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# $FreeBSD$
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: \n"
"POT-Creation-Date: 2019-10-03 17:21+0800\n"
"PO-Revision-Date: 2019-10-31 14:41+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: \n"
"Language-Team: \n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
"X-Generator: Poedit 2.2.4\n"

#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
msgctxt "_"
msgid "translator-credits"
msgstr "translator-credits"

#. (itstool) path: info/title
#: book.translate.xml:19
msgid "Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable>"
msgstr "FreeBSD 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 常見問答集"

#. (itstool) path: info/author
#: book.translate.xml:22
msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
msgstr "<orgname>FreeBSD 文件計畫</orgname>"

#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
#: book.translate.xml:24
msgid ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> <year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
"<year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> "
"<year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> <year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <year>2018</year> "
"<year>2019</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>"
msgstr ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> <year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
"<year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> "
"<year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> <year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <year>2018</year> "
"<year>2019</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
#: book.translate.xml:56
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr "版權所有"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:58
msgid ""
"Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are "
"permitted provided that the following conditions are met:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:65
msgid ""
"Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first "
"lines of this file unmodified."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:71
msgid ""
"Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright "
"notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: important/para
#: book.translate.xml:80
msgid ""
"THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE "
"IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE "
"LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE "
"GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT "
"LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF "
"SUCH DAMAGE."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:97
msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD基金會的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:99
msgid ""
"Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States "
"and/or other countries."
msgstr "Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, 以及 PostScript 是 Adobe Systems Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:103
msgid ""
"IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, "
"or both."
msgstr "IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, 和 ThinkPad 是 國際商用機器公司在美國和其他國家的註冊商標或商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:107
msgid "IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
msgstr "IEEE, POSIX, 和 802 是 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:110
msgid ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or "
"its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries."
msgstr ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, 和 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:114
msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
msgstr "Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:116
msgid ""
"Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation "
"in the United States and/or other countries."
msgstr "Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media, 和 Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:120
msgid "NetBSD is a registered trademark of the NetBSD Foundation."
msgstr "NetBSD 是 NetBSD基金會的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:122
msgid ""
"Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other "
"countries."
msgstr "Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group 是 The Open Group  在美國和其他國家的商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:126
msgid "Silicon Graphics, SGI, and OpenGL are registered trademarks of Silicon Graphics, Inc., in the United States and/or other countries worldwide."
msgstr "Silicon Graphics, SGI, 和 OpenGL 是 Silicon Graphics, Inc. 在美國和/或其他國家的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:129
msgid ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or "
"registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries."
msgstr ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox 是 Sun Microsystems, "
"Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。"

#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
#: book.translate.xml:134
msgid ""
"Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in "
"this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</"
"quote> symbol."
msgstr ""
"許多製造商和經銷商使用一些稱為商標的圖案或文字設計來彰顯自己的產品。 本文中出現的眾多商標,以及 FreeBSD Project 本身廣所人知的商標,後面將以<quote>™</"
"quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標註。"

#. (itstool) path: info/releaseinfo
#: book.translate.xml:142
msgid "$FreeBSD$"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
#: book.translate.xml:145
msgid ""
"This is the Frequently Asked Questions <acronym>(FAQ)</acronym> for FreeBSD versions 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 11.<replaceable>X</"
"replaceable>. Every effort has been made to make this <acronym>FAQ</acronym> as informative as possible; if you have any suggestions as to how it may "
"be improved, send them to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</"
"link>."
msgstr ""
"這份文件是 FreeBSD 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 和 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 常見問答集 ( <acronym>(FAQ)</acronym> )。我們盡可能地讓這份  "
"<acronym>FAQ</acronym> 提供有用的資訊 ; 如果您有任何改善建議,請寄到 <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD "
"文件計畫郵件論壇</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
#: book.translate.xml:152
msgid ""
"The latest version of this document is always available from the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/index.html"
"\">FreeBSD website</link>. It may also be downloaded as one large <link xlink:href=\"book.html\">HTML</link> file with HTTP or as a variety of other "
"formats from the <link xlink:href=\"https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/\">FreeBSD FTP server</link>."
msgstr ""
"本文件的最新版本可由 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/index.html\">FreeBSD 網站</link>取得。 也可以由 <link xlink:"
"href=\"https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/\">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link>  以 HTTP 下載單一大型   <link xlink:href=\"book.html\">HTML</link> 檔或是其他格"
"式的檔案。"

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:162
msgid "Introduction"
msgstr "前言"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:167
msgid "What is FreeBSD?"
msgstr "什麼是 FreeBSD?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:171
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a modern operating system for desktops, laptops, servers, and embedded systems with support for a large number of <link xlink:href=\"https://"
"www.FreeBSD.org/platforms/\">platforms</link>."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 是一個使用於桌機、筆電、伺服器與嵌入式系統平台的現代作業系統,支援多種<link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/platforms/\">平台</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:175
msgid ""
"It is based on U.C. Berkeley's <quote>4.4BSD-Lite</quote> release, with some <quote>4.4BSD-Lite2</quote> enhancements. It is also based indirectly on "
"William Jolitz's port of U.C. Berkeley's <quote>Net/2</quote> to the <trademark>i386</trademark>, known as <quote>386BSD</quote>, though very little of "
"the 386BSD code remains."
msgstr ""
"它是根據 U.C. Berkeley 所開發出來的 <quote>4.4BSD-Lite</quote> ,並加上了許多 <quote>4.4BSD-Lite2</quote> 的增強功能。它同時也間接使用了 U.C. Berkeley "
"所開發出來並由 William Jolitz 移植到 <trademark>i386</trademark> 的 <quote>Net/2</quote>,也就是 <quote>386BSD</quote>,不過現在 386BSD 的程式碼只剩下極"
"少數還留 存在 FreeBSD 中。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:183
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is used by companies, Internet Service Providers, researchers, computer professionals, students and home users all over the world in their "
"work, education and recreation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 已被廣泛地被世界各地的公司行號、ISP、研究人員、電腦 專家、學生,以及家庭用戶所使用,用在工作、教育以及娛樂上。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:188
msgid ""
"For more detailed information on FreeBSD, refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD "
"Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""
"如果想看關於 FreeBSD 更深入的資料,請看 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:196
msgid "What is the goal of the FreeBSD Project?"
msgstr "發展 FreeBSD 計畫的目的是什麼?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:200
msgid ""
"The goal of the FreeBSD Project is to provide a stable and fast general purpose operating system that may be used for any purpose without strings "
"attached."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計畫的目的是提供可以任意使用且沒有限制的穩定快速與一般用途的作業系統。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:208
msgid "Does the FreeBSD license have any restrictions?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 版權有任何限制嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:212
msgid ""
"Yes. Those restrictions do not control how the code is used, but how to treat the FreeBSD Project itself. The license itself is available at <link "
"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html\">license</link> and can be summarized like this:"
msgstr ""
"有的。但是這並不是限制你怎麼去使用這些程式碼,而是你怎麼看待 FreeBSD 這個計畫。可以在此閱讀 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/"
"freebsd-license.html\"> 版權本文</link>,簡單來說總結如下:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:220
msgid "Do not claim that you wrote this."
msgstr "請勿宣稱是您寫了這個程式。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:224
msgid "Do not sue us if it breaks."
msgstr "如果它出問題了,不要控告我們。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:228
msgid "Do not remove or modify the license."
msgstr "不要移除和修改版權"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:232
msgid ""
"Many of us have a significant investment in the project and would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and then, but we definitely do "
"not insist on it. We believe that our first and foremost <quote>mission</quote> is to provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so "
"that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit. This, we believe, is one of the most fundamental goals of Free "
"Software and one that we enthusiastically support."
msgstr ""
"我們許多人在這個計畫投入很多心血,並不會介意獲得一些財務上的報酬,但是我們並沒有堅持一定要有。我們相信我們首要的<quote>任務</quote>是將程式碼提供給所有"
"使用者,無論他們有任何的目的,這麼一來,這些程式碼才能被用在最多地方,也才能發揮它們最大的利益。我們相信這就是自由軟體最基本的目標之一,而且我們會盡全力"
"去支持它。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:243
msgid ""
"Code in our source tree which falls under the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING\">GNU General Public License (GPL)</link> or "
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING.LIB\">GNU Library General Public License (LGPL)</link> comes with slightly more strings "
"attached, though at least on the side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite. Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the "
"commercial use of GPL software, we do, however, endeavor to replace such software with submissions under the more relaxed <link xlink:href=\"https://"
"www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html\">FreeBSD license</link> whenever possible."
msgstr ""
"在我們 source tree 中有部份的程式碼是採用所謂的<link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING\">GNU General Public License (GPL)</link> "
"或 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING.LIB\">GNU Library General Public License (LGPL)</link>版權宣告,雖然這些版權宣告是用來保"
"障而非限制使用者的權 利,畢竟是不那麼自由了些。由於這些 GPL 的軟體在商業使用上會引起 非常複雜的版權問題,因此只要有機會,我們會盡量以採用比較鬆的 <link "
"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html\">FreeBSD 版權</link> 的軟體來取代這些 GPL 版權宣告的軟體。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:258
msgid "Can FreeBSD replace my current operating system?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 可以取代我現在在用的作業系統嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:262
msgid "For most people, yes. But this question is not quite that cut-and-dried."
msgstr "對大部份的人來說是這樣沒錯,但事實上這問題並沒有這麼好回答。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:265
msgid ""
"Most people do not actually use an operating system. They use applications. The applications are what really use the operating system. FreeBSD is "
"designed to provide a robust and full-featured environment for applications. It supports a wide variety of web browsers, office suites, email readers, "
"graphics programs, programming environments, network servers, and much more. Most of these applications can be managed through the <link xlink:href="
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/\">Ports Collection</link>."
msgstr ""
"大部份的人並不是真正在使用一個作業系統。他們使用的是應用程式 ;而那些應用程式才是真正用到作業系統的東西。FreeBSD 是設計用來提供一個強韌且功能完整的作業"
"環境給應用程式來執行。它支援了多種瀏覽器,辦公室套件軟體,電子郵件閱讀軟體,繪圖程式,程式設計環境,網路伺服器軟體,以及幾乎所有你想要的東西。大部份的程"
"式都可以靠 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/\">Ports Collection</link> 來管理。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:276
msgid ""
"If an application is only available on one operating system, that operating system cannot just be replaced. Chances are, there is a very similar "
"application on FreeBSD, however. As a solid office or Internet server or a reliable workstation, FreeBSD will almost certainly do everything you need. "
"Many computer users across the world, including both novices and experienced <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> administrators, use "
"FreeBSD as their only desktop operating system."
msgstr ""
"但是如果你想要使用的應用程式只能在某個特定的作業系統上面執行 的話,你就不能輕易地把它換掉,或者指望在 FreeBSD 上有很相似的應用程式才有機會。如果你想要的"
"是一個強健的辦公室或是網路伺服器,或是一部穩定的工作站,FreeBSD 無疑是您的最佳選擇。世界各地有很多使用者,包括初學或資深的 <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">UNIX</trademark> 管理人員都選用 FreeBSD 當他們唯一的桌上作業系統。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:286
msgid ""
"Users migrating to FreeBSD from another <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>-like environment will find FreeBSD to be similar. <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> and <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac OS</trademark> users may be interested in instead using <link xlink:"
"href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link>, a FreeBSD-based desktop distribution. Non-<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> users should "
"expect to invest some additional time learning the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> way of doing things. This <acronym>FAQ</acronym> "
"and the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD Handbook</link> are excellent places to start."
msgstr ""
"如果你是從其他的 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>-like 環境轉換到 FreeBSD 的話會很熟悉。 <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> 或是 <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac OS</trademark> 的使用者可能會對 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link> 有興趣,他"
"是基於 FreeBSD 的一個桌面環境發行版,非<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 使用者可能就要多花一點時間來學習怎麼用 <trademark class="
"\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 的 方法來做事。你可以從這份 <acronym>FAQ</acronym> 和 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/"
"handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link> 來入門。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:300
msgid "Why is it called FreeBSD?"
msgstr "為什麼要叫做 FreeBSD?"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:306
msgid "It may be used free of charge, even by commercial users."
msgstr "您可以免費使用它,即使是用於商業用途。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:311
msgid ""
"Full source for the operating system is freely available, and the minimum possible restrictions have been placed upon its use, distribution and "
"incorporation into other work (commercial or non-commercial)."
msgstr "整個 FreeBSD 作業系統完整的原始程式都可以免費取得,而且不管是在使用,散佈或是整合進其他程式等各方面也只受到最小的限制 (不論是否用於商業用途)。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:319
msgid ""
"Anyone who has an improvement or bug fix is free to submit their code and have it added to the source tree (subject to one or two obvious provisions)."
msgstr "任何人都可以自由地把他對系統的改良或錯誤修正的程式碼加入 source tree 之中 (當然要符合幾個先決條件)。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:326
msgid ""
"It is worth pointing out that the word <quote>free</quote> is being used in two ways here: one meaning <quote>at no cost</quote> and the other meaning "
"<quote>do whatever you like</quote>. Apart from one or two things you <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> do with the FreeBSD code, for example pretending you "
"wrote it, you can really do whatever you like with it."
msgstr ""
"特別值得注意的是這裡的 “free” 出現了兩次,而且它們 的意思是不一樣的:一種代表 “免費”,另一種代表 “自由”。您可以拿 FreeBSD 去做任何您想要做的事,除了一些"
"例外,例如您宣稱 FreeBSD 是您寫的。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:338
msgid "What are the differences between FreeBSD and NetBSD, OpenBSD, and other open source BSD operating systems?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 及 NetBSD, OpenBSD 以及其他 open source BSD 作業系統之間有何不同之處呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:344
msgid ""
"James Howard wrote a good explanation of the history and differences between the various projects, called <link xlink:href=\"https://jameshoward.us/"
"archive/the-bsd-family-tree/\">The BSD Family Tree</link> which goes a fair way to answering this question. Some of the information is out of date, but "
"the history portion in particular remains accurate."
msgstr ""
"James Howard 寫了一篇關於不同計畫的差異和歷史淵源的好文章叫 <link xlink:href=\"https://jameshoward.us/archive/the-bsd-family-tree/\">The BSD Family "
"Tree</link> 可以回答這個問題。雖然有些資訊有點過時,但是關於歷史淵源的部份仍是相當正確的。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:351
msgid "Most of the BSDs share patches and code, even today. All of the BSDs have common ancestry."
msgstr "時至今日,大部分的 BSD 家族仍是共用修補和程式碼的。這些 BSD 家族有著共同的祖先。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:354
msgid ""
"The design goals of FreeBSD are described in <xref linkend=\"FreeBSD-goals\"/>, above. The design goals of the other most popular BSDs may be "
"summarized as follows:"
msgstr " FreeBSD 的設計目的如 <xref linkend=\"FreeBSD-goals\"/> 所述。其他 BSD 家族的設計目的如下所述:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:360
msgid ""
"OpenBSD aims for operating system security above all else. The OpenBSD team wrote <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which have both been ported to "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr ""
"OpenBSD 目標在作業系統的安全性。OpenBSD團隊寫的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 和 "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 都移植到了 FreeBSD。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:367
msgid "NetBSD aims to be easily ported to other hardware platforms."
msgstr "NetBSD 目標在易於移植到其他的硬體平台。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:372
msgid ""
"DragonFly BSD is a fork of FreeBSD 4.8 that has since developed many interesting features of its own, including the HAMMER file system and support for "
"user-mode <quote>vkernels</quote>."
msgstr "DragonFly BSD 是 FreeBSD 4.8 的一個分支,發展出許多有趣的特色,包括 HAMMER 檔案系統和支援 <quote>vkernels</quote> 使用者模式。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:383
msgid "What is the latest version of FreeBSD?"
msgstr "最新版的 FreeBSD 是那一版?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:387
msgid ""
"At any point in the development of FreeBSD, there can be multiple parallel branches. 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases are made from the "
"<emphasis>12-STABLE</emphasis> branch, and 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases are made from the <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> branch."
msgstr ""
"在 FreeBSD 開發的任何時間點,都有多個平行的分支。12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases 是從 <emphasis>12-STABLE</emphasis> 分支而來,而 11."
"<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases 是從 <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> 分支而來。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:392
msgid ""
"Up until the release of 9.0, the 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> series was the one known as <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>. However, as of 13."
"<replaceable>X</replaceable>, the 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> branch will be designated for an <quote>extended support</quote> status and receive "
"only fixes for major problems, such as security-related fixes."
msgstr ""
"在 9.0 之前,11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 系列仍屬 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>分支。 然而從13.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 發行開始,11."
"<replaceable>X</replaceable> 將只著重在重大問題上(比如:漏洞修補、安全維護)以及所謂的  <quote>extended support</quote> 。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:403
msgid ""
"Version <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/amd64/12.0-RELEASE/\">12.0</link> is the latest release from the "
"<emphasis>12-STABLE</emphasis> branch; it was released in December 2018. Version <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/"
"amd64/11.2-RELEASE/\">11.2</link> is the latest release from the <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> branch; it was released in June 2018."
msgstr ""
"於 2018年12月所發行的 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/amd64/12.0-RELEASE/\">12.0</link>  是目前最新的 <emphasis>12-"
"STABLE</emphasis> 分支。 於 2019年7月所發行的 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/amd64/11.3-RELEASE/\">11.3</link>是目前"
"最新的  <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:409
msgid ""
"Releases are made <link linkend=\"release-freq\">every few months</link>. While many people stay more up-to-date with the FreeBSD sources (see the "
"questions on <link linkend=\"current\">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> and <link linkend=\"stable\">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>) than that, doing so is more of a "
"commitment, as the sources are a moving target."
msgstr ""
"Releases 版 <link linkend=\"release-freq\">每幾個月</link> 才會發行一次。 雖然如此,有很多人和 FreeBSD 原始碼同步更新 (詳見 <link linkend=\"current"
"\">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> 和 <link linkend=\"stable\">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>的相關問題) ,但因為原始碼是一直不斷地在變動的,所以如果要這麼做的話得要花上"
"更多的精力。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:416
msgid ""
"More information on FreeBSD releases can be found on the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html#release-build\">Release "
"Engineering page</link> and in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>release</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""
"其他更多相關 FreeBSD 發行情報,可由 FreeBSD 網站上的  <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html#release-build\">Release Engineering "
"頁面</link> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>release</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>得知。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:424
msgid "What is <emphasis>FreeBSD-CURRENT</emphasis>?"
msgstr "什麼是 <emphasis>FreeBSD-CURRENT</emphasis>?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:428
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current\">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> is the development version "
"of the operating system, which will in due course become the new FreeBSD-STABLE branch. As such, it is really only of interest to developers working on "
"the system and die-hard hobbyists. See the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current"
"\">relevant section</link> in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/index.html\">Handbook</link> for details on "
"running <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current\">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> 指的是正在發展中的作業系統版"
"本,它終將在適當的時機成為 FreeBSD-STABLE 分支。它實在是只適合給系統發展者以及有毅力的業餘愛好者使用 。如果想要得到有關如何使用<emphasis>-CURRENT</"
"emphasis>的深入資訊,請參考<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html\">使用手冊</link>的<link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current\">相關部份</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:437
msgid ""
"Users not familiar with FreeBSD should not use FreeBSD-CURRENT. This branch sometimes evolves quite quickly and due to mistake can be un-buildable at "
"times. People that use FreeBSD-CURRENT are expected to be able to analyze, debug, and report problems."
msgstr ""
"如果您對 FreeBSD 本身並不是很熟悉那麼您就不應該使用FreeBSD-CURRENT。 這個分支的程式碼有時候變動得很快,而且可能會因此 而使您有好幾天的時間無法更新您的系"
"統。我們假設使用 FreeBSD-CURRENT 的使用者都有能力去分析他們所遇到的問題,除錯,並且回報問題。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:443
msgid ""
"FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/\">snapshot</link> releases are made based on the current state of the <emphasis>-CURRENT</"
"emphasis> and <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branches. The goals behind each snapshot release are:"
msgstr ""
"我們每天都會根據目前 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 和 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>  的狀況對這兩個分支各發行一個 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/"
"snapshots/\">snapshot</link> 版。發表這些 snapshot 的目的在於:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:451
msgid "To test the latest version of the installation software."
msgstr "測試最新版的安裝程式。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:456
msgid ""
"To give people who would like to run <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> or <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> but who do not have the time or bandwidth to follow "
"it on a day-to-day basis an easy way of bootstrapping it onto their systems."
msgstr "提供一個簡單的方法給那些喜歡使用 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 或是 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 但是沒有時間和頻寬去每天昇級的使用者。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:465
msgid ""
"To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question, just in case we break something really badly later. (Although Subversion normally "
"prevents anything horrible like this happening.)"
msgstr "為了替我們發展中的程式保留一個固定的參考點,以防止我們未來不幸搞砸了。(雖然一般而言 Subversion 可以防止類似這種的可怕事件)"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:472
msgid "To ensure that all new features and fixes in need of testing have the greatest possible number of potential testers."
msgstr "為了確保所有需要測試的新功能或修正都可以得到最多的測試。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:478
msgid ""
"No claims are made that any <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> snapshot can be considered <quote>production quality</quote> for any purpose. If a stable and "
"fully tested system is needed, stick to full releases."
msgstr ""
"我們不對 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> snapshot 做任何目的的 <quote>品質保證</quote> 。如果你想要的是一個穩定且經過充分測試過的系統的話, 最好選擇使用完"
"整 releases."

