBSD systems, this
	    is <tt>/dev/fd0</tt> for the A: drive and
	    <tt>/dev/fd1</tt> for the B: drive.
	  </item>
	</itemize>

      </item>

      <item>With the installation disk in the A: drive, reboot your
	computer.  You should get a boot prompt something like this:
	<tscreen>
&gt;&gt; FreeBSD BOOT ...<newline>
Use hd(1,a)/kernel to boot sd0 when wd0 is also installed.<newline>
Usage: &lsqb;&lsqb;hd(1,a)&rsqb;/kernel&rsqb;&lsqb;-abcCdhrsv&rsqb;<newline>
Use ? for file list or press Enter for defaults<newline>
Boot: 
	</tscreen>
	If you do <em>not</em> type anything, FreeBSD will automatically boot
	with its default configuration after a delay of about
	five seconds.  As FreeBSD boots, it probes your computer
	to determine what hardware is installed.  The results of
	this probing is displayed on the screen.
      </item>

      <item>When the booting process is finished, The main FreeBSD
	installation menu will be displayed.</item>

    </enum>

    <p><bf>If something goes wrong...</bf>

    <p>Due to limitations of the PC architecture, it is
      impossible for probing to be 100 percent reliable.  In the event
      that your hardware is incorrectly identified, or that the
      probing causes your computer to lock up, first check the
	<ref id="install:hw" name="supported
      configurations"> section of this installation guide to be
      sure that your hardware is indeed supported by FreeBSD.  

    <p>If your hardware is supported, reset the computer and when
      the <tt>Boot:</tt> prompt comes up, type <bf>-c</bf>.  This puts
      FreeBSD into a configuration mode where you can supply
      hints about your hardware.  The FreeBSD kernel on the
      installation disk is configured assuming that most hardware
      devices are in their factory default configuration in terms
      of IRQs, IO addresses and DMA channels.  If your hardware
      has been reconfigured, you will most likely need to use the
      <bf>-c</bf> option at boot to tell FreeBSD where things are.

    <p>It is also possible that a probe for a device not present
      will cause a later probe for another device that is present
      to fail.  In that case, the probes for the conflicting
      driver(s) should be disabled.

    <p>In the configuration mode, you can:

    <itemize>
      <item>List the device drivers installed in the kernel.</item>
      <item>Disable device drivers for hardware not present in your
	system.</item>
      <item>Change the IRQ, DRQ, and IO port addresses used by a
	device driver.</item>
    </itemize>

    <p>While at the <tt>config&gt;</tt> prompt, type
      <tt>help</tt> for more information on the available
      commands.  After adjusting the kernel to match how you have
      your hardware configured, type <tt>quit</tt> at the
      <tt>config&gt;</tt> prompt to continue booting with the new
      settings.  

      After FreeBSD has been installed, changes made in the
      configuration mode will be permanent so you do not have
      to reconfigure every time you boot.  Even so, it is likely
      that you will want to build a custom kernel to optimize the
      performance of your system.  See <ref id="kernelconfig"
      name="Kernel configuration"> for more information on
      creating custom kernels.

    <sect><heading>Supported Configurations<label id="install:hw"></heading>

      <p>FreeBSD currently runs on a wide variety of ISA, VLB,
	EISA and PCI bus based PC's, ranging from 386sx to
	Pentium class machines (though the 386sx is not
	recommended).  Support for generic IDE or ESDI drive
	configurations, various SCSI controller, network and
	serial cards is also provided.

	A minimum of four megabytes of RAM is required to run FreeBSD.
	To run the X-window system, eight megabytes of RAM is the
	recommended minimum.

	Following is a list of all disk controllers and ethernet
	cards currently known to work with FreeBSD.  Other
	configurations may very well work, and we have simply not
	received any indication of this.

      <sect1><heading>Disk Controllers</heading>

	<p>
	  <itemize>
	    <item>WD1003 (any generic MFM/RLL)
	    <item>WD1007 (any generic IDE/ESDI)
	    <item>IDE
	    <item>ATA

	    <item>Adaptec 152x series ISA SCSI controllers
	    <item>Adaptec 154x series ISA SCSI controllers
	    <item>Adaptec 174x series EISA SCSI controller in
	      standard and enhanced mode.
	    <item>Adaptec 274x/284x/2940/3940
              (Narrow/Wide/Twin)
	      series EISA/VLB/PCI SCSI controllers
	    <item>Adaptec
	      <!-- AIC-6260 and - actually not working, joerg -->
	      AIC-6360 based boards,
	      which includes the AHA-152x and SoundBlaster SCSI
	      cards.

