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authorRong-En Fan <rafan@FreeBSD.org>2008-11-09 09:06:04 +0000
committerRong-En Fan <rafan@FreeBSD.org>2008-11-09 09:06:04 +0000
commita388f199193767bacbb38b172ab89cb84369736c (patch)
treea1816f5667d2280b970ca44e407bac8cc4496c0a /contrib/ncurses/man/terminfo.tail
parentaa59d4d4c5dda7e1c6f9dc0cc6edc58992a525c7 (diff)
downloadsrc-a388f199193767bacbb38b172ab89cb84369736c.tar.gz
src-a388f199193767bacbb38b172ab89cb84369736c.zip
- Flatten the vendor area
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/ncurses/dist/; revision=184786
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-.\" $Id: terminfo.tail,v 1.49 2008/02/16 20:57:43 tom Exp $
-.\" Beginning of terminfo.tail file
-.\" This file is part of ncurses.
-.\" See "terminfo.head" for copyright.
-.ps +1
-.
-.SS A Sample Entry
-.
-The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is representative
-of what a \fBterminfo\fR entry for a modern terminal typically looks like.
-.PP
-.nf
-.in -2
-.ta .3i
-.ft CW
-\s-2ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
- mc5i,
- colors#8, ncv#3, pairs#64,
- cub=\\E[%p1%dD, cud=\\E[%p1%dB, cuf=\\E[%p1%dC,
- cuu=\\E[%p1%dA, dch=\\E[%p1%dP, dl=\\E[%p1%dM,
- ech=\\E[%p1%dX, el1=\\E[1K, hpa=\\E[%p1%dG, ht=\\E[I,
- ich=\\E[%p1%d@, il=\\E[%p1%dL, indn=\\E[%p1%dS, .indn=\\E[%p1%dT,
- kbs=^H, kcbt=\\E[Z, kcub1=\\E[D, kcud1=\\E[B,
- kcuf1=\\E[C, kcuu1=\\E[A, kf1=\\E[M, kf10=\\E[V,
- kf11=\\E[W, kf12=\\E[X, kf2=\\E[N, kf3=\\E[O, kf4=\\E[P,
- kf5=\\E[Q, kf6=\\E[R, kf7=\\E[S, kf8=\\E[T, kf9=\\E[U,
- kich1=\\E[L, mc4=\\E[4i, mc5=\\E[5i, nel=\\r\\E[S,
- op=\\E[37;40m, rep=%p1%c\\E[%p2%{1}%-%db,
- rin=\\E[%p1%dT, s0ds=\\E(B, s1ds=\\E)B, s2ds=\\E*B,
- s3ds=\\E+B, setab=\\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\\E[3%p1%dm,
- setb=\\E[4%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
- setf=\\E[3%?%p1%{1}%=%t4%e%p1%{3}%=%t6%e%p1%{4}%=%t1%e%p1%{6}%=%t3%e%p1%d%;m,
- sgr=\\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p3%t;7%;%?%p4%t;5%;%?%p6%t;1%;%?%p7%t;8%;%?%p8%t;11%;%?%p9%t;12%;m,
- sgr0=\\E[0;10m, tbc=\\E[2g, u6=\\E[%d;%dR, u7=\\E[6n,
- u8=\\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\\E[c, vpa=\\E[%p1%dd,\s+2
-.in +2
-.fi
-.ft R
-.PP
-Entries may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at
-the beginning of each line except the first.
-Comments may be included on lines beginning with ``#''.
-Capabilities in
-.I terminfo
-are of three types:
-Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has
-some particular feature, numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal
-or the size of particular delays, and string
-capabilities, which give a sequence which can be used to perform particular
-terminal operations.
-.PP
-.SS Types of Capabilities
-.PP
-All capabilities have names.
-For instance, the fact that
-ANSI-standard terminals have
-.I "automatic margins"
-(i.e., an automatic return and line-feed
-when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the capability \fBam\fR.
-Hence the description of ansi includes \fBam\fR.
-Numeric capabilities are followed by the character `#' and then a positive value.
-Thus \fBcols\fR, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has,
-gives the value `80' for ansi.
-Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or hexadecimal,
-using the C programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).
-.PP
-Finally, string valued capabilities, such as \fBel\fR (clear to end of line
-sequence) are given by the two-character code, an `=', and then a string
-ending at the next following `,'.
-.PP
-A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabilities
-for easy encoding of characters there.
-Both \fB\eE\fR and \fB\ee\fR
-map to an \s-1ESCAPE\s0 character,
-\fB^x\fR maps to a control-x for any appropriate x, and the sequences
-\fB\en \el \er \et \eb \ef \es\fR give
-a newline, line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space.
-Other escapes include \fB\e^\fR for \fB^\fR,
-\fB\e\e\fR for \fB\e\fR,
-\fB\e\fR, for comma,
-\fB\e:\fR for \fB:\fR,
-and \fB\e0\fR for null.
-(\fB\e0\fR will produce \e200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
-as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.
-See stty(1).)
-Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \fB\e\fR.
-.PP
-A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere in a string capability, enclosed in
-$<..> brackets, as in \fBel\fP=\eEK$<5>, and padding characters are supplied by
-.I tputs
-to provide this delay.
-The delay must be a number with at most one decimal
-place of precision; it may be followed by suffixes `*' or '/' or both.
-A `*'
-indicates that the padding required is proportional to the number of lines
-affected by the operation, and the amount given is the per-affected-unit
-padding required.
-(In the case of insert character, the factor is still the
-number of
-.IR lines
-affected.) Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the \fBxon\fR
-capability; it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.
-A `/'
-suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a delay of the given
-number of milliseconds even on devices for which \fBxon\fR is present to
-indicate flow control.
-.PP
-Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.
-To do this, put a period before the capability name.
-For example, see the second
-.B ind
-in the example above.
-.br
-.ne 5
-.PP
-.SS Fetching Compiled Descriptions
-.PP
-If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the pathname
-of a directory containing the compiled description you are working on.
-Only
-that directory is searched.
-.PP
-If TERMINFO is not set, the \fBncurses\fR version of the terminfo reader code
-will instead look in the directory \fB$HOME/.terminfo\fR
-for a compiled description.
-If it fails to find one there, and the environment variable TERMINFO_DIRS is
-set, it will interpret the contents of that variable as a list of colon-
-separated directories to be searched (an empty entry is interpreted as a
-command to search \fI\*d\fR).
-If no description is found in any of the
-TERMINFO_DIRS directories, the fetch fails.
-.PP
-If neither TERMINFO nor TERMINFO_DIRS is set, the last place tried will be the
-system terminfo directory, \fI\*d\fR.