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:484
msgid "Snapshot releases are directly available from <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/\">snapshot</link>."
msgstr "您可以直接從 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/\">snapshot</link> 取得 -CURRENT 的 snapshot release。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:486
msgid "Official snapshots are generated on a regular basis for all actively developed branches."
msgstr "對每個有在活動的分支而言,都會定期產生一次 snapshots。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:493
msgid "What is the <emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> concept?"
msgstr "什麼是 <emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> ?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:498
msgid ""
"Back when FreeBSD 2.0.5 was released, FreeBSD development branched in two. One branch was named <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US."
"ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable.html#stable\">-STABLE</link>, one <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/"
"current-stable.html#current\">-CURRENT</link>. <emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> is the development branch from which major releases are made. "
"Changes go into this branch at a slower pace and with the general assumption that they have first been tested in FreeBSD-CURRENT. However, at any given "
"time, the sources for FreeBSD-STABLE may or may not be suitable for general use, as it may uncover bugs and corner cases that were not yet found in "
"FreeBSD-CURRENT. Users who do not have the resources to perform testing should instead run the most recent release of FreeBSD. <emphasis>FreeBSD-"
"CURRENT</emphasis>, on the other hand, has been one unbroken line since 2.0 was released, leading towards 12.0-RELEASE and beyond. For more detailed "
"information on branches see <quote><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/release-proc.html#rel-branch\">FreeBSD "
"Release Engineering: Creating the Release Branch</link></quote>, the status of the branches and the upcoming release schedule can be found on the <link "
"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng\">Release Engineering Information</link> page."
msgstr ""
"回溯到 FreeBSD 2.0.5 剛發表的時候,我們決定把 FreeBSD 的發展 分成兩支。一支叫做 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/"
"current-stable.html#stable\">-STABLE</link>,另一支叫 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable."
"html#current\">-CURRENT</link>。主要發行版是由<emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> 這個開發分支而來。他的變動較慢,而且一般來說假設他們都已經先在FreeBSD-"
"CURRENT測試過了。然而在任何時候,FreeBSD-STABLE的原始碼仍有可能不一定適合一般用途,因為他可能包含在 FreeBSD-CURRENT 沒有發現到的錯誤。沒有能力和資源的使"
"用者應該改使用 FreeBSD 正式發行版。<emphasis>FreeBSD-CURRENT</emphasis> 從2.0開始就是另一個分支,一直到12.0-RELEASE和之後的版本都還是。更多關於開發分支"
"的資訊請見 <quote><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/release-proc.html#rel-branch\">FreeBSD Release Engineering: "
"Creating the Release Branch</link></quote> ,分支的開發狀態和接下來的發行計畫時間表可以在 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng\">Release "
"Engineering 資訊</link>  找到。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:520
msgid ""
"12.0-STABLE is the actively developed <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branch. The latest release on the 12.0-STABLE branch is 12.0-RELEASE, which was "
"released in December 2018."
msgstr "12.0-STABLE 是目前正在發展中的 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。最新的 12.0-STABLE 是在 2018年12月發行的 12.0-RELEASE。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:526
msgid ""
"The <emphasis>12-CURRENT</emphasis> branch is the actively developed <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> branch toward the next generation of FreeBSD. See "
"<link linkend=\"current\">What is FreeBSD-CURRENT?</link> for more information on this branch."
msgstr ""
"<emphasis>12-CURRENT</emphasis> 這個分支是 FreeBSD 的 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 分支,仍然不斷地在發展當中。 如果想要知道更多關於這個分支的資訊的"
"話,請參考 <link linkend=\"current\">什麼是 FreeBSD-CURRENT?</link> 。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:536
msgid "When are FreeBSD releases made?"
msgstr "每次新的 FreeBSD 將於什麼時候推出?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:540
msgid ""
"The Release Engineering Team <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email> releases a new major version of FreeBSD about every 18 months and a new minor version about "
"every 8 months, on average. Release dates are announced well in advance, so that the people working on the system know when their projects need to be "
"finished and tested. A testing period precedes each release, to ensure that the addition of new features does not compromise the stability of the "
"release. Many users regard this caution as one of the best things about FreeBSD, even though waiting for all the latest goodies to reach <emphasis>-"
"STABLE</emphasis> can be a little frustrating."
msgstr ""
"一般而言,Release Engineering Team <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email> 約每18個月發行一次主要發行版本,約平均每8個月發行一次次要發行版本。每次新版本的發表時程"
"都會事先公告, 相關的開發人員就會知道,什麼時候該先把手邊的計劃完成並且測試過, 此外,這些更動都已經完整地測試過,確保新功能不會影響系統的穩定度。 雖"
"然,等這些好東西進入<emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 的時間令人等得有些不耐煩, 但是大多數的使用者都認為這種謹慎的態度是 FreeBSD 最好的優點之一。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:552
msgid ""
"More information on the release engineering process (including a schedule of upcoming releases) can be found on the <link xlink:href=\"https://www."
"FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html\">release engineering</link> pages on the FreeBSD Web site."
msgstr ""
"有關發行情報的更多細節部分(包括 release 的行程表、進度),都可在 FreeBSD 網站上的 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html\">發行情報"
"</link> 上面獲得。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:557
msgid "For people who need or want a little more excitement, binary snapshots are made weekly as discussed above."
msgstr "為了滿足那些需要 (或想要) 新鮮刺激感的使用者, 上面已經提到我們每周都會發行 snapshots 版可供使用。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:565
msgid "Who is responsible for FreeBSD?"
msgstr "誰負責 FreeBSD 的發展?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:569
msgid ""
"The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such as the overall direction of the project and who is allowed to add code to the source tree, are "
"made by a <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core\">core team</link> of 9 people. There is a much larger team of more than 350 "
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers\">committers</link> who are authorized to "
"make changes directly to the FreeBSD source tree."
msgstr ""
"如果是一些有關 FreeBSD 計畫的關鍵性決定,像是整個計畫的走向 或是決定誰可以改 source tree 裡的程式碼這類的事,是由一個由 9 個 人所組成的 <link xlink:"
"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core\">core team</link> 來決定。而有另一群超過 350 個人的 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US."
"ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers\">committers</link> 有權利可以直接修改 FreeBSD 的 source tree。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:577
msgid ""
"However, most non-trivial changes are discussed in advance in the <link linkend=\"mailing\">mailing lists</link>, and there are no restrictions on who "
"may take part in the discussion."
msgstr "無論如何,大多數的改變都會事前在 <link linkend=\"mailing\">郵件論壇</link>先討論過,而且不分角色,每個人都可以參與討論。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:586
msgid "Where can I get FreeBSD?"
msgstr "我要如何取得 FreeBSD?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:590
msgid ""
"Every significant release of FreeBSD is available via anonymous FTP from the <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/\">FreeBSD "
"FTP site</link>:"
msgstr "每個 FreeBSD 的重要版本都可以經由匿名 FTP 從 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/\"> FreeBSD FTP 站</link> 取得:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:596
msgid ""
"The latest <emphasis>12-STABLE</emphasis> release, 12.0-RELEASE can be found in the <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/"
"amd64/12.0-RELEASE/\">12.0-RELEASE directory</link>."
msgstr ""
"最新版 <emphasis>12-STABLE</emphasis> , 也就是 12.0-RELEASE 請到 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/amd64/12.0-RELEASE/"
"\">12.0-RELEASE 這個目錄</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:602
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/\">Snapshot</link> releases are made monthly for the <link linkend=\"current\">-CURRENT</link> and <link "
"linkend=\"stable\">-STABLE</link> branch, these being of service purely to bleeding-edge testers and developers."
msgstr ""
"<link linkend=\"current\">-CURRENT</link> 和 <link linkend=\"stable\">-STABLE</link> 分支的<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/\">Snapshot</"
"link>版本通常每個月會做一次, 主要是為了提供給那些熱心的測試者和開發人員。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:609
msgid ""
"The latest <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> release, 11.2-RELEASE can be found in the <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/"
"amd64/11.2-RELEASE/\">11.2-RELEASE directory</link>."
msgstr ""
"最新版 <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> , 也就是11.2-RELEASE 請到 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.FreeBSD.org/ftp/releases/amd64/amd64/11.2-RELEASE/"
"\">11.2-RELEASE 這個目錄</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:615
msgid ""
"Information about obtaining FreeBSD on CD, DVD, and other media can be found in <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/"
"mirrors.html\">the Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 的 CD、DVD,還有其他取得方式可以在 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/mirrors.html\">the Handbook</link> 中找到"
"解答。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:623
msgid "How do I access the Problem Report database?"
msgstr "我要如何去查詢、提交問題回報(Problem Report,簡稱PR)資料庫呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:627
msgid ""
"The Problem Report database of all user change requests may be queried by using our web-based PR <link xlink:href=\"https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/search/"
"\">query</link> interface."
msgstr "所有使用者的變更要求都可以經由網頁版的 PR <link xlink:href=\"https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/search/\">查詢</link> 界面來察看。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:631
msgid ""
"The <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support/bugreports.html\">web-based problem report submission interface</link> can be used to submit problem "
"reports through a web browser."
msgstr "可以使用瀏覽器經由<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support/bugreports.html\">網頁版的 PR 界面</link> 來傳送問題回報"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:635
msgid ""
"Before submitting a problem report, read <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html\">Writing "
"FreeBSD Problem Reports</link>, an article on how to write good problem reports."
msgstr ""
"然而,在您回報問題之前,請先閱讀 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html\">如何撰寫 FreeBSD 的問"
"題回報單</link>,這是一篇告訴你怎樣才能寫出一篇真正有用的問題回報單。"

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:644
msgid "Documentation and Support"
msgstr "文件與技術支援"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:649
msgid "What good books are there about FreeBSD?"
msgstr "有哪些 FreeBSD 相關的好書呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:653
msgid ""
"The project produces a wide range of documentation, available online from this link: <uri xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html\">https://www."
"FreeBSD.org/docs.html</uri>. In addition, the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography.html\">the "
"bibliography in the Handbook</link> reference other recommended books."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 文件計畫已陸續發表了相當廣泛範圍的文件,可在 <uri xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html</uri> 取"
"得。除此之外,也可以參閱使用手冊的 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography.html\">參考書目</link>建議的其他"
"書籍。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:663
msgid "Is the documentation available in other formats, such as plain text (ASCII), or <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark>?"
msgstr "這些文件有其他格式的嗎?像是:純文字(ASCII)或 <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark> 之類的格式?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:668
msgid ""
"Yes. The documentation is available in a number of different formats and compression schemes on the FreeBSD FTP site, in the <link xlink:href=\"https://"
"download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/\">/pub/FreeBSD/doc/</link> directory."
msgstr ""
"有的。這些文件都分別以不同格式儲存以及壓縮處理並放在 FTP 上面,可以從各個 FreeBSD FTP 站的 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/\">/"
"pub/FreeBSD/doc/</link> 目錄內找到你要的。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:673
msgid "The documentation is categorized in a number of different ways. These include:"
msgstr "文件以幾種不同的方式分類。包括:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:678
msgid "The document's name, such as <literal>faq</literal>, or <literal>handbook</literal>."
msgstr "文件名稱,例如:<literal>faq</literal> (常見問答集)或是 <literal>handbook</literal> (FreeBSD 使用手冊)等等。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:684
msgid ""
"The document's language and encoding. These are based on the locale names found under <filename>/usr/share/locale</filename> on a FreeBSD system. The "
"current languages and encodings are as follows:"
msgstr "文件的語言與編碼。他們是基於 FreeBSD 系統中 <filename>/usr/share/locale</filename> 裡所見到的語系名稱。目前包含的語言與編碼如下:"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:694
msgid "Name"
msgstr "語系名稱"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:696 book.translate.xml:846
msgid "Meaning"
msgstr "說明"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:702
msgid "<literal>en_US.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>en_US.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:704
msgid "English (United States)"
msgstr "英文 (美國)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:708
msgid "<literal>bn_BD.ISO10646-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>bn_BD.ISO10646-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:710
msgid "Bengali or Bangla (Bangladesh)"
msgstr "孟加拉文 (孟加拉)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:714
msgid "<literal>da_DK.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>da_DK.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:716
msgid "Danish (Denmark)"
msgstr "丹麥文 (丹麥)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:720
msgid "<literal>de_DE.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>de_DE.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:722
msgid "German (Germany)"
msgstr "德文 (德國)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:726
msgid "<literal>el_GR.ISO8859-7</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>el_GR.ISO8859-7</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:728
msgid "Greek (Greece)"
msgstr "希臘文 (希臘)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:732
msgid "<literal>es_ES.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>es_ES.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:734
msgid "Spanish (Spain)"
msgstr "西班牙文 (西班牙)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:738
msgid "<literal>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:740
msgid "French (France)"
msgstr "法文 (法國)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:744
msgid "<literal>hu_HU.ISO8859-2</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>hu_HU.ISO8859-2</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:746
msgid "Hungarian (Hungary)"
msgstr "匈牙利文 (匈牙利)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:750
msgid "<literal>it_IT.ISO8859-15</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>it_IT.ISO8859-15</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:752
msgid "Italian (Italy)"
msgstr "義大利文 (義大利)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:756
msgid "<literal>ja_JP.eucJP</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ja_JP.eucJP</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:758
msgid "Japanese (Japan, EUC encoding)"
msgstr "日文 (日本, EUC 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:762
msgid "<literal>ko_KR.UTF-8</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ko_KR.UTF-8</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:764
msgid "Korean (Korea, UTF-8 encoding)"
msgstr "韓文 (韓國, UTF-8 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:768
msgid "<literal>mn_MN.UTF-8</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>mn_MN.UTF-8</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:770
msgid "Mongolian (Mongolia, UTF-8 encoding)"
msgstr "蒙古文 (蒙古, UTF-8 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:775
msgid "<literal>nl_NL.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>nl_NL.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:777
msgid "Dutch (Netherlands)"
msgstr "荷蘭文 (荷蘭)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:781
msgid "<literal>pl_PL.ISO8859-2</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>pl_PL.ISO8859-2</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:783
msgid "Polish (Poland)"
msgstr "波蘭文 (波蘭)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:787
msgid "<literal>pt_BR.ISO8859-1</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>pt_BR.ISO8859-1</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:789
msgid "Portuguese (Brazil)"
msgstr "葡萄牙文 (巴西)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:793
msgid "<literal>ru_RU.KOI8-R</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ru_RU.KOI8-R</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:795
msgid "Russian (Russia, KOI8-R encoding)"
msgstr "俄文 (俄羅斯, KOI8-R 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:799
msgid "<literal>tr_TR.ISO8859-9</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>tr_TR.ISO8859-9</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:801
msgid "Turkish (Turkey)"
msgstr "土耳其文 (土耳其)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:805
msgid "<literal>zh_CN.UTF-8</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>zh_CN.UTF-8</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:807
msgid "Simplified Chinese (China, UTF-8 encoding)"
msgstr "簡體中文 (中國, UTF-8 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:812
msgid "<literal>zh_TW.UTF-8</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>zh_TW.UTF-8</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:814
msgid "Traditional Chinese (Taiwan, UTF-8 encoding)"
msgstr "正體中文 (台灣, UTF-8 編碼)"

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:822
msgid "Some documents may not be available in all languages."
msgstr "上列的各國翻譯語系文件中,並非所有文件都有翻譯。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:828
msgid ""
"The document's format. We produce the documentation in a number of different output formats. Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some "
"formats are better suited for online reading, while others are meant to be aesthetically pleasing when printed on paper. Having the documentation "
"available in any of these formats ensures that our readers will be able to read the parts they are interested in, either on their monitor, or on paper "
"after printing the documents. The currently available formats are:"
msgstr ""
"文件的格式。我們的每份文件都提供許多不同的格式,每種格式各有利弊, 有些格式適合線上閱讀,有些則適合列印出美觀的文件。 這些不同格式的文件能夠確保我們的讀"
"者們,無論是在螢幕上閱讀或是列印成紙本,都能夠閱讀他們感興趣的內容,目前有提供的格式如下:"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:844
msgid "Format"
msgstr "格式"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:852
msgid "<literal>html-split</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>html-split</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:854
msgid "A collection of small, linked, HTML files."
msgstr "依章節區分成多個小的、互相連結的 HTML 檔案"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:859
msgid "<literal>html</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>html</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:861
msgid "One large HTML file containing the entire document"
msgstr "所有內容包含在單一個 HTML 檔案"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:866
msgid "<literal>pdf</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>pdf</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:868
msgid "Adobe's Portable Document Format"
msgstr " \tAdobe's PDF 格式"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:872
msgid "<literal>ps</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ps</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:874
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark>"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:878
msgid "<literal>rtf</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>rtf</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:880
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark>'s Rich Text Format"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> 的 RTF 格式"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:884
msgid "<literal>txt</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>txt</literal>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:886
msgid "Plain text"
msgstr "純文字"

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:893
msgid ""
"Page numbers are not automatically updated when loading Rich Text Format into Word. Press <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>A</"
"keycap></keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>End</keycap></keycombo>, <keycap>F9</keycap> after loading the document, to "
"update the page numbers."
msgstr ""
"當用 Word 讀取 RTF 格式時,頁碼並不會被自動更新。在開啟檔案後按下<keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>, "
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>End</keycap></keycombo>, <keycap>F9</keycap> 來更新頁碼。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:902
msgid "The compression and packaging scheme."
msgstr "壓縮和打包方式"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:906
msgid ""
"Where the format is <literal>html-split</literal>, the files are bundled up using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>. The resulting <filename>.tar</filename> is then compressed using the compression schemes detailed in the next point."
msgstr ""
"當採用 <literal>html-split</literal> 格式時,檔案先透過 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工具來進"
"行打包。接著再將產生出來的 <filename>.tar</filename> 檔接透過第二點所述的壓縮方式壓縮。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:915
msgid "All the other formats generate one file. For example, <filename>article.pdf</filename>, <filename>book.html</filename>, and so on."
msgstr "其他的格式都是單一個檔案。例如 <filename>article.pdf</filename>、<filename>book.html</filename> ,以此類推。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:920
msgid ""
"These files are then compressed using either the <literal>zip</literal> or <literal>bz2</literal> compression schemes. "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used to uncompress these files."
msgstr ""
"這些檔案接著透過  <literal>zip</literal> 或  <literal>bz2</literal>  來壓縮。 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>  工具可用來解壓縮這些檔案。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:926
msgid ""
"So the <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark> version of the Handbook, compressed using <literal>bzip2</literal> will be stored in a "
"file called <filename>book.ps.bz2</filename> in the <filename>handbook/</filename> directory."
msgstr ""
"因此 <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark> 版本的手冊經過 <literal>bzip2</literal> 壓縮後會存成一個叫做 <filename>book.ps.bz2</"
"filename> 的檔案,並位於 <filename>handbook/</filename> 資料夾。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:936
msgid ""
"After choosing the format and compression mechanism, download the compressed files, uncompress them, and then copy the appropriate documents into place."
msgstr "在選取格式與壓縮方式後,下載壓縮後的檔案並解壓縮,再把文件複製到想要的地方。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:941
msgid ""
"For example, the split HTML version of the <acronym>FAQ</acronym>, compressed using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, can be found in <filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</filename> To download and uncompress that "
"file, type:"
msgstr ""
"舉例來說,透過 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 壓縮的英文問與答的章節分割 HTML 版本,可以在 "
"<filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</filename> 中找到。若要下載並解壓縮這個檔案,請輸入"

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:947
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fetch https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar xvf book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>"
msgstr ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fetch https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar xvf book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:950
msgid ""
"If the file is compressed, <application>tar</application> will automatically detect the appropriate format and decompress it correctly, resulting in a "
"collection of <filename>.html</filename> files. The main one is called <filename>index.html</filename>, which will contain the table of contents, "
"introductory material, and links to the other parts of the document."
msgstr ""
"如果檔案被壓縮過的話,<application>tar</application> 會自動偵測正確的格式並解壓縮出一堆  <filename>.html</filename> 檔案。主要的檔案是 <filename>index."
"html</filename>,包含了主目錄跟介紹以及連接到文件其他部份的連結。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:963
msgid "Where do I find info on the FreeBSD mailing lists? What FreeBSD news groups are available?"
msgstr "哪裡有關於 FreeBSD 的郵遞論壇(mailing lists)呢? 有哪些可以使用的 FreeBSD 新聞群組(news groups)呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:968
msgid ""
"Refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#eresources-mail\">Handbook entry on mailing-lists</"
"link> and the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources-news.html\">Handbook entry on newsgroups</link>."
msgstr ""
"請參考FreeBSD 使用手冊上的 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#eresources-mail\"> 郵件論壇 (mailing-"
"lists)</link> 。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:976
msgid "Are there FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat) channels?"
msgstr "有 FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat)頻道嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:981
msgid "Yes, most major IRC networks host a FreeBSD chat channel:"
msgstr "有的,大部分的 IRC 主機都有 FreeBSD 聊天頻道:"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:986
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#FreeBSDhelp</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://www.efnet.org/index.php\">EFNet</link> is a channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD "
"users."
msgstr "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.efnet.org/index.php\">EFNet</link> 上的 <literal>#FreeBSDhelp</literal> 頻道專門用來幫助 FreeBSD 使用著"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:991
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://freenode.net/\">Freenode</link> is a general help channel with many users at any time. "
"The conversations have been known to run off-topic for a while, but priority is given to users with FreeBSD questions. Other users can help with the "
"basics, referring to the Handbook whenever possible and providing links for learning more about a particular topic. This is primarily an English "
"speaking channel, though it does have users from all over the world. Non-native English speakers should try to ask the question in English first and "
"then relocate to <literal>##freebsd-lang</literal> as appropriate."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://freenode.net/\">Freenode</link> 上的 <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道是一個有許多使用者的一般求助頻道。這個頻道時常聊一些題外"
"話,但主要還是讓使用者問 FreeBSD 相關問題的地方。其他使用者可以協助解答一些基本的問題,並請盡量提供使用手冊的參考或是提供連結來提供更深入的資訊。雖然這"
"個頻道有來自世界各地的使用者,但這是一個英文為主的頻道。非母語人士應該以英文提問,並在必要的時候移駕到 <literal>##freebsd-lang</literal> 頻道。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1007
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://www.dal.net/\">DALNET</link> is available at <systemitem>irc.dal.net</systemitem> in "
"the US and <systemitem>irc.eu.dal.net</systemitem> in Europe."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dal.net/\">DALNET</link> 的<literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道,可由 <systemitem>irc.dal.net</systemitem> (位於美國)及"
"<systemitem>irc.eu.dal.net</systemitem> (位於歐洲)進入。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1014
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://www.undernet.org/\">UNDERNET</link> is available at <systemitem>us.undernet.org</"
"systemitem> in the US and <systemitem>eu.undernet.org</systemitem> in Europe. Since it is a help channel, be prepared to read the documents you are "
"referred to."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.undernet.org/\">UNDERNET</link> 上的 <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道可由 <systemitem>us.undernet.org</systemitem>(位於美"
"國)及  <systemitem>eu.undernet.org</systemitem> (位於歐洲)進入。由於這是個輔助新手用的頻道, 請記得閱讀別人向你提及的連結或檔案。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1023
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://www.rusnet.org.ru/\">RUSNET</link> is a Russian language channel dedicated to helping "
"FreeBSD users. This is also good place for non-technical discussions."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rusnet.org.ru/\">RUSNET</link> 上的 <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道是俄語國家的 FreeBSD 使用者頻道。 這裡同時也是一般交流"
"的討論好去處。"