	      <bf>Note:</bf> You cannot boot from the
	      SoundBlaster cards as they have no on-board BIOS,
	      which is necessary for mapping the boot device into
	      the system BIOS I/O vectors.  They are perfectly
	      usable for external tapes, CDROMs, etc, however.
	      The same goes for any other AIC-6x60 based card
	      without a boot ROM.  Some systems DO have a boot
	      ROM, which is generally indicated by some sort of
	      message when the system is first powered up or
	      reset.  Check your system/board documentation for
	      more details.

	    <item>Buslogic 545S &amp; 545c
		<bf>Note:</bf> that Buslogic was formerly known as "Bustec".
	    <item>Buslogic 445S/445c VLB SCSI controller
	    <item>Buslogic 742A, 747S, 747c EISA SCSI controller.
	    <item>Buslogic 946c PCI SCSI controller
	    <item>Buslogic 956c PCI SCSI controller

	    <item>NCR 53C810 and 53C825 PCI SCSI controller.
	    <item>NCR5380/NCR53400 (``ProAudio Spectrum'') SCSI controller. 

	    <item>DTC 3290 EISA SCSI controller in 1542 emulation mode.

	    <item>UltraStor 14F, 24F and 34F SCSI controllers.

	    <item>Seagate ST01/02 SCSI controllers.

	    <item>Future Domain 8xx/950 series SCSI controllers.

	    <item>WD7000 SCSI controllers.

	  </itemize>

	  With all supported SCSI controllers, full support is
	  provided for SCSI-I &amp; SCSI-II peripherals,
	  including Disks, tape drives (including DAT) and CD ROM
	  drives.

	  The following CD-ROM type systems are supported at this
	  time:

	  <itemize>
	    <item>Soundblaster SCSI and ProAudio Spectrum SCSI (<tt>cd</tt>)
	    <item>Mitsumi (all models) proprietary interface (<tt>mcd</tt>)
	    <item>Matsushita/Panasonic (Creative)
	      CR-562/CR-563 proprietary interface (<tt>matcd</tt>) 
	    <item>Sony proprietary interface (<tt>scd</tt>)
	    <item>ATAPI IDE interface 
                   (experimental and should be considered ALPHA quality!) 
                   (<tt>wcd</tt>)
	  </itemize>

      <sect1><heading>Ethernet cards</heading>

	<p>
	  <itemize>

            <item>Allied-Telesis AT1700 and RE2000 cards

	    <item>SMC Elite 16 WD8013 ethernet interface, and
	      most other WD8003E, WD8003EBT, WD8003W, WD8013W,
	      WD8003S, WD8003SBT and WD8013EBT based clones.  SMC
	      Elite Ultra is also supported.

	    <item>DEC EtherWORKS III NICs (DE203, DE204, and DE205)
	    <item>DEC EtherWORKS II NICs (DE200, DE201, DE202, and DE422)
	    <item>DEC DC21140 based NICs (SMC???? DE???)
	    <item>DEC FDDI (DEFPA/DEFEA) NICs

	    <item>Fujitsu FMV-181 and FMV-182

	    <item>Intel EtherExpress

	    <item>Isolan AT 4141-0 (16 bit)
	    <item>Isolink 4110     (8 bit)

	    <item>Novell NE1000, NE2000, and NE2100 ethernet interface.

	    <item>3Com 3C501 cards

	    <item>3Com 3C503 Etherlink II

	    <item>3Com 3c505 Etherlink/+

	    <item>3Com 3C507 Etherlink 16/TP

	    <item>3Com 3C509, 3C579, 3C589 (PCMCIA) Etherlink III

	    <item>Toshiba ethernet cards

	    <item>PCMCIA ethernet cards from IBM and National
	      Semiconductor are also supported.
	  </itemize>

        <p><em>Note:</em> FreeBSD does not currently suppport
          PnP (plug-n-play) features present on some ethernet
          cards.  If your card has PnP, it should be disabled.

      <sect1><heading>Miscellaneous devices</heading>

	<p>
	  <itemize>
	    <item>AST 4 port serial card using shared IRQ.

