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authorBaptiste Daroussin <bapt@FreeBSD.org>2021-02-25 17:22:00 +0000
committerBaptiste Daroussin <bapt@FreeBSD.org>2021-02-25 17:22:00 +0000
commitbf0ab54638a5ef969749f6ceae30e864f9556ea8 (patch)
tree11690c2184e55d37bcd3c7fd13f3d0d9d20dbcb0 /doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html
parent72c3fc31f590566e93496732d6fa769cd353e270 (diff)
downloadsrc-vendor/ncurses.tar.gz
src-vendor/ncurses.zip
Vendor import ncurses 6.2-20210220vendor/ncurses/6.2-20210220vendor/ncurses
Diffstat (limited to 'doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html')
-rw-r--r--doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html892
1 files changed, 518 insertions, 374 deletions
diff --git a/doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html b/doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html
index ddf5d2a05e5f..64cc934b441d 100644
--- a/doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html
+++ b/doc/html/man/ncurses.3x.html
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
* t
****************************************************************************
- * Copyright 2018-2019,2020 Thomas E. Dickey *
+ * Copyright 2018-2020,2021 Thomas E. Dickey *
* Copyright 1998-2015,2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
* *
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a *
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
* sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written *
* authorization. *
****************************************************************************
- * @Id: ncurses.3x,v 1.144 2020/02/02 23:34:34 tom Exp @
+ * @Id: ncurses.3x,v 1.152 2021/01/09 11:07:55 tom Exp @
-->
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN">
<HTML>
@@ -60,19 +60,19 @@
method of updating character screens with reasonable optimization.
This implementation is "new curses" (ncurses) and is the approved
replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses, which has been discontinued.
- This describes <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> version 6.2 (patch 20200215).
+ This describes <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> version 6.2 (patch 20210109).
The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses (also known as XSI
curses). XSI stands for X/Open System Interfaces Extension. The
<STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is freely redistributable in source form. Differences
- from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG> and <STRONG>PORTABIL-</STRONG>
- <STRONG>ITY</STRONG> sections below and described in detail in the respective <STRONG>EXTEN-</STRONG>
- <STRONG>SIONS</STRONG>, <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> and <STRONG>BUGS</STRONG> sections of individual man pages.
+ from the SVr4 curses are summarized under the <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG> and
+ <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> sections below and described in detail in the respective
+ <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG>, <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> and <STRONG>BUGS</STRONG> sections of individual man pages.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library also provides many useful extensions, i.e., fea-
- tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but which
- require access to the internals of the library.
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library also provides many useful extensions, i.e.,
+ features which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but
+ which require access to the internals of the library.
A program using these routines must be linked with the <STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>
option, or (if it has been generated) with the debugging library
@@ -82,11 +82,11 @@
directory) that describe curses actions. See also the section on
<STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
- tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control over
- terminal and <STRONG>curses</STRONG> input and output options; environment query rou-
- tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo capabili-
- ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> package supports: overall screen, window and pad
+ manipulation; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input;
+ control over terminal and <STRONG>curses</STRONG> input and output options; environment
+ query routines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys; terminfo
+ capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Initialization">Initialization</a></H3><PRE>
@@ -102,8 +102,8 @@
The function <STRONG>initscr</STRONG> or <STRONG>newterm</STRONG> must be called to initialize the
library before any of the other routines that deal with windows and
- screens are used. The routine <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">endwin(3x)</A></STRONG> must be called before exit-
- ing.
+ screens are used. The routine <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">endwin(3x)</A></STRONG> must be called before
+ exiting.
To get character-at-a-time input without echoing (most interactive,
screen oriented programs want this), the following sequence should be
@@ -113,28 +113,27 @@
Most programs would additionally use the sequence:
- <STRONG>nonl();</STRONG>
<STRONG>intrflush(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>FALSE);</STRONG>
<STRONG>keypad(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>TRUE);</STRONG>
Before a <STRONG>curses</STRONG> program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
set and its initialization strings, if defined, must be output. This
- can be done by executing the <STRONG>tput</STRONG> <STRONG>init</STRONG> command after the shell environ-
- ment variable <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> has been exported. <STRONG>tset(1)</STRONG> is usually responsible
- for doing this. [See <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> for further details.]
+ can be done by executing the <STRONG>tput</STRONG> <STRONG>init</STRONG> command after the shell
+ environment variable <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> has been exported. <STRONG>tset(1)</STRONG> is usually
+ responsible for doing this. [See <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> for further details.]
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Datatypes">Datatypes</a></H3><PRE>
The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library permits manipulation of data structures, called
- <EM>windows</EM>, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of charac-
- ters representing all or part of a CRT screen. A default window called
- <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied. Others
- may be created with <STRONG>newwin</STRONG>.
+ <EM>windows</EM>, which can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of
+ characters representing all or part of a CRT screen. A default window
+ called <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>, which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.
+ Others may be created with <STRONG>newwin</STRONG>.
Note that <STRONG>curses</STRONG> does not handle overlapping windows, that's done by
the <STRONG><A HREF="panel.3x.html">panel(3x)</A></STRONG> library. This means that you can either use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> or
- divide the screen into tiled windows and not using <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> at all. Mix-
- ing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.
+ divide the screen into tiled windows and not using <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> at all.
+ Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.
Windows are referred to by variables declared as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG>. These data
structures are manipulated with routines described here and elsewhere
@@ -151,36 +150,37 @@
Special windows called <EM>pads</EM> may also be manipulated. These are windows
which are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents
- need not be completely displayed. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG> for more informa-
- tion.
+ need not be completely displayed. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG> for more
+ information.
In addition to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
colors may be supported, causing the characters to show up in such
modes as underlined, in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
support such display enhancements. Line drawing characters may be
specified to be output. On input, <STRONG>curses</STRONG> is also able to translate
- arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
- ues. The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input values
- use names, defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>, such as <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>, <STRONG>ACS_HLINE</STRONG>, and
- <STRONG>KEY_LEFT</STRONG>.
+ arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single
+ values. The video attributes, line drawing characters, and input
+ values use names, defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>, such as <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>, <STRONG>ACS_HLINE</STRONG>,
+ and <STRONG>KEY_LEFT</STRONG>.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Environment-variables">Environment variables</a></H3><PRE>
- If the environment variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> are set, or if the pro-
- gram is executing in a window environment, line and column information
- in the environment will override information read by <EM>terminfo</EM>. This
- would affect a program running in an AT&amp;T 630 layer, for example, where
- the size of a screen is changeable (see <STRONG>ENVIRONMENT</STRONG>).