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1030
msgid ""
"Channel <literal>#bsdchat</literal> on <link xlink:href=\"http://freenode.net/\">Freenode</link> is a Traditional Chinese (UTF-8 encoding) language "
"channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD users. This is also good place for non-technical discussions."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://freenode.net/\">Freenode</link> 上的 <literal>#bsdchat</literal> 頻道是一個正體中文(UTF-8 編碼)頻道專門用來幫助 FreeBSD 使用"
"著。這裡也歡迎一般非技術的交流討論。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1038
#, fuzzy
msgid "The FreeBSD wiki has a <link xlink:href=\"https://wiki.freebsd.org/IRC/Channels\">good list</link> of IRC channels."
msgstr "FreeBSD 的維基百科有一份 IRC 頻道的 <link xlink:href=\"http://wiki.freebsd.org/IrcChannels\">完整清單</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1041
msgid ""
"Each of these channels are distinct and are not connected to each other. Since their chat styles differ, try each to find one suited to your chat style."
msgstr "每個頻道都是不同且互相獨立的。因為他們的聊天風格不同,您可以每個都試試看來找到適合您的頻道。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1050
msgid "Are there any web based forums to discuss FreeBSD?"
msgstr "有沒有任何網頁形式的 FreeBSD 論壇呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1053
msgid "The official FreeBSD forums are located at <link xlink:href=\"https://forums.FreeBSD.org/\">https://forums.FreeBSD.org/</link>."
msgstr "官方的 FreeBSD 論壇位於  <link xlink:href=\"https://forums.FreeBSD.org/\">https://forums.FreeBSD.org/</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1059
msgid "Where can I get commercial FreeBSD training and support?"
msgstr "可以從哪邊獲得商業化的 FreeBSD 的教育課程及技術支援呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1064
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com\">iXsystems, Inc.</link>, parent company of the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com/\">FreeBSD "
"Mall</link>, provides commercial FreeBSD and TrueOS software <link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/support\">support</link>, in addition to "
"FreeBSD development and tuning solutions."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com\">iXsystems, Inc.</link>, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com/\">FreeBSD 商城</link>的母公司,提"
"供 FreeBSD 開發與調校解決方案與 FreeBSD 與 TrueOS 的軟體 <link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/support\">支援</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1071
msgid ""
"BSD Certification Group, Inc. provides system administration certifications for DragonFly BSD, FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD. Refer to <link xlink:href="
"\"http://www.BSDCertification.org\">their site</link> for more information."
msgstr ""
"BSD Certification Group, Inc. 提供 DragonFly BSD、FreeBSD、NetBSD 與 OpenBSD 的系統管理認證。請參閱 <link xlink:href=\"http://www.BSDCertification.org"
"\">他們的網站</link> 來獲得更多資訊。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1076
msgid "Any other organizations providing training and support should contact the Project to be listed here."
msgstr "如果有其他組織提供技術訓練或技術支援,請聯絡 FreeBSD 計畫來加入以上清單。"

#. (itstool) path: info/title
#: book.translate.xml:1085
msgid "Installation"
msgstr "安裝"

#. (itstool) path: affiliation/address
#: book.translate.xml:1093
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"\n"
"\t    <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>\n"
"\t  "
msgstr ""
"\n"
"\t    <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>\n"
"\t  "

#. (itstool) path: info/author
#: book.translate.xml:1087
msgid "<personname> <firstname>Nik</firstname> <surname>Clayton</surname> </personname> <affiliation> <_:address-1/> </affiliation>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1104
msgid ""
"Which platform should I download? I have a 64 bit capable <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> CPU, but I only see <literal>amd64</"
"literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1110
msgid ""
"amd64 is the term FreeBSD uses for 64-bit compatible x86 architectures (also known as \"x86-64\" or \"x64\"). Most modern computers should use amd64. "
"Older hardware should use i386. When installing on a non-x86-compatible architecture, select the platform which best matches the hardware."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1121
msgid "Which file do I download to get FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1125
msgid ""
"On the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.freebsd.org/where.html\">Getting FreeBSD</link> page, select <literal>[iso]</literal> next to the architecture "
"that matches the hardware."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1129
msgid "Any of the following can be used:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1135
msgid "file"
msgstr "檔案"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1136
msgid "description"
msgstr "描述"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1142
msgid "<filename>disc1.iso</filename>"
msgstr "<filename>disc1.iso</filename>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1143
msgid "Contains enough to install FreeBSD and a minimal set of packages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1148
msgid "<filename>dvd1.iso</filename>"
msgstr "<filename>dvd1.iso</filename>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1149
msgid "Similar to <filename>disc1.iso</filename> but with additional packages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1154
msgid "<filename>memstick.img</filename>"
msgstr "<filename>memstick.img</filename>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1155
msgid "A bootable image sufficient for writing to a USB stick."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1160
msgid "<filename>bootonly.iso</filename>"
msgstr "<filename>bootonly.iso</filename>"

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:1161
msgid "A minimal image that requires network access during installation to completely install FreeBSD."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1169
msgid ""
"Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit more about installation issues in general can be found in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/"
"doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html\">Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1178
msgid "What do I do if the install image does not boot?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1183
msgid "This can be caused by not downloading the image in <emphasis>binary</emphasis> mode when using <acronym>FTP</acronym>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1187
msgid ""
"Some FTP clients default their transfer mode to <emphasis>ascii</emphasis> and attempt to change any end-of-line characters received to match the "
"conventions used by the client's system. This will almost invariably corrupt the boot image. Check the SHA-256 checksum of the downloaded boot image: "
"if it is not <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> that on the server, then the download process is suspect."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1196
msgid ""
"When using a command line FTP client, type <emphasis>binary</emphasis> at the FTP command prompt after getting connected to the server and before "
"starting the download of the image."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1205
msgid "Where are the instructions for installing FreeBSD?"
msgstr "可以在哪邊找到安裝 FreeBSD 的解說步驟呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1209
msgid ""
"Installation instructions can be found at <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html\">Handbook entry on "
"installing FreeBSD</link>."
msgstr "安裝說明可以在 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html\">使用手冊的安裝 FreeBSD</link> 找到。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1217
msgid "What are the minimum requirements to run FreeBSD?"
msgstr "要跑 FreeBSD 至少需要什麼樣的配備呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1221
msgid "FreeBSD requires a 486 or better PC, 64 MB or more of RAM, and at least 1.1 GB of hard disk space."
msgstr "FreeBSD 需要 486 以上的 PC,64 MB 以上的 RAM,和至少 1.1 GB 的硬碟空間。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1229
msgid "How can I make my own custom release or install disk?"
msgstr "要怎樣才能自行打造專用的安裝磁片呢?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1234
msgid ""
"Customized FreeBSD installation media can be created by building a custom release. Follow the instructions in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/"
"doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html\">Release Engineering</link> article."
msgstr ""
"可以透過編譯客製化發行版本來建立客製化的 FreeBSD 安裝媒體。請參閱  <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html"
"\">Release Engineering</link> 文章的說明。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1243
msgid "Can <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> co-exist with FreeBSD?"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> 可以與 FreeBSD 共存嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1247
msgid ""
"If <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> is installed first, then yes. FreeBSD's boot manager will then manage to boot <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Windows</trademark> and FreeBSD. If <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> is installed afterwards, it will overwrite the "
"boot manager. If that happens, see the next section."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1257
msgid "Another operating system destroyed my Boot Manager. How do I get it back?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1262
msgid ""
"This depends upon the boot manager. The FreeBSD boot selection menu can be reinstalled using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to restore the boot menu onto the disk <replaceable>ada0</replaceable>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:1267
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>boot0cfg -B ada0</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1269
msgid ""
"The non-interactive MBR bootloader can be installed using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:1272
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart bootcode -b /boot/mbr ada0</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1274
msgid "For more complex situations, including GPT disks, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1281
msgid "Do I need to install the source?"
msgstr "我需要安裝完整的原始碼嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1285
msgid ""
"In general, no. There is nothing in the base system which requires the presence of the source to operate. Some ports, like <package>sysutils/lsof</"
"package>, will not build unless the source is installed. In particular, if the port builds a kernel module or directly operates on kernel structures, "
"the source must be installed."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1296
msgid "Do I need to build a kernel?"
msgstr "需要重新 build kernel 嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1300
msgid ""
"Usually not. The supplied <literal>GENERIC</literal> kernel contains the drivers an ordinary computer will need. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>freebsd-"
"update</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the FreeBSD binary upgrade tool, cannot upgrade custom kernels, another reason to stick "
"with the <literal>GENERIC</literal> kernel when possible. For computers with very limited RAM, such as embedded systems, it may be worthwhile to build "
"a smaller custom kernel containing just the required drivers."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1313
msgid "Should I use DES, Blowfish, or MD5 passwords and how do I specify which form my users receive?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1318
msgid ""
"FreeBSD uses <emphasis>SHA512</emphasis> by default. DES passwords are still available for backwards compatibility with operating systems that still "
"use the less secure password format. FreeBSD also supports the Blowfish and MD5 password formats. Which password format to use for new passwords is "
"controlled by the <literal>passwd_format</literal> login capability in <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, which takes values of <literal>des</"
"literal>, <literal>blf</literal> (if these are available) or <literal>md5</literal>. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>login.conf</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information about login capabilities."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1337
msgid "What are the limits for FFS file systems?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1341
msgid ""
"For FFS file systems, the largest file system is practically limited by the amount of memory required to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> the file system. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> requires one bit per fragment, which with the default fragment size of 4 KB equates to 32 MB of memory per TB of disk. This does mean "
"that on architectures which limit userland processes to 2 GB (e.g., <trademark>i386</trademark>), the maximum <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>'able filesystem is ~60 TB."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1350
msgid ""
"If there was not a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> memory limit the maximum filesystem size "
"would be 2 ^ 64 (blocks) * 32 KB =&gt; 16 Exa * 32 KB =&gt; 512 ZettaBytes."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1355
msgid ""
"The maximum size of a single FFS file is approximately 2 PB with the default block size of 32 KB. Each 32 KB block can point to 4096 blocks. With "
"triple indirect blocks, the calculation is 32 KB * 12 + 32 KB * 4096 + 32 KB * 4096^2 + 32 KB * 4096^3. Increasing the block size to 64 KB will "
"increase the max file size by a factor of 16."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1367
msgid "Why do I get an error message, <errorname>readin failed</errorname> after compiling and booting a new kernel?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1373
msgid ""
"The world and kernel are out of sync. This is not supported. Be sure to use <command>make buildworld</command> and <command>make buildkernel</command> "
"to update the kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1378
msgid ""
"Boot the system by specifying the kernel directly at the second stage, pressing any key when the <literal>|</literal> shows up before loader is started."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1387
msgid "Is there a tool to perform post-installation configuration tasks?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1392
msgid "Yes. <application>bsdconfig</application> provides a nice interface to configure FreeBSD post-installation."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:1400
msgid "Hardware Compatibility"
msgstr "硬體相容性"

