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<!-- $Id: porting.sgml,v 1.79 1997-10-08 10:16:01 asami Exp $ -->
<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->

<sect1><heading>Porting an existing piece of free software<label id="porting"></heading>

<p><em>Contributed by &a.jkh;, &a.gpalmer;, &a.asami; and
      &a.obrien;.<newline>28 August 1996.</em>

<p>The porting of freely available software, while perhaps not as
gratifying as developing your own from scratch, is still a vital part
of FreeBSD's growth and of great usefulness to those who would not
otherwise know where to turn for it.  All ported software is organized
into a carefully organized hierarchy known as ``the ports collection''.
The collection enables a new user to get a quick and complete overview
of what is available for FreeBSD in an easy-to-compile form.  It also
saves considerable space by not actually containing the majority
of the sources being ported, but merely those differences required for
running under FreeBSD. 

<p>What follows are some guidelines for creating a new port for
FreeBSD 3.x.  The bulk of the work is done by
<tt>/usr/share/mk/bsd.port.mk</tt>, which all port Makefiles include.
Please refer to that file for more details on the inner workings of
the ports collection.  Even if you don't hack Makefiles daily, it is
well commented, and you will still gain much knowledge from it.

    <sect2>
      <heading>Before Starting the Port<label id="porting:starting"></heading>

      <p>Note: Only a fraction of the overridable variables
	(<tt>&dollar;{..}</tt>) are mentioned in this document. Most
	(if not all) are documented at the start of
	<tt>bsd.port.mk</tt>.  This file uses a non-standard tab
	setting. <tt>Emacs</tt> and <tt>Vim</tt> should recognize the setting
	on loading the file. <tt>vi</tt> or <tt>ex</tt> can be set to
	using the correct value by typing `<tt>:set tabstop=4</tt>'
	once the file has been loaded.

      <p>You may come across code that needs modifications or
	conditional compilation based upon what version of UNIX it is
	running under.  If you need to make such changes to the code
	for conditional compilation, make sure you make the changes as
	general as possible so that we can back-port code to FreeBSD
	1.x systems and cross-port to other BSD systems such as 4.4BSD
	from CSRG, BSD/386, 386BSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD.

      <p>The preferred way to tell 4.3BSD/Reno (1990) and newer versions of
	the BSD code apart is by using the `<tt>BSD</tt>' macro
	defined in <tt>&lt;sys/param.h&gt;</tt>.  Hopefully that file
	is already included; if not, add the code:

<tscreen><verb>
#ifdef (defined(__unix__) || defined(unix)) && !defined(USG)
#include <sys/param.h>
#endif
</verb></tscreen>

      <p>to the proper place in the <tt>.c</tt> file.  We believe that every
        system that defines these to symbols has sys/param.h.  If you find
        a system that doesn't, we would like to know.  Please send mail to
        <htmlurl url='mailto:ports@FreeBSD.org' name='ports@FreeBSD.org'>.

      <p>Another way is to use the GNU Autoconf style of doing this:

<tscreen><verb>
#ifdef HAVE_SYS_PARAM_H
#include <sys/param.h>
#endif
</verb></tscreen>

	Don't forget to add <tt>-DHAVE_SYS_PARAM_H</tt> to the <tt>CFLAGS</tt>
    in the Makefile for this method.

	Once you have <tt>&lt;sys/param.h&gt;</tt> included, you may use:

<tscreen><verb>
#if (defined(BSD) && (BSD >= 199103))
</verb></tscreen>

	to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.3 Net2 code
	base or newer (e.g. FreeBSD 1.x, 4.3/Reno, NetBSD 0.9, 386BSD,
	BSD/386 1.1 and below).

	Use:

<tscreen><verb>
#if (defined(BSD) && (BSD >= 199306))
</verb></tscreen>

	to detect if the code is being compiled on a 4.4 code base or
	newer (e.g. FreeBSD 2.x, 4.4, NetBSD 1.0, BSD/386 2.0 or
	above).

	The value of the BSD macro is 199506 for the 4.4BSD-Lite2 code
	base.  This is stated for informational purposes only.  It should
	not be used to distinguish between version of FreeBSD based only
	on 4.4-Lite vs. versions that have merged in changes from 4.4-Lite2.
	The __FreeBSD__ macro should be used instead.

      <p>Use sparingly:

      <itemize>
	<item><tt>__FreeBSD__</tt> is defined in all versions of
	  FreeBSD.  Use it if the change you are making ONLY affects
	  FreeBSD.  Porting gotchas like the use of
	  <tt>sys_errlist[]</tt> vs <tt>strerror()</tt> are
	  Berkeleyisms, not FreeBSD changes.

	<item>In FreeBSD 2.x, <tt>__FreeBSD__</tt> is defined to be
	  <tt>2</tt>.  In earlier versions, it is <tt>1</tt>.  Later
	  versions will bump it to match their major version number.

	<item>If you need to tell the difference between a FreeBSD 1.x
	  system and a FreeBSD 2.x or 3.x system, usually the right answer is
	  to use the <tt>BSD</tt> macros described above.  If there
	  actually is a FreeBSD specific change (such as special
	  shared library options when using `<tt>ld</tt>') then it is
	  OK to use <tt>__FreeBSD__</tt> and `<tt>#if __FreeBSD__ &gt;
	  1</tt>' to detect a FreeBSD 2.x and later system.

	  If you need more granularity in detecting FreeBSD systems since
	  2.0-RELEASE you can use the following:

<tscreen><verb>
#if __FreeBSD__ >= 2
#include <osreldate.h>
#    if __FreeBSD_version >= 199504
         /* 2.0.5+ release specific code here */
#    endif
#endif
</verb></tscreen>
<tt>__FreeBSD_version</tt> values:
<tscreen><verb>
2.0-RELEASE:                    199411
2.1-current's:                  199501, 199503
2.0.5-RELEASE:                  199504
2.2-current before 2.1:         199508
2.1.0-RELEASE:                  199511
2.2-current before 2.1.5:       199512
2.1.5-RELEASE:                  199607
2.2-current before 2.1.6:       199608
2.1.6-RELEASE:                  199612
2.1.7-RELEASE:                  199612
2.2-RELEASE:                    220000
2.2.1-RELEASE:                  220000 (yes, no change)
2.2-STABLE after 2.2.1-RELEASE: 220000 (yes, still no change)
2.2-STABLE after texinfo-3.9:   221001
2.2-STABLE after top:           221002
2.2.2-RELEASE:                  222000
2.2-STABLE after 2.2.2-RELEASE: 222001
3.0-current as of May 1997:     300000
</verb></tscreen>
	  The pattern used to be year followed by the month, but we
	  decided to change it to a more straightforward major/minor
	  system starting from 2.2.  This is because the parallel
	  development on several branches made it infeasible to
	  classify the releases simply by their real release dates.
	  (Note that if you are making a port now, you don't have to
	  worry about old -current's; they are listed here just for
	  your reference.)

      </itemize>

      <p>In the hundreds of ports that have been done, there have
	only been one or two cases where <tt>__FreeBSD__</tt>
	should have been used.  Just because an earlier port
	screwed up and used it in the wrong place does not mean
	you should do so too.

    <sect2>
      <heading>Quick Porting</heading>

      <p>This section tells you how to do a quick port.  In many
	cases, it is not enough, but we will see.

      <p>First, get the original tarball and put it into
	<tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt>, which defaults to
	<tt>/usr/ports/distfiles</tt>.

      <p>Note: The following assumes that the software compiled
	out-of-the-box, i.e., there was absolutely no change required
	for the port to work on your FreeBSD box.  If you needed to
	change something, you will have to refer to the next section
	too.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Writing the Makefile</heading>

	<p>The minimal <tt>Makefile</tt> would look something like this:

<tscreen><verb>
 # New ports collection makefile for:	oneko
 # Version required:	1.1b
 # Date created:	5 December 1994
 # Whom:		asami
 #
 # &dollar;Id&dollar;
 #
 
 DISTNAME=	oneko-1.1b
 CATEGORIES=	games
 MASTER_SITES=	ftp://ftp.cs.columbia.edu/archives/X11R5/contrib/
 
 MAINTAINER=	asami@FreeBSD.ORG
 
 USE_IMAKE=	yes
 
 .include <bsd.port.mk>
</verb></tscreen>

      <p>See if you can figure it out.  Do not worry about the contents
	of the <tt>&dollar;Id&dollar;</tt> line, it will be filled in
	automatically by CVS when the port is imported to our main
	ports tree.  You can find a more detailed example in the <ref
	id="porting:samplem" name="sample Makefile"> section.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Writing the description files</heading>

	<p>There are three required description files that are
	  required for any port, whether they actually package or not.
	  They are <tt>COMMENT</tt>, <tt>DESCR</tt>, and
          <tt>PLIST</tt>, and reside in the <tt>pkg</tt> subdirectory.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>COMMENT</heading>

	  <p>This is the one-line description of the port.  <em>PLEASE
	    do not include the package name (or version number of the
	    software) in the comment.</em>
	    Here is an example:
<tscreen><verb>
A cat chasing a mouse all over the screen.
</verb></tscreen>

	<sect4>
	  <heading>DESCR</heading>

	  <p>This is a longer description of the port.  One to a few
	    paragraphs concisely explaining what the port does is
	    sufficient.  Note: This is <em>not</em> a manual nor an
	    in-depth description on how to use or compile the port.
	    In particular, <em>please do not just copy the <tt>README</tt>
	    file here</em>, unless, of course, it is a concise description
	    of the port.