-.PP
-(Neither the \fB$HOME/.terminfo\fR lookups nor TERMINFO_DIRS extensions are
-supported under stock System V terminfo/curses.)
-.PP
-.SS Preparing Descriptions
-.PP
-We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.
-The most effective way to prepare a terminal description is by imitating
-the description of a similar terminal in
-.I terminfo
-and to build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions
-with
-.I vi
-or some other screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.
-Be aware that a very unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in
-the ability of the
-.I terminfo
-file to describe it
-or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test program.
-.PP
-To get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
-did not document it) a severe test is to edit a large file at 9600 baud,
-delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the `u'
-key several times quickly.
-If the terminal messes up, more padding is usually needed.
-A similar test can be used for insert character.
-.PP
-.SS Basic Capabilities
-.PP
-The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the
-\fBcols\fR numeric capability.
-If the terminal is a \s-1CRT\s0, then the
-number of lines on the screen is given by the \fBlines\fR capability.
-If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when
-it reaches the right margin, then it should have the \fBam\fR capability.
-If the terminal can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home
-position, then this is given by the \fBclear\fR string capability.
-If the terminal overstrikes
-(rather than clearing a position when a character is struck over)
-then it should have the \fBos\fR capability.
-If the terminal is a printing terminal, with no soft copy unit,
-give it both
-.B hc
-and
-.BR os .
-.RB ( os
-applies to storage scope terminals, such as \s-1TEKTRONIX\s+1 4010
-series, as well as hard copy and APL terminals.)
-If there is a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current
-row, give this as
-.BR cr .
-(Normally this will be carriage return, control M.)
-If there is a code to produce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc)
-give this as
-.BR bel .
-.PP
-If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left
-(such as backspace) that capability should be given as
-.BR cub1 .
-Similarly, codes to move to the right, up, and down should be
-given as
-.BR cuf1 ,
-.BR cuu1 ,
-and
-.BR cud1 .
-These local cursor motions should not alter the text they pass over,
-for example, you would not normally use `\fBcuf1\fP=\ ' because the
-space would erase the character moved over.
-.PP
-A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded
-in
-.I terminfo
-are undefined at the left and top edges of a \s-1CRT\s0 terminal.
-Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge,
-unless
-.B bw
-is given,
-and never attempt to go up locally off the top.
-In order to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner
-of the screen and send the
-.B ind
-(index) string.
-.PP
-To scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner
-of the screen and sends the
-.B ri
-(reverse index) string.
-The strings
-.B ind
-and
-.B ri
-are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.
-.PP
-Parameterized versions of the scrolling sequences are
-.B indn
-and
-.B rin
-which have the same semantics as
-.B ind
-and
-.B ri
-except that they take one parameter, and scroll that many lines.
-They are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of the screen.
-.PP
-The \fBam\fR capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right
-edge of the screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily
-apply to a
-.B cuf1
-from the last column.
-The only local motion which is defined from the left edge is if
-.B bw
-is given, then a
-.B cub1
-from the left edge will move to the right edge of the previous row.
-If
-.B bw
-is not given, the effect is undefined.
-This is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the screen, for example.
-If the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins,
-the
-.I terminfo
-file usually assumes that this is on; i.e., \fBam\fR.
-If the terminal has a command which moves to the first column of the next
-line, that command can be given as
-.B nel
-(newline).
-It does not matter if the command clears the remainder of the current line,
-so if the terminal has no
-.B cr
-and
-.B lf
-it may still be possible to craft a working
-.B nel
-out of one or both of them.
-.PP
-These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and \*(lqglass-tty\*(rq terminals.
-Thus the model 33 teletype is described as
-.PP
-.DT
-.nf
-.ft CW
-.\".in -2
-\s-133\||\|tty33\||\|tty\||\|model 33 teletype,
- bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,\s+1
-.\".in +2
-.ft R
-.PP
-while the Lear Siegler \s-1ADM-3\s0 is described as
-.PP
-.DT
-.nf
-.ft CW
-.\".in -2
-\s-1adm3\||\|3\||\|lsi adm3,
- am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
- ind=^J, lines#24,\s+1
-.\".in +2
-.ft R
-.fi
-.PP
-.SS Parameterized Strings
-.PP
-Cursor addressing and other strings requiring parameters
-in the terminal are described by a
-parameterized string capability, with
-.IR printf (3)
-like escapes \fB%x\fR in it.
-For example, to address the cursor, the
-.B cup
-capability is given, using two parameters:
-the row and column to address to.
-(Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
-physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)
-If the terminal has memory relative cursor addressing,
-that can be indicated by
-.BR mrcup .
-.PP
-The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special \fB%\fP codes
-to manipulate it.
-Typically a sequence will push one of the
-parameters onto the stack and then print it in some format.
-Print (e.g., "%d") is a special case.
-Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the stack.
-It is noted that more complex operations are often necessary,
-e.g., in the \fBsgr\fP string.
-.PP
-The \fB%\fR encodings have the following meanings:
-.PP
-.TP 5
-\s-1%%
-outputs `%'
-.TP
-%\fI[[\fP:\fI]flags][width[.precision]][\fPdoxXs\fI]\fP
-as in \fBprintf\fP, flags are [-+#] and space.
-Use a `:' to allow the next character to be a `-' flag,
-avoiding interpreting "%-" as an operator.
-.TP
-%c
-print pop() like %c in \fBprintf\fP
-.TP
-%s
-print pop() like %s in \fBprintf\fP
-.TP
-%p[1-9]
-push \fIi\fP'th parameter
-.TP
-%P[a-z]
-set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()
-.TP
-%g[a-z]
-get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it
-.TP
-%P[A-Z]
-set static variable [a-z] to pop()
-.TP
-%g[A-Z]
-get static variable [a-z] and push it
-.IP
-The terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.
-Historically, these are simply two different sets of variables,
-whose values are not reset between calls to \fBtparm\fP.
-However, that fact is not documented in other implementations.
-Relying on it will adversely impact portability to other implementations.
-.TP
-%'\fIc\fP'
-char constant \fIc\fP
-.TP
-%{\fInn\fP}
-integer constant \fInn\fP
-.TP
-%l
-push strlen(pop)
-.TP
-%+ %- %* %/ %m
-arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())
-.TP
-%& %| %^
-bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())
-.TP
-%= %> %<
-logical operations: push(pop() op pop())
-.TP
-%A, %O
-logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)
-.TP
-%! %~
-unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())
-.TP
-%i
-add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)
-.TP
-%? \fIexpr\fP %t \fIthenpart\fP %e \fIelsepart\fP %;
-This forms an if-then-else.
-The %e \fIelsepart\fP is optional.