#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#: book.translate.xml:1403
msgid "General"
msgstr "一般問題"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1408
msgid "I want to get a piece of hardware for my FreeBSD system. Which model/brand/type is best?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1413
msgid ""
"This is discussed continually on the FreeBSD mailing lists but is to be expected since hardware changes so quickly. Read through the Hardware Notes for "
"FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/12.0R/hardware.html\">12.0</link> or <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/"
"releases/11.2R/hardware.html\">11.2</link> and search the mailing list <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/search/#mailinglists\">archives</"
"link> before asking about the latest and greatest hardware. Chances are a discussion about that type of hardware took place just last week."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1423
msgid ""
"Before purchasing a laptop, check the archives for <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-mobile\">FreeBSD laptop "
"computer mailing list</link> and <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions\">FreeBSD general questions mailing "
"list</link>, or possibly a specific mailing list for a particular hardware type."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1431
msgid "What are the limits for memory? Does FreeBSD support more than 4 GB of memory (RAM)? More than 16 GB? More than 48 GB?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1438
msgid ""
"FreeBSD as an operating system generally supports as much physical memory (RAM) as the platform it is running on does. Keep in mind that different "
"platforms have different limits for memory; for example <trademark>i386</trademark> without <acronym>PAE</acronym> supports at most 4 GB of memory (and "
"usually less than that because of PCI address space) and <trademark>i386</trademark> with PAE supports at most 64 GB memory. As of FreeBSD 10, AMD64 "
"platforms support up to 4 TB of physical memory."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1453
msgid "Why does FreeBSD report less than 4 GB memory when installed on an <trademark>i386</trademark> machine?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1458
msgid ""
"The total address space on <trademark>i386</trademark> machines is 32-bit, meaning that at most 4 GB of memory is addressable (can be accessed). "
"Furthermore, some addresses in this range are reserved by hardware for different purposes, for example for using and controlling PCI devices, for "
"accessing video memory, and so on. Therefore, the total amount of memory usable by the operating system for its kernel and applications is limited to "
"significantly less than 4 GB. Usually, 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB is the maximum usable physical memory in this configuration."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1470
msgid ""
"To access more than 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB of installed memory (meaning up to 4 GB but also more than 4 GB), a special tweak called <acronym>PAE</acronym> "
"must be used. PAE stands for Physical Address Extension and is a way for 32-bit x86 CPUs to address more than 4 GB of memory. It remaps the memory that "
"would otherwise be overlaid by address reservations for hardware devices above the 4 GB range and uses it as additional physical memory (see "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pae</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>). Using PAE has some drawbacks; this mode of memory access is a "
"little bit slower than the normal (without PAE) mode and loadable modules (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>) are not supported. This means all drivers must be compiled into the kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1485
msgid ""
"The most common way to enable PAE is to build a new kernel with the special ready-provided kernel configuration file called <filename>PAE</filename>, "
"which is already configured to build a safe kernel. Note that some entries in this kernel configuration file are too conservative and some drivers "
"marked as unready to be used with PAE are actually usable. A rule of thumb is that if the driver is usable on 64-bit architectures (like AMD64), it is "
"also usable with PAE. When creating a custom kernel configuration file, PAE can be enabled by adding the following line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:1498
#, no-wrap
msgid "options       PAE"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1500
msgid ""
"PAE is not much used nowadays because most new x86 hardware also supports running in 64-bit mode, known as AMD64 or <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Intel</trademark> 64. It has a much larger address space and does not need such tweaks. FreeBSD supports AMD64 and it is recommended that this "
"version of FreeBSD be used instead of the <trademark>i386</trademark> version if 4 GB or more memory is required."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#: book.translate.xml:1513
msgid "Architectures and Processors"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1518
msgid "Does FreeBSD support architectures other than the x86?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1523
msgid ""
"Yes. FreeBSD divides support into multiple tiers. Tier 1 architectures, such as i386 or amd64; are fully supported. Tiers 2 and 3 are supported on a "
"best-effort basis. A full explanation of the tier system is available in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
"committers-guide/archs.html\">Committer's Guide.</link>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1530
msgid "A complete list of supported architectures can be found on the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/platforms/\">platforms page.</link>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1538
msgid "Does FreeBSD support Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP)?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1543
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports symmetric multi-processor (SMP) on all non-embedded platforms (e.g, i386, amd64, etc.). SMP is also supported in arm and MIPS kernels, "
"although some CPUs may not support this. FreeBSD's SMP implementation uses fine-grained locking, and performance scales nearly linearly with number of "
"CPUs."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1551
msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>smp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> has more details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1557
msgid "What is microcode? How do I install <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> CPU microcode updates?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1562
msgid ""
"Microcode is a method of programmatically implementing hardware level instructions. This allows for CPU bugs to be fixed without replacing the on board "
"chip."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1567
msgid "Install <package>sysutils/devcpu-data</package>, then add:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:1570
#, no-wrap
msgid "microcode_update_enable=\"YES\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1572
msgid "to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#: book.translate.xml:1579
msgid "Hard Drives, Tape Drives, and CD and DVD Drives"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1584
msgid "What kind of hard drives does FreeBSD support?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1588
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports EIDE, SATA, SCSI, and SAS drives (with a compatible controller; see the next section), and all drives using the original "
"<quote>Western Digital</quote> interface (MFM, RLL, ESDI, and of course IDE). A few ESDI controllers that use proprietary interfaces may not work: "
"stick to WD1002/3/6/7 interfaces and clones."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1600
msgid "Which SCSI or SAS controllers are supported?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1604
msgid ""
"See the complete list in the Hardware Notes for FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/12.0R/hardware.html\">12.0</link> or <link "
"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.2R/hardware.html\">11.2</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1612
msgid "What types of tape drives are supported?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1616
msgid "FreeBSD supports all standard SCSI tape interfaces."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1623
msgid "Does FreeBSD support tape changers?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1627
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports SCSI changers using the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> device and the "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command. The details of how to control the changer can be "
"found in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1632
msgid ""
"While <application>AMANDA</application> and some other products already understands changers, other applications only know how to move a tape from one "
"point to another. In this case, keep track of which slot a tape is in and which slot the tape currently in the drive needs to go back to."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1644
msgid "Which CD-ROM and CD-RW drives are supported by FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1649
msgid "Any SCSI drive connected to a supported controller is supported. Most ATAPI compatible IDE CD-ROMs are supported."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1653
msgid "FreeBSD supports any ATAPI-compatible IDE CD-R or CD-RW drive."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1656
msgid ""
"FreeBSD also supports any SCSI CD-R or CD-RW drives. Install the <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> port or package, then use <command>cdrecord</"
"command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#: book.translate.xml:1665
msgid "Keyboards and Mice"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1670
msgid "Is it possible to use a mouse outside the X Window system?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1675
msgid ""
"The default console driver, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, provides the ability to use a "
"mouse pointer in text consoles to cut &amp; paste text. Run the mouse daemon, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, and turn on the mouse pointer in the virtual console:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:1681
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>moused -p /dev/xxxx -t yyyy</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -m on</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1684
msgid ""
"Where <replaceable>xxxx</replaceable> is the mouse device name and <replaceable>yyyy</replaceable> is a protocol type for the mouse. The mouse daemon "
"can automatically determine the protocol type of most mice, except old serial mice. Specify the <literal>auto</literal> protocol to invoke automatic "
"detection. If automatic detection does not work, see the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"manual page for a list of supported protocol types."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1694
msgid ""
"For a PS/2 mouse, add <literal>moused_enable=\"YES\"</literal> to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to start the mouse daemon at boot time. "
"Additionally, to use the mouse daemon on all virtual terminals instead of just the console, add <literal>allscreens_flags=\"-m on\"</literal> to "
"<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1703
msgid ""
"When the mouse daemon is running, access to the mouse must be coordinated between the mouse daemon and other programs such as X Windows. Refer to the "
"<acronym>FAQ</acronym> <link linkend=\"x-and-moused\">Why does my mouse not work with X?</link> for more details on this issue."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1714
msgid "How do I cut and paste text with a mouse in the text console?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1719
msgid ""
"It is not possible to remove data using the mouse. However, it is possible to copy and paste. Once the mouse daemon is running as described in the "
"<link linkend=\"moused\">previous question</link>, hold down button 1 (left button) and move the mouse to select a region of text. Then, press button 2 "
"(middle button) to paste it at the text cursor. Pressing button 3 (right button) will <quote>extend</quote> the selected region of text."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1728
msgid ""
"If the mouse does not have a middle button, it is possible to emulate one or remap buttons using mouse daemon options. See the "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1737
msgid "My mouse has a fancy wheel and buttons. Can I use them in FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1742
msgid ""
"The answer is, unfortunately, <quote>It depends</quote>. These mice with additional features require specialized driver in most cases. Unless the mouse "
"device driver or the user program has specific support for the mouse, it will act just like a standard two, or three button mouse."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1749
msgid "For the possible usage of wheels in the X Window environment, refer to <link linkend=\"x-and-wheel\">that section</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1756
msgid "How do I use my delete key in <command>sh</command> and <command>csh</command>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1761
msgid ""
"For the <application>Bourne Shell</application>, add the following lines to <filename>~/.shrc</filename>. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>editrc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:1765
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"bind ^? ed-delete-next-char # for console\n"
"bind ^[[3~ ed-delete-next-char # for xterm"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1768
msgid ""
"For the <application>C Shell</application>, add the following lines to <filename>~/.cshrc</filename>. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:1772
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"bindkey ^? delete-char # for console\n"
"bindkey ^[[3~ delete-char # for xterm"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1775
msgid "For more information, see <link xlink:href=\"http://www.ibb.net/~anne/keyboard.html\">this page</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#: book.translate.xml:1783
msgid "Other Hardware"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1788
msgid "Workarounds for no sound from my <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pcm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> sound card?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1793
msgid "Some sound cards set their output volume to 0 at every boot. Run the following command every time the machine boots:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:1797
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mixer pcm 100 vol 100 cd 100</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1803
msgid "Does FreeBSD support power management on my laptop?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1808
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> features found in modern hardware. Further information can be found in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:1818
msgid "Troubleshooting"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1823
msgid "Why is FreeBSD finding the wrong amount of memory on <trademark>i386</trademark> hardware?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1828
msgid "The most likely reason is the difference between physical memory addresses and virtual addresses."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1831
msgid ""
"The convention for most PC hardware is to use the memory area between 3.5 GB and 4 GB for a special purpose (usually for PCI). This address space is "
"used to access PCI hardware. As a result real, physical memory cannot be accessed by that address space."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1837
msgid ""
"What happens to the memory that should appear in that location is hardware dependent. Unfortunately, some hardware does nothing and the ability to use "
"that last 500 MB of RAM is entirely lost."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1842
msgid ""
"Luckily, most hardware remaps the memory to a higher location so that it can still be used. However, this can cause some confusion when watching the "
"boot messages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1847
msgid ""
"On a 32-bit version of FreeBSD, the memory appears lost, since it will be remapped above 4 GB, which a 32-bit kernel is unable to access. In this case, "
"the solution is to build a PAE enabled kernel. See the entry on memory limits for more information."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1853
msgid ""
"On a 64-bit version of FreeBSD, or when running a PAE-enabled kernel, FreeBSD will correctly detect and remap the memory so it is usable. During boot, "
"however, it may seem as if FreeBSD is detecting more memory than the system really has, due to the described remapping. This is normal and the "
"available memory will be corrected as the boot process completes."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1865
msgid "Why do my programs occasionally die with <errorname>Signal 11</errorname> errors?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1870
msgid ""
"Signal 11 errors are caused when a process has attempted to access memory which the operating system has not granted it access to. If something like "
"this is happening at seemingly random intervals, start investigating the cause."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1876
msgid "These problems can usually be attributed to either:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1881
msgid "If the problem is occurring only in a specific custom application, it is probably a bug in the code."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1887
msgid ""
"If it is a problem with part of the base FreeBSD system, it may also be buggy code, but more often than not these problems are found and fixed long "
"before us general <acronym>FAQ</acronym> readers get to use these bits of code (that is what -CURRENT is for)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1896
msgid "It is probably not a FreeBSD bug if the problem occurs compiling a program, but the activity that the compiler is carrying out changes each time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1902
msgid ""
"For example, if <command>make buildworld</command> fails while trying to compile <filename>ls.c</filename> into <filename>ls.o</filename> and, when run "
"again, it fails in the same place, this is a broken build. Try updating source and try again. If the compile fails elsewhere, it is almost certainly "
"due to hardware."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1910
msgid ""
"In the first case, use a debugger such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gdb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to find the point in "
"the program which is attempting to access a bogus address and fix it."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1915
msgid "In the second case, verify which piece of hardware is at fault."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1918
msgid "Common causes of this include:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1922
msgid "The hard disks might be overheating: Check that the fans are still working, as the disk and other hardware might be overheating."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1928
msgid ""
"The processor running is overheating: This might be because the processor has been overclocked, or the fan on the processor might have died. In either "
"case, ensure that the hardware is running at what it is specified to run at, at least while trying to solve this problem. If it is not, clock it back "
"to the default settings.)"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1936
msgid ""
"Regarding overclocking, it is far cheaper to have a slow system than a fried system that needs replacing! Also the community is not sympathetic to "
"problems on overclocked systems."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1943
msgid ""
"Dodgy memory: if multiple memory SIMMS/DIMMS are installed, pull them all out and try running the machine with each SIMM or DIMM individually to narrow "
"the problem down to either the problematic DIMM/SIMM or perhaps even a combination."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1952
msgid ""
"Over-optimistic motherboard settings: the BIOS settings, and some motherboard jumpers, provide options to set various timings. The defaults are often "
"sufficient, but sometimes setting the wait states on RAM too low, or setting the <quote>RAM Speed: Turbo</quote> option will cause strange behavior. A "
"possible idea is to set to BIOS defaults, after noting the current settings first."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1964
msgid ""
"Unclean or insufficient power to the motherboard. Remove any unused I/O boards, hard disks, or CD-ROMs, or disconnect the power cable from them, to see "
"if the power supply can manage a smaller load. Or try another power supply, preferably one with a little more power. For instance, if the current power "
"supply is rated at 250 Watts, try one rated at 300 Watts."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1976
msgid ""
"Read the section on <link linkend=\"signal11\">Signal 11</link> for a further explanation and a discussion on how memory testing software or hardware "
"can still pass faulty memory. There is an extensive <acronym>FAQ</acronym> on this at <link xlink:href=\"http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/\">the SIG11 "
"problem <acronym>FAQ</acronym></link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1983
msgid ""
"Finally, if none of this has helped, it is possibly a bug in FreeBSD. Follow <link linkend=\"access-pr\">these instructions</link> to send a problem "
"report."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:1992
msgid ""
"My system crashes with either <errorname>Fatal trap 12: page fault in kernel mode</errorname>, or <errorname>panic:</errorname>, and spits out a bunch "
"of information. What should I do?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:1999
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD developers are interested in these errors, but need more information than just the error message. Copy the full crash message. Then consult "
"the <acronym>FAQ</acronym> section on <link linkend=\"kernel-panic-troubleshooting\">kernel panics</link>, build a debugging kernel, and get a "
"backtrace. This might sound difficult, but does not require any programming skills. Just follow the instructions."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2012
msgid "What is the meaning of the error <errorname>maxproc limit exceeded by uid %i, please see tuning(7) and login.conf(5)</errorname>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2018
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD kernel will only allow a certain number of processes to exist at one time. The number is based on the <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> variable. <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> also affects "
"various other in-kernel limits, such as network buffers. If the machine is heavily loaded, increase <varname>kern.maxusers</varname>. This will "
"increase these other system limits in addition to the maximum number of processes."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2028
msgid ""
"To adjust the <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> value, see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-"
"kernel-limits.html#kern-maxfiles\">File/Process Limits</link> section of the Handbook. While that section refers to open files, the same limits apply "
"to processes."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2034
msgid ""
"If the machine is lightly loaded but running a very large number of processes, adjust the <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> tunable by defining it in "
"<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. The tunable will not get adjusted until the system is rebooted. For more information about tuning tunables, see "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If these processes are being run by a single user, "
"adjust <varname>kern.maxprocperuid</varname> to be one less than the new <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> value. It must be at least one less because "
"one system program, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, must always be running."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2051
msgid "Why do full screen applications on remote machines misbehave?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2056
msgid ""
"The remote machine may be setting the terminal type to something other than <literal>xterm</literal> which is required by the FreeBSD console. "
"Alternatively the kernel may have the wrong values for the width and height of the terminal."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2062
msgid ""
"Check the value of the <envar>TERM</envar> environment variable is <literal>xterm</literal>. If the remote machine does not support that try "
"<literal>vt100</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2067
msgid ""
"Run <command>stty -a</command> to check what the kernel thinks the terminal dimensions are. If they are incorrect, they can be changed by running "
"<command>stty rows <replaceable>RR</replaceable> cols <replaceable>CC</replaceable></command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2073
msgid ""
"Alternatively, if the client machine has <package>x11/xterm</package> installed, then running <command>resize</command> will query the terminal for the "
"correct dimensions and set them."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2082
msgid "Why does it take so long to connect to my computer via <command>ssh</command> or <command>telnet</command>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2088
msgid ""
"The symptom: there is a long delay between the time the TCP connection is established and the time when the client software asks for a password (or, in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>telnet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>'s case, when a login prompt appears)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2094
msgid ""
"The problem: more likely than not, the delay is caused by the server software trying to resolve the client's IP address into a hostname. Many servers, "
"including the <application>Telnet</application> and <application>SSH</application> servers that come with FreeBSD, do this to store the hostname in a "
"log file for future reference by the administrator."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2102
msgid ""
"The remedy: if the problem occurs whenever connecting the client computer to any server, the problem is with the client. If the problem only occurs "
"when someone connects to the server computer, the problem is with the server."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2108
msgid ""
"If the problem is with the client, the only remedy is to fix the DNS so the server can resolve it. If this is on a local network, consider it a server "
"problem and keep reading. If this is on the Internet, contact your ISP."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2114
msgid ""
"If the problem is with the server on a local network, configure the server to resolve address-to-hostname queries for the local address range. See "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>hosts</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information. If this is on the Internet, the problem may be that the local server's "
"resolver is not functioning correctly. To check, try to look up another host such as <systemitem>www.yahoo.com</systemitem>. If it does not work, that "
"is the problem."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2125
msgid ""
"Following a fresh install of FreeBSD, it is also possible that domain and name server information is missing from <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</"
"filename>. This will often cause a delay in <application>SSH</application>, as the option <literal>UseDNS</literal> is set to <literal>yes</literal> by "
"default in <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>. If this is causing the problem, either fill in the missing information in <filename>/etc/resolv."
"conf</filename> or set <literal>UseDNS</literal> to <literal>no</literal> in <filename>sshd_config</filename> as a temporary workaround."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2143
msgid ""
"Why does <errorname>file: table is full</errorname> show up repeatedly in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2148
msgid ""
"This error message indicates that the number of available file descriptors have been exhausted on the system. Refer to the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#kern-maxfiles\">kern.maxfiles</link> section of the <link xlink:"
"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html\">Tuning Kernel Limits</link> section of the Handbook for a "
"discussion and solution."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2159
msgid "Why does the clock on my computer keep incorrect time?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2164
msgid "The computer has two or more clocks, and FreeBSD has chosen to use the wrong one."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2167
msgid ""
"Run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and check for lines that contain <literal>Timecounter</"
"literal>. The one with the highest quality value that FreeBSD chose."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2171
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dmesg | grep Timecounter</userinput>\n"
"Timecounter \"i8254\" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 0\n"
"Timecounter \"ACPI-fast\" frequency 3579545 Hz quality 1000\n"
"Timecounter \"TSC\" frequency 2998570050 Hz quality 800\n"
"Timecounters tick every 1.000 msec"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2177
msgid ""
"Confirm this by checking the <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2181
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware</userinput>\n"
"kern.timecounter.hardware: ACPI-fast"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2184
msgid "It may be a broken ACPI timer. The simplest solution is to disable the ACPI timer in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:2188
#, no-wrap
msgid "debug.acpi.disabled=\"timer\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2190
msgid ""
"Or the BIOS may modify the TSC clock—perhaps to change the speed of the processor when running from batteries, or going into a power saving mode, but "
"FreeBSD is unaware of these adjustments, and appears to gain or lose time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2196
msgid ""
"In this example, the <literal>i8254</literal> clock is also available, and can be selected by writing its name to the <varname>kern.timecounter."
"hardware</varname> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2201
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</userinput>\n"
"kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC -&gt; i8254"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2204
msgid "The computer should now start keeping more accurate time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2207
msgid "To have this change automatically run at boot time, add the following line to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:2211
#, no-wrap
msgid "kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2217
msgid "What does the error <errorname>swap_pager: indefinite wait buffer:</errorname> mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2222
msgid ""
"This means that a process is trying to page memory from disk, and the page attempt has hung trying to access the disk for more than 20 seconds. It "
"might be caused by bad blocks on the disk drive, disk wiring, cables, or any other disk I/O-related hardware. If the drive itself is bad, disk errors "
"will appear in <filename>/var/log/messages</filename> and in the output of <command>dmesg</command>. Otherwise, check the cables and connections."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2237
msgid "What is a <errorname>lock order reversal</errorname>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2242
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD kernel uses a number of resource locks to arbitrate contention for certain resources. When multiple kernel threads try to obtain multiple "
"resource locks, there's always the potential for a deadlock, where two threads have each obtained one of the locks and blocks forever waiting for the "
"other thread to release one of the other locks. This sort of locking problem can be avoided if all threads obtain the locks in the same order."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2251
msgid ""
"A run-time lock diagnostic system called <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, enabled in "
"FreeBSD-CURRENT and disabled by default for stable branches and releases, detects the potential for deadlocks due to locking errors, including errors "
"caused by obtaining multiple resource locks with a different order from different parts of the kernel. The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> framework tries to detect this problem as it happens, and reports it by printing a message to the "
"system console about a <errorname>lock order reversal</errorname> (often referred to also as <acronym>LOR</acronym>)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2263
msgid ""
"It is possible to get false positives, as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> is conservative. "
"A true positive report <emphasis>does not</emphasis> mean that a system is dead-locked; instead it should be understood as a warning that a deadlock "
"could have happened here."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:2270
msgid ""
"Problematic <acronym>LOR</acronym>s tend to get fixed quickly, so check the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current"
"\">FreeBSD-CURRENT mailing list</link> before posting to it."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2279
msgid "What does <errorname>Called ... with the following non-sleepable locks held</errorname> mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2284
msgid "This means that a function that may sleep was called while a mutex (or other unsleepable) lock was held."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2287
msgid ""
"The reason this is an error is because mutexes are not intended to be held for long periods of time; they are supposed to only be held to maintain "
"short periods of synchronization. This programming contract allows device drivers to use mutexes to synchronize with the rest of the kernel during "
"interrupts. Interrupts (under FreeBSD) may not sleep. Hence it is imperative that no subsystem in the kernel block for an extended period while holding "
"a mutex."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2297
msgid ""
"To catch such errors, assertions may be added to the kernel that interact with the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> subsystem to emit a warning or fatal error (depending on the system configuration) when a potentially blocking call is made "
"while holding a mutex."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2303
msgid ""
"In summary, such warnings are non-fatal, however with unfortunate timing they could cause undesirable effects ranging from a minor blip in the system's "
"responsiveness to a complete system lockup."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2308
msgid ""
"For additional information about locking in FreeBSD see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>locking</refentrytitle><manvolnum>9</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
#: book.translate.xml:2316
msgid "buildworld"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
#: book.translate.xml:2316
msgid "installworld"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2315
msgid "Why does <_:buildtarget-1/>/<_:buildtarget-2/> die with the message <errorname>touch: not found</errorname>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2322
msgid ""
"This error does not mean that the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>touch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is missing. The "
"error is instead probably due to the dates of the files being set sometime in the future. If the CMOS clock is set to local time, run "
"<command>adjkerntz -i</command> to adjust the kernel clock when booting into single-user mode."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:2335
msgid "User Applications"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2340
msgid "Where are all the user applications?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2344
msgid ""
"Refer to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html\">the ports page</link> for info on software packages ported to FreeBSD. The list "
"currently tops 24,000 and is growing daily, so come back to check often or subscribe to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/"
"listinfo/freebsd-announce\">FreeBSD announcements mailing list</link> for periodic updates on new entries."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2351
msgid ""
"Most ports should work on all supported versions of FreeBSD. Those that do not are specifically marked as such. Each time a FreeBSD release is made, a "
"snapshot of the ports tree at the time of release in also included in the <filename>ports/</filename> directory."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2357
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports compressed binary packages to easily install and uninstall ports. Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to control the installation of packages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2365
msgid "How do I download the Ports tree? Should I be using Subversion?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2370
msgid "Any of the methods listed here work:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2374
msgid ""
"Use portsnap for most use cases. Refer to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html\">Using the Ports "
"Collection</link> for instructions on how to use this tool."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2379
#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"Use Subversion if custom patches to the ports tree are needed. Refer to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html"
"\">Using Subversion</link> for details."
msgstr ""
"如果想看關於 FreeBSD 更深入的資料,請看 <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link>。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2389
msgid "Does FreeBSD support <trademark>Java</trademark>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2393
msgid "Yes. Refer to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/java/index.html\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/java/</link> for more information."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2400
#, fuzzy
msgid "Why can I not build this port on my 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> -, or 12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> -STABLE machine?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 常見問答集"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2406
msgid ""
"If the installed FreeBSD version lags significantly behind <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> or <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, update the Ports Collection "
"using the instructions in <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html\">Using the Ports Collection</link>. "
"If the system is up-to-date, someone might have committed a change to the port which works for <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> but which broke the port "
"for <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>. <link xlink:href=\"https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/submit/\">Submit</link> a bug report, since the Ports Collection is "
"supposed to work for both the <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> and <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branches."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2423
msgid "I just tried to build <filename>INDEX</filename> using <command>make index</command>, and it failed. Why?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2428
msgid ""
"First, make sure that the Ports Collection is up-to-date. Errors that affect building <filename>INDEX</filename> from an up-to-date copy of the Ports "
"Collection are high-visibility and are thus almost always fixed immediately."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2434
msgid ""
"There are rare cases where <filename>INDEX</filename> will not build due to odd cases involving <varname>OPTIONS_SET</varname> being set in "