	  <p>It is recommended that you sign the name at the end of
	    this file, as in:

<tscreen><verb>
This is a port of oneko, in which a cat chases a poor mouse all over
the screen.
 :
(etc.)

- Satoshi
asami@cs.berkeley.edu
</verb></tscreen>

	<sect4>
	  <heading>PLIST</heading>

	  <p>This file lists all the files installed by the port.  It
	    is also called the `packing list' because the package is
	    generated by packing the files listed here.  The pathnames
	    are relative to the installation prefix (usually
	    <tt>/usr/local</tt> or <tt>/usr/X11R6</tt>). Also it is assumed
	    the manpages will be compressed.

	  <p>Here is a small example:

<tscreen><verb>
bin/oneko
man/man1/oneko.1.gz
lib/X11/app-defaults/Oneko
lib/X11/oneko/cat1.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/cat2.xpm
lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
</verb></tscreen>

	  <p>Refer to the <tt>pkg_create(1)</tt> man page for details
	    on the packing list.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Creating the checksum file</heading>

	<p>Just type `<tt>make makesum</tt>'.  The ports make rules
	  will automatically generate the file <tt>files/md5</tt>.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Testing the port</heading>

	<p>You should make sure that the port rules do exactly what
	  you want it to do, including packaging up the port.  Try
	  doing `<tt>make install</tt>', `<tt>make package</tt>' and
	  then `<tt>pkg_delete &lt;pkgname&gt;</tt>' and see if all
	  the files and directories are correctly deleted.  Then do a
	  `<tt>pkg_add &lt;pkgname&gt;.tgz</tt>' and see if everything
	  re-appears and works correctly.  Then do another
	  `<tt>pkg_delete &lt;pkgname&gt;</tt>' and then `<tt>make
	  reinstall; make package</tt>' to make sure you haven't
	  included in the packing list any files that are not
	  installed by your port.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Submitting the port<label id="porting:submitting"></heading>

	<p>Now that you are happy with your port, the only thing
	  remaining is to put it in the main FreeBSD ports tree and
	  make everybody else happy about it too.  To accomplish this,
	  pack the necessary files (everything described in this
	  section -- in particular do <em>not</em> include the
	  original source tarball, the `<tt>work</tt>' subdirectory or
	  the package) into a <tt>.tar.gz</tt> file, stick it in the
	  directory
<tscreen><verb>
ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/incoming/
</verb></tscreen>
	  and send mail to us using <tt>send-pr(1)</tt> (please
	  classify it as category `ports' and class `change-request').
	  We will take a look, get back to you if necessary, and put
	  it in the tree.  Your name will also appear in the list of
	  `Additional FreeBSD contributors' on the FreeBSD Handbook
	  and other files.  Isn't that great?!? <tt>:)</tt>

    <sect2>
      <heading>Slow Porting</heading>

      <p>Ok, so it was not that simple, and the port required some
	modifications to get it to work.  In this section, we will
	explain, step by step, how to modify it to get it to work with 
	the ports paradigm.

      <sect3>
	<heading>How things work</heading>

	<p>First, this is the sequence of events which occurs when the
	  user first types `<tt>make</tt>' in your port's directory,
	  and you may find that having <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt> in another
	  window while you read this really helps to understand it.

	<p>But do not worry if you do not really understand what
	  <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt> is doing, not many people
	  do... <tt>:&gt;</tt>

	<enum>
	  <item>The fetch target is run.  The fetch target is
	    responsible for making sure that the tarball exists
	    locally in <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt>.  If fetch cannot
	    find the required files in <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> it
	    will look up the URL <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITES}</tt>,
	    which is set in the Makefile, as well as our main ftp
	    site at <htmlurl
	    url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles/"
	    name="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles/,">
	    where we put sanctioned distfiles as backup.  It will then
	    attempt to
	    fetch the named distribution file with
	    <tt>&dollar;{FETCH}</tt>, assuming that the requesting
	    site has direct access to the Internet.  If that succeeds,
	    it will save the file in <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> for
	    future use and proceed.

	  <item>The extract target is run.  It looks for your ports'
	    distribution file in <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> (typically
	    a gzip'd tarball) and unpacks it into a temporary
	    subdirectory specified by <tt>&dollar;{WRKDIR}</tt>
	    (defaults to <tt>work</tt>).

	  <item>The patch target is run.  First, any patches defined
	    in <tt>&dollar;{PATCHFILES}</tt> are applied.  Second, if
	    any patches are found in <tt>&dollar;{PATCHDIR}</tt>
	    (defaults to the <tt>patches</tt> subdirectory), they are
	    applied at this time in alphabetical order.

	  <item>The configure target is run.  This can do any one of
	    many different things.

	    <enum>

	      <item>If it exists, <tt>scripts/configure</tt> is run.

	      <item>If <tt>&dollar;{HAS_CONFIGURE}</tt> or
		<tt>&dollar;{GNU_CONFIGURE}</tt> is set,
		<tt>&dollar;{WRKSRC}/configure</tt> is run.

	      <item>If <tt>&dollar;{USE_IMAKE}</tt> is set,
		<tt>&dollar;{XMKMF}</tt> (default: `<tt>xmkmf
		  -a</tt>') is run.

	    </enum>

	  <item>The build target is run.  This is responsible for
	    descending into the ports' private working directory
	    (<tt>&dollar;{WRKSRC}</tt>) and building it.  If
	    <tt>&dollar;{USE_GMAKE}</tt> is set, GNU <tt>make</tt>
	    will be used, otherwise the system <tt>make</tt> will be
	    used.

	</enum>

	<p>The above are the default actions.  In addition, you can
	  define targets `<tt>pre-&lt;something&gt;</tt>' or
	  `<tt>post-&lt;something&gt;</tt>', or put scripts with those
	  names, in the <tt>scripts</tt> subdirectory, and they will
	  be run before or after the default actions are done.

	<p>For example, if you have a <tt>post-extract</tt> target
	  defined in your Makefile, and a file <tt>pre-build</tt> in
	  the <tt>scripts</tt> subdirectory, the
	  <tt>post-extract</tt> target will be called after the
	  regular extraction actions, and the <tt>pre-build</tt>
	  script will be executed before the default build rules are
	  done.  It is recommended that you use Makefile targets if
	  the actions are simple enough, because it will be easier for
	  someone to figure out what kind of non-default action the
	  port requires.

	<p>The default actions are done by the <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt>
	  targets `<tt>do-&lt;something&gt;</tt>'.  For example, the
	  commands to extract a port are in the target
	  `<tt>do-extract</tt>'.  If you are not happy with the
	  default target, you can fix it by redefining the
	  `<tt>do-&lt;something&gt;</tt>' target in your Makefile.

	<p>Note that the `main' targets (e.g., <tt>extract</tt>,
	  <tt>configure</tt>, etc.) do nothing more than make sure all 
	  the stages up to that one is completed and call the real
	  targets or scripts, and they are not intended to be
	  changed.  If you want to fix the extraction, fix
	  <tt>do-extract</tt>, but never ever touch <tt>extract</tt>!

	<p>Now that you understand what goes on when the user types
	  `<tt>make</tt>', let us go through the recommended steps to
	  create the perfect port.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Getting the original sources</heading>

	<p>Get the original sources (normally) as a compressed tarball
	  (<tt>&lt;foo&gt;.tar.gz</tt> or <tt>&lt;foo&gt;.tar.Z</tt>)
	  and copy it into <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt>.  Always use
	  <em>mainstream</em> sources when and where you can.

	<p>If you cannot find a ftp/http site that is well-connected
	  to the net, or can only find sites that have irritatingly
	  non-standard formats, we can `house' it ourselves by putting
	  it on
<tscreen><verb>
ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/
</verb></tscreen>
	  as the last resort.  Please refer to this localation as
	  <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITE_LOCAL}</tt>.  Send mail to the &a.ports
	  if you are not sure what to do.