-
- If the environment variable <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is defined, any program using
- <STRONG>curses</STRONG> checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
- standard place. For example, if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is set to <STRONG>att4424</STRONG>, then the com-
- piled terminal definition is found in
+ If the environment variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> are set, or if the
+ program is executing in a window environment, line and column
+ information in the environment will override information read by
+ <EM>terminfo</EM>. This would affect a program running in an AT&amp;T 630 layer,
+ for example, where the size of a screen is changeable (see
+ <STRONG>ENVIRONMENT</STRONG>).
+
+ If the environment variable <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is defined, any program using
+ <STRONG>curses</STRONG> checks for a local terminal definition before checking in the
+ standard place. For example, if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is set to <STRONG>att4424</STRONG>, then the
+ compiled terminal definition is found in
<STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.
- (The <STRONG>a</STRONG> is copied from the first letter of <STRONG>att4424</STRONG> to avoid creation of
- huge directories.) However, if <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is set to <STRONG>$HOME/myterms</STRONG>,
+ (The <STRONG>a</STRONG> is copied from the first letter of <STRONG>att4424</STRONG> to avoid creation of
+ huge directories.) However, if <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is set to <STRONG>$HOME/myterms</STRONG>,
<STRONG>curses</STRONG> first checks
<STRONG>$HOME/myterms/a/att4424</STRONG>,
@@ -189,114 +189,104 @@
<STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.
- This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
+ This is useful for developing experimental definitions or when write
permission in <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo</STRONG> is not available.
The integer variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLS</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG> and will
- be filled in by <STRONG>initscr</STRONG> with the size of the screen. The constants
+ be filled in by <STRONG>initscr</STRONG> with the size of the screen. The constants
<STRONG>TRUE</STRONG> and <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG> have the values <STRONG>1</STRONG> and <STRONG>0</STRONG>, respectively.
- The <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines also define the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG> variable <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> which is
- used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a
- screen containing garbage. The <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> can be used in only a few rou-
- tines.
+ The <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines also define the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG> variable <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> which is
+ used for certain low-level operations like clearing and redrawing a
+ screen containing garbage. The <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> can be used in only a few
+ routines.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-and-Argument-Names">Routine and Argument Names</a></H3><PRE>
- Many <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines have two or more versions. The routines prefixed
+ Many <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines have two or more versions. The routines prefixed
with <STRONG>w</STRONG> require a window argument. The routines prefixed with <STRONG>p</STRONG> require
a pad argument. Those without a prefix generally use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.
- The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mv</STRONG> require a <EM>y</EM> and <EM>x</EM> coordinate to move to
+ The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mv</STRONG> require a <EM>y</EM> and <EM>x</EM> coordinate to move to
before performing the appropriate action. The <STRONG>mv</STRONG> routines imply a call
- to <STRONG>move</STRONG> before the call to the other routine. The coordinate <EM>y</EM> always
- refers to the row (of the window), and <EM>x</EM> always refers to the column.
+ to <STRONG>move</STRONG> before the call to the other routine. The coordinate <EM>y</EM> always
+ refers to the row (of the window), and <EM>x</EM> always refers to the column.
The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).
- The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mvw</STRONG> take both a window argument and <EM>x</EM> and <EM>y</EM>
- coordinates. The window argument is always specified before the coor-
- dinates.
+ The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mvw</STRONG> take both a window argument and <EM>x</EM> and <EM>y</EM>
+ coordinates. The window argument is always specified before the
+ coordinates.
- In each case, <EM>win</EM> is the window affected, and <EM>pad</EM> is the pad affected;
+ In each case, <EM>win</EM> is the window affected, and <EM>pad</EM> is the pad affected;
<EM>win</EM> and <EM>pad</EM> are always pointers to type <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>.
- Option setting routines require a Boolean flag <EM>bf</EM> with the value <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG>
- or <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG>; <EM>bf</EM> is always of type <STRONG>bool</STRONG>. Most of the data types used in
- the library routines, such as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>, <STRONG>SCREEN</STRONG>, <STRONG>bool</STRONG>, and <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> are
- defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>. Types used for the terminfo routines such as
+ Option setting routines require a Boolean flag <EM>bf</EM> with the value <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG>
+ or <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG>; <EM>bf</EM> is always of type <STRONG>bool</STRONG>. Most of the data types used in
+ the library routines, such as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>, <STRONG>SCREEN</STRONG>, <STRONG>bool</STRONG>, and <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> are
+ defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>. Types used for the terminfo routines such as
<STRONG>TERMINAL</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;term.h&gt;</STRONG>.
- This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configura-
- tion of the library. There are two common configurations of the
- library:
+ This manual page describes functions which may appear in any
+ configuration of the library. There are two common configurations of
+ the library:
<EM>ncurses</EM>
- the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters. The nor-
- mal (8-bit) library stores characters combined with attributes
- in <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> data.
+ the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters. The
+ normal (8-bit) library stores characters combined with
+ attributes in <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> data.
- Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored in
+ Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored in
<STRONG>chtype</STRONG> or the equivalent <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> data. In either case, the data
is stored in something like an integer.
Each cell (row and column) in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>.
<EM>ncursesw</EM>
- the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte charac-
- ters (see the section on <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>). The "wide"
- library includes all of the calls from the "normal" library.
- It adds about one third more calls using data types which store
- multibyte characters:
+ the so-called "wide" library, which handles multibyte
+ characters (see the section on <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>). The
+ "wide" library includes all of the calls from the "normal"
+ library. It adds about one third more calls using data types
+ which store multibyte characters:
<STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>
corresponds to <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>. However it is a structure, because
- more data is stored than can fit into an integer. The
- characters are large enough to require a full integer
+ more data is stored than can fit into an integer. The
+ characters are large enough to require a full integer
value - and there may be more than one character per cell.
- The video attributes and color are stored in separate
+ The video attributes and color are stored in separate
fields of the structure.
- Each cell (row and column) in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a
+ Each cell (row and column) in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a
<STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>.
- The <STRONG><A HREF="setcchar.3x.html">setcchar(3x)</A></STRONG> and <STRONG><A HREF="getcchar.3x.html">getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG> functions store and
+ The <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">setcchar(3x)</A></STRONG> and <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG> functions store and
retrieve the data from a <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> structure.
<STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG>
- stores a "wide" character. Like <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>, this may be an
+ stores a "wide" character. Like <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>, this may be an
integer.
<STRONG>wint_t</STRONG>
- stores a <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG> or <STRONG>WEOF</STRONG> - not the same, though both may
+ stores a <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG> or <STRONG>WEOF</STRONG> - not the same, though both may
have the same size.