	    <item>ARNET 8 port serial card using shared IRQ.

	    <item>BOCA IOAT66 6 port serial card using shared IRQ.

	    <item>BOCA 2016 16 port serial card using shared IRQ.

	    <item>Cyclades Cyclom-y Serial Board.

	    <item>STB 4 port card using shared IRQ.

	    <item>SDL Communications Riscom/8 Serial Board.

	    <item>Adlib, SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro,
	      ProAudioSpectrum, Gravis UltraSound and Roland
	      MPU-401 sound cards.

	  </itemize>

	  FreeBSD currently does not support IBM's microchannel
	  (MCA) bus, but support is apparently close to
	  materializing.  Details will be posted as the situation
	  develops.

    <sect><heading>Preparing for the installation</heading>

      <p>There are a number of different methods by which FreeBSD
	can be installed.  The following describes what
	preparation needs to be done for each type.

      <sect1><heading>Before installing from CDROM</heading>

	<p>If your CDROM is of an unsupported type, such as an
	  IDE CDROM, then please skip to <ref id="install:msdos" 
          name="MS-DOS Preparation">.

	  There is not a lot of preparatory work that needs to be
	  done to successfully install from one of Walnut Creek's
	  FreeBSD CDROMs (other CDROM distributions may work as
	  well, we simply cannot say as we have no hand or say in
	  their creation).  You can either boot into the CD
	  installation directly from DOS using Walnut Creek's
	  supplied ``install.bat'' batch file or you can make a
	  boot floppy with the ``makeflp.bat'' command.

	  For the easiest interface of all (from DOS), type
	  ``view''.  This will bring up a DOS menu utility that
	  leads you through all the available options.

	  If you are creating the boot floppy from a UNIX machine,
	  see <ref id="install" name="the beginning of this
	  guide"> for examples. of how to create the boot floppy.

	  Once you have booted from DOS or floppy, you should then
	  be able to select CDROM as the media type in the Media
	  menu and load the entire distribution from CDROM.  No
	  other types of installation media should be required.

	  After your system is fully installed and you have
	  rebooted from the hard disk, you should find the CD
	  mounted on the directory <bf>/cdrom</bf>.  A utility
	  called `lndir' comes with the XFree86 distribution
	  which you may also find useful: It allows you to create
	  "link tree" directories to things on Read-Only media
	  like CDROM.  One example might be something like this:

<tscreen><verb>
mkdir /usr/ports
lndir /cdrom/ports /usr/ports
</verb></tscreen>

	  Which would allow you to then ``cd /usr/ports; make''
	  and get all the sources from the CD, but yet create all
	  the intermediate files in <bf>/usr/ports</bf>, which is
	  presumably on a more writable media.

	  This is, in fact, what the Ports entry in the
	  Configuration menu does at installation time if you
	  select it.

	  <quote><bf>Special note:</bf> Before invoking the
	    installation, be sure that the CDROM is in the drive
	    so that the install probe can find it.  This is also
	    true if you wish the CDROM to be added to the default
	    system configuration automatically during the install
	    (whether or not you actually use it as the
	    installation media). <!-- XXX This will be fixed for
	    2.1, but for now this simple work-around will ensure
	    that your CDROM is detected properly. --></quote>

	  Finally, if you would like people to be able to FTP
	  install FreeBSD directly from the CDROM in your
	  machine, you will find it quite easy.  After the machine
	  is fully installed, you simply need to add the
	  following line to the password file (using the vipw
	  command):

<tscreen><verb>
ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent
</verb></tscreen>

	  No further work is necessary.  The other installers
	  will now be able to chose a Media type of FTP and type
	  in: <tt>ftp://<em>your machine</em></tt> after picking ``Other''
	  in the ftp sites menu.

      <sect1><heading>Before installing from Floppy</heading>

	<p>If you must install from floppy disks, either due to
	  unsupported hardware or just because you enjoy doing
	  things the hard way, you must first prepare some
	  floppies for the install.