	<p>If your port requires some additional `patches' that are
	  available on the Internet, fetch them too and put them in
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt>.  Do not worry if they come from
	  site other than where you got the main source tarball,
	  we have a way to handle these situations (see the
	  description of <ref id="porting:patchfiles"
	  name="&dollar;{PATCHFILES}"> below).

      <sect3>
	<heading>Modifying the port</heading>

	<p>Unpack a copy of the tarball in a private directory and
	  make whatever changes are necessary to get the port to
	  compile properly under the current version of FreeBSD.  Keep
	  <em>careful track</em> of everything you do, as you will be
	  automating the process shortly.  Everything, including the
	  deletion, addition or modification of files should be doable
	  using an automated script or patch file when your port is
	  finished.

	<p>If your port requires significant user
	  interaction/customization to compile or install, you should
	  take a look at one of Larry Wall's classic Configure scripts
	  and perhaps do something similar yourself.  The goal of the
	  new ports collection is to make each port as `plug-and-play'
	  as possible for the end-user while using a minimum of disk
	  space.

	<p>Note: Unless explicitly stated, patch files, scripts, and
	  other files you have created and contributed to the FreeBSD
	  ports collection are assumed to be covered by the standard
	  BSD copyright conditions.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Patching</heading>

	<p>In the preparation of the port, files that have been added
	  or changed can be picked up with a recursive diff for later
	  feeding to patch.  Each set of patches you wish to apply
	  should be collected into a file named
	  `<tt>patch-&lt;xx&gt;</tt>' where <tt>&lt;xx&gt;</tt>
	  denotes the sequence in which the patches will be applied --
	  these are done in <em>alphabetical order</em>, thus
	  `<tt>aa</tt>' first, `<tt>ab</tt>' second and so on.  These
	  files should be stored in <tt>&dollar;{PATCHDIR}</tt>, from
	  where they will be automatically applied.  All patches
	  should be relative to <tt>&dollar;{WRKSRC}</tt> (generally
	  the directory your port's tarball unpacks itself into, that
	  being where the make is done).  To make fixes and upgrades
	  easier you should avoid having more than one patch fix the
	  same file (e.g., patch-aa and patch-ab both changing
	  <tt>&dollar;{WRKSRC}</tt>/foobar.c).

      <sect3>
	<heading>Configuring</heading>

	<p>Include any additional customization commands to your
	  <tt>configure</tt> script and save it in the
	  `<tt>scripts</tt>' subdirectory.  As mentioned above, you
	  can also do this as Makefile targets and/or scripts with the
	  name <tt>pre-configure</tt> or <tt>post-configure</tt>.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Handling user input</heading>

	<p>If your port requires user input to build, configure or
	  install, then set <tt>IS_INTERACTIVE</tt> in your Makefile.
	  This will allow `overnight builds' to skip your port if the
	  user sets the variable <tt>BATCH</tt> in his environment
	  (and if the user sets the variable <tt>INTERACTIVE</tt>,
	  then <em>only</em> those ports requiring interaction are
	  built).

    <sect2>
      <heading>Configuring the Makefile</heading>

      <p>Configuring the Makefile is pretty simple, and again we
	suggest that you look at existing examples before starting.
	Also, there is a <ref id="porting:samplem" name="sample
	Makefile"> in this handbook, so take a look and please follow
	the ordering of variables and sections in that template to
	make your port easier for others to read.

      <p>Now, consider the following problems in sequence as you
	design your new Makefile:

      <sect3>
	<heading>The original source</heading>

	<p>Does it live in <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> as a standard
	  gzip'd tarball?  If so, you can go on to the next step.  If
	  not, you should look at overriding any of the
	  <tt>&dollar;{EXTRACT_CMD}</tt>,
	  <tt>&dollar;{EXTRACT_BEFORE_ARGS}</tt>,
	  <tt>&dollar;{EXTRACT_AFTER_ARGS}</tt>,
	  <tt>&dollar;{EXTRACT_SUFX}</tt>, or
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt> variables, depending on how
	  alien a format your port's distribution file is.  (The most
	  common case is `<tt>EXTRACT_SUFX=.tar.Z</tt>', when the
	  tarball is condensed by regular compress, not gzip.)

	<p>In the worst case, you can simply create your own
	  `<tt>do-extract</tt>' target to override the default, though
	  this should be rarely, if ever, necessary.

      <sect3>
	<heading>DISTNAME</heading>

	<p>You should set <tt>&dollar;{DISTNAME}</tt> to be the base
	  name of your port.  The default rules expect the
	  distribution file list (<tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt>) to be
	  named
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTNAME}&dollar;{EXTRACT_SUFX}</tt>
	  by default which, if it is a normal tarball, is going to be
	  something like:
<tscreen><verb>	
foozolix-1.0.tar.gz
</verb></tscreen>
	  for a setting of `<tt>DISTNAME=foozolix-1.0</tt>'.

	  The default rules also expect the tarball(s) to extract into
	  a subdirectory called <tt>work/&dollar;{DISTNAME}</tt>, e.g.
<tscreen><verb>	
work/foozolix-1.0/
</verb></tscreen>

	  All this behavior can be overridden, of course, it simply
	  represents the most common time-saving defaults.  For a port
	  requiring multiple distribution files, simply set
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt> explicitly.  If only a subset
	  of <tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt> are actual extractable
	  archives, then set them up in
	  <tt>&dollar;{EXTRACT_ONLY}</tt>, which will override the
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt> list when it comes to
	  extraction, and the rest will be just left in
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> for later use.

      <sect3>
	<heading>CATEGORIES</heading>

	<p>When a package is created, it is put under
	  <tt>/usr/ports/packages/All</tt> and links are made from one
	  or more subdirectories of <tt>/usr/ports/packages</tt>.  The
	  names of these subdirectories are specified by the variable
	  <tt>&dollar;{CATEGORIES}</tt>.  It is intended to make life
	  easier for the user when he is wading through the pile of
	  packages on the ftp site or the CD-ROM.  Please take a look
	  at the existing categories (you can find them in <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/" name="the ports
	  page">) and pick the ones that are suitable for your port.
	  If your port truly belongs to something that is different
	  from all the existing ones, you can even create a new
	  category name.

      <sect3>
	<heading>MASTER_SITES</heading>

	<p>Record the directory part of the ftp/http-URL pointing at
	  the original tarball in <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITES}</tt>.
	  Do not forget the trailing slash (<tt>/</tt>)!

 	<p>The make macros will try to use this specification for
	  grabbing the distribution file with <tt>&dollar;{FETCH}</tt>
	  if they cannot find it already on the system.

	<p>It is recommended that you put multiple sites on this list,
	  preferably from different continents.  This will safeguard
	  against wide-area network problems, and we are even planning
	  to add support for automatically determining the closest
	  master site and fetching from there!

	<p>If the original tarball is part of one of the following
	  popular archives:  X-contrib, GNU, Perl CPAN, TeX CTAN, or 
	  Linux Sunsite, you refer to those sites in an easy compact
	  form using MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB, MASTER_SITE_GNU,
	  MASTER_SITE_PERL_CPAN, MASTER_SITE_TEX_CTAN, and
	  MASTER_SITE_SUNSITE.  Simply set MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR to the path
	  with in the archive.  Here is an example:
<tscreen><verb>
MASTER_SITES=         ${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR=   applications
</verb></tscreen>
        <p>The user can also set the MASTER_SITE_* variables in
          <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> to override our choices, and use their
	  favorite mirrors of these popular archives instead.

      <sect3>
	<heading>PATCHFILES<label id="porting:patchfiles"></heading>

	<p>If your port requires some additional patches that are
	  available by ftp or http, set <tt>&dollar;{PATCHFILES}</tt>
	  to the names of the files and <tt>&dollar;{PATCH_SITES}</tt>
	  to the URL of the directory that contains them (the format
	  is the same as <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITES}</tt>).

	<p>If the patch is not relative to the top of the source tree
	  (i.e., <tt>&dollar;{WKRSRC}</tt>) because it contains some
	  extra pathnames, set <tt>&dollar;{PATCH_DIST_STRIP}</tt>
	  accordingly.  For instance, if all the pathnames in the
	  patch has an extra `<tt>foozolix-1.0/</tt>' in front of the
	  filenames, then set `<tt>PATCH_DIST_STRIP=-p1</tt>'.

	<p>Do not worry if the patches are compressed, they will be
	  decompressed automatically if the filenames end with
	  `<tt>.gz</tt>' or `<tt>.Z</tt>'.

	<p>If the patch is distributed with some other files, such as
	  documentation, in a gzip'd tarball, you can't just use
	  <tt>&dollar;{PATCHFILES}</tt>.  If that is the case, add the
	  name and the location of the patch tarball to
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTFILES}</tt> and
	  <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITES}</tt>.  Then, from the
	  <tt>pre-patch</tt> target, apply the patch either by running
	  the patch command from there, or copying the patch file into
	  the <tt>&dollar;{PATCHDIR}</tt> directory and calling it
	  <tt>patch-&lt;xx&gt;</tt>.  (Note the tarball will have been
	  extracted alongside the regular source by then, so there is
	  no need to explicitly extract it if it is a regular gzip'd
	  or compress'd tarball.)  If you do the latter, take extra
	  care not to overwrite something that already exists in that
	  directory.  Also do not forget to add a command to remove
	  the copied patch in the <tt>pre-clean</tt> target.

      <sect3>
	<heading>MAINTAINER</heading>

	<p>Set your mail-address here.  Please. <tt>:)</tt>

	<p>For detailed description of the responsibility of maintainers,
	  refer to <ref id="policies:maintainer"
	  name="MAINTAINER on Makefiles"> section.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Dependencies</heading>

	<p>Many ports depend on other ports.  There are five
	  variables that you can use to ensure that all the required
	  bits will be on the user's machine.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>LIB_DEPENDS</heading>

	  <p>This variable specifies the shared libraries this port
	    depends on.  It is a list of `<tt>lib:dir</tt>' pairs
	    where <tt>lib</tt> is the name of the shared library, and
	    <tt>dir</tt> is the directory in which to find it in case
	    it is not available.  For example,
<tscreen><verb>
LIB_DEPENDS=    jpeg\\.6\\.:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/jpeg
</verb></tscreen>
	    will check for a shared jpeg library with major version 6,
	    and descend into the <tt>graphics/jpeg</tt> subdirectory
	    of your ports tree to build and install it if it is not
	    found.

	    Note that the <tt>lib</tt> part is just an argument given
	    to `<tt>ldconfig -r | grep</tt>', so periods should be
	    escaped by two backslashes like in the example above.

	    The dependency is checked from within the <tt>extract</tt>
	    target.  Also, the name of the dependency is put in to the
	    package so that <tt>pkg_add</tt> will automatically
	    install it if it is not on the user's system.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>RUN_DEPENDS</heading>

	  <p>This variable specifies executables or files this port
	    depends on during run-time.  It is a list of
	    `<tt>path:dir</tt>' pairs where <tt>path</tt> is the name
	    of the executable or file, and <tt>dir</tt> is the
	    directory in which to find it in case it is not
	    available.  If <tt>path</tt> starts with a slash
	    (<tt>/</tt>), it is treated as a file and its existence is 
	    tested with `<tt>test -e</tt>'; otherwise, it is assumed
	    to be an executable, and `<tt>which -s</tt>' is used to
	    determine if the program exists in the user's search path.

	  <p>For example,
<tscreen><verb>
RUN_DEPENDS=	${PREFIX}/etc/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \
                wish:${PORTSDIR}/x11/tk
</verb></tscreen>
	    will check if the file `<tt>/usr/local/etc/innd</tt>'
	    exists, and build and install it from the
	    <tt>news/inn</tt> subdirectory of the ports tree if it is
	    not found.  It will also see if an executable called
	    `<tt>wish</tt>' is in your search path, and descend into
	    the <tt>x11/tk</tt> subdirectory of your ports tree to
	    build and install it if it is not found.  (Note that in
	    this case, `<tt>innd</tt>' is actually an executable; if
	    an executable is in a place that is not expected to be in
	    a normal user's search path, you should use the full
	    pathname.)

	    The dependency is checked from within the <tt>install</tt>
	    target.  Also, the name of the dependency is put in to the 
	    package so that <tt>pkg_add</tt> will automatically
	    install it if it is not on the user's system.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>BUILD_DEPENDS</heading>

	  <p>This variable specifies executables or files this port
	    requires to build.  Like <tt>RUN_DEPENDS</tt>, it is a
	    list of `<tt>path:dir</tt>' pairs.  For example,
<tscreen><verb>
BUILD_DEPENDS=  unzip:${PORTSDIR}/archivers/unzip
</verb></tscreen>
	    will check for an executable called `<tt>unzip</tt>', and
	    descend into the <tt>archivers/unzip</tt> subdirectory of
	    your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

	    Note that `build' here means everything from extracting to 
	    compilation.  The dependency is checked from within the
	    <tt>extract</tt> target.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>FETCH_DEPENDS</heading>

	  <p>This variable specifies executables or files this port
	    requires to fetch.  Like the previous two, it is a list of
	    `<tt>path:dir</tt>' pairs.  For example,
<tscreen><verb>
FETCH_DEPENDS=   ncftp2:${PORTSDIR}/net/ncftp2
</verb></tscreen>
	    will check for an executable called `<tt>ncftp2</tt>', and
	    descend into the <tt>net/ncftp2</tt> subdirectory of
	    your ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.

	    The dependency is checked from within the <tt>fetch</tt>
	    target.

	<sect4>
	  <heading>DEPENDS</heading>

	  <p>If there is a dependency that does not fall into either of
	    the above four categories, or your port requires to have
	    the source of the other port extracted (i.e., having them
	    installed is not enough), then use this variable.  This is
	    just a list of directories, as there is nothing to check,
	    unlike the previous four.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Building mechanisms</heading>

	<p>If your package uses GNU <tt>make</tt>, set
	  `<tt>USE_GMAKE=yes</tt>'.  If your package uses GNU
	  <tt>configure</tt>, set `<tt>GNU_CONFIGURE=yes</tt>'.  If
	  you want to give some extra arguments to GNU
	  <tt>configure</tt> (other than the default
	  `<tt>--prefix=&dollar;{PREFIX}</tt>'),
          set those extra arguments in
	  <tt>&dollar;{CONFIGURE_ARGS}</tt>.

	<p>If your package is an X application that creates Makefiles
	  from Imakefiles using <tt>imake</tt>, then set
	  `<tt>USE_IMAKE=yes</tt>'.  This will cause the configure
	  stage to automatically do an <tt>xmkmf -a</tt>.  If the
	  `<tt>-a</tt>' flag is a problem for your port, set
	  `<tt>XMKMF=xmkmf</tt>'.

	<p>If your port's source Makefile has something else than
	  `<tt>all</tt>' as the main build target, set
	  <tt>&dollar;{ALL_TARGET}</tt> accordingly.  Same goes for
	  `<tt>install</tt>' and <tt>&dollar;{INSTALL_TARGET}</tt>.

      <sect3>
	<heading>NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES</heading>

	<p>If the port uses imake but does not understand the
	  `<tt>install.man</tt>' target,
	  `<tt>NO_INSTALL_MANPAGES=yes</tt>' should be set.  In
	  addition, the author of the original port should be
	  shot. <tt>:&gt;</tt>

    <sect2>
      <heading>Ports that require Motif</heading>

      <p>There are many programs that require a Motif library
	(available from several commercial vendors, while there is (at
	least) one effort to create a free clone) to compile.  Since
	it is a popular toolkit and their licenses usually permit
	redistribution of statically linked binaries, we have made
	special provisions for handling ports that require Motif in a
	way that we can easily compile binaries linked either
	dynamically or statically.

      <sect3>
	<heading>REQUIRES_MOTIF</heading>

	<p>If your port requires Motif, define this variable in the
	  Makefile.  This will prevent people who don't own a copy of
	  Motif from even attempting to build it.

      <sect3>
	<heading>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB}</heading>

	<p>This variable will be set by <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt> to be the
	  appropriate reference to the Motif library.  Please patch
	  the source to use this wherever the Motif library is
	  referenced in the Makefile or Imakefile.

	<p>There are two common cases:
	<enum>
	  <item>If the port refers to the Motif library as
	    `<tt>-lXm</tt>' in its Makefile or Imakefile, simply
	    substitute `<tt>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB}</tt>' for it.

	  <item>If the port uses `<tt>XmClientLibs</tt>' in its
	    Imakefile, change it to `<tt>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB}
	    &dollar;{XTOOLLIB} &dollar;{XLIB}</tt>'.
	</enum>

	<p>Note that <tt>&dollar;{MOTIFLIB}</tt> (usually) expands to
	  `<tt>-L/usr/X11R6/lib -lXm</tt>' or
	  `<tt>/usr/X11R6/lib/libXm.a</tt>', so there is no need to
	  add `<tt>-L</tt>' or `<tt>-l</tt>' in front.

    <sect2>
      <heading>Info files</heading>
      <p>The new version of texinfo (included in 2.2.2-RELEASE and
	onwards) contains a utility called `<tt/install-info/' to add
	and delete entries to the `<tt/dir/' file.  If your port
	installs any info documents, please follow these instructions
	so your port/package will correctly update the user's
	<tt>&dollar{PREFIX}/info/dir</tt> file.  (Sorry for the length
	of this section, but it is imperative to weave all the info
	files together.  If done correctly, it will produce a
	<em>beautiful</em> listing, so please bear with me! <tt/:)/

      <p>First, this is what you (as a porter) need to know:

<tscreen><verb>
% install-info --help
install-info [OPTION]... [INFO-FILE [DIR-FILE]]
  Install INFO-FILE in the Info directory file DIR-FILE.

Options:
--delete          Delete existing entries in INFO-FILE;
                    don't insert any new entries.
 :
--entry=TEXT      Insert TEXT as an Info directory entry.
 :
--section=SEC     Put this file's entries in section SEC of the directory.
 :
</verb></tscreen>

      <p>Note that this program will not actually <em/install/
	info files; it merely inserts or deletes entries in the
	<tt/dir/ file.

      <p>Here's a seven-step procedure to convert ports to use
	<tt/install-info/.  I will use <tt>editors/emacs</tt> as an
	example.

      <enum>
	<item>Look at the texinfo sources and make a patch to insert
	  <tt/@dircategory/ and <tt/@direntry/ statements to files
	  that don't have them.  This is part of my patch:

<tscreen><verb>
--- ./man/vip.texi.org	Fri Jun 16 15:31:11 1995
+++ ./man/vip.texi	Tue May 20 01:28:33 1997
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@
 
 @setfilename ../info/vip
 @settitle VIP
+@dircategory The Emacs editor and associated tools
+@direntry
+* VIP: (vip).		A VI-emulation for Emacs.
+@end direntry
 
 @iftex
 @finalout
 :
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>The format should be self-explanatory.  Many authors leave
	  a <tt/dir/ file in the source tree that contains all the
	  entries you need, so look around before you try to write
	  your own.  Also, make sure you look into related ports and
	  make the section names and entry indentations consistent (we
	  recommend that all entry text start at the 4th tab stop).

	<p>Note that you can put only one info entry per file because
	  of a bug in `<tt>install-info --delete</tt>' that deletes
	  only the first entry if you specify multiple entries in the
	  <tt/@direntry/ section.

	<p>You can give the <tt/dir/ entries to <tt/install-info/ as
	  arguments (<tt/--section/ and <tt/--entry/) instead of
	  patching the texinfo sources.  I do not think this is a good
	  idea for ports because you need to duplicate the same
	  information in <em>three</em> places (<tt/Makefile/ and
	  <tt/@exec//<tt/@unexec/ of <tt/PLIST/; see below).  However,
	  if you have a Japanese (or other multibyte encoding) info
	  files, you will have to use the extra arguments to
	  <tt/install-info/ because <tt/makeinfo/ can't handle those
	  texinfo sources.  (See <tt/Makefile/ and <tt/PLIST/ of
	  <tt>japanese/skk</tt> for examples on how to do this).

        <item>Go back to the port directory and do a `<tt>make clean;
	  make</tt>' and verify that the info files are regenerated
	  from the texinfo sources.  Since the texinfo sources are
	  newer than the info files, they should be rebuilt when you
	  type <tt/make/; but many <tt/Makefile/s don't include
	  correct dependencies for info files. In emacs' case, I had
	  to patch the main <tt/Makefile.in/ so it will descend into
	  the <tt/man/ subdirectory to rebuild the info pages.

<tscreen><verb>
--- ./Makefile.in.org	Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996
+++ ./Makefile.in	Tue Apr 15 00:15:28 1997
@@ -184,7 +184,7 @@
 # Subdirectories to make recursively.  `lisp' is not included
 # because the compiled lisp files are part of the distribution
 # and you cannot remake them without installing Emacs first.
-SUBDIR = lib-src src
+SUBDIR = lib-src src man
 
 # The makefiles of the directories in $SUBDIR.
 SUBDIR_MAKEFILES = lib-src/Makefile man/Makefile src/Makefile oldXMenu/Makefile lwlib/Makefile
--- ./man/Makefile.in.org	Thu Jun 27 15:27:19 1996
+++ ./man/Makefile.in	Tue Apr 15 00:29:52 1997
@@ -66,6 +66,7 @@
 	${srcdir}/gnu1.texi \
 	${srcdir}/glossary.texi
 
+all: info
 info: $(INFO_TARGETS)
 
 dvi: $(DVI_TARGETS)
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>The second hunk was necessary because the default target in
	  the <tt/man/ subdir is called <tt/info/, while the
	  main Makefile wants to call <tt/all/.  I also deleted the
	  installation of the <tt/info/ info file because we already
	  have one with the same name in <tt>/usr/share/info</tt>
	  (that patch is not shown here).

	<item>If there is a place in the <tt/Makefile/ that is
	  installing the <tt/dir/ file, delete it.  Your port may not
	  be doing it.  Also, remove any commands that are otherwise
	  mucking around with the <tt/dir/ file.

<tscreen><verb>
--- ./Makefile.in.org	Mon Aug 19 21:12:19 1996
+++ ./Makefile.in	Mon Apr 14 23:38:07 1997
@@ -368,14 +368,8 @@
 	if [ `(cd ${srcdir}/info && /bin/pwd)` != `(cd ${infodir} && /bin/pwd)` ]; \
 	then \
 	  (cd ${infodir};  \
-	   if [ -f dir ]; then \
-	     if [ ! -f dir.old ]; then mv -f dir dir.old; \
-	     else mv -f dir dir.bak; fi; \
-	   fi; \
 	   cd ${srcdir}/info ; \
-	   (cd $${thisdir}; ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/dir ${infodir}/dir); \
-	   (cd $${thisdir}; chmod a+r ${infodir}/dir); \
 	   for f in ccmode* cl* dired-x* ediff* emacs* forms* gnus* info* message* mh-e* sc* vip*; do \
 	     (cd $${thisdir}; \
 	      ${INSTALL_DATA} ${srcdir}/info/$$f ${infodir}/$$f; \
 	      chmod a+r ${infodir}/$$f); \
</verb></tscreen>

	<item>(This step is only necessary if you are modifying an
	  existing port.)  Take a look at <tt>pkg/PLIST</tt> and
	  delete anything that is trying to patch up
	  <tt>info/dir</tt>.  They may be in <tt>pkg/INSTALL</tt> or
	  some other file, so search extensively.

<tscreen><verb>
Index: pkg/PLIST
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v
retrieving revision 1.15
diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
--- PLIST	1997/03/04 08:04:00	1.15
+++ PLIST	1997/04/15 06:32:12
@@ -15,9 +15,6 @@
 man/man1/emacs.1.gz
 man/man1/etags.1.gz
 man/man1/ctags.1.gz
-@unexec cp %D/info/dir %D/info/dir.bak
-info/dir
-@unexec cp %D/info/dir.bak %D/info/dir
 info/cl
 info/cl-1
 info/cl-2
</verb></tscreen>

	<item>Add a <tt/post-install/ target to the Makefile to create
	  a <tt/dir/ file if it is not there.  Also, call
	  <tt/install-info/ with the installed info files.

<tscreen><verb>
Index: Makefile
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/Makefile,v
retrieving revision 1.26
diff -u -r1.26 Makefile
--- Makefile	1996/11/19 13:14:40	1.26
+++ Makefile	1997/05/20 10:25:09	1.28
@@ -20,5 +20,11 @@
 post-install:
 .for file in emacs-19.34 emacsclient etags ctags b2m
 	strip ${PREFIX}/bin/${file}
 .endfor
+	if [ ! -f ${PREFIX}/info/dir ]; then \
+	  sed -ne '1,/Menu:/p' /usr/share/info/dir > ${PREFIX}/info/dir; \
+	fi
+.for info in emacs vip viper forms gnus mh-e cl sc dired-x ediff ccmode
+	install-info ${PREFIX}/info/${info} ${PREFIX}/info/dir
+.endfor
 
 .include <bsd.port.mk>
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>Do not use anything other than <tt>/usr/share/info/dir</tt>
	  and the above command to create a new info file.  In fact,
	  I'd add the first three lines of the above patch to
	  <tt/bsd.port.mk/ if you (the porter) wouldn't have to do it
	  in <tt/PLIST/ by yourself anyway.

	<item>Edit <tt/PLIST/ and add equivalent <tt/@exec/ statements
	  and also <tt/@unexec/ for <tt/pkg_delete/.  You do not need
	  to delete <tt>info/dir</tt> with <tt/@unexec/.

<tscreen><verb>
Index: pkg/PLIST
===================================================================
RCS file: /usr/cvs/ports/editors/emacs/pkg/PLIST,v
retrieving revision 1.15
diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
--- PLIST	1997/03/04 08:04:00	1.15
+++ PLIST	1997/05/20 10:25:12	1.17
@@ -16,7 +14,15 @@
 man/man1/etags.1.gz
 man/man1/ctags.1.gz
+@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir
 :
+@unexec install-info --delete %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir
 info/cl
 info/cl-1
@@ -87,6 +94,18 @@
 info/viper-3
 info/viper-4
+@exec [ -f %D/info/dir ] || sed -ne '1,/Menu:/p' /usr/share/info/dir > %D/info/dir
+@exec install-info %D/info/emacs %D/info/dir
 :
+@exec install-info %D/info/ccmode %D/info/dir
 libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/cvtmail
 libexec/emacs/19.34/i386--freebsd/digest-doc
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>Note that the `<tt>@unexec install-info --delete</tt>'
	  commands have to be listed before the info files themselves
	  so they can read the files.  Also, the `<tt>@exec
	  install-info</tt>' commands have to be after the info files
	  and the <tt/@exec/ command that creates the the <tt/dir/
	  file.

	<item>Test and admire your work. <tt/:)/ The sequence I
	  recommend is: `<tt/make package/', `<tt/pkg_delete/', then
	  `<tt/pkg_add/'.  Check the <tt/dir/ file before and after
	  each step.
      </enum>

    <sect2>
      <heading>Licensing Problems</heading>

      <p>Some software packages have restrictive licenses or can be in
	violation to the law (PKP's patent on public key crypto,
	ITAR (export of crypto software) to name just two of them).
	What we can do with them vary a lot, depending on the exact
	wordings of the respective licenses.

      <p>Note that it is your responsibility as a porter to read the
	licensing terms of the software and make sure that the FreeBSD
	project will not be held accountable of violating them by
	redistributing the source or compiled binaries either via ftp
	or CD-ROM.  If in doubt, please contact the &a.ports;.

      <p>There are two variables you can set in the Makefile to handle 
	the situations that arise frequently:

      <enum>
	<item>If the port has a `do not sell for profit' type of
	  license, set the variable <tt>NO_CDROM</tt>.  We will make
	  sure such ports won't go into the CD-ROM come release time.
	  The distfile and package will still be available via ftp.

	<item>If the resulting package needs to be built uniquely for
	  each site, or the resulting binary package can't be distributed
	  due to licensing; set the variable <tt>NO_PACKAGE</tt>.
	  We will make sure such packages won't go on the ftp site, nor 
	  into the CD-ROM come release time.  The distfile will still be
	  included on both however.

	<item>If the port has legal restrictions on who can use it
	  (e.g., crypto stuff) or has a `no commercial use' license,
	  set the variable <tt>RESTRICTED</tt> to be the string
	  describing the reason why.  For such ports, the
	  distfiles/packages will not be available even from our ftp
	  sites.
      </enum>

      <p>Note: The GNU General Public License (GPL), both version 1
	and 2, should not be a problem for ports.

      <p>Note: If you are a committer, make sure you update the
	<tt>ports/LEGAL</tt> file too.

    <sect2>
      <heading>Upgrading</heading>

      <p>When you notice that a port is out of date compared to the
	latest version from the original authors, first make sure you
	have the latest port.  You can find them in the
	<tt>ports-current</tt> directory of the ftp mirror sites.

      <p>The next step is to send a mail to the maintainer, if one is
	listed in the port's Makefile.  That person may already be
	working on an upgrade, or have a reason to not upgrade the
	port right now (because of, for example, stability problems
	of the new version).

      <p>If the maintainer asks you to do the upgrade or there isn't
	any such person to begin with, please make the upgrade and
	send the recursive diff of the new and old ports directories
	to us (i.e., if your modified ports directory is called
	`<tt>superedit</tt>' and the original as in our tree is
	`<tt>superedit.bak</tt>', then send us the result of `<tt>diff
	-ruN superedit.bak superedit</tt>').  Please examine the output
	to make sure all the changes make sense.  The best way to send
	us the diff is by including it to <tt>send-pr(1)</tt> (category
	`ports').  Please
	mention any added or deleted files in the message, as they
	have to be explicitly specified to CVS when doing a commit.

    <sect2>
      <heading>Do's and Dont's</heading>

      <p>Here is a list of common do's and dont's that you encounter
	during the porting process.

      <sect3>
	<heading>WRKDIR</heading>

	<p>Do not leave anything valuable lying around in the
	  <tt>work</tt> subdirectory, `<tt>make clean</tt>' will
	  <em>nuke</em> it completely!  If you need auxiliary files
	  that are not scripts or patches, put them in the
	  <tt>&dollar;{FILESDIR}</tt> subdirectory (<tt>files</tt> by default)
	  and use the <tt>post-extract</tt> target to
	  copy them to the <tt>work</tt> subdirectory.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Package information</heading>

	<p>Do include package information, i.e. <tt>COMMENT</tt>,
	  <tt>DESCR</tt>, and <tt>PLIST</tt>, in
	  <tt>pkg</tt>.  Note that these files are not used only for
	  packaging anymore, and are <em>mandatory</em> now, even if
	  <tt>&dollar;{NO_PACKAGE}</tt> is set.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Compress manpages, strip binaries</heading>

	<p>Do compress manpages and strip binaries.  If the original
	  source already strips the binary, fine; otherwise, you can add a
	  <tt>post-install</tt> rule to do it yourself.  Here is an example:
<tscreen><verb>
 post-install:
	 strip ${PREFIX}/bin/xdl
</verb></tscreen>
	<p>Use the <tt>file</tt> command on the installed executable
	  to check whether the binary is stripped or not.  If it
	  does not say `not stripped', it is stripped.

	<p>To automagically compress the manpages, use the MAN[1-9LN]
	   variables.  They will check the variable
	   <tt>NOMANCOMPRESS</tt> that the user can set in
	   <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt> to disable man page compression.
	   Place them last in the section below the
	   <tt>MAINTAINER</tt> variable.  Here is an example:
<tscreen><verb>
MAN1=      foo.1 bar.1
MAN5=      foo.conf.5
MAN8=      baz.8
</verb></tscreen>
	<p>Note that this is not usually necessary with ports that are X
	   applications and use Imake to build.

	<p>If your port anchors its man tree somewhere other than 
	   <tt>PREFIX</tt>, you can use the <tt>MANPREFIX</tt> to set it.
	   Also, if only manpages in certain section go in a
	   non-standard place, such as many Perl modules ports, you
	   can set individual man paths using
	   <tt>MAN<em>sect</em>PREFIX</tt> (where <em>sect</em> is one
	   of 1-9, L or N).

      <sect3>
	<heading>INSTALL_* macros</heading>
	<p>Do use the macros provided in <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt> to
	  ensure correct modes and ownership of files in your own
	  *-install targets.  They are:

	<itemize>
	  <item><tt>${INSTALL_PROGRAM}</tt> is a command to install
	    binary executables.
	  <item><tt>${INSTALL_SCRIPT}</tt> is a command to install
	    executable scripts.
	  <item><tt>${INSTALL_DATA}</tt> is a command to install
	    sharable data.
	  <item><tt>${INSTALL_MAN}</tt> is a command to install
	    manpages and other documentation (it doesn't compress anything).
	</itemize>

	<p>These are basically the <tt>install</tt> command with all
	  the appropriate flags.  See below for an example on how to
	  use them.

      <sect3>
	<heading>INSTALL package script</heading>
	<p>If your port needs execute commands when the binary package
	  is installed with pkg_add you can do with via the pkg/INSTALL
	  script.  This script will automatically be added to the 
	  package, and will be run twice by pkg_add.  The first time
	  will as `<tt>INSTALL ${PKGNAME} PRE-INSTALL</tt>'
	  and the second time as `<tt>INSTALL ${PKGNAME} POST-INSTALL</tt>'.
	  `<tt>&dollar;2</tt>' can be tested to determine which mode
	  the script is being run in.
	  The `<tt>PKG_PREFIX</tt>' environmental variable will be set to
	  the package installation directory.  See man <tt>pkg_add(1)</tt>
	  for additional information.
	  Note, that this script is not run automatically if you install
	  the port with `<tt>make install</tt>'.  If you are depending
	  on it being run, you will have to explicitly call it on your
	  port's Makefile.

      <sect3>
	<heading>REQ package script</heading>
	<p>If your port needs to determine if it should install or not, you
	  can create a pkg/REQ ``requirements'' script.  It will be invoked
	  automatically at installation/deinstallation time to determine
	  whether or not installation/deinstallation should proceed.
	  See man <tt>pkg_create(1)</tt> and man <tt>pkg_add(1)</tt> for
	  more information.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Install additional documentation</heading>

	<p>If your software has some documentation other than the
	  standard man and info pages that you think is useful for the
	  user, install it under <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}/share/doc</tt>.
	  This can be done, like the previous item, in the
	  <tt>post-install</tt> target.

        <p>Create a new directory for your port.  The directory name
	  should reflect what the port is.  This usually means
	  <tt>&dollar;{PKGNAME}</tt> minus the version part.  However,
	  if you think the user might want different versions of the
	  port to be installed at the same time, you
	  can use the whole <tt>&dollar;{PKGNAME}</tt>.

	<p>Make the installation dependent to the variable
	  <tt>NOPORTDOCS</tt> so that users can disable it in
	  <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>, like this:
<tscreen><verb>
 post-install:
 .if !defined(NOPORTDOCS)
	 ${MKDIR} ${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv
	 ${INSTALL_MAN} ${WRKSRC}/docs/xvdocs.ps ${PREFIX}/share/doc/xv
 .endif
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>Do not forget to add them to <tt>pkg/PLIST</tt> too!  (Do not
	  worry about <tt>NOPORTDOCS</tt> here; there is currently no
	  way for the packages to read variables from
	  <tt>/etc/make.conf</tt>.)

	<p>If you need to display a message to the installer, you may
	  place the message in <tt>pkg/MESSAGE</tt>.  This capibility
	  is often useful to display additional installation steps to
	  be taken after a pkg_add, or to display licensing information.
	  (note: the MESSAGE file does not need to be added to pkg/PLIST).


      <sect3>
	<heading>DIST_SUBDIR</heading>

	<p>Do not let your port clutter <tt>/usr/ports/distfiles</tt>.  If
	  your port requires a lot of files to be
	  fetched, or contains a file that has a name that might conflict
	  with other ports (e.g., `Makefile'), set
	  <tt>&dollar;{DIST_SUBDIR}</tt> to the name of the port
	  (<tt>&dollar;{PKGNAME}</tt> without the version part should work
	  fine).  This will change <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> from the
	  default <tt>/usr/ports/distfiles</tt> to
	  <tt>/usr/ports/distfiles/&dollar;{DIST_SUBDIR}</tt>, and in
	  effect puts everything that is required for your port into that
	  subdirectory.

	<p>It will also look at the subdirectory with the same name on the
	  backup master site at <tt>ftp.freebsd.org</tt>.  (Setting
	  <tt>&dollar;{DISTDIR}</tt> explicitly in your Makefile will not
	  accomplish this, so please use <tt>&dollar;{DIST_SUBDIR}</tt>.)
	  
	<p>Note this does not affect the <tt>&dollar;{MASTER_SITES}</tt>
	  you define in your Makefile.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Feedback</heading>

	<p>Do send applicable changes/patches to the original
	  author/maintainer for inclusion in next release of the code.
	  This will only make your job that much easier for the next
	  release.

      <sect3>
	<heading>RCS strings</heading>

	<p>Do not put RCS strings in patches.  CVS will mangle them
	  when we put the files into the ports tree, and when we check
	  them out again, they will come out different and the patch
	  will fail.  RCS strings are surrounded by dollar
	  (`<tt>&dollar;</tt>') signs, and typically start with
	  `<tt>&dollar;Id</tt>' or `<tt>&dollar;RCS</tt>'.

      <sect3>
	<heading>Recursive diff</heading>

	<p>Using the recurse (`<tt>-r</tt>') option to <tt>diff</tt>
	  to generate patches is fine, but please take a look at the
	  resulting patches to make sure you don't have any
	  unnecessary junk in there.  In particular, diffs between two
	  backup files, Makefiles when the port uses Imake or GNU
	  configure, etc., are unnecessary and should be deleted.
	  Also, if you had to delete a file, then you can do it in the
	  <tt>post-extract</tt> target rather than as part of the
	  patch.  Once you are happy with the resuling diff, please
	  split it up into one source file per patch file.

      <sect3>
	<heading>PREFIX</heading>

	<p>Do try to make your port install relative to
	  <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}</tt>.  (The value of this variable will be
	  set to <tt>&dollar;{LOCALBASE}</tt> (default
	  <tt>/usr/local</tt>), unless <tt>&dollar;{USE_IMAKE}</tt> or
	  <tt>&dollar;{USE_X11}</tt> is set, in which case it will be
	  <tt>&dollar;{X11BASE}</tt> (default <tt>/usr/X11R6</tt>).)

	<p>Not hard-coding `<tt>/usr/local</tt>' or `<tt>/usr/X11R6</tt>'
	  anywhere in the source will make the port much more flexible and
	  able to cater to the needs of other sites.  For X ports that use
	  imake, this is automatic; otherwise, this can often be done by
	  simply replacing the occurrences of `<tt>/usr/local</tt>' (or
	  `<tt>/usr/X11R6</tt>' for X ports that do not use imake) in the
	  various scripts/Makefiles in the port to read
	  `<tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}</tt>', as this variable is automatically
	  passed down to every stage of the build and install processes.

	<p>The variable <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}</tt> can be reassigned in your
	  Makefile or in the user's environment.  However, it is strongly
	  discouraged for individual ports to set this variable explicitly
	  in the Makefiles.  (If your port is an X port but does not use
	  imake, set <tt>USE_X11=yes</tt>; this is quite different from
	  setting <tt>PREFIX=/usr/X11R6</tt>.)

	<p>Also, refer to programs/files from other ports with the
	  variables mentioned above, not explicit pathnames.  For instance,
	  if your port requires a macro <tt>PAGER</tt> to be the full
	  pathname of <tt>less</tt>, use the compiler flag:
	  <verb>-DPAGER=\"&dollar;{PREFIX}/bin/less\"</verb> or
	  <verb>-DPAGER=\"&dollar;{LOCALBASE}/bin/less\"</verb> if this is an
	  X port, instead of <verb>-DPAGER=\"/usr/local/bin/less\"</verb>.
	  This way it will have a better chance of working if the system
	  administrator has moved the whole `/usr/local' tree somewhere
	  else.

      <sect3>
      <heading>Subdirectories</heading>

	<p>Try to let the port put things in the right subdirectories
	  of <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}</tt>.  Some ports lump everything
	  and put it in the subdirectory with the port's name, which is
	  incorrect.  Also, many ports put everything except binaries,
	  header files and manual pages in the a subdirectory of
	  `<tt>lib</tt>', which does not bode well with the BSD
	  paradigm.  Many of the files should be moved to one of the
	  following: `<tt>etc</tt>' (setup/configuration files),
	  `<tt>libexec</tt>' (executables started internally),
	  `<tt>sbin</tt>' (executables for superusers/managers),
	  `<tt>info</tt>' (documentation for info browser) or 
	  `<tt>share</tt>' (architecture independent files).  See man
	  <tt>hier(7)</tt> for details, the rule governing
	  <tt>/usr</tt> pretty much applies to <tt>/usr/local</tt>
	  too.  The exception are ports dealing with USENET `news'.
	  They may use <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}/news</tt> as a destination
	  for their files.

      <sect3>
	<heading>ldconfig</heading>

	<p>If your port installs a shared library, add a
	  <tt>post-install</tt> target to your Makefile that runs
	  `<tt>/sbin/ldconfig -m</tt>' on the directory where the new
	  library is installed (usually <tt>&dollar;{PREFIX}/lib</tt>)
	  to register it into the shared library cache.

	<p>Also, add an <tt>@exec</tt> line to your <tt>pkg/PLIST</tt>
	  file so that a user who installed the package can start
	  using the shared library immediately.  This line should 
	  immediately follow the line for the shared library itself,
	  as in:
<tscreen><verb>
lib/libtcl80.so.1.0
@exec /sbin/ldconfig -m %D/lib
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>Never, ever, <em>ever</em> add a line that says
	  `<tt>ldconfig</tt>' without any arguments to your Makefile
	  or pkg/PLIST.  This will reset the shared library cache to
	  the contents of <tt>/usr/lib</tt> only, and will royally
	  screw up the user's machine ("Help, xinit does not run
	  anymore after I install this port!").  Anybody who does this
	  will be shot and cut into 65,536 pieces by a rusty knife and
	  have his liver chopped out by a bunch of crows and will
	  eternally rot to death in the deepest bowels of hell (not
	  necessarily in that order)....

      <sect3>
	<heading>UIDs</heading>

	<p>If your port requires a certain user ID to be on the
	  installed system, let the <tt>pkg/INSTALL</tt> script call
	  <tt>pw</tt> to create it automatically.  Look at
	  <tt>japanese/Wnn</tt> or <tt>net/cvsup-mirror</tt> for
	  examples.  It is customary to use UIDs in the upper 2-digit
	  range (i.e., from around 50 to 99) for this purpose.

	<p>Make sure you don't use a UID already used by the system or
	  other ports.  This is the current list of UIDs between 50
	  and 99.

<tscreen><verb>
majordom:*:54:1024:Majordomo Pseudo User:/usr/local/majordomo:/nonexistent
cyrus:*:60:248:the cyrus mail server:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
uucp:*:66:66:UUCP pseudo-user:/var/spool/uucppublic:/usr/libexec/uucp/uucico
xten:*:67:67:X-10 daemon:/usr/local/xten:/nonexistent
pop:*:68:6:Post Office Owner:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
wnn:*:69:7:Wnn:/nonexistent:/nonexistent
pgsql:*:71:246:PostgreSQL pseudo-user:/usr/local/pgsql:/bin/sh
msql:*:80:249:mSQL-2 pseudo-user:/var/db/msqldb:/bin/sh
</verb></tscreen>

	<p>Please send a notice to <htmlurl
	  url='mailto:ports@FreeBSD.org' name='ports@FreeBSD.org'> if
	  you submit or commit a port that allocates a new UID in this
	  range so we can keep this list up to date.

      <sect3>
	<heading>If you are stuck....</heading>

	<p>Do look at existing examples and the <tt>bsd.port.mk</tt>
	  file before asking us questions!  <tt>;)</tt>

	<p>Do ask us questions if you have any trouble!  Do not just
	  beat your head against a wall! <tt>:)</tt>

    <sect2>
      <heading>A Sample Makefile<label id="porting:samplem"></heading>

      <p>Here is a sample Makefile that you can use to create a new
	port.  Make sure you remove all the extra comments (ones
	between brackets)!

      <p>It is recommended that you follow this format (ordering of
	variables, empty lines between sections, etc.).  Not all of
	the existing Makefiles are in this format (mostly old ones),
	but we are trying to uniformize how they look.  This format is
	designed so that the most important information is easy to
	locate.

<tscreen><verb>
 [the header...just to make it easier for us to identify the ports]
 # New ports collection makefile for:	xdvi
 # Version required:	pl18 [things like "1.5alpha" are fine here too]
 [this is the date when the first version of this Makefile was created]
 # Date created:		26 May 1995
 [this is the person who did the original port to FreeBSD, in particular, the
  person who wrote the first version of this Makefile.  This header should
  not be changed when upgrading the port later.]
 # Whom:			Satoshi Asami <asami@FreeBSD.ORG>
 #
 # &dollar;Id&dollar;
 [ ^^^^ This will be automatically replaced with RCS ID string by CVS 
  when it is committed to our repository.]
 #
 
 [section to describe the port itself and the master site - DISTNAME
  is always first, followed by PKGNAME (if necessary), CATEGORIES,
  and then MASTER_SITES, which can be followed by MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR.
  After those, one of EXTRACT_SUFX or DISTFILES can be specified too.]
 DISTNAME=	xdvi
 PKGNAME=	xdvi-pl18
 CATEGORIES=	print
 [do not forget the trailing slash ("/")! 
  if you aren't using MASTER_SITE_* macros]
 MASTER_SITES=	${MASTER_SITE_XCONTRIB}
 MASTER_SITE_SUBDIR= applications
 [set this if the source is not in the standard ".tar.gz" form]
 EXTRACT_SUFX=	.tar.Z
 
 [section for distributed patches -- can be empty]
 PATCH_SITES=	ftp://ftp.sra.co.jp/pub/X11/japanese/
 PATCHFILES=	xdvi-18.patch1.gz xdvi-18.patch2.gz
 
 [maintainer; *mandatory*!  This is the person (preferably with commit
  privileges) who a user can contact for questions and bug reports - this
  person should be the porter or someone who can forward questions to the
  original porter reasonably promptly.  If you really do not want to have
  your address here, set it to "ports@FreeBSD.ORG".]
 MAINTAINER=	asami@FreeBSD.ORG
 
 [dependencies -- can be empty]
 RUN_DEPENDS=	gs:${PORTSDIR}/print/ghostscript
 LIB_DEPENDS=	Xpm\\.4\\.:${PORTSDIR}/graphics/xpm
 
 [this section is for other standard bsd.port.mk variables that do not
  belong to any of the above]
 [If it asks questions during configure, build, install...]
 IS_INTERACTIVE=	yes
 [If it extracts to a directory other than ${DISTNAME}...]
 WRKSRC=		${WRKDIR}/xdvi-new
 [If the distributed patches were not made relative to ${WRKSRC}, you
  may need to tweak this]
 PATCH_DIST_STRIP=	-p1
 [If it requires a "configure" script generated by GNU autoconf to be run]
 GNU_CONFIGURE= yes
 [If it requires GNU make, not /usr/bin/make, to build...]
 USE_GMAKE=	yes
 [If it is an X application and requires "xmkmf -a" to be run...]
 USE_IMAKE=	yes
 [et cetera.]
 
 [non-standard variables to be used in the rules below]
 MY_FAVORITE_RESPONSE=	"yeah, right"
 
 [then the special rules, in the order they are called]
 pre-fetch:
	 i go fetch something, yeah
 
 post-patch:
	 i need to do something after patch, great
 
 pre-install:
	 and then some more stuff before installing, wow
 
 [and then the epilogue]
 .include <bsd.port.mk>
</verb></tscreen>

    <sect2>
      <heading>Package Names</heading>

      <p>The following are the conventions you should follow in
	naming your packages.  This is to have our package directory
	easy to scan, as there are already lots and lots of packages
	and users are going to turn away if they hurt their eyes!

      <p>The package name should look like

<tscreen><verb>
[<language>-]<name>[[-]<compiled.specifics>]-<version.string.numbers>;
</verb></tscreen>

	  If your <tt>&dollar;{DISTNAME}</tt> doesn't look like that,
	  set <tt>&dollar;{PKGNAME}</tt> to something in that format.

      <enum>
	<item>FreeBSD strives to support the native language of its
	  users.  The `&lt;language&gt;' part should be a two letter
	  abbreviation of the natural language defined by ISO-639 if
	  the port is specific to a certain language.  Examples are
	  `ja' for Japanese, `ru' for Russian, `vi' for Vietnamese,
	  `zh' for Chinese, `ko' for Korean and `de' for German.

        <item>The `<tt>&lt;name&gt;</tt>' part should be all
	  lowercases, except for a really large package (with lots of
	  programs in it).  Things like XFree86 (yes there really is a
	  package of it, check it out) and ImageMagick fall into this
	  category.  Otherwise, convert the name (or at least the
	  first letter) to lowercase.  If the software in question
	  really is called that way, you can have numbers, hyphens and
	  underscores in the name too (like `kinput2').

	<item>If the port can be built with different hardcoded
	  defaults (usually specified as environment variables or on
	  the <tt>make</tt> command line), the
	  `&lt;compiled.specifics&gt;' part should state the
	  compiled-in defaults (the hyphen is optional).  Examples are
	  papersize and font units.

        <item>The version string should be a period-separated list of
	  integers and single lowercase alphabets.  The only exception
	  is the string `pl' (meaning `patchlevel'), which can be used
	  <em>only</em> when there are no major and minor version
	  numbers in the software.
      </enum>

      <p>Here are some (real) examples on how to convert a
	<tt>&dollar;{DISTNAME}</tt> into a suitable
	<tt>&dollar;{PKGNAME}</tt>:

<tscreen><verb>
DISTNAME	PKGNAME			Reason
mule-2.2.2	mule-2.2.2		no prob at all
XFree86-3.1.2	XFree86-3.1.2		ditto
EmiClock-1.0.2	emiclock-1.0.2		no uppercase names for single programs
gmod1.4		gmod-1.4		need hyphen after `<name>'
xmris.4.02	xmris-4.02		ditto
rdist-1.3alpha	rdist-1.3a		no strings like `alpha' allowed
es-0.9-beta1	es-0.9b1		ditto
v3.3beta021.src	tiff-3.3		what the heck was that anyway? ;)
tvtwm		tvtwm-pl11		version string always required
piewm		piewm-1.0		ditto
xvgr-2.10pl1	xvgr-2.10.1		`pl' allowed only when no maj/minor numbers
gawk-2.15.6	jp-gawk-2.15.6		Japanese language version
psutils-1.13	psutils-letter-1.13	papersize hardcoded at package build time
pkfonts		pkfonts300-1.0		package for 300dpi fonts
</verb></tscreen>

      <p>If there is absolutely no trace of version information in the
	original source and it is unlikely that the original author
	will ever release another version, just set the version string
	to `1.0' (like the piewm example above).  Otherwise, ask the
	original author or use the date string (`yy.mm.dd') as the
	version.

    <sect2>
      <heading>That is It, Folks!</heading>

      <p>Boy, this sure was a long tutorial, wasn't it?  Thanks for
	following us to here, really.

      <p>Well, now that you know how to do a port, let us go at it and
	convert everything in the world into ports!  That is the
	easiest way to start contributing to the FreeBSD Project! 
	<tt>:)</tt>