-Usually the %? \fIexpr\fP part pushes a value onto the stack,
-and %t pops it from the stack, testing if it is nonzero (true).
-If it is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.
-.IP
-It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
-.RS
-%? c\d1\u %t b\d1\u %e c\d2\u %t b\d2\u %e c\d3\u %t b\d3\u %e c\d4\u %t b\d4\u %e %;
-.RE
-.IP
-where c\di\u are conditions, b\di\u are bodies.
-.IP
-Use the \fB-f\fP option of \fBtic\fP or \fB@INFOCMP@\fP to see
-the structure of if-the-else's.
-Some strings, e.g., \fBsgr\fP can be very complicated when written
-on one line.
-The \fB-f\fP option splits the string into lines with the parts indented.
-.PP
-Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order.
-That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".
-%P and %g variables are
-persistent across escape-string evaluations.
-.PP
-Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs
-to be sent \eE&a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.
-Note that the order
-of the rows and columns is inverted here, and that the row and column
-are printed as two digits.
-Thus its \fBcup\fR capability is \*(lqcup=6\eE&%p2%2dc%p1%2dY\*(rq.
-.PP
-The Microterm \s-1ACT-IV\s0 needs the current row and column sent
-preceded by a \fB^T\fR, with the row and column simply encoded in binary,
-\*(lqcup=^T%p1%c%p2%c\*(rq.
-Terminals which use \*(lq%c\*(rq need to be able to
-backspace the cursor (\fBcub1\fR),
-and to move the cursor up one line on the screen (\fBcuu1\fR).
-This is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \fB\en\fR
-\fB^D\fR and \fB\er\fR, as the system may change or discard them.
-(The library routines dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that
-tabs are never expanded, so \et is safe to send.
-This turns out to be essential for the Ann Arbor 4080.)
-.PP
-A final example is the \s-1LSI ADM\s0-3a, which uses row and column
-offset by a blank character, thus \*(lqcup=\eE=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c\*(rq.
-After sending `\eE=', this pushes the first parameter, pushes the
-ASCII value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack
-in place of the two previous values) and outputs that value as a character.
-Then the same is done for the second parameter.
-More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.
-.PP
-.SS Cursor Motions
-.PP
-If the terminal has a fast way to home the cursor
-(to very upper left corner of screen) then this can be given as
-\fBhome\fR; similarly a fast way of getting to the lower left-hand corner
-can be given as \fBll\fR; this may involve going up with \fBcuu1\fR
-from the home position,
-but a program should never do this itself (unless \fBll\fR does) because it
-can make no assumption about the effect of moving up from the home position.
-Note that the home position is the same as addressing to (0,0):
-to the top left corner of the screen, not of memory.
-(Thus, the \eEH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for
-.BR home .)
-.PP
-If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing,
-these can be given as single parameter capabilities
-.B hpa
-(horizontal position absolute)
-and
-.B vpa
-(vertical position absolute).
-Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two parameter
-sequence (as with the hp2645) and can be used in preference to
-.BR cup .
-If there are parameterized local motions (e.g., move
-.I n
-spaces to the right) these can be given as
-.BR cud ,
-.BR cub ,
-.BR cuf ,
-and
-.BR cuu
-with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to move.
-These are primarily useful if the terminal does not have
-.BR cup ,
-such as the \s-1TEKTRONIX\s+1 4025.
-.PP
-If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running
-a program that uses these capabilities,
-the codes to enter and exit this mode can be given as \fBsmcup\fR and \fBrmcup\fR.
-This arises, for example, from terminals like the Concept with more than
-one page of memory.
-If the terminal has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen
-relative cursor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into
-the terminal for cursor addressing to work properly.
-This is also used for the \s-1TEKTRONIX\s+1 4025,
-where
-.B smcup
-sets the command character to be the one used by terminfo.
-If the \fBsmcup\fP sequence will not restore the screen after an
-\fBrmcup\fP sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting
-\fBrmcup\fP), specify \fBnrrmc\fP.
-.PP
-.SS Area Clears
-.PP
-If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
-line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as \fBel\fR.
-If the terminal can clear from the beginning of the line to the current
-position inclusive, leaving
-the cursor where it is, this should be given as \fBel1\fP.
-If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
-display, then this should be given as \fBed\fR.
-\fBEd\fR is only defined from the first column of a line.
-(Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines,
-if a true
-.B ed
-is not available.)
-.PP
-.SS Insert/delete line and vertical motions
-.PP
-If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the cursor
-is, this should be given as \fBil1\fR; this is done only from the first
-position of a line.
-The cursor must then appear on the newly blank line.
-If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor is on, then this
-should be given as \fBdl1\fR; this is done only from the first position on
-the line to be deleted.
-Versions of
-.B il1
-and
-.B dl1
-which take a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can
-be given as
-.B il
-and
-.BR dl .
-.PP
-If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100)
-the command to set this can be described with the
-.B csr
-capability, which takes two parameters:
-the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
-The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.
-.PP
-It is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using
-.B csr
-on a properly chosen region; the
-.B sc
-and
-.B rc
-(save and restore cursor) commands may be useful for ensuring that
-your synthesized insert/delete string does not move the cursor.
-(Note that the \fBncurses\fR(3X) library does this synthesis
-automatically, so you need not compose insert/delete strings for
-an entry with \fBcsr\fR).
-.PP
-Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combination of
-index with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals (like the HP-700/90
-series, which however also has insert/delete).
-.PP
-Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen can also be
-done using
-.B ri
-or
-.B ind
-on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
-and is often faster even on terminals with those features.
-.PP
-The boolean \fBnon_dest_scroll_region\fR should be set if each scrolling
-window is effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.
-To test for
-this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
-write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the region,
-and do \fBri\fR followed by \fBdl1\fR or \fBind\fR.
-If the data scrolled
-off the bottom of the region by the \fBri\fR re-appears, then scrolling
-is non-destructive.
-System V and XSI Curses expect that \fBind\fR, \fBri\fR,
-\fBindn\fR, and \fBrin\fR will simulate destructive scrolling; their
-documentation cautions you not to define \fBcsr\fR unless this is true.
-This \fBcurses\fR implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases
-after scrolling if \fBndstr\fR is defined.
-.PP
-If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part of
-memory, which all commands affect,
-it should be given as the parameterized string
-.BR wind .
-The four parameters are the starting and ending lines in memory
-and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.
-.PP
-If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the
-\fBda\fR capability should be given; if display memory can be retained
-below, then \fBdb\fR should be given.
-These indicate
-that deleting a line or scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from below
-or that scrolling back with \fBri\fR may bring down non-blank lines.