"<filename>make.conf</filename>. If you suspect that this is the case, try to make <filename>INDEX</filename> with those variables turned off before "
"reporting it to <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports\">FreeBSD ports mailing list</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2446
msgid "I updated the sources, now how do I update my installed ports?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2451
msgid ""
"FreeBSD does not include a port upgrading tool, but it does have some tools to make the upgrade process somewhat easier. Additional tools are available "
"to simplify port handling and are described the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html\">Upgrading "
"Ports</link> section in the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2461
msgid "Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform a major version update?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2466
msgid ""
"Yes! While a recent system will run with software compiled under an older release, things will randomly crash and fail to work once other ports are "
"installed or updated."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2471
msgid ""
"When the system is upgraded, various shared libraries, loadable modules, and other parts of the system will be replaced with newer versions. "
"Applications linked against the older versions may fail to start or, in other cases, fail to function properly."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2477
msgid ""
"For more information, see <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/updating-upgrading-freebsdupdate.html#freebsdupdate-"
"upgrade\">the section on upgrades</link> in the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2484
msgid "Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform a minor version update?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2489
msgid ""
"In general, no. FreeBSD developers do their utmost to guarantee binary compatibility across all releases with the same major version number. Any "
"exceptions will be documented in the Release Notes, and advice given there should be followed."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2499
msgid "Why is <command>/bin/sh</command> so minimal? Why does FreeBSD not use <command>bash</command> or another shell?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2505
msgid ""
"Many people need to write shell scripts which will be portable across many systems. That is why <trademark class=\"registered\">POSIX</trademark> "
"specifies the shell and utility commands in great detail. Most scripts are written in Bourne shell (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>), and because several important programming interfaces (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>system</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>popen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and analogues in higher-level scripting languages like Perl "
"and Tcl) are specified to use the Bourne shell to interpret commands. Because the Bourne shell is so often and widely used, it is important for it to "
"be quick to start, be deterministic in its behavior, and have a small memory footprint."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2518
msgid ""
"The existing implementation is our best effort at meeting as many of these requirements simultaneously as we can. To keep <command>/bin/sh</command> "
"small, we have not provided many of the convenience features that other shells have. That is why other more featureful shells like <command>bash</"
"command>, <command>scsh</command>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <command>zsh</command> "
"are available. Compare the memory utilization of these shells by looking at the <quote>VSZ</quote> and <quote>RSS</quote> columns in a <command>ps -u</"
"command> listing."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2534
msgid "How do I create audio CDs from my MIDI files?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2538
msgid ""
"To create audio CDs from MIDI files, first install <package>audio/timidity++</package> from ports then install manually the GUS patches set by Eric A. "
"Welsh, available at <uri xlink:href=\"http://alleg.sourceforge.net/digmid.html\">http://alleg.sourceforge.net/digmid.html</uri>. After "
"<application>TiMidity++</application> has been installed properly, MIDI files may be converted to WAV files with the following command line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2546
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>timidity -Ow -s 44100 -o /tmp/juke/01.wav 01.mid</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2548
msgid ""
"The WAV files can then be converted to other formats or burned onto audio CDs, as described in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US."
"ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html\">FreeBSD Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:2557
msgid "Kernel Configuration"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2562
msgid "I would like to customize my kernel. Is it difficult?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2567
msgid ""
"Not at all! Check out the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html\">kernel config section of the "
"Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:2571
msgid ""
"The new <filename>kernel</filename> will be installed to the <filename>/boot/kernel</filename> directory along with its modules, while the old kernel "
"and its modules will be moved to the <filename>/boot/kernel.old</filename> directory. If a mistake is made in the configuration, simply boot the "
"previous version of the kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2585
msgid "Why is my kernel so big?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2589
msgid ""
"<literal>GENERIC</literal> kernels shipped with FreeBSD are compiled in <emphasis>debug mode</emphasis>. Kernels built in debug mode contain debug data "
"in separate files that are used for debugging. FreeBSD releases prior to 11.0 store these debug files in the same directory as the kernel itself, "
"<filename>/boot/kernel/</filename>. In FreeBSD 11.0 and later the debug files are stored in <filename>/usr/lib/debug/boot/kernel/</filename>. Note that "
"there will be little or no performance loss from running a debug kernel, and it is useful to keep one around in case of a system panic."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2602
msgid ""
"When running low on disk space, there are different options to reduce the size of <filename>/boot/kernel/</filename> and <filename>/usr/lib/debug/</"
"filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2607
msgid "To not install the symbol files, make sure the following line exists in <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:2611
#, no-wrap
msgid "WITHOUT_KERNEL_SYMBOLS=yes"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2613
msgid "For more information see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>src.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2615
msgid "If you want to avoid building debug files altogether, make sure that both of the following are true:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2620
msgid "This line does not exist in the kernel configuration file:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:2623
#, no-wrap
msgid "makeoptions DEBUG=-g"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2627
msgid "Do not run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> with <option>-g</option>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2632
msgid "Either of the above settings will cause the kernel to be built in debug mode."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2635
msgid "To build and install only the specified modules, list them in <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:2639
#, no-wrap
msgid "MODULES_OVERRIDE= <replaceable>accf_http ipfw</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2641
msgid ""
"Replace <emphasis>accf_httpd ipfw</emphasis> with a list of needed modules. Only the listed modules will be built. This reduces the size of the kernel "
"directory and decreases the amount of time needed to build the kernel. For more information, read <filename>/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf</"
"filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2648
msgid "Unneeded devices can be removed from the kernel to further reduce the size. See <xref linkend=\"make-kernel\"/> for more information."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2651
msgid ""
"To put any of these options into effect, follow the instructions to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/"
"kernelconfig-building.html\">build and install</link> the new kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2655
msgid "For reference, the FreeBSD 11 amd64 kernel (<filename>/boot/kernel/kernel</filename>) is approximately 25 MB."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2663
msgid "Why does every kernel I try to build fail to compile, even <filename>GENERIC</filename>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2668
msgid "There are a number of possible causes for this problem:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2673
msgid ""
"The source tree is different from the one used to build the currently running system. When attempting an upgrade, read <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</"
"filename>, paying particular attention to the <quote>COMMON ITEMS</quote> section at the end."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2682
msgid ""
"The <command>make buildkernel</command> did not complete successfully. The <command>make buildkernel</command> target relies on files generated by the "
"<command>make buildworld</command> target to complete its job correctly."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2690
msgid ""
"Even when building <link linkend=\"stable\">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>, it is possible that the source tree was fetched at a time when it was either being "
"modified or it was broken. Only releases are guaranteed to be buildable, although <link linkend=\"stable\">FreeBSD-STABLE</link> builds fine the "
"majority of the time. Try re-fetching the source tree and see if the problem goes away. Try using a different mirror in case the previous one is having "
"problems."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2706
msgid "Which scheduler is in use on a running system?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2711
msgid "The name of the scheduler currently being used is directly available as the value of the <varname>kern.sched.name</varname> sysctl:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2715
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> sysctl <replaceable>kern.sched.name</replaceable>\n"
"kern.sched.name: ULE"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2722
msgid "What is <varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2726
msgid "<varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname> is the maximum number of ticks a process can run without being preempted in the 4BSD scheduler."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:2735
msgid "Disks, File Systems, and Boot Loaders"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2740
msgid "How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2745
msgid ""
"See the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-adding.html\">Adding Disks</link> section in the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2752
msgid "How do I move my system over to my huge new disk?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2757
msgid ""
"The best way is to reinstall the operating system on the new disk, then move the user data over. This is highly recommended when tracking <emphasis>-"
"STABLE</emphasis> for more than one release or when updating a release instead of installing a new one. Install booteasy on both disks with "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and dual boot until you are happy with the new "
"configuration. Skip the next paragraph to find out how to move the data after doing this."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2767
msgid ""
"Alternatively, partition and label the new disk with either <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sade</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the disks are MBR-formatted, booteasy can be installed on "
"both disks with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> so that the computer can dual boot to the "
"old or new system after the copying is done."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2773
msgid ""
"Once the new disk set up, the data cannot just be copied. Instead, use tools that understand device files and system flags, such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Although it is recommended to move the data while in single-"
"user mode, it is not required."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2780
msgid ""
"When the disks are formatted with <acronym>UFS</acronym>, never use anything but <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>restore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to move the root file system. "
"These commands should also be used when moving a single partition to another empty partition. The sequence of steps to use <command>dump</command> to "
"move the data from one <acronym>UFS</acronym> partitions to a new partition is:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: step/para
#: book.translate.xml:2791
msgid "<command>newfs</command> the new partition."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: step/para
#: book.translate.xml:2795
msgid "<command>mount</command> it on a temporary mount point."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: step/para
#: book.translate.xml:2800
msgid "<command>cd</command> to that directory."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: step/para
#: book.translate.xml:2804
msgid "<command>dump</command> the old partition, piping output to the new one."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2809
msgid "For example, to move <filename>/dev/ada1s1a</filename> with <filename>/mnt</filename> as the temporary mount point, type:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2814
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2819
msgid ""
"Rearranging partitions with <command>dump</command> takes a bit more work. To merge a partition like <filename>/var</filename> into its parent, create "
"the new partition large enough for both, move the parent partition as described above, then move the child partition into the empty directory that the "
"first move created:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2827
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd var</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - /var | restore rf -</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2834
msgid ""
"To split a directory from its parent, say putting <filename>/var</filename> on its own partition when it was not before, create both partitions, then "
"mount the child partition on the appropriate directory in the temporary mount point, then move the old single partition:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2840
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1d</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir /mnt/var</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1d /mnt/var</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2848
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cpio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pax</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> utilities are also available for moving user data. These are known to lose file flag information, "
"so use them with caution."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2856
msgid ""
"Which partitions can safely use Soft Updates? I have heard that Soft Updates on <filename>/</filename> can cause problems. What about Journaled Soft "
"Updates?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2862
msgid "Short answer: Soft Updates can usually be safely used on all partitions."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2865
msgid ""
"Long answer: Soft Updates has two characteristics that may be undesirable on certain partitions. First, a Soft Updates partition has a small chance of "
"losing data during a system crash. The partition will not be corrupted as the data will simply be lost. Second, Soft Updates can cause temporary space "
"shortages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2872
msgid ""
"When using Soft Updates, the kernel can take up to thirty seconds to write changes to the physical disk. When a large file is deleted the file still "
"resides on disk until the kernel actually performs the deletion. This can cause a very simple race condition. Suppose one large file is deleted and "
"another large file is immediately created. The first large file is not yet actually removed from the physical disk, so the disk might not have enough "
"room for the second large file. This will produce an error that the partition does not have enough space, even though a large chunk of space has just "
"been released. A few seconds later, the file creation works as expected."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2886
msgid ""
"If a system should crash after the kernel accepts a chunk of data for writing to disk, but before that data is actually written out, data could be "
"lost. This risk is extremely small, but generally manageable."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2891
msgid "These issues affect all partitions using Soft Updates. So, what does this mean for the root partition?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2894
msgid ""
"Vital information on the root partition changes very rarely. If the system crashed during the thirty-second window after such a change is made, it is "
"possible that data could be lost. This risk is negligible for most applications, but be aware that it exists. If the system cannot tolerate this much "
"risk, do not use Soft Updates on the root file system!"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2902
msgid ""
"<filename>/</filename> is traditionally one of the smallest partitions. If <filename>/tmp</filename> is on <filename>/</filename>, there may be "
"intermittent space problems. Symlinking <filename>/tmp</filename> to <filename>/var/tmp</filename> will solve this problem."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2910
msgid ""
"Finally, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not work in live mode (-L) on a filesystem, with "
"Journaled Soft Updates (<acronym>SU+J</acronym>)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2918
msgid "Can I mount other foreign file systems under FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2923
msgid "FreeBSD supports a variety of other file systems."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#: book.translate.xml:2927
msgid "UFS"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2930
msgid ""
"UFS CD-ROMs can be mounted directly on FreeBSD. Mounting disk partitions from Digital UNIX and other systems that support UFS may be more complex, "
"depending on the details of the disk partitioning for the operating system in question."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#: book.translate.xml:2939
msgid "ext2/ext3"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2942
msgid ""
"FreeBSD supports <literal>ext2fs</literal> and <literal>ext3fs</literal> partitions. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ext2fs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#: book.translate.xml:2949
msgid "NTFS"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2952
msgid ""
"FUSE based NTFS support is available as a port (<package>sysutils/fusefs-ntfs</package>). For more information see <link xlink:href=\"http://www.tuxera."
"com/community/ntfs-3g-manual/\"><application>ntfs-3g</application></link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#: book.translate.xml:2959
msgid "FAT"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2962
msgid ""
"FreeBSD includes a read-write FAT driver. For more information, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_msdosfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:2968 book.translate.xml:3379
msgid "ZFS"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:2971
msgid ""
"FreeBSD includes a port of <trademark>Sun</trademark>'s ZFS driver. The current recommendation is to use it only on amd64 platforms with sufficient "
"memory. For more information, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>zfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 包含由 <trademark>Sun</trademark> 移植過來的 ZFS 驅動程式。 目前的建議是僅在記憶體充足的 amd64 平臺上使用它。有關更詳細資訊, 請參閱 "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>zfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2979
msgid ""
"FreeBSD includes the Network File System <acronym>NFS</acronym> and the FreeBSD Ports Collection provides several FUSE applications to support many "
"other file systems."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:2988
msgid "How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:2992
msgid ""
"The secondary DOS partitions are found after <emphasis>all</emphasis> the primary partitions. For example, if <literal>E</literal> is the second DOS "
"partition on the second SCSI drive, there will be a device file for <quote>slice 5</quote> in <filename>/dev</filename>. To mount it:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:2999
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da1s5 /dos/e</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3005
msgid "Is there a cryptographic file system for FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3009
msgid ""
"Yes, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gbde</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>geli</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. See the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-encrypting."
"html\">Encrypting Disk Partitions</link> section of the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3018
msgid "How do I boot FreeBSD and <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> using <application>GRUB</application>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3023
msgid ""
"To boot FreeBSD using <application>GRUB</application>, add the following to either <filename>/boot/grub/menu.lst</filename> or <filename>/boot/grub/"
"grub.conf</filename>, depending upon which is used by the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> distribution."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3029
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"title FreeBSD 9.1\n"
"\troot <replaceable>(hd0,a)</replaceable>\n"
"\tkernel /boot/loader"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3033
msgid ""
"Where <replaceable>hd0,a</replaceable> points to the root partition on the first disk. To specify the slice number, use something like this "
"<replaceable>(hd0,2,a)</replaceable>. By default, if the slice number is omitted, <application>GRUB</application> searches the first slice which has "
"the <literal>a</literal> partition."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3045
msgid "How do I boot FreeBSD and <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> using <application>BootEasy?</application>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3050
msgid ""
"Install LILO at the start of the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> boot partition instead of in the Master Boot Record. You can then "
"boot LILO from <application>BootEasy</application>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3055
msgid ""
"This is recommended when running <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> and <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> as it makes "
"it simpler to get <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> booting again if <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> is reinstalled."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3063
msgid "How do I change the boot prompt from <literal>???</literal> to something more meaningful?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3069
msgid ""
"This cannot be accomplished with the standard boot manager without rewriting it. There are a number of other boot managers in the <filename>sysutils</"
"filename> category of the Ports Collection."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3078
msgid "How do I use a new removable drive?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3082
msgid "If the drive already has a file system on it, use a command like this:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3085
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da0s1 /mnt</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3087
msgid ""
"If the drive will only be used with FreeBSD systems, partition it with <acronym>UFS</acronym> or <acronym>ZFS</acronym>. This will provide long "
"filename support, improvement in performance, and stability. If the drive will be used by other operating systems, a more portable choice, such as "
"msdosfs, is better."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3094
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0 count=2</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart create -s GPT /dev/da0</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart add -t freebsd-ufs /dev/da0</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3098
msgid "Finally, create a new file system:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3100
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/da0p1</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3102
msgid "and mount it:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3104
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/da0s1 /mnt</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3106
msgid ""
"It is a good idea to add a line to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>) so you can just type <command>mount /mnt</command> in the future:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3111
#, no-wrap
msgid "/dev/da0p1 /mnt ufs rw,noauto 0 0"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3117
msgid "Why do I get <errorname>Incorrect super block</errorname> when mounting a CD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3122
msgid ""
"The type of device to mount must be specified. This is described in the Handbook section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/"
"books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd\">Using Data CDs</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3130
msgid "Why do I get <errorname>Device not configured</errorname> when mounting a CD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3135
msgid ""
"This generally means that there is no CD in the drive, or the drive is not visible on the bus. Refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/"
"en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd\">Using Data CDs</link> section of the Handbook for a detailed discussion of this issue."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3145
msgid "Why do all non-English characters in filenames show up as <quote>?</quote> on my CDs when mounted in FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3150
msgid ""
"The CD probably uses the <quote>Joliet</quote> extension for storing information about files and directories. This is discussed in the Handbook section "
"on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd\">Using Data CD-ROMs</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3160
msgid "A CD burned under FreeBSD cannot be read under any other operating system. Why?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3165
msgid ""
"This means a raw file was burned to the CD, rather than creating an ISO 9660 file system. Take a look at the Handbook section on <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd\">Using Data <acronym>CD</acronym>s</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3174
msgid "How can I create an image of a data CD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3178
msgid ""
"This is discussed in the Handbook section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mkisofs"
"\">Writing Data to an <acronym>ISO</acronym> File System</link>. For more on working with CD-ROMs, see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/"
"en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html\">Creating CDs Section</link> in the Storage chapter in the Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3188
msgid "Why can I not <command>mount</command> an audio CD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3193
msgid ""
"Trying to mount an audio CD will produce an error like <errorname>cd9660: /dev/cd0: Invalid argument</errorname>. This is because <command>mount</"
"command> only works on file systems. Audio CDs do not have file systems; they just have data. Instead, use a program that reads audio CDs, such as the "
"<package>audio/xmcd</package> package or port."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3205
msgid "How do I <command>mount</command> a multi-session CD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3210
msgid ""
"By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to mount the last data track "
"(session) of a CD. To load an earlier session, use the <option>-s</option> command line argument. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_cd9660</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for specific examples."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3220
msgid "How do I let ordinary users mount CD-ROMs, DVDs, USB drives, and other removable media?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3225
msgid "As <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> set the sysctl variable <varname>vfs.usermount</varname> to <literal>1</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3229
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl vfs.usermount=1</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3231
msgid ""
"To make this persist across reboots, add the line <literal>vfs.usermount=1</literal> to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> so that it is reset at "
"system boot time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3236
msgid ""
"Users can only mount devices they have read permissions to. To allow users to mount a device permissions must be set in <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</"
"filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3241
msgid "For example, to allow users to mount the first USB drive add:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3244
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# Allow all users to mount a USB drive.\n"
"\t    own       /dev/da0       root:operator\n"
"\t    perm      /dev/da0       0666"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3248
msgid "All users can now mount devices they could read onto a directory that they own:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3251
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mkdir ~/my-mount-point</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da0 ~/my-mount-point</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3254
msgid "Unmounting the device is simple:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3256
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>umount ~/my-mount-point</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3258
msgid ""
"Enabling <varname>vfs.usermount</varname>, however, has negative security implications. A better way to access <trademark class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</"
"trademark> formatted media is to use the <package>emulators/mtools</package> package in the Ports Collection."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3265
msgid "The device name used in the previous examples must be changed according to the configuration."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3273
msgid "The <command>du</command> and <command>df</command> commands show different amounts of disk space available. What is going on?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3279
msgid ""
"This is due to how these commands actually work. <command>du</command> goes through the directory tree, measures how large each file is, and presents "
"the totals. <command>df</command> just asks the file system how much space it has left. They seem to be the same thing, but a file without a directory "
"entry will affect <command>df</command> but not <command>du</command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3288
msgid ""
"When a program is using a file, and the file is deleted, the file is not really removed from the file system until the program stops using it. The file "
"is immediately deleted from the directory listing, however. As an example, consider a file large enough to affect the output of <command>du</command> "
"and <command>df</command>. A file being viewed with <command>more</command> can be deleted wihout causing an error. The entry is removed from the "
"directory so no other program or user can access it. However, <command>du</command> shows that it is gone as it has walked the directory tree and the "
"file is not listed. <command>df</command> shows that it is still there, as the file system knows that <command>more</command> is still using that "
"space. Once the <command>more</command> session ends, <command>du</command> and <command>df</command> will agree."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3308
msgid ""
"This situation is common on web servers. Many people set up a FreeBSD web server and forget to rotate the log files. The access log fills up <filename>/"
"var</filename>. The new administrator deletes the file, but the system still complains that the partition is full. Stopping and restarting the web "
"server program would free the file, allowing the system to release the disk space. To prevent this from happening, set up "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>newsyslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3317
msgid "Note that Soft Updates can delay the freeing of disk space and it can take up to 30 seconds for the change to be visible."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3325
msgid "How can I add more swap space?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3329
msgid ""
"This section <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/adding-swap-space.html\">of the Handbook</link> describes how to "
"do this."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3336
msgid "Why does FreeBSD see my disk as smaller than the manufacturer says it is?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3341
msgid ""
"Disk manufacturers calculate gigabytes as a billion bytes each, whereas FreeBSD calculates them as 1,073,741,824 bytes each. This explains why, for "
"example, FreeBSD's boot messages will report a disk that supposedly has 80 GB as holding 76,319 MB."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3348
msgid "Also note that FreeBSD will (by default) <link linkend=\"disk-more-than-full\">reserve</link> 8% of the disk space."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3355
msgid "How is it possible for a partition to be more than 100% full?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3360
msgid ""
"A portion of each UFS partition (8%, by default) is reserved for use by the operating system and the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
"user. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>df</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not count that space when calculating the "
"<literal>Capacity</literal> column, so it can exceed 100%. Notice that the <literal>Blocks</literal> column is always greater than the sum of the "
"<literal>Used</literal> and <literal>Avail</literal> columns, usually by a factor of 8%."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3370
msgid "For more details, look up <option>-m</option> in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tunefs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3384
msgid "What is the minimum amount of RAM one should have to run ZFS?"
msgstr "使用 ZFS 最少需要多少記憶體?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3389
msgid "A minimum of 4GB of RAM is required for comfortable usage, but individual workloads can vary widely."
msgstr "至少需要 4GB 的記憶體才能跑得順,但不同的工作負載可能會造成相當大的差異。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3396
msgid "What is the ZIL and when does it get used?"
msgstr "ZIL 是什麼而又何時會被使用?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3400
msgid ""
"The <acronym>ZIL</acronym> (<acronym>ZFS</acronym> intent log) is a write log used to implement posix write commitment semantics across crashes. "
"Normally writes are bundled up into transaction groups and written to disk when filled (<quote>Transaction Group Commit</quote>). However syscalls like "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsync</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> require a commitment that the data is written to stable "
"storage before returning. The ZIL is needed for writes that have been acknowledged as written but which are not yet on disk as part of a transaction. "
"The transaction groups are timestamped. In the event of a crash the last valid timestamp is found and missing data is merged in from the ZIL."
msgstr ""
"The <acronym>ZIL</acronym> (<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 動向日誌) 是一個紀錄日誌,用以實現系統當機時 POSIX 寫入保證的語義,多個正常 ZFS 寫入動作會被分成多個"
"交易處理群組,並在交易處理群組被填滿時寫入磁碟 (<quote>Transaction Group Commit</quote>)。然而像 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsync</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 這樣的系統呼叫,會要求該系統呼叫在返回前,能承諾已將資料寫入磁碟,ZIL 就是用來紀錄確認為已執行寫入"
"的資料,但其實尚未存在於磁碟上,即尚未完成交易處理,交易處理群組具有時間戳記,在系統當機後,找到 ZIL 最後一個有效的時間戳記,即將遺失的資料再舍併至磁碟"
"上。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3418
msgid "Do I need a SSD for ZIL?"
msgstr "我需要用固態硬碟 (SSD) 來存 ZIL 嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3422
msgid ""
"By default, ZFS stores the ZIL in the pool with all the data. If an application has a heavy write load, storing the ZIL in a separate device that has "
"very fast synchronous, sequential write performance can improve overall system. For other workloads, a SSD is unlikely to make much of an improvement."
msgstr ""
"ZFS 預設將 ZIL 儲存在包含所有資料的 zpool 中,如果應用程式的寫入負載很重,將 ZIL 儲存在同步速度非常快的獨立設備中,藉由循序寫入效能的提高可以改善整個系"
"統的效能,對於其他類型的工作負載, 固態硬碟就不會有太大的助益。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3433
msgid "What is the L2ARC?"
msgstr "L2ARC 是什麼?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3437
msgid ""
"The <acronym>L2ARC</acronym> is a read cache stored on a fast device such as an <acronym>SSD</acronym>. This cache is not persistent across reboots. "
"Note that RAM is used as the first layer of cache and the L2ARC is only needed if there is insufficient RAM."
msgstr ""
"The <acronym>L2ARC</acronym> (Second Level Adaptive Replacement Cache) 是存於快速儲存設備 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 上的讀取快取,此快取在重新開機後會消"
"失,請注意記憶體是第一層的快取,只有在記憶體不足的情況下才需要 L2ARC。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3443
msgid ""
"L2ARC needs space in the ARC to index it. So, perversely, a working set that fits perfectly in the ARC will not fit perfectly any more if a L2ARC is "
"used because part of the ARC is holding the L2ARC index, pushing part of the working set into the L2ARC which is slower than RAM."
msgstr ""
"L2ARC 需要 ARC 的空間來為其製作索引,因此,有一種反常的情況,如果有一種工作集 (working set) 可以完美地剛好放入 ARC,一旦系統使用 L2ARC,該工作集的運作將"
"不再完美,因為 ARC 需要用一部分空間來保存 L2ARC 的索引,以至於必須將工作集的一部分存入比記憶體慢的 L2ARC。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3454
msgid "Is enabling deduplication advisable?"
msgstr "建議啟用去冗餘 (deduplication)  嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3458
msgid "Generally speaking, no."
msgstr "一般而言,不建議這麼做。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3460
msgid ""
"Deduplication takes up a significant amount of RAM and may slow down read and write disk access times. Unless one is storing data that is very heavily "
"duplicated, such as virtual machine images or user backups, it is possible that deduplication will do more harm than good. Another consideration is the "
"inability to revert deduplication status. If data is written when deduplication is enabled, disabling dedup will not cause those blocks which were "
"deduplicated to be replicated until they are next modified."
msgstr ""
"去冗餘需要相當多的記憶體,而且會讓讀寫磁碟所需的時間變長,除非磁碟上儲存了非常多重複的資料,例如:虛擬機的映像檔或者是使用者的備份資料,否則開啟去冗餘可"
"能弊大於利。另一個需要考量的狀況是:啟用去冗餘功能之後再將其關閉,無法將磁碟上去冗餘的狀態立即逆轉,必須等到下次修改了之前被去冗餘的資料,變更的區塊才會"
"再被複製一份。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3471
msgid "Deduplication can also lead to some unexpected situations. In particular, deleting files may become much slower."
msgstr "去冗餘也可能會導致某些非預期的情況,特別是刪除檔案時可能會慢很多。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3479
msgid "I cannot delete or create files on my ZFS pool. How can I fix this?"
msgstr "在我建立的 ZFS pool 中無法刪除和新增檔案,應該怎麼修復?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3484
msgid ""
"This could happen because the pool is 100% full. ZFS requires space on the disk to write transaction metadata. To restore the pool to a usable state, "
"truncate the file to delete:"
msgstr ""
"這很有可能是該 pool 的空間使用率已達 100% 滿了,因 ZFS 需要儲存空間以將紀錄交易處理的輔助資料 (metadata) 寫入,為了讓該 pool 回復至可用狀態,必須用檔案"
"切除的方法 (truncate 命令) 刪除不重要的檔案:"

