This version of ed is not strictly POSIX compliant, as described in the
POSIX 1003.2 Draft 11.2 document. BSD commands have been implemented
wherever they do not conflict with the POSIX standard. For backwards
compatibility, the POSIX rule that says a range of addresses cannot be
used where only a single address is expected has been relaxed.
The BSD commands included are:
1) `s' (i.e., s[rgp]*) to repeat a previous substitution,
2) `W' for appending text to an existing file,
3) `wq' for exiting after a write, and
4) `z' for scrolling through the buffer.
BSD line addressing syntax (i.e., `^' and `%'). is also recognized.
The POSIX interactive global commands `G' and `V' are extended to support
multiple commands, including `a', `i' and `c'. The command format is the
same as for the global commands `g' and `v', i.e., one command per line
with each line, except for the last, ending in a backslash (\).
If crypt is available, files can be read and written using DES encryption.
The `x' command prompts the user to enter a key used for encrypting/
decrypting subsequent reads and writes. If only a newline is entered as
the key, then encryption is disabled. Otherwise, a key is read in the
same manner as a password entry. The key remains in effect until
encryption is disabled. For more information on the encryption algorithm,
see the bdes(1) man page. Encryption/decryption should be fully compatible
with SunOS DES.
An extension to the POSIX file commands `E', `e', `r', `W' and `w' is that
<file> arguments are processed for backslash escapes, i.e., any character
preceded by a backslash is interpreted literally. If the first unescaped
character of a <file> argument is a bang (!), then the rest of the line
is interpreted as a shell command, and no escape processing is performed
The vi editor's bang command syntax is supported, i.e.,
(addr1,addr2) !<shell-cmd> replaces the addressed lines with the output of
the command <shell-cmd>.
[rwe] !! reads/writes/edits the previous !<shell-cmd>.
If ed is invoked with a name argument prefixed by a bang, then the
remainder of the argument is interpreted as a shell command. To invoke
ed on a file whose name starts with bang, prefix the name with a backslash.
ed runs in restricted mode if invoked as red. This limits editing of
files in the local directory only and prohibits !<shell-cmd> commands.
Though ed is not a binary editor, it can be used (if painfully) to edit
binary files. To assist in binary editing, when a file containing at
least one ASCII NUL character is written, a newline is not appended
if it did not already contain one upon reading.
Since the behavior of `u' (undo) within a `g' (global) command list is
not specified by POSIX D11/2, it follows the behavior of the SunOS ed
(this is the best way, I think, in that the alternatives are either too
complicated to implement or too confusing to use): undo forces a global
command list to be executed only once, rather than for each line matching
a global pattern. In addtion, each instance of `u' within a global command
undoes all previous commands (including undo's) in the command list.
The `m' (move) command within a `g' command list also follows the SunOS
ed implementation: any moved lines are removed from the global command's