- The "wide" library provides new functions which are analogous
- to functions in the "normal" library. There is a naming con-
- vention which relates many of the normal/wide variants: a "_w"
- is inserted into the name. For example, <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> becomes
+ The "wide" library provides new functions which are analogous
+ to functions in the "normal" library. There is a naming
+ convention which relates many of the normal/wide variants: a
+ "_w" is inserted into the name. For example, <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> becomes
<STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG>.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-Name-Index">Routine Name Index</a></H3><PRE>
- The following table lists each <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routine and the name of the man-
- ual page on which it is described. Routines flagged with "*" are
- ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.
+ The following table lists the <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines provided in the "normal"
+ and "wide" libraries and the names of the manual pages on which they
+ are described. Routines flagged with "*" are ncurses-specific, not
+ described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.
<STRONG>curses</STRONG> Routine Name Manual Page Name
---------------------------------------------
COLOR_PAIR <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
PAIR_NUMBER <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
- _nc_free_and_exit <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _nc_freeall <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _nc_tracebits <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _traceattr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _traceattr2 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracechar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracechtype <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracechtype2 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracedump <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracef <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- _tracemouse <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
add_wch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
add_wchnstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
add_wchstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -313,7 +303,6 @@
attr_off <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
attr_on <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
attr_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
-
attroff <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
attron <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
attrset <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -324,6 +313,7 @@
bkgrnd <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
bkgrndset <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
border <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
border_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
box <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
box_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -338,6 +328,7 @@
color_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
copywin <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
curs_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ curses_trace <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
curses_version <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*
def_prog_mode <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
def_shell_mode <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -358,6 +349,8 @@
erase <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
erasechar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
erasewchar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ exit_curses <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
+ exit_terminfo <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
extended_color_content <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
extended_pair_content <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
extended_slk_color <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
@@ -379,7 +372,6 @@
getcurx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
getcury <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
getmaxx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
-
getmaxy <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
getmaxyx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
getmouse <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
@@ -387,6 +379,7 @@
getnstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
getparx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
getpary <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
+
getparyx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
getstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
getsyx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -397,6 +390,7 @@
has_ic <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
has_il <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
has_key <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>*
+ has_mouse <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
hline <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
hline_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
idcok <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -445,13 +439,13 @@
key_defined <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>*
key_name <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
keybound <STRONG><A HREF="keybound.3x.html">keybound(3x)</A></STRONG>*
-
keyname <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
keyok <STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG>*
keypad <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
killchar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
killwchar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
leaveok <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
longname <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
mcprint <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG>*
meta <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -511,13 +505,13 @@
mvwaddnwstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwaddstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwaddwstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
-
mvwchgat <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwdelch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwget_wch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwget_wstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwgetch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwgetn_wstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
mvwgetnstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwgetstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
mvwhline <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -547,18 +541,19 @@
newpad <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
newterm <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
newwin <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
- nl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ nl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
nocbreak <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
nodelay <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
noecho <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
nofilter <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
- nonl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ nonl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
noqiflush <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
noraw <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
notimeout <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
overlay <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
overwrite <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
pair_content <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ pecho_wchar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>*
pechochar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
pnoutrefresh <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
prefresh <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -569,6 +564,7 @@
raw <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
redrawwin <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
refresh <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ reset_color_pairs <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
reset_prog_mode <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
reset_shell_mode <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
resetty <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -577,11 +573,11 @@
restartterm <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
ripoffline <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
savetty <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
-
scanw <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
scr_dump <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
scr_init <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
scr_restore <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
scr_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
scrl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
scroll <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -591,7 +587,6 @@
setcchar <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">curs_getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>
setscrreg <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
setsyx <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
- setterm <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
setupterm <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
slk_attr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
slk_attr_off <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -609,6 +604,7 @@
slk_restore <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
slk_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
slk_touch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ slk_wset <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
standend <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
standout <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
start_color <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -643,11 +639,11 @@
use_default_colors <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>*
use_env <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
use_extended_names <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*
-
use_legacy_coding <STRONG><A HREF="legacy_coding.3x.html">legacy_coding(3x)</A></STRONG>*
use_tioctl <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
vid_attr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
vid_puts <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
vidattr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
vidputs <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
vline <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -709,11 +705,11 @@
winch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
winchnstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
winchstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
-
winnstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
winnwstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
wins_nwstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
wins_wch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
+
wins_wstr <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
winsch <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
winsdelln <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
@@ -742,34 +738,51 @@
wvline <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
wvline_set <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ Depending on the configuration, additional sets of functions may be
+ available:
+
+ <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses memory-leak checking
+
+ <STRONG><A HREF="curs_sp_funcs.3x.html">curs_sp_funcs(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses screen-pointer extension
+
+ <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses thread support
+
+ <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses debugging routines
+
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
- Routines that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and an integer
+ Routines that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and an integer
value other than <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
in the routine descriptions.
- As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as parame-
- ters, and handle this as an error.
+ As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed as
+ parameters, and handle this as an error.
- All macros return the value of the <STRONG>w</STRONG> version, except <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>,
- <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>, <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>, and <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG>. The return values of
- <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>, <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>, and <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG> are undefined
- (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment
+ All macros return the value of the <STRONG>w</STRONG> version, except <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>,
+ <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>, <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>, and <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG>. The return values of
+ <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>, <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>, and <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG> are undefined
+ (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand side of assignment
statements).
+ Functions with a "mv" prefix first perform a cursor movement using
+ <STRONG>wmove</STRONG>, and return an error if the position is outside the window, or if
+ the window pointer is null. Most "mv"-prefixed functions (except
+ variadic functions such as <STRONG>mvprintw</STRONG>) are provided both as macros and
+ functions.
+
Routines that return pointers return <STRONG>NULL</STRONG> on error.
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a></H2><PRE>
- The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the run-
- time behavior of the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library. The most important ones have
+ The following environment symbols are useful for customizing the
+ runtime behavior of the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library. The most important ones have
been already discussed in detail.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-CC-command-character">CC command-character</a></H3><PRE>
- When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG>
- capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of this vari-
- able. Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.
+ When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG>
+ capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of this
+ variable. Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.
Because this name is also used in development environments to represent
the C compiler's name, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> ignores it if it does not happen to be a
@@ -777,34 +790,34 @@
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-BAUDRATE">BAUDRATE</a></H3><PRE>
- The debugging library checks this environment variable when the appli-
- cation has redirected output to a file. The variable's numeric value
- is used for the baudrate. If no value is found, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 9600.
- This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that take into
- account costs that depend on baudrate.