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3489
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>truncate -s 0 unimportant-file</userinput>"
msgstr "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>truncate -s 0 unimportant-file</userinput>"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3491
msgid "File truncation works because a new transaction is not started, new spare blocks are created instead."
msgstr "因為檔案切除不需要建立交易處理紀錄,並能釋放出可使用的磁碟區塊。"

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3495
msgid "On systems with additional ZFS dataset tuning, such as deduplication, the space may not be immediately available"
msgstr "如果系統曾進行過額外的 ZFS dataset 調校,例如:去冗餘,釋放出來的空間也許不會立即可得。"

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3504
msgid "Does ZFS support TRIM for Solid State Drives?"
msgstr "ZFS 支援固態硬碟 (SSD) 的 TRIM 功能嗎?"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3508
msgid ""
"ZFS TRIM support was added to FreeBSD 10-CURRENT with revision r<revnumber>240868</revnumber>. ZFS TRIM support was added to all FreeBSD-STABLE "
"branches in r<revnumber>252162</revnumber> and r<revnumber>251419</revnumber>, respectively."
msgstr ""
"自 FreeBSD 10-CURRENT 修定 r<revnumber>240868</revnumber> 開始,就支援 ZFS TRIM。ZFS TRIM 的支援分別已在 r<revnumber>252162</revnumber> 和 "
"r<revnumber>251419</revnumber> 的修訂,加進所有 FreeBSD-STABLE 分支。"

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3514
msgid "ZFS TRIM is enabled by default, and can be turned off by adding this line to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:"
msgstr "ZFS TRIM 預設就已開啟,也可以將其關閉,只要加入一行設定到  <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:"

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3518
#, no-wrap
msgid "vfs.zfs.trim.enabled=0"
msgstr "vfs.zfs.trim.enabled=0"

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3521
msgid "ZFS TRIM may not work with all configurations, such as a ZFS filesystem on a GELI-backed device."
msgstr "ZFS TRIM 也可能某些設定中會無效,例如:在採用 GELI 裝置上的 ZFS 檔案系統。"