-.PP
-.SS Insert/Delete Character
-.PP
-There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to
-insert/delete character which can be described using
-.I terminfo.
-The most common insert/delete character operations affect only the characters
-on the current line and shift characters off the end of the line rigidly.
-Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl, make
-a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen, shifting
-upon an insert or delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is
-either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.
-You can determine the
-kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen and then typing
-text separated by cursor motions.
-Type \*(lqabc\ \ \ \ def\*(rq using local
-cursor motions (not spaces) between the \*(lqabc\*(rq and the \*(lqdef\*(rq.
-Then position the cursor before the \*(lqabc\*(rq and put the terminal in insert
-mode.
-If typing characters causes the rest of the line to shift
-rigidly and characters to fall off the end, then your terminal does
-not distinguish between blanks and untyped positions.
-If the \*(lqabc\*(rq
-shifts over to the \*(lqdef\*(rq which then move together around the end of the
-current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the second type of
-terminal, and should give the capability \fBin\fR, which stands for
-\*(lqinsert null\*(rq.
-While these are two logically separate attributes (one line versus multi-line
-insert mode, and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no
-terminals whose insert mode cannot be described with the single attribute.
-.PP
-Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and terminals
-which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on the current line.
-Give as \fBsmir\fR the sequence to get into insert mode.
-Give as \fBrmir\fR the sequence to leave insert mode.
-Now give as \fBich1\fR any sequence needed to be sent just before sending
-the character to be inserted.
-Most terminals with a true insert mode
-will not give \fBich1\fR; terminals which send a sequence to open a screen
-position should give it here.
-.PP
-If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to \fBich1\fR.
-Technically, you should not give both unless the terminal actually requires
-both to be used in combination.
-Accordingly, some non-curses applications get
-confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled characters in an update
-using insert.
-This requirement is now rare; most \fBich\fR sequences do not
-require previous smir, and most smir insert modes do not require \fBich1\fR
-before each character.
-Therefore, the new \fBcurses\fR actually assumes this
-is the case and uses either \fBrmir\fR/\fBsmir\fR or \fBich\fR/\fBich1\fR as
-appropriate (but not both).
-If you have to write an entry to be used under
-new curses for a terminal old enough to need both, include the
-\fBrmir\fR/\fBsmir\fR sequences in \fBich1\fR.
-.PP
-If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
-in \fBip\fR (a string option).
-Any other sequence which may need to be
-sent after an insert of a single character may also be given in \fBip\fR.
-If your terminal needs both to be placed into an `insert mode' and
-a special code to precede each inserted character, then both
-.BR smir / rmir
-and
-.B ich1
-can be given, and both will be used.
-The
-.B ich
-capability, with one parameter,
-.IR n ,
-will repeat the effects of
-.B ich1
-.I n
-times.
-.PP
-If padding is necessary between characters typed while not
-in insert mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in \fBrmp\fP.
-.PP
-It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode
-to delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab after
-the insertion position).
-If your terminal allows motion while in
-insert mode you can give the capability \fBmir\fR to speed up inserting
-in this case.
-Omitting \fBmir\fR will affect only speed.
-Some terminals
-(notably Datamedia's) must not have \fBmir\fR because of the way their
-insert mode works.
-.PP
-Finally, you can specify
-.B dch1
-to delete a single character,
-.B dch
-with one parameter,
-.IR n ,
-to delete
-.I n characters,
-and delete mode by giving \fBsmdc\fR and \fBrmdc\fR
-to enter and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal needs to be placed
-in for
-.B dch1
-to work).
-.PP
-A command to erase
-.I n
-characters (equivalent to outputting
-.I n
-blanks without moving the cursor)
-can be given as
-.B ech
-with one parameter.
-.PP
-.SS "Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells"
-.PP
-If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes,
-these can be represented in a number of different ways.
-You should choose one display form as
-\f2standout mode\fR,
-representing a good, high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes,
-format for highlighting error messages and other attention getters.
-(If you have a choice, reverse video plus half-bright is good,
-or reverse video alone.)
-The sequences to enter and exit standout mode
-are given as \fBsmso\fR and \fBrmso\fR, respectively.
-If the code to change into or out of standout
-mode leaves one or even two blank spaces on the screen,
-as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do,
-then \fBxmc\fR should be given to tell how many spaces are left.
-.PP
-Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as \fBsmul\fR
-and \fBrmul\fR respectively.
-If the terminal has a code to underline the current character and move
-the cursor one space to the right,
-such as the Microterm Mime,
-this can be given as \fBuc\fR.
-.PP
-Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include
-.B blink
-(blinking)
-.B bold
-(bold or extra bright)
-.B dim
-(dim or half-bright)
-.B invis
-(blanking or invisible text)
-.B prot
-(protected)
-.B rev
-(reverse video)
-.B sgr0
-(turn off
-.I all
-attribute modes)
-.B smacs
-(enter alternate character set mode)
-and
-.B rmacs
-(exit alternate character set mode).
-Turning on any of these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.
-.PP
-If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes,
-this should be given as
-.B sgr
-(set attributes),
-taking 9 parameters.
-Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is on or off.
-The 9 parameters are, in order:
-standout, underline, reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate
-character set.
-Not all modes need be supported by
-.BR sgr ,
-only those for which corresponding separate attribute commands exist.
-.PP
-For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:
-.PP
-.TS
-center;
-l c c
-l c c
-lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.
-\fBtparm parameter attribute escape sequence\fP
-
-none none \\E[0m
-p1 standout \\E[0;1;7m
-p2 underline \\E[0;4m
-p3 reverse \\E[0;7m
-p4 blink \\E[0;5m
-p5 dim not available
-p6 bold \\E[0;1m
-p7 invis \\E[0;8m
-p8 protect not used
-p9 altcharset ^O (off) ^N (on)
-.TE
-.PP
-We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since
-there is no quick way to determine whether they are active.
-Standout is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.
-The vt220 terminal has a protect mode,
-though it is not commonly used in sgr
-because it protects characters on the screen from the host's erasures.
-The altcharset mode also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N,
-depending on whether it is off or on.
-If all modes are turned on, the resulting sequence is \\E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.
-.PP
-Some sequences are common to different modes.
-For example, ;7 is output when either p1 or p3 is true, that is, if
-either standout or reverse modes are turned on.
-.PP
-Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields
-.PP
-.TS
-center;
-l c c
-l c c
-lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.
-\fBsequence when to output terminfo translation\fP
-
-\\E[0 always \\E[0
-;1 if p1 or p6 %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
-;4 if p2 %?%p2%|%t;4%;
-;5 if p4 %?%p4%|%t;5%;
-;7 if p1 or p3 %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
-;8 if p7 %?%p7%|%t;8%;
-m always m
-^N or ^O if p9 ^N, else ^O %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;
-.TE
-.PP
-Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:
-.PP
-.nf
- sgr=\\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
- %?%p4%t;5%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\\016%e\\017%;,
-.fi
-.PP
-Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.