	  The first floppy you will need is ``floppies/root.flp'',
	  which is somewhat special in that it is not a DOS
	  filesystem floppy at all, but rather an ``image''
	  floppy (it is actually a gzip'd cpio file).  You can use
	  the rawrite.exe program to do this under DOS, or dd to
	  do it on a UNIX Workstation.  See <ref id="install"
	  name="the beginning of this guide"> for examples. of
	  how to create the boot floppy.  Once this floppy is
	  made, go on to make the distribution set floppies:

	  You will need, at minimum, as many 1.44MB or 1.2MB
	  floppies as it takes to hold all files in the bin
	  (binary distribution) directory.  These floppies
	  <em>must</em> be formatted using MS-DOS, using the
	  FORMAT command in MS-DOS or the File Manager format
	  command in Microsoft Windows(tm).  Do <em>not</em>
	  trust Factory Preformatted floppies.  Format them again
	  yourself, just to make sure.

	  Many problems reported by our users in the past have
	  resulted from the use of improperly formatted media, so
	  we simply take special care to mention it here!

	  After you have DOS formatted the floppies, you will
	  need to copy the files onto them.  The distribution
	  files are split into chunks conveniently sized so that
	  5 of them will fit on a conventional 1.44MB floppy.  Go
	  through all your floppies, packing as many files as
	  will fit on each one, until you have got all the
	  distributions you want packed up in this fashion.  Each
	  distribution should go into a subdirectory on the
	  floppy, e.g.: <bf>a:&bsol;bin&bsol;bin.aa</bf>,
	  <bf>a:&bsol;bin&bsol;bin.ab</bf>, and so on.

	  Once you come to the Media screen of the install,
	  select ``Floppy'' and you will be prompted for the rest.



      <sect1><heading>Before installing from a MS-DOS partition<label id="install:msdos"></heading>

	<p>To prepare for installation from an MS-DOS partition,
	  copy the files from the distribution into a directory
	  called <tt>C:&bsol;FREEBSD</tt>.  The directory tree structure
	  of the CDROM must be partially reproduced within this directory
	  so we suggest using the DOS <tt>xcopy</tt>
	  command.  For example, to prepare for a minimal installation of
	  FreeBSD:
<tscreen><verb>
C> MD C:\FREEBSD
C> XCOPY /S E:\DISTS\BIN C:\FREEBSD\BIN\
C> XCOPY /S E:\FLOPPIES C:\FREEBSD\FLOPPIES\
</verb></tscreen>
	  assuming that <tt>C:</tt> is where you have free space
	  and <tt>E:</tt> is where your CDROM is mounted.  Note
	  that you need the <tt>FLOPPIES</tt> directory because
	  the <tt>root.flp</tt> image is needed during an MS-DOS
	  installation.

	  For as many `DISTS' you wish to install from MS-DOS
	  (and you have free space for), install each one under
	  <tt>C:&bsol;FREEBSD</tt> - the <tt>BIN</tt> dist is only the
	  minimal requirement.  If you have room on your MS-DOS
	  partition for all the distributions, you could replace
	  the last line above with:
<tscreen><verb>
C> XCOPY /S E:\DISTS C:\FREEBSD\
</verb></tscreen>
	  which would copy all the subdirectories of 
          <tt>E:&bsol;DISTS</tt> to <tt>C:&bsol;FREEBSD</tt>.

      <sect1><heading>Before installing from QIC/SCSI Tape</heading>

	<p>Installing from tape is probably the easiest method,
	  short of an on-line install using FTP or a CDROM
	  install.  The installation program expects the files to
	  be simply tar'ed onto the tape, so after getting all of
	  the files for distribution you are interested in, simply
	  tar them onto the tape with a command like:
<tscreen>
cd /freebsd/distdir<newline>
tar cvf /dev/rwt0 (or /dev/rst0) dist1 .. dist2
</tscreen>
	  Make sure that the `floppies/' directory is one of the
	  ``dists'' given above, since the installation will look
	  for `floppies/root.flp' on the tape.

	  When you go to do the installation, you should also
	  make sure that you leave enough room in some temporary
	  directory (which you will be allowed to choose) to
	  accommodate the <bf>full</bf> contents of the tape you have
	  created.  Due to the non-random access nature of tapes,
	  this method of installation requires quite a bit of
	  temporary storage.  You should expect to require as
	  much temporary storage as you have stuff written on
	  tape.