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:3530
msgid "System Administration"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3535
msgid "Where are the system start-up configuration files?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3540
msgid ""
"The primary configuration file is <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> which is described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. System startup scripts such as <filename>/etc/rc</filename> and <filename>/etc/rc.d</filename>, "
"which are described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, include this file. <emphasis>Do not edit "
"this file!</emphasis> Instead, to edit an entry in <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename>, copy the line into <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and "
"change it there."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3551
msgid "For example, if to start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the included DNS server:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3554
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'named_enable=\"YES\"' &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3556
msgid ""
"To start up local services, place shell scripts in the <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename> directory. These shell scripts should be set "
"executable, the default file mode is <literal>555</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3565
msgid "How do I add a user easily?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3569
msgid ""
"Use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, or the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command for more complicated situations."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3572
msgid ""
"To remove the user, use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command or, if necessary, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3579
msgid "Why do I keep getting messages like <errorname>root: not found</errorname> after editing <filename>/etc/crontab</filename>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3585
msgid ""
"This is normally caused by editing the system crontab. This is not the correct way to do things as the system crontab has a different format to the per-"
"user crontabs. The system crontab has an extra field, specifying which user to run the command as. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> assumes this user is the first word of the command to execute. Since no such command exists, this "
"error message is displayed."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3594
msgid "To delete the extra, incorrect crontab:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3596
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>crontab -r</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3602
msgid ""
"Why do I get the error, <errorname>you are not in the correct group to su root</errorname> when I try to <command>su</command> to <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3608
msgid ""
"This is a security feature. In order to <command>su</command> to <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, or any other account with superuser "
"privileges, the user account must be a member of the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</systemitem> group. If this feature were not there, anybody "
"with an account on a system who also found out <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>'s password would be able to gain superuser level access "
"to the system."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3618
msgid ""
"To allow someone to <command>su</command> to <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, put them in the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</"
"systemitem> group using <command>pw</command>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3623
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod wheel -m lisa</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3625
msgid "The above example will add user <systemitem class=\"username\">lisa</systemitem> to the group <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</systemitem>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3632
msgid ""
"I made a mistake in <filename>rc.conf</filename>, or another startup file, and now I cannot edit it because the file system is read-only. What should I "
"do?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3638
msgid ""
"Restart the system using <userinput>boot -s</userinput> at the loader prompt to enter single-user mode. When prompted for a shell pathname, press "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> and run <command>mount -urw /</command> to re-mount the root file system in read/write mode. You may also need to run "
"<command>mount -a -t ufs</command> to mount the file system where your favorite editor is defined. If that editor is on a network file system, either "
"configure the network manually before mounting the network file systems, or use an editor which resides on a local file system, such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ed</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3651
msgid ""
"In order to use a full screen editor such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry "
"vendor=\"ports\"><refentrytitle>emacs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, run <command>export TERM=xterm</command> so that these "
"editors can load the correct data from the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>termcap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> database."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3657
msgid ""
"After performing these steps, edit <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to fix the syntax error. The error message displayed immediately after the kernel "
"boot messages should indicate the number of the line in the file which is at fault."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3668
msgid "Why am I having trouble setting up my printer?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3672
msgid ""
"See the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing.html\">Handbook entry on printing</link> for troubleshooting "
"tips."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3680
msgid "How can I correct the keyboard mappings for my system?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3685
msgid ""
"Refer to the Handbook section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/using-localization.html\">using localization</"
"link>, specifically the section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/using-localization.html#setting-console"
"\">console setup</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3693
msgid "Why can I not get user quotas to work properly?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:3699
msgid ""
"It is possible that the kernel is not configured to use quotas. In this case, add the following line to the kernel configuration file and recompile the "
"kernel:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3704
#, no-wrap
msgid "options QUOTA"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:3706
msgid ""
"Refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/quotas.html\">Handbook entry on quotas</link> for full details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:3711
msgid "Do not turn on quotas on <filename>/</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:3716
msgid "Put the quota file on the file system that the quotas are to be enforced on:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3723
msgid "File System"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3725
msgid "Quota file"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3731
msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3733
msgid "<filename>/usr/admin/quotas</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3737
msgid "<filename>/home</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3739
msgid "<filename>/home/admin/quotas</filename>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#: book.translate.xml:3743 book.translate.xml:3745
msgid "…"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3757
msgid "Does FreeBSD support System V IPC primitives?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3761
msgid ""
"Yes, FreeBSD supports System V-style IPC, including shared memory, messages and semaphores, in the <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. With a custom "
"kernel, support may be loaded with the <filename>sysvshm.ko</filename>, <filename>sysvsem.ko</filename> and <filename>sysvmsg.ko</filename> kernel "
"modules, or enabled in the custom kernel by adding the following lines to the kernel configuration file:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3771
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"options    SYSVSHM          # enable shared memory\n"
"options    SYSVSEM          # enable for semaphores\n"
"options    SYSVMSG          # enable for messaging"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3775
msgid "Recompile and install the kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3781
msgid "What other mail-server software can I use instead of <application>Sendmail</application>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3786
msgid ""
"The <link xlink:href=\"http://www.sendmail.org/\"><application>Sendmail</application></link> server is the default mail-server software for FreeBSD, "
"but it can be replaced with another MTA installed from the Ports Collection. Available ports include <package>mail/exim</package>, <package>mail/"
"postfix</package>, and <package>mail/qmail</package>. Search the mailing lists for discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of the "
"available MTAs."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3800
msgid "I have forgotten the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password! What do I do?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3805
msgid ""
"Do not panic! Restart the system, type <userinput>boot -s</userinput> at the <literal>Boot:</literal> prompt to enter single-user mode. At the question "
"about the shell to use, hit <keycap>Enter</keycap> which will display a <prompt>#</prompt> prompt. Enter <command>mount -urw /</command> to remount the "
"root file system read/write, then run <command>mount -a</command> to remount all the file systems. Run <command>passwd root</command> to change the "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password then run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> to continue booting."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3818
msgid ""
"If you are still prompted to give the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password when entering the single-user mode, it means that the "
"console has been marked as <literal>insecure</literal> in <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>. In this case, it will be required to boot from a FreeBSD "
"installation disk, choose the <guimenuitem>Live CD</guimenuitem> or <guimenuitem>Shell</guimenuitem> at the beginning of the install process and issue "
"the commands mentioned above. Mount the specific partition in this case and then chroot to it. For example, replace <command>mount -urw /</command> "
"with <command>mount /dev/ada0p1 /mnt; chroot /mnt</command> for a system on <replaceable>ada0p1</replaceable>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3835
msgid ""
"If the root partition cannot be mounted from single-user mode, it is possible that the partitions are encrypted and it is impossible to mount them "
"without the access keys. For more information see the section about encrypted disks in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US."
"ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-encrypting.html\">Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3846
msgid "How do I keep <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Control</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo> from rebooting the system?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3851
msgid ""
"When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the default console driver, build and install a "
"new kernel with this line in the configuration file:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:3855
#, no-wrap
msgid "options SC_DISABLE_REBOOT"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3857
msgid ""
"This can also be done by setting the following <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> which does "
"not require a reboot or kernel recompile:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3861
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.syscons.kbd_reboot=0</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: note/para
#: book.translate.xml:3864
msgid ""
"The above two methods are exclusive: The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not exist if "
"the kernel is compiled with <literal>SC_DISABLE_REBOOT</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3873
msgid "How do I reformat DOS text files to <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> ones?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3878
msgid "Use this <citerefentry><refentrytitle>perl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3880
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>perl -i.bak -npe 's/\\r\\n/\\n/g' file(s)</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3882
msgid ""
"where <replaceable>file(s)</replaceable> is one or more files to process. The modification is done in-place, with the original file stored with a "
"<filename>.bak</filename> extension."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3887
msgid "Alternatively, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3889
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>tr -d '\\r' &lt; dos-text-file &gt; unix-file</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3891
msgid ""
"<replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> is the file containing DOS text while <replaceable>unix-file</replaceable> will contain the converted output. "
"This can be quite a bit faster than using <command>perl</command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3897
msgid ""
"Yet another way to reformat DOS text files is to use the <package>converters/dosunix</package> port from the Ports Collection. Consult its "
"documentation about the details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3906
msgid "How do I re-read <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and re-start <filename>/etc/rc</filename> without a reboot?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3912
msgid "Go into single-user mode and then back to multi-user mode:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3915
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>return</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>exit</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3923
msgid ""
"I tried to update my system to the latest <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, but got <emphasis>-BETA<replaceable>x</replaceable></emphasis>, <emphasis>-RC</"
"emphasis> or <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>! What is going on?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3932
msgid ""
"Short answer: it is just a name. <emphasis>RC</emphasis> stands for <quote>Release Candidate</quote>. It signifies that a release is imminent. In "
"FreeBSD, <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis> is typically synonymous with the code freeze before a release. (For some releases, the <emphasis>-BETA</"
"emphasis> label was used in the same way as <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>.)"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3941
msgid ""
"Long answer: FreeBSD derives its releases from one of two places. Major, dot-zero, releases, such as 9.0-RELEASE are branched from the head of the "
"development stream, commonly referred to as <link linkend=\"current\">-CURRENT</link>. Minor releases, such as 6.3-RELEASE or 5.2-RELEASE, have been "
"snapshots of the active <link linkend=\"stable\">-STABLE</link> branch. Starting with 4.3-RELEASE, each release also now has its own branch which can "
"be tracked by people requiring an extremely conservative rate of development (typically only security advisories)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3952
msgid ""
"When a release is about to be made, the branch from which it will be derived from has to undergo a certain process. Part of this process is a code "
"freeze. When a code freeze is initiated, the name of the branch is changed to reflect that it is about to become a release. For example, if the branch "
"used to be called 6.2-STABLE, its name will be changed to 6.3-PRERELEASE to signify the code freeze and signify that extra pre-release testing should "
"be happening. Bug fixes can still be committed to be part of the release. When the source code is in shape for the release the name will be changed to "
"6.3-RC to signify that a release is about to be made from it. Once in the RC stage, only the most critical bugs found can be fixed. Once the release "
"(6.3-RELEASE in this example) and release branch have been made, the branch will be renamed to 6.3-STABLE."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3969
msgid ""
"For more information on version numbers and the various Subversion branches, refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/"
"articles/releng/article.html\">Release Engineering</link> article."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:3977
msgid ""
"I tried to install a new kernel, and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> failed. How do I "
"get around this?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3982
msgid "Short answer: the security level is greater than 0. Reboot directly to single-user mode to install the kernel."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3986
msgid "Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing system flags at security levels greater than 0. To check the current security level:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:3990 book.translate.xml:4019
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:3992
msgid ""
"The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user mode, so boot to single-user mode to install the kernel, or change the security level in <filename>/"
"etc/rc.conf</filename> then reboot. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for "
"details on <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on <filename>rc.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4006
msgid "I cannot change the time on my system by more than one second! How do I get around this?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4011
msgid "Short answer: the system is at a security level greater than 1. Reboot directly to single-user mode to change the date."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4015
msgid "Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing the time by more that one second at security levels greater than 1. To check the security level:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4021
msgid ""
"The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user mode. Either boot to single-user mode to change the date or change the security level in <filename>/"
"etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for "
"details on <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on <filename>rc.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4035
msgid "Why is <command>rpc.statd</command> using 256 MB of memory?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4040
msgid ""
"No, there is no memory leak, and it is not using 256 MB of memory. For convenience, <command>rpc.statd</command> maps an obscene amount of memory into "
"its address space. There is nothing terribly wrong with this from a technical standpoint; it just throws off things like "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4047
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rpc.statd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> maps its status file (resident on <filename>/var</"
"filename>) into its address space; to save worrying about remapping the status file later when it needs to grow, it maps the status file with a "
"generous size. This is very evident from the source code, where one can see that the length argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mmap</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> is <literal>0x10000000</literal>, or one sixteenth of the address space on an IA32, or exactly "
"256 MB."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4060
msgid "Why can I not unset the <literal>schg</literal> file flag?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4065
msgid ""
"The system is running at securelevel greater than 0. Lower the securelevel and try again. For more information, see <link linkend=\"securelevel\">the "
"<acronym>FAQ</acronym> entry on securelevel</link> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"manual page."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4075
msgid "What is <literal>vnlru</literal>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4079
msgid ""
"<literal>vnlru</literal> flushes and frees vnodes when the system hits the <varname>kern.maxvnodes</varname> limit. This kernel thread sits mostly "
"idle, and only activates when there is a huge amount of RAM and users are accessing tens of thousands of tiny files."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4089
msgid "What do the various memory states displayed by <command>top</command> mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4097
msgid "<literal>Active</literal>: pages recently statistically used."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4102
msgid "<literal>Inactive</literal>: pages recently statistically unused."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4107
msgid ""
"<literal>Cache</literal>: (most often) pages that have percolated from inactive to a status where they maintain their data, but can often be "
"immediately reused (either with their old association, or reused with a new association). There can be certain immediate transitions from "
"<literal>active</literal> to <literal>cache</literal> state if the page is known to be clean (unmodified), but that transition is a matter of policy, "
"depending upon the algorithm choice of the VM system maintainer."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4120
msgid ""
"<literal>Free</literal>: pages without data content, and can be immediately used in certain circumstances where cache pages might be ineligible. Free "
"pages can be reused at interrupt or process state."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4128
msgid "<literal>Wired</literal>: pages that are fixed into memory, usually for kernel purposes, but also sometimes for special use in processes."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4134
msgid ""
"Pages are most often written to disk (sort of a VM sync) when they are in the inactive state, but active pages can also be synced. This depends upon "
"the CPU tracking of the modified bit being available, and in certain situations there can be an advantage for a block of VM pages to be synced, whether "
"they are active or inactive. In most common cases, it is best to think of the inactive queue to be a queue of relatively unused pages that might or "
"might not be in the process of being written to disk. Cached pages are already synced, not mapped, but available for immediate process use with their "
"old association or with a new association. Free pages are available at interrupt level, but cached or free pages can be used at process state for "
"reuse. Cache pages are not adequately locked to be available at interrupt level."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4151
msgid "There are some other flags (e.g., busy flag or busy count) that might modify some of the described rules."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4159
msgid "How much free memory is available?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4164
msgid ""
"There are a couple of kinds of <quote>free memory</quote>. One kind is the amount of memory immediately available without paging anything else out. "
"That is approximately the size of cache queue + size of free queue (with a derating factor, depending upon system tuning). Another kind of <quote>free "
"memory</quote> is the total amount of <acronym>VM</acronym> space. That can be complex, but is dependent upon the amount of swap space and memory. "
"Other kinds of <quote>free memory</quote> descriptions are also possible, but it is relatively useless to define these, but rather it is important to "
"make sure that the paging rate is kept low, and to avoid running out of swap space."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4182
msgid "What is <filename>/var/empty</filename>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4186
msgid ""
"<filename>/var/empty</filename> is a directory that the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"program uses when performing privilege separation. The <filename>/var/empty</filename> directory is empty, owned by <systemitem class=\"username"
"\">root</systemitem> and has the <literal>schg</literal> flag set. This directory should not be deleted."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4197
msgid "I just changed <filename>/etc/newsyslog.conf</filename>. How can I check if it does what I expect?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4203
msgid "To see what <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newsyslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will do, use the following:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4206
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>newsyslog -nrvv</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4212
msgid "My time is wrong, how can I change the timezone?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4217
msgid "Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tzsetup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:4224
msgid "The X Window System and Virtual Consoles"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4229
msgid "What is the X Window System?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4233
msgid ""
"The X Window System (commonly <literal>X11</literal>) is the most widely available windowing system capable of running on <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">UNIX</trademark> or <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> like systems, including FreeBSD. <link xlink:href=\"http://www.x.org/wiki/"
"\">The X.Org Foundation</link> administers the <link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Window_System_core_protocol\">X protocol standards</"
"link>, with the current reference implementation, version 11 release 7.7, so references are often shortened to <literal>X11</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4243
msgid ""
"Many implementations are available for different architectures and operating systems. An implementation of the server-side code is properly known as an "
"<literal>X server</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4252
msgid "I want to run Xorg, how do I go about it?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4256
msgid "To install Xorg do one of the following:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4258
msgid "Use the <package>x11/xorg</package> meta-port, which builds and installs every Xorg component."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4262
msgid "Use <package>x11/xorg-minimal</package>, which builds and installs only the necessary Xorg components."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4265
msgid "Install Xorg from FreeBSD packages:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4267
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput><prompt>#</prompt> pkg install xorg</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4269
msgid ""
"After the installation of Xorg, follow the instructions from the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x-config.html"
"\">X11 Configuration</link> section of the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4278
msgid ""
"I <emphasis>tried</emphasis> to run X, but I get a <errorname>No devices detected.</errorname> error when I type <command>startx</command>. What do I "
"do now?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4284
msgid ""
"The system is probably running at a raised <literal>securelevel</literal>. It is not possible to start X at a raised <literal>securelevel</literal> "
"because X requires write access to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>io</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For more information, see at "
"the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4290
msgid ""
"There are two solutions to the problem: set the <literal>securelevel</literal> back down to zero or run <citerefentry vendor="
"\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> (or an alternative display manager) at boot time before the "
"<literal>securelevel</literal> is raised."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4296
msgid ""
"See <xref linkend=\"xdm-boot\"/> for more information about running <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> at boot time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4303
msgid "Why does my mouse not work with X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4307
msgid ""
"When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the default console driver, FreeBSD can be "
"configured to support a mouse pointer on each virtual screen. To avoid conflicting with X, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> supports a virtual device called <filename>/dev/sysmouse</filename>. All mouse events received "
"from the real mouse device are written to the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysmouse</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> device via "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To use the mouse on one or more virtual consoles, "
"<emphasis>and</emphasis> use X, see <xref linkend=\"moused\" remap=\"another section\"/> and set up <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4318
msgid "Then edit <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> and make sure the following lines exist:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4321
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Section \"InputDevice\"\n"
"   Option          \"Protocol\" \"SysMouse\"\n"
"   Option          \"Device\" \"/dev/sysmouse\"\n"
"....."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4326
msgid ""
"Starting with Xorg version 7.4, the <literal>InputDevice</literal> sections in <filename>xorg.conf</filename> are ignored in favor of autodetected "
"devices. To restore the old behavior, add the following line to the <literal>ServerLayout</literal> or <literal>ServerFlags</literal> section:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4333
#, no-wrap
msgid "Option \"AutoAddDevices\" \"false\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4335
msgid ""
"Some people prefer to use <filename>/dev/mouse</filename> under X. To make this work, <filename>/dev/mouse</filename> should be linked to <filename>/"
"dev/sysmouse</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysmouse</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>) by adding the following line "
"to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>):"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4343
#, no-wrap
msgid "link    sysmouse    mouse"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4345
msgid ""
"This link can be created by restarting <citerefentry vendor=\"current\"><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"with the following command (as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>):"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4348
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service devfs restart</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4354
msgid "My mouse has a fancy wheel. Can I use it in X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4358
msgid ""
"Yes, if X is configured for a 5 button mouse. To do this, add the lines <literal>Buttons 5</literal> and <literal>ZAxisMapping 4 5</literal> to the "
"<quote>InputDevice</quote> section of <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>, as seen in this example:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4365
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Section \"InputDevice\"\n"
"   Identifier      \"Mouse1\"\n"
"   Driver          \"mouse\"\n"
"   Option          \"Protocol\" \"auto\"\n"
"   Option          \"Device\" \"/dev/sysmouse\"\n"
"   Option          \"Buttons\" \"5\"\n"
"   Option          \"ZAxisMapping\" \"4 5\"\n"
"EndSection"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4374
msgid "The mouse can be enabled in <application>Emacs</application>by adding these lines to <filename>~/.emacs</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4378
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
";; wheel mouse\n"
"(global-set-key [mouse-4] 'scroll-down)\n"
"(global-set-key [mouse-5] 'scroll-up)"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4386
msgid "My laptop has a Synaptics touchpad. Can I use it in X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4391
msgid "Yes, after configuring a few things to make it work."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4394
msgid "In order to use the Xorg synaptics driver, first remove <literal>moused_enable</literal> from <filename>rc.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4398
msgid "To enable synaptics, add the following line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4401
#, no-wrap
msgid "hw.psm.synaptics_support=\"1\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4403
msgid "Add the following to <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4406
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Section \"InputDevice\"\n"
"Identifier  \"Touchpad0\"\n"
"Driver      \"synaptics\"\n"
"Option      \"Protocol\" \"psm\"\n"
"Option      \"Device\" \"/dev/psm0\"\n"
"EndSection"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4413
msgid "And be sure to add the following into the <quote>ServerLayout</quote> section:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4416
#, no-wrap
msgid "InputDevice    \"Touchpad0\" \"SendCoreEvents\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4422
msgid "How do I use remote X displays?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4426
msgid "For security reasons, the default setting is to not allow a machine to remotely open a window."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4429
msgid "To enable this feature, start <application>X</application> with the optional <option>-listen_tcp</option> argument:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4433
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>startx -listen_tcp</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4439
msgid "What is a virtual console and how do I make more?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4444
msgid ""
"Virtual consoles provide several simultaneous sessions on the same machine without doing anything complicated like setting up a network or running X."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4449
msgid ""
"When the system starts, it will display a login prompt on the monitor after displaying all the boot messages. Type in your login name and password to "
"start working on the first virtual console."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4455
msgid ""
"To start another session, perhaps to look at documentation for a program or to read mail while waiting for an FTP transfer to finish, hold down "
"<keycap>Alt</keycap> and press <keycap>F2</keycap>. This will display the login prompt for the second virtual console. To go back to the original "
"session, press <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4465
msgid ""
"The default FreeBSD installation has eight virtual consoles enabled. <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>, "
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F3</keycap></"
"keycombo>, and so on will switch between these virtual consoles."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4472
msgid ""
"To enable more of virtual consoles, edit <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>) and add entries for <filename>ttyv8</filename> to <filename>ttyvc</filename>, after the comment on <quote>Virtual terminals</quote>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4478
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# Edit the existing entry for ttyv8 in /etc/ttys and change\n"
"# \"off\" to \"on\".\n"
"ttyv8   \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\"         xterm  on secure\n"
"ttyv9   \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\"         xterm  on secure\n"
"ttyva   \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\"         xterm  on secure\n"
"ttyvb   \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\"         xterm  on secure"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4485
msgid ""
"The more virtual terminals, the more resources that are used. This can be problematic on systems with 8 MB RAM or less. Consider changing "
"<literal>secure</literal> to <literal>insecure</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: important/para
#: book.translate.xml:4492
msgid ""
"In order to run an X server, at least one virtual terminal must be left to <literal>off</literal> for it to use. This means that only eleven of the Alt-"
"function keys can be used as virtual consoles so that one is left for the X server."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4499
msgid "For example, to run X and eleven virtual consoles, the setting for virtual terminal 12 should be:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4502
#, no-wrap
msgid "ttyvb   \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\"         xterm  off secure"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4504
msgid "The easiest way to activate the virtual consoles is to reboot."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4511
msgid "How do I access the virtual consoles from X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4515
msgid ""
"Use <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap></keycombo> to switch back to a "
"virtual console. Press <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo> to return to the first "
"virtual console."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4519
msgid ""
"Once at a text console, use <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap></keycombo> to move between "
"them."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4523
msgid ""
"To return to the X session, switch to the virtual console running X. If X was started from the command line using <command>startx</command>, the X "
"session will attach to the next unused virtual console, not the text console from which it was invoked. For eight active virtual terminals, X will run "
"on the ninth, so use <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F9</keycap></keycombo>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4535
msgid "How do I start <application>XDM</application> on boot?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4540
msgid ""
"There are two schools of thought on how to start <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>. One school starts <command>xdm</command> from <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>) using the supplied example, while the other runs <command>xdm</command> from <filename>rc.local</"
"filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) or from an <filename>X</filename> script in "
"<filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. Both are equally valid, and one may work in situations where the other does not. In both cases the result is "
"the same: X will pop up a graphical login prompt."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4552
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> method has the advantage of documenting which vty X will "
"start on and passing the responsibility of restarting the X server on logout to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>. The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> method makes it easy to "
"<command>kill</command> <command>xdm</command> if there is a problem starting the X server."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4559
msgid ""
"If loaded from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <command>xdm</command> should be started without "
"any arguments. <command>xdm</command> must start <emphasis>after</emphasis> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> runs, or else <command>getty</command> and <command>xdm</command> will conflict, locking out the console. The best way around this is to "
"have the script sleep 10 seconds or so then launch <command>xdm</command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4568
msgid ""
"When starting <command>xdm</command> from <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, there still is a chance of conflict between <command>xdm</command> and "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. One way to avoid this is to add the <literal>vt</literal> "
"number in <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4575
#, no-wrap
msgid ":0 local /usr/local/bin/X vt4"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4577
msgid ""
"The above example will direct the X server to run in <filename>/dev/ttyv3</filename>. Note the number is offset by one. The X server counts the vty "
"from one, whereas the FreeBSD kernel numbers the vty from zero."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4586
msgid "Why do I get <errorname>Couldn't open console</errorname> when I run <command>xconsole</command>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4592
msgid ""
"When <application>X</application> is started with <command>startx</command>, the permissions on <filename>/dev/console</filename> will <emphasis>not</"
"emphasis> get changed, resulting in things like <command>xterm -C</command> and <command>xconsole</command> not working."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4599
msgid ""
"This is because of the way console permissions are set by default. On a multi-user system, one does not necessarily want just any user to be able to "
"write on the system console. For users who are logging directly onto a machine with a VTY, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fbtab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> file exists to solve such problems."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4606
msgid ""
"In a nutshell, make sure an uncommented line of the form is in <filename>/etc/fbtab</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fbtab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>):"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4610
#, no-wrap
msgid "/dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4612
msgid "It will ensure that whomever logs in on <filename>/dev/ttyv0</filename> will own the console."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4620
msgid "Why does my PS/2 mouse misbehave under X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4624
msgid ""
"The mouse and the mouse driver may have become out of synchronization. In rare cases, the driver may also erroneously report synchronization errors:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4628
#, no-wrap
msgid "psmintr: out of sync (xxxx != yyyy)"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4630
msgid ""
"If this happens, disable the synchronization check code by setting the driver flags for the PS/2 mouse driver to <literal>0x100</literal>. This can be "
"easiest achieved by adding <literal>hint.psm.0.flags=\"0x100\"</literal> to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> and rebooting."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4641
msgid "How do I reverse the mouse buttons?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4645
msgid ""
"Type <command>xmodmap -e \"pointer = 3 2 1\"</command>. Add this command to <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> or <filename>~/.xsession</filename> to make "
"it happen automatically."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4655
msgid "How do I install a splash screen and where do I find them?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4660
msgid ""
"The detailed answer for this question can be found in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot-splash.html"
"\">Boot Time Splash Screens</link> section of the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4669
msgid "Can I use the <keycap>Windows</keycap> keys on my keyboard in X?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4674
msgid ""
"Yes. Use <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xmodmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to define which functions the "
"keys should perform."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4677
msgid "Assuming all Windows keyboards are standard, the keycodes for these three keys are the following:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4683
msgid "<keycode>115</keycode> — <keycap>Windows</keycap> key, between the left-hand <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>Alt</keycap> keys"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4690
msgid "<keycode>116</keycode> — <keycap>Windows</keycap> key, to the right of <keycap>AltGr</keycap>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:4696
msgid "<keycode>117</keycode> — <keycap>Menu</keycap>, to the left of the right-hand <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4702
msgid "To have the left <keycap>Windows</keycap> key print a comma, try this."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4705
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xmodmap -e \"keycode 115 = comma\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4707
msgid ""
"To have the <keycap>Windows</keycap> key-mappings enabled automatically every time X is started, either put the <command>xmodmap</command> commands in "
"<filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> or, preferably, create a <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename> and include the <command>xmodmap</command> options, one per "
"line, then add the following line to <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4716
#, no-wrap
msgid "xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4718
msgid ""
"For example, to map the 3 keys to be <keycap>F13</keycap>, <keycap>F14</keycap>, and <keycap>F15</keycap>, respectively. This would make it easy to map "
"them to useful functions within applications or the window manager."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4724
msgid "To do this, put the following in <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4727
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"keycode 115 = F13\n"
"keycode 116 = F14\n"
"keycode 117 = F15"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4731
msgid ""
"For the <package>x11-wm/fvwm2</package> desktop manager, one could map the keys so that <keycap>F13</keycap> iconifies or de-iconifies the window the "
"cursor is in, <keycap>F14</keycap> brings the window the cursor is in to the front or, if it is already at the front, pushes it to the back, and "
"<keycap>F15</keycap> pops up the main Workplace menu even if the cursor is not on the desktop, which is useful when no part of the desktop is visible."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4742
msgid "The following entries in <filename>~/.fvwmrc</filename> implement the aforementioned setup:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:4746
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Key F13        FTIWS    A        Iconify\n"
"Key F14        FTIWS    A        RaiseLower\n"
"Key F15        A        A        Menu Workplace Nop"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4754
msgid "How can I get 3D hardware acceleration for <trademark class=\"registered\">OpenGL</trademark>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4759
msgid ""
"The availability of 3D acceleration depends on the version of Xorg and the type of video chip. For an nVidia chip, use the binary drivers provided for "
"FreeBSD by installing one of the following ports:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4765
msgid "The latest versions of nVidia cards are supported by the <package>x11/nvidia-driver</package> port."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4769
msgid "Older drivers are available as <package>x11/nvidia-driver-<replaceable>###</replaceable></package>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4772
msgid ""
"nVidia provides detailed information on which card is supported by which driver on their web site: <uri xlink:href=\"http://www.nvidia.com/object/"
"IO_32667.html\">http://www.nvidia.com/object/IO_32667.html</uri>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4775
msgid "For Matrox G200/G400, check the <package>x11-drivers/xf86-video-mga</package> port."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4779
msgid ""
"For ATI Rage 128 and Radeon see <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>ati</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry "
"vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>r128</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>radeon</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:4787
msgid "Networking"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4792
msgid "Where can I get information on <quote>diskless booting</quote>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4797
msgid ""
"<quote>Diskless booting</quote> means that the FreeBSD box is booted over a network, and reads the necessary files from a server instead of its hard "
"disk. For full details, see <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-diskless.html\">the Handbook entry on "
"diskless booting</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4807
msgid "Can a FreeBSD box be used as a dedicated network router?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4812
msgid ""
"Yes. Refer to the Handbook entry on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking.html\">advanced "
"networking</link>, specifically the section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-routing.html\">routing "
"and gateways</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4820
msgid "Can I connect my <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> box to the Internet via FreeBSD?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4825
msgid ""
"Typically, people who ask this question have two PCs at home, one with FreeBSD and one with some version of <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> the idea is to use the FreeBSD box to connect to the Internet and then be able to access the Internet from the <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Windows</trademark> box through the FreeBSD box. This is really just a special case of the previous question and works perfectly well."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4833
msgid ""
"Dialup users must use <option>-nat</option> and set <literal>gateway_enable</literal> to <emphasis>YES</emphasis> in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. "
"For more information, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html\">Handbook entry on user PPP</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4840