-Also, some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is,
-Not all terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr string, however.
-Many terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries
-which have no sgr string.
-The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also
-assumes that sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.
-.PP
-Terminals with the ``magic cookie'' glitch
-.RB ( xmc )
-deposit special ``cookies'' when they receive mode-setting sequences,
-which affect the display algorithm rather than having extra bits for
-each character.
-Some terminals, such as the HP 2621, automatically leave standout
-mode when they move to a new line or the cursor is addressed.
-Programs using standout mode should exit standout mode before
-moving the cursor or sending a newline,
-unless the
-.B msgr
-capability, asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.
-.PP
-If the terminal has
-a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly (a bell replacement)
-then this can be given as \fBflash\fR; it must not move the cursor.
-.PP
-If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is
-not on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into an
-easier to find block or blinking underline)
-give this sequence as
-.BR cvvis .
-If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give that as
-.BR civis .
-The capability
-.BR cnorm
-should be given which undoes the effects of both of these modes.
-.PP
-If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters
-(with no special codes needed)
-even though it does not overstrike,
-then you should give the capability \fBul\fR.
-If a character overstriking another leaves both characters on the screen,
-specify the capability \fBos\fP.
-If overstrikes are erasable with a blank,
-then this should be indicated by giving \fBeo\fR.
-.PP
-.SS Keypad and Function Keys
-.PP
-If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed,
-this information can be given.
-Note that it is not possible to handle
-terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies, for example,
-to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).
-If the keypad can be set to transmit or not transmit,
-give these codes as \fBsmkx\fR and \fBrmkx\fR.
-Otherwise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.
-The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow,
-and home keys can be given as
-\fBkcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, \fRand\fB khome\fR respectively.
-If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the codes they send
-can be given as \fBkf0, kf1, ..., kf10\fR.
-If these keys have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels
-can be given as \fBlf0, lf1, ..., lf10\fR.
-The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:
-.B kll
-(home down),
-.B kbs
-(backspace),
-.B ktbc
-(clear all tabs),
-.B kctab
-(clear the tab stop in this column),
-.B kclr
-(clear screen or erase key),
-.B kdch1
-(delete character),
-.B kdl1
-(delete line),
-.B krmir
-(exit insert mode),
-.B kel
-(clear to end of line),
-.B ked
-(clear to end of screen),
-.B kich1
-(insert character or enter insert mode),
-.B kil1
-(insert line),
-.B knp
-(next page),
-.B kpp
-(previous page),
-.B kind
-(scroll forward/down),
-.B kri
-(scroll backward/up),
-.B khts
-(set a tab stop in this column).
-In addition, if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four
-arrow keys, the other five keys can be given as
-.BR ka1 ,
-.BR ka3 ,
-.BR kb2 ,
-.BR kc1 ,
-and
-.BR kc3 .
-These keys are useful when the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.
-.PP
-Strings to program function keys can be given as
-.BR pfkey ,
-.BR pfloc ,
-and
-.BR pfx .
-A string to program screen labels should be specified as \fBpln\fP.
-Each of these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to
-program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.
-Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys in
-a terminal dependent manner.
-The difference between the capabilities is that
-.B pfkey
-causes pressing the given key to be the same as the user typing the
-given string;
-.B pfloc
-causes the string to be executed by the terminal in local; and
-.B pfx
-causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.
-.PP
-The capabilities \fBnlab\fP, \fBlw\fP and \fBlh\fP
-define the number of programmable
-screen labels and their width and height.
-If there are commands to turn the labels on and off,
-give them in \fBsmln\fP and \fBrmln\fP.
-\fBsmln\fP is normally output after one or more pln
-sequences to make sure that the change becomes visible.
-.PP
-.SS Tabs and Initialization
-.PP
-If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to advance to the next
-tab stop can be given as
-.B ht
-(usually control I).
-A ``back-tab'' command which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop can
-be given as
-.BR cbt .
-By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs are being
-expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal,
-programs should not use
-.B ht
-or
-.B cbt
-even if they are present, since the user may not have the tab stops
-properly set.
-If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every
-.I n
-spaces when the terminal is powered up,
-the numeric parameter
-.B it
-is given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.
-This is normally used by the
-.IR tset
-command to determine whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion,
-and whether to set the tab stops.
-If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-volatile memory,
-the terminfo description can assume that they are properly set.
-.PP
-Other capabilities
-include
-.BR is1 ,
-.BR is2 ,
-and
-.BR is3 ,
-initialization strings for the terminal,
-.BR iprog ,
-the path name of a program to be run to initialize the terminal,
-and \fBif\fR, the name of a file containing long initialization strings.
-These strings are expected to set the terminal into modes consistent
-with the rest of the terminfo description.
-They are normally sent to the terminal, by the
-.I init
-option of the
-.IR @TPUT@
-program, each time the user logs in.
-They will be printed in the following order:
-.RS
-.TP
-run the program
-.BR iprog
-.TP
-output
-.BR is1
-.BR is2
-.TP
-set the margins using
-.BR mgc ,
-.BR smgl
-and
-.BR smgr
-.TP
-set tabs using
-.B tbc
-and
-.BR hts
-.TP
-print the file
-.BR if
-.TP
-and finally
-output
-.BR is3 .
-.RE
-.PP
-Most initialization is done with
-.BR is2 .
-Special terminal modes can be set up without duplicating strings
-by putting the common sequences in
-.B is2
-and special cases in
-.B is1
-and
-.BR is3 .
-.PP
-A set of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state
-can be given as
-.BR rs1 ,
-.BR rs2 ,
-.BR rf
-and
-.BR rs3 ,
-analogous to
-.B is1 ,
-.B is2 ,
-.B if
-and
-.BR is3
-respectively.
-These strings are output by the
-.IR reset
-program, which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.
-Commands are normally placed in
-.BR rs1 ,
-.BR rs2
-.B rs3
-and
-.B rf
-only if they produce annoying effects on the screen and are not
-necessary when logging in.
-For example, the command to set the vt100 into 80-column mode would
-normally be part of
-.BR is2 ,
-but it causes an annoying glitch of the screen and is not normally
-needed since the terminal is usually already in 80 column mode.
-.PP
-The
-.IR reset
-program writes strings
-including
-.BR iprog ,
-etc., in the same order as the
-.IR init
-program, using
-.BR rs1 ,
-etc., instead of
-.BR is1 ,
-etc.