+ The debugging library checks this environment variable when the
+ application has redirected output to a file. The variable's numeric
+ value is used for the baudrate. If no value is found, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses
+ 9600. This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that take
+ into account costs that depend on baudrate.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-COLUMNS">COLUMNS</a></H3><PRE>
Specify the width of the screen in characters. Applications running in
- a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the width of the
- window in which they are executing. If neither the <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> value nor
- the terminal's screen size is available, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses the size which
+ a windowing environment usually are able to obtain the width of the
+ window in which they are executing. If neither the <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> value nor
+ the terminal's screen size is available, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses the size which
may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the <STRONG>cols</STRONG> capability).
- It is important that your application use a correct size for the
- screen. This is not always possible because your application may be
- running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About Window
- Size), or because you are temporarily running as another user. How-
- ever, setting <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> and/or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> overrides the library's use of the
- screen size obtained from the operating system.
+ It is important that your application use a correct size for the
+ screen. This is not always possible because your application may be
+ running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About Window
+ Size), or because you are temporarily running as another user.
+ However, setting <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> and/or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> overrides the library's use of
+ the screen size obtained from the operating system.
- Either <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> symbols may be specified independently. This
- is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal descrip-
- tions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen. For best
- results, <STRONG>lines</STRONG> and <STRONG>cols</STRONG> should not be specified in a terminal descrip-
- tion for terminals which are run as emulations.
+ Either <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> symbols may be specified independently. This
+ is mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal
+ descriptions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.
+ For best results, <STRONG>lines</STRONG> and <STRONG>cols</STRONG> should not be specified in a terminal
+ description for terminals which are run as emulations.
- Use the <STRONG>use_env</STRONG> function to disable all use of external environment
+ Use the <STRONG>use_env</STRONG> function to disable all use of external environment
(but not including system calls) to determine the screen size. Use the
<STRONG>use_tioctl</STRONG> function to update <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> to match the screen size
obtained from system calls or the terminal database.
@@ -812,31 +825,31 @@
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-ESCDELAY">ESCDELAY</a></H3><PRE>
Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await
- a character sequence, e.g., a function key. The default value, 1000
- milliseconds, is enough for most uses. However, it is made a variable
+ a character sequence, e.g., a function key. The default value, 1000
+ milliseconds, is enough for most uses. However, it is made a variable
to accommodate unusual applications.
- The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to
- work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network. If the host cannot
- read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if the
- terminal did not send characters rapidly enough. The library will
+ The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to
+ work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network. If the host cannot
+ read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if the
+ terminal did not send characters rapidly enough. The library will
still see a timeout.
- Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
- received from the xterm. If your application makes heavy use of multi-
- ple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value because the
- timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as well as the indi-
- vidual clicks.
+ Note that xterm mouse events are built up from character sequences
+ received from the xterm. If your application makes heavy use of
+ multiple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value because
+ the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as well as the
+ individual clicks.
In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides a
- global variable with the same name. Portable applications should not
- rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form, but setting the
- environment variable rather than the global variable does not create
+ global variable with the same name. Portable applications should not
+ rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in either form, but setting the
+ environment variable rather than the global variable does not create
problems when compiling an application.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-HOME">HOME</a></H3><PRE>
- Tells <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> where your home directory is. That is where it may read
+ Tells <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> where your home directory is. That is where it may read
and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:
$HOME/.termcap
@@ -844,51 +857,51 @@
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-LINES">LINES</a></H3><PRE>
- Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters. See COL-
- UMNS for a detailed description.
+ Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters. See
+ COLUMNS for a detailed description.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-MOUSE_BUTTONS_123">MOUSE_BUTTONS_123</a></H3><PRE>
- This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port. It specifies the order of but-
- tons on the mouse. OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently from
- other platforms:
+ This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port. It specifies the order of
+ buttons on the mouse. OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently
+ from other platforms:
1 = left
2 = right
3 = middle.
This variable lets you customize the mouse. The variable must be three
- numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321. If it is not speci-
- fied, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 132.
+ numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321. If it is not
+ specified, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 132.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS">NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS</a></H3><PRE>
- Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors
- are white-on-black (see <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>). You may set the fore-
- ground and background color values with this environment variable by
- proving a 2-element list: foreground,background. For example, to tell
- ncurses to not assume anything about the colors, set this to "-1,-1".
- To make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0". Any positive value from
- zero to the terminfo <STRONG>max_colors</STRONG> value is allowed.
+ Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors
+ are white-on-black (see <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>). You may set the
+ foreground and background color values with this environment variable
+ by proving a 2-element list: foreground,background. For example, to
+ tell ncurses to not assume anything about the colors, set this to
+ "-1,-1". To make it green-on-black, set it to "2,0". Any positive
+ value from zero to the terminfo <STRONG>max_colors</STRONG> value is allowed.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_CONSOLE2">NCURSES_CONSOLE2</a></H3><PRE>
This applies only to the MinGW port of ncurses.
- The <STRONG>Console2</STRONG> program's handling of the Microsoft Console API call <STRONG>Cre-</STRONG>
- <STRONG>ateConsoleScreenBuffer</STRONG> is defective. Applications which use this will
- hang. However, it is possible to simulate the action of this call by
- mapping coordinates, explicitly saving and restoring the original
- screen contents. Setting the environment variable <STRONG>NCGDB</STRONG> has the same
+ The <STRONG>Console2</STRONG> program's handling of the Microsoft Console API call
+ <STRONG>CreateConsoleScreenBuffer</STRONG> is defective. Applications which use this
+ will hang. However, it is possible to simulate the action of this call
+ by mapping coordinates, explicitly saving and restoring the original
+ screen contents. Setting the environment variable <STRONG>NCGDB</STRONG> has the same
effect.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_GPM_TERMS">NCURSES_GPM_TERMS</a></H3><PRE>
This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.
- If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more terminal
- names against which the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable is matched. Setting
- it to an empty value disables the GPM interface; using the built-in
+ If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more terminal
+ names against which the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable is matched. Setting
+ it to an empty value disables the GPM interface; using the built-in
support for xterm, etc.
If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open GPM
@@ -896,40 +909,40 @@
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS">NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS</a></H3><PRE>
- <STRONG>Ncurses</STRONG> may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization. In
- some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly. Set
- this environment variable to disable the feature. You can also adjust
+ <STRONG>Ncurses</STRONG> may use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization. In
+ some cases, your terminal driver may not handle these properly. Set
+ this environment variable to disable the feature. You can also adjust
your <STRONG>stty</STRONG> settings to avoid the problem.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE">NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE</a></H3><PRE>
- Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires special han-
- dling to make highlighting and other video attributes display properly.
- You can suppress the highlighting entirely for these terminals by set-
- ting this environment variable.
+ Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires special
+ handling to make highlighting and other video attributes display
+ properly. You can suppress the highlighting entirely for these
+ terminals by setting this environment variable.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_PADDING">NCURSES_NO_PADDING</a></H3><PRE>
- Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are written
- for real "hardware" terminals. Many people use terminal emulators
+ Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are written
+ for real "hardware" terminals. Many people use terminal emulators
which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based applications.
- Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the important aspects of a
- hardware terminal, but they do not have the same limitations. The
- chief limitation of a hardware terminal from the standpoint of your
- application is the management of dataflow, i.e., timing. Unless a
- hardware terminal is interfaced into a terminal concentrator (which
- does flow control), it (or your application) must manage dataflow, pre-
- venting overruns. The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your
- program to do this by pausing after operations that the terminal does
- slowly, such as clearing the display.
-
- As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
- delay times embedded. You may wish to use these descriptions, but not
+ Terminal emulators can duplicate all of the important aspects of a
+ hardware terminal, but they do not have the same limitations. The
+ chief limitation of a hardware terminal from the standpoint of your
+ application is the management of dataflow, i.e., timing. Unless a
+ hardware terminal is interfaced into a terminal concentrator (which
+ does flow control), it (or your application) must manage dataflow,
+ preventing overruns. The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for
+ your program to do this by pausing after operations that the terminal
+ does slowly, such as clearing the display.
+
+ As a result, many terminal descriptions (including the vt100) have
+ delay times embedded. You may wish to use these descriptions, but not
want to pay the performance penalty.
- Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
- mandatory padding. Mandatory padding is used as a part of special con-
- trol sequences such as <EM>flash</EM>.
+ Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment variable to disable all but
+ mandatory padding. Mandatory padding is used as a part of special
+ control sequences such as <EM>flash</EM>.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_SETBUF">NCURSES_NO_SETBUF</a></H3><PRE>
@@ -939,44 +952,44 @@
<STRONG>o</STRONG> continued though 5.9 patch 20130126
- <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> enabled buffered output during terminal initialization. This
- was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons. For testing pur-
- poses, both of <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> and certain applications, this feature was made
- optional. Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disabled output
- buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually line buffered)
+ <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> enabled buffered output during terminal initialization. This
+ was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons. For testing
+ purposes, both of <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> and certain applications, this feature was
+ made optional. Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disabled output
+ buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually line buffered)
mode.
- In the current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering and
- does not require this workaround. It does not modify the buffering of
+ In the current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering and
+ does not require this workaround. It does not modify the buffering of
the standard output.
- The reason for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and
- other signals more robust. One drawback is that certain nonconven-
- tional programs would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses calls and
- (usually) work. This is no longer possible since ncurses is not using
- the buffered standard output but its own output (to the same file
- descriptor). As a special case, the low-level calls such as <STRONG>putp</STRONG> still
- use the standard output. But high-level curses calls do not.
+ The reason for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and
+ other signals more robust. One drawback is that certain
+ nonconventional programs would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses
+ calls and (usually) work. This is no longer possible since ncurses is
+ not using the buffered standard output but its own output (to the same
+ file descriptor). As a special case, the low-level calls such as <STRONG>putp</STRONG>
+ still use the standard output. But high-level curses calls do not.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS">NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</a></H3><PRE>
- During initialization, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library checks for special cases
+ During initialization, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library checks for special cases
where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set
- capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to be missing.
- Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the Linux console emula-
- tor and the GNU screen program ignore these. Ncurses checks the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>
- environment variable for these. For other special cases, you should
- set this environment variable. Doing this tells ncurses to use Unicode
- values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs. That works
- for the special cases cited, and is likely to work for terminal emula-
- tors.
-
- When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value. Set-
- ting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check for
+ capabilities) described in the terminfo are known to be missing.
+ Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the Linux console
+ emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these. Ncurses checks the
+ <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable for these. For other special cases, you
+ should set this environment variable. Doing this tells ncurses to use
+ Unicode values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs. That
+ works for the special cases cited, and is likely to work for terminal
+ emulators.
+
+ When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.
+ Setting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special check for
"linux" and "screen".
- As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks for an
- extended terminfo capability <STRONG>U8</STRONG>. This is a numeric capability which
+ As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses checks for an
+ extended terminfo capability <STRONG>U8</STRONG>. This is a numeric capability which
can be compiled using <STRONG>tic</STRONG> <STRONG>-x</STRONG>. For example
# linux console, if patched to provide working
@@ -988,67 +1001,67 @@
xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
U8#1, use=xterm,
- The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used
+ The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used
by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_TRACE">NCURSES_TRACE</a></H3><PRE>
- During initialization, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> debugging library checks the
- NCURSES_TRACE environment variable. If it is defined, to a numeric
- value, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls the <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function, using that value as the argu-
- ment.
+ During initialization, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> debugging library checks the
+ NCURSES_TRACE environment variable. If it is defined, to a numeric
+ value, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls the <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function, using that value as the
+ argument.
- The argument values, which are defined in <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>, provide several
- types of information. When running with traces enabled, your applica-
- tion will write the file <STRONG>trace</STRONG> to the current directory.
+ The argument values, which are defined in <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>, provide several
+ types of information. When running with traces enabled, your
+ application will write the file <STRONG>trace</STRONG> to the current directory.
See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG> for more information.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERM">TERM</a></H3><PRE>
- Denotes your terminal type. Each terminal type is distinct, though
+ Denotes your terminal type. Each terminal type is distinct, though
many are similar.
- <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find a
- workable terminal description. Some of those choose a popular approxi-
- mation, e.g., "ansi", "vt100", "xterm" rather than an exact fit. Not
- infrequently, your application will have problems with that approach,
- e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.
-
- If you set <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> in your environment, it has no effect on the operation
- of the terminal emulator. It only affects the way applications work
- within the terminal. Likewise, as a general rule (<STRONG>xterm</STRONG> being a rare
- exception), terminal emulators which allow you to specify <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> as a
- parameter or configuration value do not change their behavior to match
+ <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find a
+ workable terminal description. Some of those choose a popular
+ approximation, e.g., "ansi", "vt100", "xterm" rather than an exact fit.
+ Not infrequently, your application will have problems with that
+ approach, e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.
+
+ If you set <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> in your environment, it has no effect on the operation
+ of the terminal emulator. It only affects the way applications work
+ within the terminal. Likewise, as a general rule (<STRONG>xterm</STRONG> being a rare
+ exception), terminal emulators which allow you to specify <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> as a
+ parameter or configuration value do not change their behavior to match
that setting.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMCAP">TERMCAP</a></H3><PRE>
- If the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library has been configured with <EM>termcap</EM> support,
- <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it
+ If the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library has been configured with <EM>termcap</EM> support,
+ <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> will check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it
is not available in the terminfo database.