msgid ""
"If the connection to the Internet is over Ethernet, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. A "
"tutorial can be found in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html#network-natd\">natd</link> "
"section of the Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4848
msgid "Does FreeBSD support PPP?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4852
msgid ""
"Yes. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> provides support for both incoming and outgoing "
"connections."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4855
msgid ""
"For more information on how to use this, refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip.html"
"\">Handbook chapter on PPP</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4863
msgid "Does FreeBSD support NAT or Masquerading?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4867
msgid ""
"Yes. For instructions on how to use NAT over a PPP connection, see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp."
"html\">Handbook entry on PPP</link>. To use NAT over some other sort of network connection, look at the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US."
"ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html#network-natd\">natd</link> section of the Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4878
msgid "How can I set up Ethernet aliases?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4882
msgid "If the alias is on the same subnet as an address already configured on the interface, add <literal>netmask 0xffffffff</literal> to this command:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4887
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>ed0</replaceable> alias <replaceable>192.0.2.2 </replaceable>netmask 0xffffffff</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4889
msgid "Otherwise, specify the network address and netmask as usual:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4892
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>ed0</replaceable> alias <replaceable>172.16.141.5</replaceable> netmask 0xffffff00</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4894
msgid ""
"More information can be found in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-virtual-hosts.html"
"\">Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4900
msgid "Why can I not NFS-mount from a <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> box?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4904
msgid ""
"Some versions of the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> NFS code only accept mount requests from a privileged port; try to issue the "
"following command:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4908
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -o -P linuxbox:/blah /mnt</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4914
msgid ""
"Why does <command>mountd</command> keep telling me it <errorname>can't change attributes</errorname> and that I have a <errorname>bad exports list</"
"errorname> on my FreeBSD NFS server?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4921
msgid ""
"The most frequent problem is not understanding the correct format of <filename>/etc/exports</filename>. Review <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exports</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-nfs.html"
"\">NFS</link> entry in the Handbook, especially the section on <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-nfs."
"html#configuring-nfs\">configuring NFS</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4931
msgid "How do I enable IP multicast support?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4935
msgid ""
"Install the <package>net/mrouted</package> package or port and add <literal>mrouted_enable=\"YES\"</literal> to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> start "
"this service at boot time."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4945
msgid "Why do I have to use the FQDN for hosts on my site?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4950
msgid "See the answer in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail-trouble.html\">Handbook</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4956
msgid "Why do I get an error, <errorname>Permission denied</errorname>, for all networking operations?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4962
msgid ""
"If the kernel is compiled with the <literal>IPFIREWALL</literal> option, be aware that the default policy is to deny all packets that are not "
"explicitly allowed."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4967
msgid ""
"If the firewall is unintentionally misconfigured, restore network operability by typing the following as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</"
"systemitem>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4971
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ipfw add 65534 allow all from any to any</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4973
msgid "Consider setting <literal>firewall_type=\"open\"</literal> in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4977
msgid ""
"For further information on configuring this firewall, see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw."
"html\">Handbook chapter</link>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:4985
msgid "Why is my <command>ipfw</command> <quote>fwd</quote> rule to redirect a service to another machine not working?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4991
msgid ""
"Possibly because network address translation (NAT) is needed instead of just forwarding packets. A <quote>fwd</quote> rule only forwards packets, it "
"does not actually change the data inside the packet. Consider this rule:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:4997
#, no-wrap
msgid "01000 fwd <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable> from any to <replaceable>foo 21</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:4999
msgid ""
"When a packet with a destination address of <replaceable>foo</replaceable> arrives at the machine with this rule, the packet is forwarded to "
"<replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>, but it still has the destination address of <replaceable>foo</replaceable>. The destination address of the packet "
"is not changed to <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>. Most machines would probably drop a packet that they receive with a destination address that is "
"not their own. Therefore, using a <quote>fwd</quote> rule does not often work the way the user expects. This behavior is a feature and not a bug."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5013
msgid ""
"See the <link linkend=\"service-redirect\"><acronym>FAQ</acronym> about redirecting services</link>, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual, or one of the several port redirecting utilities in the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html\">Ports Collection</link> for a correct way to do this."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5022
msgid "How can I redirect service requests from one machine to another?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5027
msgid ""
"FTP and other service requests can be redirected with the <package>sysutils/socket</package> package or port. Replace the entry for the service in "
"<filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> to call <command>socket</command>, as seen in this example for <application>ftpd</application>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5034
#, no-wrap
msgid "ftp stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/bin/socket socket <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> <replaceable>ftp</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5036
msgid "where <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> and <replaceable>ftp</replaceable> are the host and port to redirect to, respectively."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5044
msgid "Where can I get a bandwidth management tool?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5048
msgid ""
"There are three bandwidth management tools available for FreeBSD. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> is integrated into FreeBSD as part of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <link "
"xlink:href=\"http://www.sonycsl.co.jp/person/kjc/programs.html\">ALTQ</link> has been integrated into FreeBSD as part of "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Bandwidth Manager from <link xlink:href=\"http://www.etinc.com/"
"\">Emerging Technologies</link> is a commercial product."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5059
msgid "Why do I get <errorname>/dev/bpf0: device not configured</errorname>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5064
msgid ""
"The running application requires the Berkeley Packet Filter (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>), "
"but it was removed from a custom kernel. Add this to the kernel config file and build a new kernel:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5069
#, no-wrap
msgid "device bpf        # Berkeley Packet Filter"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5075
msgid ""
"How do I mount a disk from a <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> machine that is on my network, like smbmount in <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Linux</trademark>?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5080
msgid ""
"Use the <application>SMBFS</application> toolset. It includes a set of kernel modifications and a set of userland programs. The programs and "
"information are available as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_smbfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> in the base system."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5090
msgid "What are these messages about: <errorname>Limiting icmp/open port/closed port response</errorname> in my log files?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5096
msgid ""
"This kernel message indicates that some activity is provoking it to send a large amount of ICMP or TCP reset (RST) responses. ICMP responses are often "
"generated as a result of attempted connections to unused UDP ports. TCP resets are generated as a result of attempted connections to unopened TCP "
"ports. Among others, these are the kinds of activities which may cause these messages:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5107
msgid "Brute-force denial of service (DoS) attacks (as opposed to single-packet attacks which exploit a specific vulnerability)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5113
msgid "Port scans which attempt to connect to a large number of ports (as opposed to only trying a few well-known ports)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5119
msgid ""
"The first number in the message indicates how many packets the kernel would have sent if the limit was not in place, and the second indicates the "
"limit. This limit is controlled using <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname>. This example sets the limit to <literal>300</literal> packets per "
"second:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5127
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.inet.icmp.icmplim=300</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5129
msgid "To disable these messages without disabling response limiting, use <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output</varname> to disable the output:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5135
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output=0</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5137
msgid ""
"Finally, to disable response limiting completely, set <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname> to <literal>0</literal>. Disabling response limiting is "
"discouraged for the reasons listed above."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5146
msgid "What are these <errorname>arp: unknown hardware address format</errorname> error messages?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5151
msgid ""
"This means that some device on the local Ethernet is using a MAC address in a format that FreeBSD does not recognize. This is probably caused by "
"someone experimenting with an Ethernet card somewhere else on the network. This is most commonly seen on cable modem networks. It is harmless, and "
"should not affect the performance of the FreeBSD system."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5163
msgid ""
"Why do I keep seeing messages like: <errorname>192.168.0.10 is on fxp1 but got reply from 00:15:17:67:cf:82 on rl0</errorname>, and how do I disable it?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5170
msgid ""
"Because a packet is coming from outside the network unexpectedly. To disable them, set <varname>net.link.ether.inet.log_arp_wrong_iface</varname> to "
"<literal>0</literal>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5179
msgid "How do I compile an IPv6 only kernel?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: para/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5185
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"include GENERIC\n"
"ident GENERIC-IPV6ONLY\n"
"makeoptions MKMODULESENV+=\"WITHOUT_INET_SUPPORT=\"\n"
"nooptions INET\n"
"nodevice gre"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5183
msgid "Configure your kernel with these settings: <_:screen-1/>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:5196
msgid "Security"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5201
msgid "What is a sandbox?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5204
msgid "<quote>Sandbox</quote> is a security term. It can mean two things:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5209
msgid ""
"A process which is placed inside a set of virtual walls that are designed to prevent someone who breaks into the process from being able to break into "
"the wider system."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5214
msgid ""
"The process is only able to run inside the walls. Since nothing the process does in regards to executing code is supposed to be able to breach the "
"walls, a detailed audit of its code is not needed in order to be able to say certain things about its security."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5221
msgid ""
"The walls might be a user ID, for example. This is the definition used in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> man pages."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5225
msgid ""
"Take the <literal>ntalk</literal> service, for example (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>). "
"This service used to run as user ID <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>. Now it runs as user ID <systemitem class=\"username\">tty</"
"systemitem>. The <systemitem class=\"username\">tty</systemitem> user is a sandbox designed to make it more difficult for someone who has successfully "
"hacked into the system via <literal>ntalk</literal> from being able to hack beyond that user ID."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5236
msgid ""
"A process which is placed inside a simulation of the machine. It means that someone who is able to break into the process may believe that he can break "
"into the wider machine but is, in fact, only breaking into a simulation of that machine and not modifying any real data."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5243
msgid ""
"The most common way to accomplish this is to build a simulated environment in a subdirectory and then run the processes in that directory chrooted so "
"that <filename>/</filename> for that process is this directory, not the real <filename>/</filename> of the system)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5250
msgid ""
"Another common use is to mount an underlying file system read-only and then create a file system layer on top of it that gives a process a seemingly "
"writeable view into that file system. The process may believe it is able to write to those files, but only the process sees the effects — other "
"processes in the system do not, necessarily."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5258
msgid "An attempt is made to make this sort of sandbox so transparent that the user (or hacker) does not realize that he is sitting in it."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5264
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> implements two core sandboxes. One is at the process level, and one is at the userid level."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5267
msgid ""
"Every <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> process is completely firewalled off from every other <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> process. One process cannot modify the address space of another."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5271
msgid ""
"A <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> process is owned by a particular userid. If the user ID is not the <systemitem class=\"username"
"\">root</systemitem> user, it serves to firewall the process off from processes owned by other users. The user ID is also used to firewall off on-disk "
"data."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5281
msgid "What is securelevel?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5285
msgid ""
"<literal>securelevel</literal> is a security mechanism implemented in the kernel. When the securelevel is positive, the kernel restricts certain tasks; "
"not even the superuser (<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>) is allowed to do them. The securelevel mechanism limits the ability to:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5294
msgid "Unset certain file flags, such as <literal>schg</literal> (the system immutable flag)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5300
msgid "Write to kernel memory via <filename>/dev/mem</filename> and <filename>/dev/kmem</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5306
msgid "Load kernel modules."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5310
msgid "Alter firewall rules."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5314
msgid "To check the status of the securelevel on a running system:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5317
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl -n kern.securelevel</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5319
msgid "The output contains the current value of the securelevel. If it is greater than 0, at least some of the securelevel's protections are enabled."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5324
msgid ""
"The securelevel of a running system cannot be lowered as this would defeat its purpose. If a task requires that the securelevel be non-positive, change "
"the <varname>kern_securelevel</varname> and <varname>kern_securelevel_enable</varname> variables in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5331
msgid ""
"For more information on securelevel and the specific things all the levels do, consult <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: warning/para
#: book.translate.xml:5335
msgid "Securelevel is not a silver bullet; it has many known deficiencies. More often than not, it provides a false sense of security."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: warning/para
#: book.translate.xml:5339
msgid ""
"One of its biggest problems is that in order for it to be at all effective, all files used in the boot process up until the securelevel is set must be "
"protected. If an attacker can get the system to execute their code prior to the securelevel being set (which happens quite late in the boot process "
"since some things the system must do at start-up cannot be done at an elevated securelevel), its protections are invalidated. While this task of "
"protecting all files used in the boot process is not technically impossible, if it is achieved, system maintenance will become a nightmare since one "
"would have to take the system down, at least to single-user mode, to modify a configuration file."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: warning/para
#: book.translate.xml:5354
msgid ""
"This point and others are often discussed on the mailing lists, particularly the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-"
"security\">FreeBSD security mailing list</link>. Search the archives <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html\">here</link> for an "
"extensive discussion. A more fine-grained mechanism is preferred."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5365
msgid "<application>BIND9</application> (<command>named</command>) is listening on some high-numbered ports. What is going on?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5371
msgid ""
"BIND uses a random high-numbered port for outgoing queries. Recent versions of it choose a new, random UDP port for each query. This may cause problems "
"for some network configurations, especially if a firewall blocks incoming UDP packets on particular ports. To get past that firewall, try the "
"<literal>avoid-v4-udp-ports</literal> and <literal>avoid-v6-udp-ports</literal> options to avoid selecting random port numbers within a blocked range."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: warning/para
#: book.translate.xml:5383
msgid ""
"If a port number (like 53) is specified via the <literal>query-source</literal> or <literal>query-source-v6</literal> options in <filename>/usr/local/"
"etc/namedb/named.conf</filename>, randomized port selection will not be used. It is strongly recommended that these options not be used to specify "
"fixed port numbers."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5393
msgid ""
"Congratulations, by the way. It is good practice to read <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sockstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"output and notice odd things!"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5401
msgid "The <application>Sendmail</application> daemon is listening on port 587 as well as the standard port 25! What is going on?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5407
msgid ""
"Recent versions of <application>Sendmail</application> support a mail submission feature that runs over port 587. This is not yet widely supported, but "
"is growing in popularity."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5416
msgid "What is this UID 0 <systemitem class=\"username\">toor</systemitem> account? Have I been compromised?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5421
msgid ""
"Do not worry. <systemitem class=\"username\">toor</systemitem> is an <quote>alternative</quote> superuser account, where toor is root spelled "
"backwards. It is intended to be used with a non-standard shell so the default shell for <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> does not need "
"to change. This is important as shells which are not part of the base distribution, but are instead installed from ports or packages, are installed in "
"<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> which, by default, resides on a different file system. If <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>'s shell "
"is located in <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> and the file system containing <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>) is not mounted, <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem> will not be able to log in to fix a problem and will have to reboot into single-user mode in order to enter the path to "
"a shell."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5438
msgid ""
"Some people use <systemitem class=\"username\">toor</systemitem> for day-to-day <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> tasks with a non-"
"standard shell, leaving <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, with a standard shell, for single-user mode or emergencies. By default, a "
"user cannot log in using <systemitem class=\"username\">toor</systemitem> as it does not have a password, so log in as <systemitem class=\"username"
"\">root</systemitem> and set a password for <systemitem class=\"username\">toor</systemitem> before using it to login."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
#: book.translate.xml:5452
msgid "PPP"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5457
msgid "I cannot make <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> work. What am I doing wrong?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5462
msgid ""
"First, read <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/"
"en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip.html#userppp\">PPP section of the Handbook</link>. To assist in troubleshooting, enable logging with the "
"following command:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5468
#, no-wrap
msgid "set log Phase Chat Connect Carrier lcp ipcp ccp command"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5470
msgid ""
"This command may be typed at the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command prompt or it may be "
"entered at the start of the <literal>default</literal> section in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. Make sure that <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</"
"filename> contains the lines below and the file <filename>/var/log/ppp.log</filename> exists:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5478
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"!ppp\n"
"*.*        /var/log/ppp.log"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5481
msgid "A lot about what is going can be learned from the log file. Do not worry if it does not all make sense as it may make sense to someone else."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5489
msgid "Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> hang when I run it?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5493
msgid ""
"This is usually because the hostname will not resolve. The best way to fix this is to make sure that <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> is read first by "
"the by ensuring that the <literal>hosts</literal> line is listed first in <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>. Then, put an entry in <filename>/etc/"
"hosts</filename> for the local machine. If there is no local network, change the <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5502
#, no-wrap
msgid "127.0.0.1        foo.example.com foo localhost"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5504
msgid "Otherwise, add another entry for the host. Consult the relevant manual pages for more details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5507
msgid "When finished, verify that this command is successful: <command>ping -c1 `hostname`</command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5514
msgid "Why will <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> not dial in <literal>-auto</literal> mode?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5519
msgid "First, check that a default route exists. This command should display two entries:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5522
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Destination        Gateway            Flags     Refs     Use     Netif Expire\n"
"default            10.0.0.2           UGSc        0        0      tun0\n"
"10.0.0.2           10.0.0.1           UH          0        0      tun0"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5526
msgid "If a default route is not listed, make sure that the <literal>HISADDR</literal> line has been added to <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5531
msgid ""
"Another reason for the default route line being missing is that a default route has been added to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and this line is "
"missing from <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5537
#, no-wrap
msgid "delete ALL"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5539
msgid ""
"If this is the case, go back to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html#userppp-final\">Final System "
"Configuration</link> section of the Handbook."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5547
msgid "What does <errorname>No route to host</errorname> mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5552
msgid "This error is usually because the following section is missing in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5556
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"MYADDR:\n"
"  delete ALL\n"
"  add 0 0 HISADDR"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5560
msgid ""
"This is only necessary for a dynamic IP address or when the address of the default gateway is unknown. When using interactive mode, the following can "
"be typed in after entering packet mode. Packet mode is indicated by the capitalized <acronym>PPP</acronym> in the prompt:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5567
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"delete ALL\n"
"add 0 0 HISADDR"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5570
msgid ""
"Refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html#userppp-dynamicip\">PPP and Dynamic IP addresses</"
"link> section of the Handbook for further details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5578
msgid "Why does my connection drop after about 3 minutes?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5583
msgid "The default PPP timeout is 3 minutes. This can be adjusted with the following line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5586
#, no-wrap
msgid "set timeout <replaceable>NNN</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5588
msgid ""
"where <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is the number of seconds of inactivity before the connection is closed. If <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is zero, "
"the connection is never closed due to a timeout. It is possible to put this command in <filename>ppp.conf</filename>, or to type it at the prompt in "
"interactive mode. It is also possible to adjust it on the fly while the line is active by connecting to <application>ppp</application>'s server socket "
"using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>telnet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pppctl</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Refer to the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> man page for further details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5603
msgid "Why does my connection drop under heavy load?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5607
msgid ""
"If Link Quality Reporting (<acronym>LQR</acronym>) is configured, it is possible that too many <acronym>LQR</acronym> packets are lost between the "
"FreeBSD system and the peer. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> deduces that the line must "
"therefore be bad, and disconnects. <acronym>LQR</acronym> is disabled by default and can be enabled with the following line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5615 book.translate.xml:5941
#, no-wrap
msgid "enable lqr"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5621
msgid "Why does my connection drop after a random amount of time?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5626
msgid ""
"Sometimes, on a noisy phone line or even on a line with call waiting enabled, the modem may hang up because it incorrectly thinks that it lost carrier."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5630
msgid "There is a setting on most modems for determining how tolerant it should be to temporary losses of carrier. Refer to the modem manual for details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5638
msgid "Why does my connection hang after a random amount of time?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5643
msgid "Many people experience hung connections with no apparent explanation. The first thing to establish is which side of the link is hung."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5647
msgid ""
"When using an external modem, try using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to see if the "
"<acronym>TD</acronym> light is flashing when data is transmitted. If it flashes but the <acronym>RD</acronym> light does not, the problem is with the "
"remote end. If <acronym>TD</acronym> does not flash, the problem is local. With an internal modem, use the <literal>set server</literal> command in "
"<filename>ppp.conf</filename>. When the hang occurs, connect to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pppctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the network connection suddenly revives due to the "
"activity on the diagnostic socket, or if it will not connect but the <literal>set socket</literal> command succeeded at startup time, the problem is "
"local. If it can connect but things are still hung, enable local logging with <literal>set log local async</literal> and use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> from another window or terminal to make use of the link. The "
"async logging will show the data being transmitted and received on the link. If data is going out and not coming back, the problem is remote."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5669
msgid "Having established whether the problem is local or remote, there are now two possibilities:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5674
msgid "If the problem is remote, read on entry <xref linkend=\"ppp-remote-not-responding\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:5678
msgid "If the problem is local, read on entry <xref linkend=\"ppp-hung\"/>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5686
msgid "The remote end is not responding. What can I do?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5691
msgid ""
"There is very little that can be done about this. Many ISPs will refuse to help users not running a <trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</"
"trademark> OS. Add <literal>enable lqr</literal> to <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>, allowing <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to detect the remote failure and hang up. This detection is relatively slow and therefore not "
"that useful."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5699
msgid "First, try disabling all local compression by adding the following to the configuration:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5702
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"disable pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj\n"
"deny pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5705
msgid ""
"Then reconnect to ensure that this makes no difference. If things improve or if the problem is solved completely, determine which setting makes the "
"difference through trial and error. This is good information for the ISP, although it may make it apparent that it is not a <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> system."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5712
msgid ""
"Before contacting the ISP, enable async logging locally and wait until the connection hangs again. This may use up quite a bit of disk space. The last "
"data read from the port may be of interest. It is usually ASCII data, and may even describe the problem (<errorname>Memory fault</errorname>, "
"<errorname>Core dumped</errorname>)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5720
msgid ""
"If the ISP is helpful, they should be able to enable logging on their end, then when the next link drop occurs, they may be able to tell why their side "
"is having a problem."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5729
msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> has hung. What can I do?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5733
msgid ""
"In this case, rebuild <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> with debugging information, and then use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>gdb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to grab a stack trace from the <application>ppp</application> "
"process that is stuck. To rebuild the <application>ppp</application> utility with debugging information, type:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5740
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/ppp</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>env DEBUG_FLAGS='-g' make clean</userinput>\n"
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>env DEBUG_FLAGS='-g' make install</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5744
msgid ""
"Then, restart <application>ppp</application> and wait until it hangs again. When the debug build of <application>ppp</application> hangs, start "
"<application>gdb</application> on the stuck process by typing:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
#: book.translate.xml:5750
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gdb ppp `pgrep ppp`</userinput>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5752
msgid ""
"At the <application>gdb</application> prompt, use the <command>bt</command> or <command>where</command> commands to get a stack trace. Save the output "
"of the <application>gdb</application> session, and <quote>detach</quote> from the running process by typing <command>quit</command>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5763
msgid "I keep seeing errors about magic being the same. What does it mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5768
msgid ""
"Occasionally, just after connecting, there may be messages in the log that say <errorname>Magic is same</errorname>. Sometimes, these messages are "
"harmless, and sometimes one side or the other exits. Most PPP implementations cannot survive this problem, and even if the link seems to come up, there "
"will be repeated configure requests and configure acknowledgments in the log file until <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> eventually gives up and closes the connection."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5778
msgid ""
"This normally happens on server machines with slow disks that are spawning a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> on the port, and executing <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> from a "
"login script or program after login. There were reports of it happening consistently when using slirp. The reason is that in the time taken between "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> exiting and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starting, the client-side <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> starts sending Line Control Protocol (LCP) packets. Because ECHO is still switched on for the port on the server, the client "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> sees these packets <quote>reflect</quote> back."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5789
msgid ""
"One part of the LCP negotiation is to establish a magic number for each side of the link so that <quote>reflections</quote> can be detected. The "
"protocol says that when the peer tries to negotiate the same magic number, a NAK should be sent and a new magic number should be chosen. During the "
"period that the server port has ECHO turned on, the client <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"sends LCP packets, sees the same magic in the reflected packet and NAKs it. It also sees the NAK reflect (which also means "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> must change its magic). This produces a potentially enormous "
"number of magic number changes, all of which are happily piling into the server's tty buffer. As soon as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> starts on the server, it is flooded with magic number changes and almost immediately decides it "
"has tried enough to negotiate LCP and gives up. Meanwhile, the client, who no longer sees the reflections, becomes happy just in time to see a hangup "
"from the server."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5807
msgid "This can be avoided by allowing the peer to start negotiating with the following line in <filename>ppp.conf</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5811 book.translate.xml:5886
#, no-wrap
msgid "set openmode passive"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5813
msgid ""
"This tells <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to wait for the server to initiate LCP negotiations. "
"Some servers however may never initiate negotiations. In this case, try something like:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5818
#, no-wrap
msgid "set openmode active 3"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5820
msgid ""
"This tells <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to be passive for 3 seconds, and then to start "
"sending LCP requests. If the peer starts sending requests during this period, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> will immediately respond rather than waiting for the full 3 second period."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5830
msgid "LCP negotiations continue until the connection is closed. What is wrong?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5835
msgid ""
"There is currently an implementation mis-feature in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> where it "
"does not associate LCP, CCP &amp; IPCP responses with their original requests. As a result, if one PPP implementation is more than 6 seconds slower "
"than the other side, the other side will send two additional LCP configuration requests. This is fatal."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5843
msgid ""
"Consider two implementations, <systemitem>A</systemitem> and <systemitem>B</systemitem>. <systemitem>A</systemitem> starts sending LCP requests "
"immediately after connecting and <systemitem>B</systemitem> takes 7 seconds to start. When <systemitem>B</systemitem> starts, <systemitem>A</"
"systemitem> has sent 3 LCP REQs. We are assuming the line has ECHO switched off, otherwise we would see magic number problems as described in the "
"previous section. <systemitem>B</systemitem> sends a REQ, then an ACK to the first of <systemitem>A</systemitem>'s REQs. This results in <systemitem>A</"
"systemitem> entering the <acronym>OPENED</acronym> state and sending and ACK (the first) back to <systemitem>B</systemitem>. In the meantime, "
"<systemitem>B</systemitem> sends back two more ACKs in response to the two additional REQs sent by <systemitem>A</systemitem> before <systemitem>B</"
"systemitem> started up. <systemitem>B</systemitem> then receives the first ACK from <systemitem>A</systemitem> and enters the <acronym>OPENED</acronym> "
"state. <systemitem>A</systemitem> receives the second ACK from <systemitem>B</systemitem> and goes back to the <acronym>REQ-SENT</acronym> state, "
"sending another (forth) REQ as per the RFC. It then receives the third ACK and enters the <acronym>OPENED</acronym> state. In the meantime, "
"<systemitem>B</systemitem> receives the forth REQ from <systemitem>A</systemitem>, resulting in it reverting to the <acronym>ACK-SENT</acronym> state "
"and sending another (second) REQ and (forth) ACK as per the RFC. <systemitem>A</systemitem> gets the REQ, goes into <acronym>REQ-SENT</acronym> and "
"sends another REQ. It immediately receives the following ACK and enters <acronym>OPENED</acronym>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5878
msgid "This goes on until one side figures out that they are getting nowhere and gives up."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5881
msgid ""
"The best way to avoid this is to configure one side to be <literal>passive</literal> — that is, make one side wait for the other to start negotiating. "
"This can be done with the following command:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5888
msgid ""
"Care should be taken with this option. This command can also be used to limit the amount of time that <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> waits for the peer to begin negotiations:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5893
#, no-wrap
msgid "set stopped <replaceable>N</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5895
msgid ""
"Alternatively, the following command (where <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the number of seconds to wait before starting negotiations) can be used:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5899
#, no-wrap
msgid "set openmode active <replaceable>N</replaceable>"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5901
msgid "Check the manual page for details."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5907
msgid "Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> lock up when I shell out to test it?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5912
msgid ""
"When using <command>shell</command> or <command>!</command>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> "
"executes a shell or the passed arguments. The <application>ppp</application> program will wait for the command to complete before continuing. Any "
"attempt to use the PPP link while running the command will appear as a frozen link. This is because <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is waiting for the command to complete."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5921
msgid ""
"To execute commands like this, use <command>!bg</command> instead. This will execute the given command in the background, and "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can continue to service the link."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5930
msgid "Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> over a null-modem cable never exit?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5935
msgid ""
"There is no way for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to automatically determine that a direct "
"connection has been dropped. This is due to the lines that are used in a null-modem serial cable. When using this sort of connection, LQR should always "
"be enabled with the following line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5943
msgid "LQR is accepted by default if negotiated by the peer."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:5950
msgid ""
"Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> dial for no reason in <option>-auto</option> mode?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5955
msgid ""
"If <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is dialing unexpectedly, determine the cause, and set up "
"dial filters to prevent such dialing."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5959
msgid "To determine the cause, use the following line:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5961
#, no-wrap
msgid "set log +tcp/ip"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5963
msgid ""
"This will log all traffic through the connection. The next time the line comes up unexpectedly, the reason will be logged with a convenient timestamp "
"next to it."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5968
msgid ""
"Next, disable dialing under these circumstances. Usually, this sort of problem arises due to DNS lookups. To prevent DNS lookups from establishing a "
"connection (this will <emphasis>not</emphasis> prevent <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> from "
"passing the packets through an established connection), use the following:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5975
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"set dfilter 1 deny udp src eq 53\n"
"set dfilter 2 deny udp dst eq 53\n"
"set dfilter 3 permit 0/0 0/0"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5979
msgid ""
"This is not always suitable, as it will effectively break demand-dial capabilities. Most programs will need a DNS lookup before doing any other network "
"related things."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5984
msgid ""
"In the DNS case, try to determine what is actually trying to resolve a host name. A lot of the time, <application>Sendmail</application> is the "
"culprit. Make sure to configure <application>Sendmail</application> not to do any DNS lookups in its configuration file. See the section on <link xlink:"
"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/smtp-dialup.html\">using email with a dialup connection</link> in the FreeBSD Handbook for "
"details. You may also want to add the following line to <filename>.mc</filename>:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:5995
#, no-wrap
msgid "define(`confDELIVERY_MODE', `d')dnl"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:5997
msgid ""
"This will make <application>Sendmail</application> queue everything until the queue is run, usually, every 30 minutes, or until a <command>sendmail -q</"
"command> is done, perhaps from <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:6007
msgid "What do these CCP errors mean?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6011
msgid "I keep seeing the following errors in my log file:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:6014
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"CCP: CcpSendConfigReq\n"
"CCP: Received Terminate Ack (1) state = Req-Sent (6)"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6017
msgid ""
"This is because <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is trying to negotiate Predictor1 compression, "
"but the peer does not want to negotiate any compression at all. The messages are harmless, but can be silenced by disabling the compression:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:6023
#, no-wrap
msgid "disable pred1"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:6029
msgid "Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> not log my connection speed?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6034
msgid "To log all lines of the modem conversation, enable the following:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:6038
#, no-wrap
msgid "set log +connect"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6040
msgid ""
"This will make <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> log everything up until the last requested "
"<quote>expect</quote> string."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6043
msgid ""
"To see the connect speed when using PAP or CHAP, make sure to configure <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> to expect the whole CONNECT line, using something like this:"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/programlisting
#: book.translate.xml:6049
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"set dial \"ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 4 \\\n"
"  \\\"\\\" ATZ OK-ATZ-OK ATDT\\\\T TIMEOUT 60 CONNECT \\\\c \\\\n\""
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6052
msgid ""
"This gets the CONNECT, sends nothing, then expects a line-feed, forcing <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> to read the whole CONNECT response."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: question/para
#: book.translate.xml:6060
msgid ""
"Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> ignore the <literal>\\</literal> character in my chat "
"script?"
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6065
msgid ""
"The <application>ppp</application> utility parses each line in its configuration files so that it can interpret strings such as <literal>set phone "
"\"123 456 789\"</literal> correctly and realize that the number is actually only one argument. To specify a <literal>\"</literal> character, escape it "
"using a backslash (<literal>\\</literal>)."
msgstr ""

#. (itstool) path: answer/para
#: book.translate.xml:6073