-If any of
-.BR rs1 ,
-.BR rs2 ,
-.BR rs3 ,
-or
-.BR rf
-reset capability strings are missing, the
-.IR reset
-program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capability string.
-.PP
-If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as
-.B tbc
-(clear all tab stops)
-and
-.B hts
-(set a tab stop in the current column of every row).
-If a more complex sequence is needed to set the tabs than can be
-described by this, the sequence can be placed in
-.B is2
-or
-.BR if .
-.SS Delays and Padding
-.PP
-Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
-handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs
-(including, for example, DEC VT100s).
-These may require padding characters
-after certain cursor motions and screen changes.
-.PP
-If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is,
-it automatically emits ^S back to the host when its input buffers are
-close to full), set
-.BR xon .
-This capability suppresses the emission of padding.
-You can also set it
-for memory-mapped console devices effectively that do not have a speed limit.
-Padding information should still be included so that routines can
-make better decisions about relative costs, but actual pad characters will
-not be transmitted.
-.PP
-If \fBpb\fR (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
-below the value of \fBpb\fR.
-If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
-whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by \fBxon\fR.
-.PP
-If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,
-then this can be given as \fBpad\fR.
-Only the first character of the
-.B pad
-string is used.
-.PP
-.SS Status Lines
-Some terminals have an extra `status line' which is not normally used by
-software (and thus not counted in the terminal's \fBlines\fR capability).
-.PP
-The simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
-part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has
-a status line of this kind, as would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
-scrolling region set up on initialization.
-This situation is indicated
-by the \fBhs\fR capability.
-.PP
-Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the
-status line.
-These may be expressed as a string with single parameter
-\fBtsl\fR which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the
-status line.
-The capability \fBfsl\fR must return to the main-screen
-cursor positions before the last \fBtsl\fR.
-You may need to embed the
-string values of \fBsc\fR (save cursor) and \fBrc\fR (restore cursor)
-in \fBtsl\fR and \fBfsl\fR to accomplish this.
-.PP
-The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
-of the terminal.
-If this is untrue, you can specify it with the numeric
-capability \fBwsl\fR.
-.PP
-A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as \fBdsl\fR.
-.PP
-The boolean capability \fBeslok\fR specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
-etc., work ordinarily in the status line.
-.PP
-The \fBncurses\fR implementation does not yet use any of these capabilities.
-They are documented here in case they ever become important.
-.PP
-.SS Line Graphics
-.PP
-Many terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
-Terminfo and \fBcurses\fR build in support for the drawing characters
-supported by the VT100, with some characters from the AT&T 4410v1 added.
-This alternate character set may be specified by the \fBacsc\fR capability.
-.PP
-.TS H
-center expand;
-c l l c
-c l l c
-lw28 lw6 lw2 lw20.
-.\".TH
-\fBGlyph ACS Ascii VT100\fR
-\fBName Name Default Name\fR
-UK pound sign ACS_STERLING f }
-arrow pointing down ACS_DARROW v .
-arrow pointing left ACS_LARROW < ,
-arrow pointing right ACS_RARROW > +
-arrow pointing up ACS_UARROW ^ -
-board of squares ACS_BOARD # h
-bullet ACS_BULLET o ~
-checker board (stipple) ACS_CKBOARD : a
-degree symbol ACS_DEGREE \e f
-diamond ACS_DIAMOND + `
-greater-than-or-equal-to ACS_GEQUAL > z
-greek pi ACS_PI * {
-horizontal line ACS_HLINE - q
-lantern symbol ACS_LANTERN # i
-large plus or crossover ACS_PLUS + n
-less-than-or-equal-to ACS_LEQUAL < y
-lower left corner ACS_LLCORNER + m
-lower right corner ACS_LRCORNER + j
-not-equal ACS_NEQUAL ! |
-plus/minus ACS_PLMINUS # g
-scan line 1 ACS_S1 ~ o
-scan line 3 ACS_S3 - p
-scan line 7 ACS_S7 - r
-scan line 9 ACS_S9 \&_ s
-solid square block ACS_BLOCK # 0
-tee pointing down ACS_TTEE + w
-tee pointing left ACS_RTEE + u
-tee pointing right ACS_LTEE + t
-tee pointing up ACS_BTEE + v
-upper left corner ACS_ULCORNER + l
-upper right corner ACS_URCORNER + k
-vertical line ACS_VLINE | x
-.TE
-.PP
-The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
-to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the character which
-(when emitted between \fBsmacs\fR/\fBrmacs\fR switches) will be rendered
-as the corresponding graphic.
-Then read off the VT100/your terminal
-character pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.
-.PP
-.SS Color Handling
-.PP
-Most color terminals are either `Tektronix-like' or `HP-like'.
-Tektronix-like
-terminals have a predefined set of N colors (where N usually 8), and can set
-character-cell foreground and background characters independently, mixing them
-into N * N color-pairs.
-On HP-like terminals, the use must set each color
-pair up separately (foreground and background are not independently settable).
-Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M different colors.
-ANSI-compatible
-terminals are Tektronix-like.
-.PP
-Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.
-The numeric
-capabilities \fBcolors\fR and \fBpairs\fR specify the maximum numbers of colors
-and color-pairs that can be displayed simultaneously.
-The \fBop\fR (original
-pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their default values
-for the terminal.
-The \fBoc\fR string resets all colors or color-pairs to
-their default values for the terminal.
-Some terminals (including many PC
-terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the current background color rather
-than the power-up default background; these should have the boolean capability
-\fBbce\fR.
-.PP
-To change the current foreground or background color on a Tektronix-type
-terminal, use \fBsetaf\fR (set ANSI foreground) and \fBsetab\fR (set ANSI
-background) or \fBsetf\fR (set foreground) and \fBsetb\fR (set background).
-These take one parameter, the color number.
-The SVr4 documentation describes
-only \fBsetaf\fR/\fBsetab\fR; the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal
-supports ANSI escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should
-be coded as \fBsetaf\fR and \fBsetab\fR, respectively.
-If the terminal
-supports other escape sequences to set background and foreground, they should
-be coded as \fBsetf\fR and \fBsetb\fR, respectively.
-The \fIvidputs()\fR
-function and the refresh functions use \fBsetaf\fR and \fBsetab\fR if they are
-defined."
-.PP
-The \fBsetaf\fR/\fBsetab\fR and \fBsetf\fR/\fBsetb\fR capabilities take a
-single numeric argument each.
-Argument values 0-7 of \fBsetaf\fR/\fBsetab\fR are portably defined as
-follows (the middle column is the symbolic #define available in the header for
-the \fBcurses\fR or \fBncurses\fR libraries).