The <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> environment variable contains either a terminal description
- (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the informa-
- tion denoted by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable exists. In either case,
- setting it directs <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> to ignore the usual place for this informa-
- tion, e.g., /etc/termcap.
+ (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the
+ information denoted by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable exists. In either
+ case, setting it directs <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> to ignore the usual place for this
+ information, e.g., /etc/termcap.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO">TERMINFO</a></H3><PRE>
- <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> can be configured to read from multiple terminal databases.
- The <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable overrides the location for the default terminal
- database. Terminal descriptions (in terminal format) are stored in
+ <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> can be configured to read from multiple terminal databases.
+ The <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable overrides the location for the default terminal
+ database. Terminal descriptions (in terminal format) are stored in
terminal databases:
<STRONG>o</STRONG> Normally these are stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories
named by the first letter of the terminal names therein.
This is the scheme used in System V, which legacy Unix systems use,
- and the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable is used by <EM>curses</EM> applications on those
+ and the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable is used by <EM>curses</EM> applications on those
systems to override the default location of the terminal database.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built to use hashed databases, then each entry in
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built to use hashed databases, then each entry in
this list may be the path of a hashed database file, e.g.,
/usr/share/terminfo.db
@@ -1057,30 +1070,30 @@
/usr/share/terminfo/
- The hashed database uses less disk-space and is a little faster
- than the directory tree. However, some applications assume the
- existence of the directory tree, reading it directly rather than
+ The hashed database uses less disk-space and is a little faster
+ than the directory tree. However, some applications assume the
+ existence of the directory tree, reading it directly rather than
using the terminfo library calls.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built with a support for reading termcap files
- directly, then an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built with a support for reading termcap files
+ directly, then an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap
file.
<STRONG>o</STRONG> If the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable begins with "hex:" or "b64:", <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses
- the remainder of that variable as a compiled terminal description.
+ the remainder of that variable as a compiled terminal description.
You might produce the base64 format using <STRONG><A HREF="infocmp.1m.html">infocmp(1m)</A></STRONG>:
TERMINFO="$(infocmp -0 -Q2 -q)"
export TERMINFO
- The compiled description is used if it corresponds to the terminal
+ The compiled description is used if it corresponds to the terminal
identified by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> variable.
- Setting <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is the simplest, but not the only way to set location
- of the default terminal database. The complete list of database loca-
- tions in order follows:
+ Setting <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is the simplest, but not the only way to set location
+ of the default terminal database. The complete list of database
+ locations in order follows:
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> the last terminal database to which <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> wrote, if any, is
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> the last terminal database to which <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> wrote, if any, is
searched first
<STRONG>o</STRONG> the location specified by the TERMINFO environment variable
@@ -1089,31 +1102,31 @@
<STRONG>o</STRONG> locations listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> one or more locations whose names are configured and compiled
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> one or more locations whose names are configured and compiled
into the ncurses library, i.e.,
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> /usr/local/ncurses/share/terminfo:/usr/share/terminfo (corre-
- sponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS variable)
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> no default value (corresponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS
+ variable)
<STRONG>o</STRONG> /usr/share/terminfo (corresponding to the TERMINFO variable)
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO_DIRS">TERMINFO_DIRS</a></H3><PRE>
- Specifies a list of locations to search for terminal descriptions.
- Each location in the list is a terminal database as described in the
- section on the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable. The list is separated by colons
+ Specifies a list of locations to search for terminal descriptions.
+ Each location in the list is a terminal database as described in the
+ section on the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable. The list is separated by colons
(i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.
- There is no corresponding feature in System V terminfo; it is an exten-
- sion developed for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.
+ There is no corresponding feature in System V terminfo; it is an
+ extension developed for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.
</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMPATH">TERMPATH</a></H3><PRE>
- If <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> does not hold a file name then <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> checks the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG>
- environment variable. This is a list of filenames separated by spaces
+ If <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> does not hold a file name then <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> checks the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG>
+ environment variable. This is a list of filenames separated by spaces
or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.
- If the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG> environment variable is not set, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> looks in the
+ If the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG> environment variable is not set, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> looks in the
files
/etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap,
@@ -1121,38 +1134,38 @@
in that order.
The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
- the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
+ the current user is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
setuid or setgid permissions:
$TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ALTERNATE-CONFIGURATIONS">ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS</a></H2><PRE>
- Several different configurations are possible, depending on the config-
- ure script options used when building <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>. There are a few main
- options whose effects are visible to the applications developer using
- <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>:
+ Several different configurations are possible, depending on the
+ configure script options used when building <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>. There are a few
+ main options whose effects are visible to the applications developer
+ using <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>:
--disable-overwrite
The standard include for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is as noted in <STRONG>SYNOPSIS</STRONG>:
<STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>
- This option is used to avoid filename conflicts when <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is
+ This option is used to avoid filename conflicts when <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is
not the main implementation of curses of the computer. If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>
- is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a subdi-
- rectory, e.g.,
+ is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a
+ subdirectory, e.g.,
<STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;ncurses/curses.h&gt;</STRONG>
- It also omits a symbolic link which would allow you to use
+ It also omits a symbolic link which would allow you to use
<STRONG>-lcurses</STRONG> to build executables.
--enable-widec
- The configure script renames the library and (if the <STRONG>--dis-</STRONG>
- <STRONG>able-overwrite</STRONG> option is used) puts the header files in a differ-
- ent subdirectory. All of the library names have a "w" appended to
- them, i.e., instead of
+ The configure script renames the library and (if the
+ <STRONG>--disable-overwrite</STRONG> option is used) puts the header files in a
+ different subdirectory. All of the library names have a "w"
+ appended to them, i.e., instead of
<STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>
@@ -1160,45 +1173,45 @@
<STRONG>-lncursesw</STRONG>
- You must also enable the wide-character features in the header
- file when compiling for the wide-character library to use the
- extended (wide-character) functions. The symbol which enables
+ You must also enable the wide-character features in the header
+ file when compiling for the wide-character library to use the
+ extended (wide-character) functions. The symbol which enables
these features has changed since XSI Curses, Issue 4:
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> Originally, the wide-character feature required the symbol
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> Originally, the wide-character feature required the symbol
<STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED</STRONG> but that was only valid for XPG4
(1996).
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> Later, that was deemed conflicting with <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> defined
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> Later, that was deemed conflicting with <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> defined
to 500.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> As of mid-2018, none of the features in this implementation
- require a <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> feature greater than 600. However,
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> As of mid-2018, none of the features in this implementation
+ require a <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> feature greater than 600. However,
X/Open Curses, Issue 7 (2009) recommends defining it to 700.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> Alternatively, you can enable the feature by defining
- <STRONG>NCURSES_WIDECHAR</STRONG> with the caveat that some other header file
- than <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG> may require a specific value for <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> Alternatively, you can enable the feature by defining
+ <STRONG>NCURSES_WIDECHAR</STRONG> with the caveat that some other header file
+ than <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG> may require a specific value for <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>
(or a system-specific symbol).
- The <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG> file which is installed for the wide-character
- library is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
- header. Only the size of the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure differs, and very
+ The <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG> file which is installed for the wide-character
+ library is designed to be compatible with the normal library's
+ header. Only the size of the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure differs, and very
few applications require more than a pointer to <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>s.
- If the headers are installed allowing overwrite, the wide-charac-
- ter library's headers should be installed last, to allow applica-
- tions to be built using either library from the same set of head-
- ers.
+ If the headers are installed allowing overwrite, the wide-
+ character library's headers should be installed last, to allow
+ applications to be built using either library from the same set of
+ headers.
--with-pthread
- The configure script renames the library. All of the library
- names have a "t" appended to them (before any "w" added by
+ The configure script renames the library. All of the library
+ names have a "t" appended to them (before any "w" added by
<STRONG>--enable-widec</STRONG>).
The global variables such as <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> are replaced by macros to allow
read-only access. At the same time, setter-functions are provided
- to set these values. Some applications (very few) may require
+ to set these values. Some applications (very few) may require
changes to work with this convention.
--with-shared
@@ -1208,84 +1221,118 @@
--with-debug
--with-profile
- The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their suf-
- fixes, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses.so</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses.a</STRONG>. The debug and pro-
- filing libraries add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root names respec-
- tively, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses_g.a</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses_p.a</STRONG>.
+ The shared and normal (static) library names differ by their
+ suffixes, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses.so</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses.a</STRONG>. The debug and
+ profiling libraries add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root names
+ respectively, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses_g.a</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses_p.a</STRONG>.
+
+ --with-termlib
+ Low-level functions which do not depend upon whether the library
+ supports wide-characters, are provided in the tinfo library.
+
+ By doing this, it is possible to share the tinfo library between
+ wide/normal configurations as well as reduce the size of the
+ library when only low-level functions are needed.
+
+ Those functions are described in these pages:
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG> - miscellaneous curses extensions
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> input options
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG> - low-level <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> environment query routines
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> emulation of termcap
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> interfaces to terminfo database
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG> - miscellaneous <STRONG>curses</STRONG> utility routines
--with-trace
The <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function normally resides in the debug library, but it
- is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library. Con-
- figure scripts should check for the function's existence rather
+ is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.
+ Configure scripts should check for the function's existence rather
than assuming it is always in the debug library.
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-FILES">FILES</a></H2><PRE>
/usr/share/tabset
- directory containing initialization files for the terminal capa-
- bility database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database
+ directory containing initialization files for the terminal
+ capability database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability
+ database
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
- <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
+ <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> and related pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
routine descriptions.
<STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>
<STRONG><A HREF="user_caps.5.html">user_caps(5)</A></STRONG> for user-defined capabilities
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></H2><PRE>
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can be compiled with an option (<STRONG>-DUSE_GETCAP</STRONG>) that
- falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
- code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>. Use of this
- feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire term-
- cap compiler in the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> startup code, at significant cost in core
- and startup cycles.
-
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
- certain terminals (including xterm). See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can be compiled with an option (<STRONG>-DUSE_GETCAP</STRONG>) that
+ falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
+ code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>. Use of this
+ feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire
+ termcap compiler in the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> startup code, at significant cost in
+ core and startup cycles.
+
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
+ certain terminals (including xterm). See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual
page for details.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for responding to window resiz-
- ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm. See the <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG> and
- <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details. In addition, the library may be
- configured with a <STRONG>SIGWINCH</STRONG> handler.
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for responding to window
+ resizing events, e.g., when running in an xterm. See the
+ <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG> and <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details. In addition,
+ the library may be configured with a <STRONG>SIGWINCH</STRONG> handler.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
- of terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
- key sequences at runtime. See the <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>, and
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
+ of terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
+ key sequences at runtime. See the <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>, and
<STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which
- implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an
- application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and back-
- ground colors. From the users' perspective, the application is able to
- draw colored text on a background whose color is set independently,
- providing better control over color contrasts. See the <STRONG>default_col-</STRONG>
- <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">ors(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can exploit the capabilities of terminals which
+ implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and SGR 49 controls, which allow an
+ application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and
+ background colors. From the users' perspective, the application is
+ able to draw colored text on a background whose color is set
+ independently, providing better control over color contrasts. See the
+ <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes a function for directing application out-
- put to a printer attached to the terminal device. See the
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes a function for directing application
+ output to a printer attached to the terminal device. See the
<STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
</PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
- The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
- Curses. The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color sup-
- port) is supported.
+ The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
+ Curses. The EXTENDED XSI Curses functionality (including color
+ support) is supported.
- A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences
- between the XSI Curses and <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls) are described in <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG>
+ A small number of local differences (that is, individual differences
+ between the XSI Curses and <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls) are described in <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG>
sections of the library man pages.
- Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as point-
- ers to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null. The main reason
- for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer error. The
- standard interface does not provide a way for the library to tell an
- application which of several possible errors were detected. Relying on
- this (or some other) extension will adversely affect the portability of
- curses applications.
- This implementation also contains several extensions:
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Error-checking">Error checking</a></H3><PRE>
+ In many cases, X/Open Curses is vague about error conditions, omitting
+ some of the SVr4 documentation.
+
+ Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as
+ pointers to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null. The main
+ reason for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer
+ error. The standard interface does not provide a way for the library
+ to tell an application which of several possible errors were detected.
+ Relying on this (or some other) extension will adversely affect the
+ portability of curses applications.
+
+
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Extensions-versus-portability">Extensions versus portability</a></H3><PRE>
+ Most of the extensions provided by ncurses have not been standardized.
+ Some have been incorporated into other implementations, such as
+ PDCurses or NetBSD curses. Here are a few to consider:
<STRONG>o</STRONG> The routine <STRONG>has_key</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
@@ -1298,36 +1345,126 @@
are they present in SVr4. See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for
details.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> The routine <STRONG>mcprint</STRONG> was not present in any previous curses imple-
- mentation. See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> The routine <STRONG>mcprint</STRONG> was not present in any previous curses
+ implementation. See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
<STRONG>o</STRONG> The routine <STRONG>wresize</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
See the <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
- tion programs. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG> for the discussion of <STRONG>is_scrol-</STRONG>
- <STRONG>lok</STRONG>, etc.
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from
+ application programs. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG> for the discussion of
+ <STRONG>is_scrollok</STRONG>, etc.
- <STRONG>o</STRONG> This implementation can be configured to provide rudimentary sup-
- port for multi-threaded applications. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG> for
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> This implementation can be configured to provide rudimentary
+ support for multi-threaded applications. See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG> for
details.
<STRONG>o</STRONG> This implementation can also be configured to provide a set of
functions which improve the ability to manage multiple screens.
See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_sp_funcs.3x.html">curs_sp_funcs(3x)</A></STRONG> for details.
+
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Padding-differences">Padding differences</a></H3><PRE>
In historic curses versions, delays embedded in the capabilities <STRONG>cr</STRONG>,
<STRONG>ind</STRONG>, <STRONG>cub1</STRONG>, <STRONG>ff</STRONG> and <STRONG>tab</STRONG> activated corresponding delay bits in the UNIX
tty driver. In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
- bytes. This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the inter-
- face to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's
+ bytes. This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the
+ interface to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's
portability correspondingly.
-</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Header-files">Header files</a></H3><PRE>
The header file <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG> automatically includes the header files
<STRONG>&lt;stdio.h&gt;</STRONG> and <STRONG>&lt;unctrl.h&gt;</STRONG>.
+ X/Open Curses has more to say, but does not finish the story:
+
+ The inclusion of &lt;curses.h&gt; may make visible all symbols from the
+ headers &lt;stdio.h&gt;, &lt;term.h&gt;, &lt;termios.h&gt;, and &lt;wchar.h&gt;.
+
+ Here is a more complete story:
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> Starting with BSD curses, all implementations have included
+ &lt;stdio.h&gt;.
+
+ BSD curses included &lt;curses.h&gt; and &lt;unctrl.h&gt; from an internal
+ header "curses.ext" ("ext" was a short name for <EM>externs</EM>).
+
+ BSD curses used &lt;stdio.h&gt; internally (for <STRONG>printw</STRONG> and <STRONG>scanw</STRONG>), but
+ nothing in &lt;curses.h&gt; itself relied upon &lt;stdio.h&gt;.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> SVr2 curses added <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">newterm(3x)</A></STRONG>, which relies upon &lt;stdio.h&gt;. That
+ is, the function prototype uses <STRONG>FILE</STRONG>.
+
+ SVr4 curses added <STRONG>putwin</STRONG> and <STRONG>getwin</STRONG>, which also use &lt;stdio.h&gt;.
+
+ X/Open Curses documents all three of these functions.
+
+ SVr4 curses and X/Open Curses do not require the developer to
+ include &lt;stdio.h&gt; before including &lt;curses.h&gt;. Both document
+ curses showing &lt;curses.h&gt; as the only required header.
+
+ As a result, standard &lt;curses.h&gt; will always include &lt;stdio.h&gt;.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> X/Open Curses is inconsistent with respect to SVr4 regarding
+ &lt;unctrl.h&gt;.
+
+ As noted in <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>, ncurses includes &lt;unctrl.h&gt; from
+ &lt;curses.h&gt; (like SVr4).
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> X/Open's comments about &lt;term.h&gt; and &lt;termios.h&gt; may refer to HP-UX
+ and AIX:
+
+ HP-UX curses includes &lt;term.h&gt; from &lt;curses.h&gt; to declare <STRONG>setupterm</STRONG>
+ in curses.h, but ncurses (and Solaris curses) do not.
+
+ AIX curses includes &lt;term.h&gt; and &lt;termios.h&gt;. Again, ncurses (and
+ Solaris curses) do not.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> X/Open says that &lt;curses.h&gt; <EM>may</EM> include &lt;term.h&gt;, but there is no
+ requirement that it do that.
+
+ Some programs use functions declared in both &lt;curses.h&gt; and
+ &lt;term.h&gt;, and must include both headers in the same module. Very
+ old versions of AIX curses required including &lt;curses.h&gt; before
+ including &lt;term.h&gt;.
+
+ Because ncurses header files include the headers needed to define
+ datatypes used in the headers, ncurses header files can be included
+ in any order. But for portability, you should include &lt;curses.h&gt;
+ before &lt;term.h&gt;.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> X/Open Curses says <EM>"may</EM> <EM>make</EM> <EM>visible"</EM> because including a header
+ file does not necessarily make all symbols in it visible (there are
+ ifdef's to consider).
+
+ For instance, in ncurses &lt;wchar.h&gt; <EM>may</EM> be included if the proper
+ symbol is defined, and if ncurses is configured for wide-character
+ support. If the header is included, its symbols may be made
+ visible. That depends on the value used for <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> feature
+ test macro.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> X/Open Curses documents one required header, in a special case:
+ &lt;stdarg.h&gt; before &lt;curses.h&gt; to prototype the <STRONG>vw_printw</STRONG> and
+ <STRONG>vw_scanw</STRONG> functions (as well as the obsolete the <STRONG>vwprintw</STRONG> and
+ <STRONG>vwscanw</STRONG> functions). Each of those uses a <STRONG>va_list</STRONG> parameter.
+
+ The two obsolete functions were introduced in SVr3. The other
+ functions were introduced in X/Open Curses. In between, SVr4
+ curses provided for the possibility that an application might
+ include either &lt;varargs.h&gt; or &lt;stdarg.h&gt;. Initially, that was done
+ by using <STRONG>void*</STRONG> for the <STRONG>va_list</STRONG> parameter. Later, a special type
+ (defined in &lt;stdio.h&gt;) was introduced, to allow for compiler type-
+ checking. That special type is always available, because &lt;stdio.h&gt;
+ is always included by &lt;curses.h&gt;.
+
+ None of the X/Open Curses implementations require an application to
+ include &lt;stdarg.h&gt; before &lt;curses.h&gt; because they either have
+ allowed for a special type, or (like ncurses) include &lt;stdarg.h&gt;
+ directly to provide a portable interface.
+
+
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
If standard output from a <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> program is re-directed to something
which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard error.
This was an undocumented feature of AT&amp;T System V Release 3 curses.
@@ -1384,7 +1521,14 @@
<li><a href="#h2-FILES">FILES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></li>
-<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#h3-Error-checking">Error checking</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-Extensions-versus-portability">Extensions versus portability</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-Padding-differences">Padding differences</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-Header-files">Header files</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
<li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></li>
</ul>