	  <quote><bf>Note:</bf> When going to do the
	    installation, the tape must be in the drive
	    <em>before</em> booting from the boot floppy.  The
	    installation probe may otherwise fail to find it.</quote>


<sect1><heading>Before installing over a network</heading>

      <p>You can do network installations over 3 types of
	communications links:
	<descrip>
        <tag>Serial port</tag> SLIP or PPP 
        <tag>Parallel port</tag> PLIP (laplink cable) 
        <tag>Ethernet</tag> A
        standard ethernet controller (includes some PCMCIA).
	</descrip>

	  SLIP support is rather primitive, and limited primarily
	  to hard-wired links, such as a serial cable running
	  between a laptop computer and another computer.  The
	  link should be hard-wired as the SLIP installation
	  does not currently offer a dialing capability; that
	  facility is provided with the PPP utility, which should
	  be used in preference to SLIP whenever possible.

	  If you are using a modem, then PPP is almost certainly
	  your only choice.  Make sure that you have your service
	  provider's information handy as you will need to know it
	  fairly soon in the installation process.  You will need
	  to know, at the minimum, your service provider's IP
	  address and possibly your own (though you can also
	  leave it blank and allow PPP to negotiate it with your
	  ISP).  You also need to know how to use the various ``AT
	  commands'' to dial the ISP with your particular modem as
	  the PPP dialer provides only a very simple terminal
	  emulator.

	  If a hard-wired connection to another FreeBSD (2.0R or
	  later) machine is available, you might also consider
	  installing over a ``laplink'' parallel port cable.  The
	  data rate over the parallel port is much higher than
	  what is typically possible over a serial line (up to
	  50k/sec), thus resulting in a quicker installation.

	  Finally, for the fastest possible network installation,
	  an ethernet adaptor is always a good choice!  FreeBSD
	  supports most common PC ethernet cards, a table of
	  supported cards (and their required settings) is
	  provided in <ref id="install:hw" name="Supported
	  Hardware">.  If you are using one of the supported
	  PCMCIA ethernet cards, also be sure that it is plugged
	  in <em>before</em> the laptop is powered on!  FreeBSD
	  does not, unfortunately, currently support hot
	  insertion of PCMCIA cards.

	  You will also need to know your IP address on the
	  network, the netmask value for your address class,
	  and the name of your machine.  Your system
	  administrator can tell you which values to use for your
	  particular network setup.  If you will be referring to
	  other hosts by name rather than IP address, you will also
	  need a name server and possibly the address of a
	  gateway (if you are using PPP, it is your provider's IP
	  address) to use in talking to it.  If you do not know
	  the answers to all or most of these questions, then you
	  should really probably talk to your system
	  administrator <em>first</em> before trying this type of
	  installation.

	  Once you have a network link of some sort working, the
	  installation can continue over NFS or FTP.

	<sect2><heading>Preparing for NFS installation</heading>

	  <p>NFS installation is fairly straight-forward: Simply
	    copy the FreeBSD distribution files you want onto a
	    server somewhere and then point the NFS media
	    selection at it.

	    If this server supports only ``privileged port'' access
	    (as is generally the default for Sun workstations),
	    you will need to set this option in the Options menu
	    before installation can proceed.

	    If you have a poor quality ethernet card which
	    suffers from very slow transfer rates, you may also
	    wish to toggle the appropriate Options flag.

	    In order for NFS installation to work, the server
	    must support subdir mounts, e.g., if your FreeBSD
	    2.1 distribution directory lives on:
	    <bf>ziggy:/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</bf> Then ziggy will have
	    to allow the direct mounting of
	    <bf>/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</bf>, not just <bf>/usr</bf> or
	    <bf>/usr/archive/stuff</bf>.

	    In FreeBSD's <bf>/etc/exports</bf> file, this is controlled by
	    the ``<tt>-alldirs</tt>'' option.  Other NFS servers may have
	    different conventions.  If you are getting
	    `Permission Denied' messages from the server then
	    it is likely that you do not have this enabled
	    properly.

	<sect2><heading>Preparing for FTP Installation</heading>

	  <p>FTP installation may be done from any mirror site
	    containing a reasonably up-to-date version of FreeBSD
	    2.1.  A full menu of reasonable choices from almost
	    anywhere in the world is provided by the FTP site
	    menu.

	    If you are installing from some other FTP site not
	    listed in this menu, or you are having troubles
	    getting your name server configured properly, you can
	    also specify your own URL by selecting the ``Other''
	    choice in that menu.  A URL can also be a direct IP
	    address, so the following would work in the absence
	    of a name server:

<tscreen><verb>
ftp://192.216.222.4/pub/FreeBSD/2.1-RELEASE
</verb></tscreen>
        
	    There are two FTP installation modes you can use:

	    <descrip>
	      <tag>FTP Active</tag>

		For all FTP transfers, use ``Active'' mode.  This
		will not work through firewalls, but will often
		work with older ftp servers that do not support
		passive mode.  If your connection hangs with
		passive mode (the default), try active!

	      <tag>FTP Passive</tag>

		For all FTP transfers, use ``Passive'' mode.  This
		allows the user to pass through firewalls that do
		not allow incoming connections on random port
		addresses.

	    </descrip>

	    <quote><bf>Note:</bf> ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MODES ARE
	      NOT THE SAME AS A `PROXY' CONNECTION, WHERE A PROXY
	      FTP SERVER IS LISTENING ON A DIFFERENT PORT!</quote>

	    In such instances, you should specify the URL as something like:
<tscreen><verb>
ftp://foo.bar.com:1234/pub/FreeBSD
</verb></tscreen>

        Where ``1234'' is the port number of the proxy ftp server.

    <sect><heading>Installing FreeBSD</heading>

      <p>Once you have taken note of the appropriate
	preinstallation steps, you should be able to install
	FreeBSD without any further trouble.

	Should this not be true, then you may wish to go back and
	re-read the relevant preparation section above
	for the installation media type you are trying to use,
	perhaps there is a helpful hint there that you missed the
	first time?  If you are having hardware trouble, or
	FreeBSD refuses to boot at all, read the Hardware Guide
	provided on the boot floppy for a list of possible
	solutions.

	The FreeBSD boot floppy contains all the on-line
	documentation you should need to be able to navigate
	through an installation and if it does not then we would
	like to know what you found most confusing.  Send your
	comments to <htmlurl url="mailto:doc@freebsd.org"
	name="doc@freebsd.org">.  It is the objective of the
	FreeBSD installation program (sysinstall) to be
	self-documenting enough that painful ``step-by-step''
	guides are no longer necessary.  It may take us a little
	while to reach that objective, but that is the objective!

	Meanwhile, you may also find the following ``typical
	installation sequence'' to be helpful:

	<enum>
	  <item>Boot the boot floppy.  After a boot sequence
	    which can take anywhere from from 30 seconds to 3
	    minutes, depending on your hardware, you should be
	    presented with a menu of initial choices.  If the
	    floppy does not boot at all, or the boot hangs at some
	    stage, go read the Q&amp;A section of the Hardware Guide
	    for possible causes.

	  <item>Press F1.  You should see some basic usage
	    instructions on the menu system and general
	    navigation.  If you have not used this menu system
	    before then PLEASE read this thoroughly!

	  <item>Select the Options item and set any special
	    preferences you may have.

	  <item>Select a Custom or Express install, depending on
	    whether or not you would like the installation to give
	    you a high degree of control over each step of the
	    installation or simply lead you through it, chosing
	    reasonable defaults when possible.  See details on
	    both installation types below.

	  <item>The Configure menu choice allows you to furthur
	    configure your FreeBSD installation by giving you
	    menu-driven access to various system defaults.  Some
	    items, like networking, may be especially important
	    if you did a CDROM/Tape/Floppy installation and have
	    not yet configured your network interfaces (assuming
	    you have any).  Properly configuring such interfaces
	    here will allow FreeBSD to come up on the network
	    when you first reboot from the hard disk.
	</enum>

      <sect1><heading>Express installation</heading>

	<p>The express installation is not too much different than
	  the Custom one except that it leads you through the
	  required stages in the proper order and presents you
	  with various helpful prompts along the way.

	  <enum>
	    <item>The first step is the `Partition Editor', which
	      allows you to chose how your drives will be used
	      for FreeBSD.  If you are dedicating an entire drive
	      to FreeBSD, the `A' command is probably all you
	      need to type here.

	    <item>Next, with the `Label Editor', you can specify
	      how the space in any allocated FreeBSD partitions
	      should be used by FreeBSD, or where to mount a
	      non-FreeBSD partition (such as DOS).  If you want
	      the standard layout, simply type `A' here.

	    <item>Next, the `Distributions' menu allows you to
	      specify which parts of FreeBSD you wish to load.  A
	      good choice is ``User'' for a small system or
	      ``Developer'' for someone wanting a bit more out of
	      FreeBSD.  If none of the existing collections sound
	      applicable, select Custom.

	    <item>Next, the `Media' menu allows you to specify
	      what kind of media you wish to install from.  If a
	      desired media choice is found and configured
	      automatically then this menu will simply return,
	      otherwise you will be asked for additional details on
	      the media device type.

	    <item>Finally, you will be prompted to commit all of
	      these actions at once (nothing has been written to
	      your disk so far, nor will it until you give the
	      final confirmation).  All new or changed partition
	      information will be written out, file systems will
	      be created and/or non-destructively labelled
	      (depending on how you set their newfs flags in the
	      Label Editor) and all selected distributions will
	      be extracted.
	  </enum>

	  At this point, you are generally done with the
	  sysinstall utility and can select the final `Quit'.  If
	  you are running it as an installer (e.g., before the
	  system is all the way up) then the system will now
	  reboot after you press return one last time.  If you
	  selected the boot manager option, you will see a small
	  boot menu with an `F?' prompt.  Press the function key
	  for BSD (it will be shown) and you should boot up into
	  FreeBSD off the hard disk.

	  If this fails to happen for some reason, see the Q&amp;A
	  section of the Hardware Guide for possible clues!

      <sect1><heading>Custom installation</heading>

	<p>You can do anything you like in this menu without
	  altering your system <em>except</em> for ``Commit'',
	  which will perform any requests to alter your system
	  you may have made.  Some of the menu options will also
	  have direct `Write' commands available for commiting an
	  operation immediately, but they should only be used if
	  you are absolutely sure it is necessary.  It is generally
	  better to make your changes and then commit them all at
	  once so that you are left with the option of changing
	  your mind up to the very last minute.

	  If you are confused at any point, the F1 key usually
	  pulls up the right information for the screen you are
	  in.


    <sect><heading>MS-DOS user's Questions and Answers</heading>

    <p>Many FreeBSD users wish to install FreeBSD on PCs inhabited
    by MS-DOS.  Here are some commonly asked questions about
    installing FreeBSD on such systems.

      <p><bf>Help!  I have no space!  Do I need to delete
	  everything first?</bf>

	If your machine is already running MS-DOS and has little
	or no free space available for FreeBSD's installation,
	all is not lost!  You may find the FIPS utility, provided
	in the <tt>tools</tt> directory on the FreeBSD CDROM or
	on the various FreeBSD ftp sites, to be quite useful.

	FIPS allows you to split an existing MS-DOS partition
	into two pieces, preserving the original partition and
	allowing you to install onto the second free piece.  You
	first defragment your MS-DOS partition, using the DOS
	6.xx DEFRAG utility or the Norton Disk tools, then run
	FIPS.  It will prompt you for the rest of the information
	it needs.  Afterwards, you can reboot and install FreeBSD
	on the new free slice.  See the <em>Distributions</em>
	menu for an estimation of how much free space you will need
	for the kind of installation you want.


	<bf>Can I use compressed MS-DOS filesystems from
	  FreeBSD?</bf>

	No.  If you are using a utility such as Stacker(tm) or
	DoubleSpace(tm), FreeBSD will only be able to use
	whatever portion of the filesystem you leave
	uncompressed.  The rest of the filesystem will show up as
	one large file (the stacked/dblspaced file!).  <bf>Do not
	remove that file!</bf> You will probably regret it
	greatly!

	It is probably better to create another uncompressed
	MS-DOS primary partition and use this for communications
	between MS-DOS and FreeBSD.


<!-- XXX  Status???
	<bf>Can I mount my MS-DOS extended partitions?</bf>

	This feature is not in FreeBSD 2.0.5 but should be in 2.1.
	We have laid all the groundwork for making this happen, now
	we just need to do the last 1 percent of the work involved.
-->

	<bf>Can I run MS-DOS binaries under FreeBSD?</bf>

	Not yet!  We would like to add support for this someday, but
	are still lacking anyone to actually do the work.
	Ongoing work with Linux's DOSEMU utility may bring this
	much closer to being a reality sometime soon.  Send mail
	to hackers@freebsd.org if you're interested in joining
	this effort!

	However, there is a nice application available in the
	<ref id="ports" name="The Ports Collection"> called pcemu,
	that allows you to run many basic MS-DOS text-mode binaries
	by entirely emulating an 8088 CPU.