-The terminal hardware is free to
-map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in color
-space.
-.PP
-.TS H
-center;
-l c c c
-l l n l.
-\fBColor #define Value RGB\fR
-black \fBCOLOR_BLACK\fR 0 0, 0, 0
-red \fBCOLOR_RED\ \fR 1 max,0,0
-green \fBCOLOR_GREEN\fR 2 0,max,0
-yellow \fBCOLOR_YELLOW\fR 3 max,max,0
-blue \fBCOLOR_BLUE\fR 4 0,0,max
-magenta \fBCOLOR_MAGENTA\fR 5 max,0,max
-cyan \fBCOLOR_CYAN\fR 6 0,max,max
-white \fBCOLOR_WHITE\fR 7 max,max,max
-.TE
-.PP
-The argument values of \fBsetf\fR/\fBsetb\fR historically correspond to
-a different mapping, i.e.,
-.TS H
-center;
-l c c c
-l l n l.
-\fBColor #define Value RGB\fR
-black \fBCOLOR_BLACK\fR 0 0, 0, 0
-blue \fBCOLOR_BLUE\fR 1 0,0,max
-green \fBCOLOR_GREEN\fR 2 0,max,0
-cyan \fBCOLOR_CYAN\fR 3 0,max,max
-red \fBCOLOR_RED\ \fR 4 max,0,0
-magenta \fBCOLOR_MAGENTA\fR 5 max,0,max
-yellow \fBCOLOR_YELLOW\fR 6 max,max,0
-white \fBCOLOR_WHITE\fR 7 max,max,max
-.TE
-It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities;
-otherwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.
-.PP
-On an HP-like terminal, use \fBscp\fR with a color-pair number parameter to set
-which color pair is current.
-.PP
-On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability \fBccc\fR may be present to
-indicate that colors can be modified.
-If so, the \fBinitc\fR capability will
-take a color number (0 to \fBcolors\fR - 1)and three more parameters which
-describe the color.
-These three parameters default to being interpreted as RGB
-(Red, Green, Blue) values.
-If the boolean capability \fBhls\fR is present,
-they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices.
-The ranges are
-terminal-dependent.
-.PP
-On an HP-like terminal, \fBinitp\fR may give a capability for changing a
-color-pair value.
-It will take seven parameters; a color-pair number (0 to
-\fBmax_pairs\fR - 1), and two triples describing first background and then
-foreground colors.
-These parameters must be (Red, Green, Blue) or
-(Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on \fBhls\fR.
-.PP
-On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.
-You can register
-these collisions with the \fBncv\fR capability.
-This is a bit-mask of
-attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.
-The correspondence with the
-attributes understood by \fBcurses\fR is as follows:
-.PP
-.TS
-center;
-l c c
-lw25 lw2 lw10.
-\fBAttribute Bit Decimal\fR
-A_STANDOUT 0 1
-A_UNDERLINE 1 2
-A_REVERSE 2 4
-A_BLINK 3 8
-A_DIM 4 16
-A_BOLD 5 32
-A_INVIS 6 64
-A_PROTECT 7 128
-A_ALTCHARSET 8 256
-.TE
-.PP
-For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides with the
-foreground color blue and is not available in color mode.
-These should have
-an \fBncv\fR capability of 2.
-.PP
-SVr4 curses does nothing with \fBncv\fR, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
-the output in favor of colors.
-.PP
-.SS Miscellaneous
-If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this
-can be given as pad.
-Only the first character of the pad string is used.
-If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify npc.
-Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible \fBPC\fR variable;
-though the application may set this value to something other than
-a null, ncurses will test \fBnpc\fR first and use napms if the terminal
-has no pad character.
-.PP
-If the terminal can move up or down half a line,
-this can be indicated with
-.B hu
-(half-line up)
-and
-.B hd
-(half-line down).
-This is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.
-If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as
-.B ff
-(usually control L).
-.PP
-If there is a command to repeat a given character a given number of
-times (to save time transmitting a large number of identical characters)
-this can be indicated with the parameterized string
-.BR rep .
-The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second
-is the number of times to repeat it.
-Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the same as `xxxxxxxxxx'.
-.PP
-If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the \s-1TEKTRONIX\s+1 4025,
-this can be indicated with
-.BR cmdch .
-A prototype command character is chosen which is used in all capabilities.
-This character is given in the
-.B cmdch
-capability to identify it.
-The following convention is supported on some UNIX systems:
-The environment is to be searched for a
-.B CC
-variable, and if found, all
-occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with the character
-in the environment variable.
-.PP
-Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of known
-terminal, such as
-.IR switch ,
-.IR dialup ,
-.IR patch ,
-and
-.IR network ,
-should include the
-.B gn
-(generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do not know
-how to talk to the terminal.
-(This capability does not apply to
-.I virtual
-terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)
-.PP
-If the terminal has a ``meta key'' which acts as a shift key,
-setting the 8th bit of any character transmitted, this fact can
-be indicated with
-.BR km .
-Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and it
-will usually be cleared.
-If strings exist to turn this ``meta mode'' on and off, they
-can be given as
-.B smm
-and
-.BR rmm .
-.PP
-If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen
-at once, the number of lines of memory can be indicated with
-.BR lm .
-A value of
-.BR lm #0
-indicates that the number of lines is not fixed,
-but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.
-.PP
-If the terminal is one of those supported by the \s-1UNIX\s+1 virtual
-terminal protocol, the terminal number can be given as
-.BR vt .
-.PP
-Media copy
-strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal
-can be given as
-.BR mc0 :
-print the contents of the screen,
-.BR mc4 :
-turn off the printer, and
-.BR mc5 :
-turn on the printer.
-When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent
-to the printer.
-It is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal screen
-when the printer is on.
-A variation
-.B mc5p
-takes one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as many characters
-as the value of the parameter, then turns the printer off.
-The parameter should not exceed 255.
-All text, including
-.BR mc4 ,
-is transparently passed to the printer while an
-.B mc5p
-is in effect.
-.PP
-.SS Glitches and Braindamage
-.PP
-Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow `~' characters to be displayed should
-indicate \fBhz\fR.
-.PP
-Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an \fBam\fR wrap,
-such as the Concept and vt100,
-should indicate \fBxenl\fR.
-.PP
-If
-.B el
-is required to get rid of standout
-(instead of merely writing normal text on top of it),
-\fBxhp\fP should be given.
-.PP
-Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
-should indicate \fBxt\fR (destructive tabs).
-Note: the variable indicating this is now `dest_tabs_magic_smso'; in
-older versions, it was teleray_glitch.
-This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible to position
-the cursor on top of a ``magic cookie'',
-that to erase standout mode it is instead necessary to use
-delete and insert line.
-The ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.
-.PP
-The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape
-or control C characters, has
-.BR xsb ,
-indicating that the f1 key is used for escape and f2 for control C.
-(Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)
-Note that in older terminfo versions, this capability was called
-`beehive_glitch'; it is now `no_esc_ctl_c'.
-.PP
-Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more
-capabilities of the form \fBx\fR\fIx\fR.
-.PP
-.SS Similar Terminals
-.PP
-If there are two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be defined as
-being just like the other (the base) with certain exceptions.
-In the
-definition of the variant, the string capability \fBuse\fR can be given with
-the name of the base terminal.
-The capabilities given before
-.B use
-override those in the base type named by
-.BR use .
-If there are multiple \fBuse\fR capabilities, they are merged in reverse order.
-That is, the rightmost \fBuse\fR reference is processed first, then the one to
-its left, and so forth.
-Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override
-those brought in by \fBuse\fR references.
-.PP
-A capability can be canceled by placing \fBxx@\fR to the left of the
-use reference that imports it, where \fIxx\fP is the capability.
-For example, the entry
-.PP
- 2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,
-.PP
-defines a 2621-nl that does not have the \fBsmkx\fR or \fBrmkx\fR capabilities,
-and hence does not turn on the function key labels when in visual mode.
-This is useful for different modes for a terminal, or for different
-user preferences.
-.PP
-.SS Pitfalls of Long Entries
-.PP
-Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has even
-approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.
-Unfortunately, the termcap
-translations are much more strictly limited (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap translations
-of long terminfo entries can cause problems.
-.PP
-The man pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of \fBtgetent()\fP instruct the user to
-allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.
-The entry gets null-terminated by
-the termcap library, so that makes the maximum safe length for a termcap entry
-1k-1 (1023) bytes.
-Depending on what the application and the termcap library
-being used does, and where in the termcap file the terminal type that \fBtgetent()\fP
-is searching for is, several bad things can happen.
-.PP
-Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
-entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
-entries to 1023 bytes.
-Some application programs allocate more than
-the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.
-.PP
-Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before
-"tc" expansion, and after "tc" expansion.
-"tc" is the capability that
-tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add
-on its capabilities.
-If a termcap entry does not use the "tc"
-capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.
-.PP
-The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it
-affects more than just users of that particular terminal.
-This is the
-length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the
-backslash-newline pairs, which \fBtgetent()\fP strips out while reading it.
-Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).
-Now suppose:
-.TP 5
-*
-a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,
-.TP 5
-*
-and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,
-.TP 5
-*
-and the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
-the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see
-if it is the entry it wants,
-.TP 5
-*
-and \fBtgetent()\fP is searching for a terminal type that either is the
-long entry, appears in the termcap file after the long entry, or
-does not appear in the file at all (so that \fBtgetent()\fP has to search
-the whole termcap file).
-.PP
-Then \fBtgetent()\fP will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core dump
-the program.
-Programs like telnet are particularly vulnerable; modern telnets
-pass along values like the terminal type automatically.
-The results are almost
-as undesirable with a termcap library, like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that
-prints warning messages when it reads an overly long termcap entry.
-If a
-termcap library truncates long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is immune to dying
-here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.
-.PP
-The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the
-above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal
-type, since \fBtgetent()\fP only does "tc" expansion once it is found the
-terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.
-.PP
-In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause,
-on various combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
-dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.
-If it is too long even before
-"tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for users of some other
-terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have a termcap
-entry.
-.PP
-When in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the \fBncurses\fR implementation of
-\fB@TIC@\fR(1M) issues warning messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap
-translation is too long.
-The -c (check) option also checks resolved (after tc
-expansion) lengths.
-.SS Binary Compatibility
-It is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between
-commercial UNIX versions.
-The problem is that there are at least two versions
-of terminfo (under HP-UX and AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after
-SVr1, and have added extension capabilities to the string table that (in the
-binary format) collide with System V and XSI Curses extensions.
-.SH EXTENSIONS
-Some SVr4 \fBcurses\fR implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not
-interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.
-.PP
-SVr4/XPG4 do not specify whether \fBmsgr\fR licenses movement while in
-an alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other things, map
-CR and NL to characters that do not trigger local motions).
-The \fBncurses\fR implementation ignores \fBmsgr\fR in \fBALTCHARSET\fR
-mode.
-This raises the possibility that an XPG4
-implementation making the opposite interpretation may need terminfo
-entries made for \fBncurses\fR to have \fBmsgr\fR turned off.
-.PP
-The \fBncurses\fR library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
-in a slightly non-standard way to get better update efficiency.
-See
-the \fBInsert/Delete Character\fR subsection above.
-.PP
-The parameter substitutions for \fBset_clock\fR and \fBdisplay_clock\fR are
-not documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.
-They are deduced from the
-documentation for the AT&T 505 terminal.
-.PP
-Be careful assigning the \fBkmous\fR capability.
-The \fBncurses\fR wants to
-interpret it as \fBKEY_MOUSE\fR, for use by terminals and emulators like xterm
-that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input stream.
-.PP
-Different commercial ports of terminfo and curses support different subsets of
-the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different extension sets.
-Here
-is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:
-.PP
-\fBSVR4, Solaris, ncurses\fR --
-These support all SVr4 capabilities.
-.PP
-\fBSGI\fR --
-Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
-capability (\fBset_pglen\fR).
-.PP
-\fBSVr1, Ultrix\fR --
-These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabilities.
-The booleans
-end with \fBxon_xoff\fR; the numerics with \fBwidth_status_line\fR; and the
-strings with \fBprtr_non\fR.
-.PP
-\fBHP/UX\fR --
-Supports the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics \fBnum_labels\fR,
-\fBlabel_height\fR, \fBlabel_width\fR, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus
-\fBplab_norm\fR, \fBlabel_on\fR, and \fBlabel_off\fR, plus some incompatible
-extensions in the string table.
-.PP
-\fBAIX\fR --
-Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus a number
-of incompatible string table extensions.
-.PP
-\fBOSF\fR --
-Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.
-.SH FILES
-.TP 25
-\*d/?/*
-files containing terminal descriptions
-.SH SEE ALSO
-\fB@TIC@\fR(1M),
-\fB@INFOCMP@\fR(1M),
-\fBcurses\fR(3X),
-\fBprintf\fR(3),
-\fBterm\fR(\*n).
-.SH AUTHORS
-Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.
-Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.
-.\"#
-.\"# The following sets edit modes for GNU EMACS
-.\"# Local Variables:
-.\"# mode:nroff
-.\"# fill-column:79
-.\"# End: