aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/share/zoneinfo/europe
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
authorGarrett Wollman <wollman@FreeBSD.org>1994-09-13 21:50:20 +0000
committerGarrett Wollman <wollman@FreeBSD.org>1994-09-13 21:50:20 +0000
commitd2746e980f4edb1ee1c5882e6531ca869843074f (patch)
treec30c081717d5d8a4ec4b962243c4c7d1bbcd6b53 /share/zoneinfo/europe
downloadsrc-d2746e980f4edb1ee1c5882e6531ca869843074f.tar.gz
src-d2746e980f4edb1ee1c5882e6531ca869843074f.zip
Latest version of the timezone data files from Arthur David Olson, tovendor/tzdata/tzdata94f
go with the code imported yesterday. Obtained from: Arthur David Olson, ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/tzdata94f.tar.gz
Notes
Notes: svn path=/vendor/tzdata/dist/; revision=2744 svn path=/vendor/tzdata/tzdata94f/; revision=2746; tag=vendor/tzdata/tzdata94f
Diffstat (limited to 'share/zoneinfo/europe')
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/europe2017
1 files changed, 2017 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/europe b/share/zoneinfo/europe
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9abf677ef424
--- /dev/null
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/europe
@@ -0,0 +1,2017 @@
+# @(#)europe 7.16
+
+# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
+# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
+# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
+
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
+# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Except where otherwise noted, it is the source for the data below.
+#
+# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
+# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
+# I found in the UCLA library.
+#
+# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
+# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
+# The starred Russian names are dubious. Corrections are welcome!
+# std dst
+# LMT Local Mean Time
+# LST Local Star Time (Russian ``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'')
+# -4:00 AST Atlantic
+# -3:00 WGT+DST Western Greenland*
+# -2:00 MGT+DST Middle Greenland*
+# -1:00 EGT+DST Eastern Greenland*
+# -1:00 ACT+DST Azores and Canaries*
+# -1:00 IST IDT Iceland (no longer used)*
+# 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer
+# 0:00 WET+DST Western Europe
+# 1:00 MET+DST Middle Europe
+# 2:00 EET+DST Eastern Europe
+# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
+# 3:00 TUR+DST Turkey (no longer used)*
+# 4:00 KSK KSD Kuybyshev*
+# 5:00 ESK ESD Yekaterinburg*
+# 6:00 OSK OSD Omsk*
+# 6:00 NSK NSD Novosibirsk (was 7:00 until 1994)
+# 7:00 TSK TSD Tomsk*
+# 8:00 ISK ISD Irkutsk*
+# 9:00 YSK YSD Yakutsk*
+# 10:00 VSK VSD Vladivostok*
+# 11:00 GSK GSD Magadan*
+# 12:00 PSK PSD Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski*
+# 13:00 ASK ASD Anadyr*
+#
+# See the `africa' file for Zone naming conventions.
+#
+# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
+# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
+# Oxford University Press (1980).
+
+# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
+# LST is Local Star Time (``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'').
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# United Kingdom
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (July 6, 1994):
+#
+# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
+# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
+# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
+# of the text said:
+#
+# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
+# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longditude
+# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
+# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
+# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
+# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
+# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
+#
+# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
+# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longditude should
+# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
+#
+# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
+
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
+#
+# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
+# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
+# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
+# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828);
+# it was popularized in 1840 by Capt. Basil Hall, RN (1788-1844),
+# famed explorer and former Commissioner for Longitude.
+# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
+# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
+# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847 Sep 22 the
+# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
+# adopted at all stations; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists most major
+# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
+# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the Great Clock
+# in Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
+# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
+# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
+# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
+# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
+# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880 Aug 2.
+#
+# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
+# transition date for London, namely 1847 Sep 22. We don't know as much
+# about Dublin, so we use 1880 Aug 2, the legal transition time.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (January 19, 1989):
+#
+# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
+# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
+
+# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
+# From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john>
+# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
+# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
+# politics making a fortune, not computing.
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
+#
+# I have some more up to date info.
+#
+# Our Government...couldn't...make a decision after the 1989 consultation
+# exercise about the UK changing its timezone so it just let things drift
+# (different from deciding to keep the status quo). According to the
+# Summer Time Order 1992 (SI 1992/1729) the dates of Summer Time for 1993
+# and 1994 are:
+# Start End
+# 1993 28 March 24 October
+# 1994 27 March 23 October
+# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT.
+#
+# There [was] an error in your tables for the start and end times prior to 1981.
+# The UK always used to change at 02:00 GMT. In 1981 it changed to 01:00 GMT
+# as a part of EC harmonisation and has remained at that time since.
+#
+# I have found the default algorithm for UK Summer Time, it is in the
+# Summer Time Act 1972. Section 1 states that in the absence of an Order
+# in Council Summer Time starts at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day
+# after the third Saturday in March, unless that day is Easter Day, in
+# which case it is the morning of the day after the second Saturday.
+# It ends at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day after the fourth Saturday
+# in October. (All the redundant `morning of the day ...' is in the Act.)
+# This is only of passing interest now as it will always be overridden by
+# an Order in Council (a Statutary Instrument, the SI thing mentioned above)
+# to specify the EC specified dates.
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 18, 1993):
+#
+# My contact in the Ministry of Defence Public Relations department
+# accepted the challenge of looking into this and produced the following,
+# from Hansard (the official record of the UK Parliament), Oral Answers,
+# 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60:
+#
+# `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
+# Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
+# regarding double summer time.
+#
+# [two other similar questions omitted]
+#
+# Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
+# considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
+# double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
+# maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
+# when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
+# double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
+# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday- Monday so that it will operate from
+# Monday, 2nd April.'
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
+#
+# > # Current rules
+# > Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 BST
+# > Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Oct Sun>=23 1:00s 0 GMT
+#
+# The ending rule here doesn't match the EC rules, which specify the fourth
+# Sunday in October for the UK and Eire. The `fourth Sunday' rule wasn't
+# followed in 1989, but then the sixth EC directive wasn't in force then
+# and I don't know what previous ones said. 1995 is the next year with
+# the 4th Sun on 22 Oct, but that year isn't covered by the UK Summer Time
+# Order or the sixth EC directive. Your Oct Sun>=23 rule matches history
+# and with things only announced for 2 years or so in advance who knows
+# what will happen.
+#
+# There are renewed rumours that the Government here will make another
+# attempt at resolving this issue, which is what prompted me to start
+# asking the Home Office and the EC about it again. The EC categorically
+# state they are not asking anybody to change timezone, they only want
+# common start/end dates. The UK Govt. seem to want to change our zone
+# and blame the resulting fuss on the EC. Me, I think we should scrap
+# summer time completely, noon is when the Sun is overhead, and that should
+# be the end of it.
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 22, 1993):
+#
+# I now have the text of the Summer Time Act 1916, the granddaddy of them all.
+# It is headed: `An Act to provide for the Time in Great Britain and Ireland
+# being in advance of Greenwich and Dublin mean time respectively in the
+# summer months'.
+#
+# It specifies 21 May and 1 October for 1916 (both at 02:00 GMT) and whatever
+# dates an Order in Council may specify for subsequent years.
+#
+# Section 4 states: `This act shall apply to Ireland in like manner as it
+# applies to Great Britain, with the substitution however of references
+# to Dublin mean time for references to Greenwich mean time.'
+#
+# Lorna, my learned legal friend who supplied it, also offers this quote
+# from Halsbury's Statutes on the extent of Acts:
+#
+# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
+# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
+# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
+# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
+# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
+#
+# She goes on to say the seminal event of 1922 was the establishment of
+# the Irish Free State, now called Eire.
+#
+# The Act doesn't say anything about Wales (or Scotland) so I would assert
+# that Shanks is wrong here. I would like to know why he thinks Wales
+# was different.
+#
+# It also confirms the fact that Ireland followed Dublin time back then,
+# and 25 minutes behind Greenwich, as Shanks has it, would be correct.
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 28, 1993):
+#
+# I now have before me, thanks to my learned legal friend Lorna, the text of
+# the Time (Ireland) Act 1916.
+#
+# It says that as from 2 AM Dublin Mean Time on 1 October 1916 the time
+# for general purposes in Ireland shall be the same as the rest of Great
+# Britain (ie. GMT with the Summer Time periods specified by the Summer Time
+# Act 1916).... As Ireland was behind GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct GB would
+# have already put the clocks back. Using DST as Dublin Summer Time the
+# sequence would have been:
+# Dublin London
+# 02:34 DST 02:59 BST
+# 02:35 DST 02:00 GMT
+# 02:59 DST 02:24 GMT
+# 02:25 GMT 02:25 GMT
+# with the transition 03:00 DST -> 02:00 DMT -> 02:25 GMT all at once.
+#
+# In a table of repeals in the Schedule to the Act it mentions the
+# Statutes (Definition of Time) Act 1880. This is presumably the source
+# of the 1880 date in Shanks. The little bit of it that is repealed
+# also refers solely to Ireland and Dublin Mean Time.
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 29, 1993):
+#
+# My case is that, with the sole exception of Ireland in 1916 using Dublin
+# Mean Time, Summer Time has been uniform throughout the United Kingdom
+# ever since it first started in 1916.
+#
+# The United Kingdom is England, Wales and Scotland plus all of Ireland from
+# 1916 up to and including 1921, or plus Northern Ireland from 1922 to date.
+#
+# The dates used are those specified in the table in Summer Time: A Consultation
+# Document (Cm 722, 1989) that are now included in the europe file, with a
+# change to a single date, the start in 1924. I made a typo in my 1989 mail
+# and the table itself is also wrong. The correct date is 13 April.
+# The times were 02:00 GMT up to and including 1980, 01:00 GMT from 1981 on,
+# except for wartime double summer time.
+#
+# As evidence I would cite:
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1916.
+#
+# This specifically states that it applies to Ireland, specifies dates of
+# 21 May and 1 October and times of 02:00, and says that in Ireland the
+# times relate to Dublin mean time. It specifies an offset of 1 hour.
+#
+# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916
+#
+# This abolishes Dublin mean time on 02:00 DMT 1 October 1916.
+# It repeals that section of the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880
+# that specifies DMT. It is therefore a safe bet that DMT existed at least
+# from 1880 and was the only alternative standard time in the UK.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1922
+#
+# This specifies an offset of 1 hour and dates of the day after the third
+# Saturday in April, unless that be Easter, in which case it is the day after
+# the second Saturday, and the day after the third Saturday in September.
+# The time is 02:00 GMT. It applied in 1922 and 1923, and longer if Parliament
+# so approved.
+#
+# It specifically states that it applies to Northern Ireland, the Channel
+# Islands, and the Isle of Man.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1925
+#
+# This makes the 1922 Act permanent, with a change to the end date to the
+# day after the first Saturday in October. It says nothing about extent,
+# so that part of the 1922 Act will still apply.
+#
+# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, SR&O 1939 No. 1379
+# [SR&O == Statutary Regulation and Order]
+#
+# These were made under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
+# It changes the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
+# It makes consequential changes to some vehicle lighting legislation,
+# which includes the Motor Vehicles and Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Act,
+# 1934, so it seems clear it applies in Northern Ireland.
+#
+# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
+# 1939, SR&O 1940 No. 1883
+#
+# This continues summer time throughout the year after it starts in 1940.
+# It says nothing about extent and has no consequential changes.
+#
+# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
+# 1939, SR&O 1941 No. 476
+#
+# This introduces double summer time, starting at 01:00 GMT on the day after
+# the first Saturday in May and ending at 01:00 GMT on the day after the
+# second Saturday in August, offset another hour from normal summer time,
+# which continues throughout the rest of the year. It goes on a lot about
+# consequential changes to agricultural wages legislation, and says in part
+# `... and in its application to Northern Ireland have effect as
+# if for the references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation) Acts, 1924 and
+# 1940, there were substituted references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation)
+# Acts (Northern Ireland), 1939 and 1940, ...'. It also has a similar section
+# for Scotland. Both sections substitute the local Agricultural Wages Board
+# for the Agricultural Wages Board for England and Wales, showing that
+# England and Wales were indivisible.
+#
+# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
+# 1939, SR&O 1942 No. 506
+#
+# This changes the start date of double summer time to the day after the first
+# Saturday in April. It says nothing about extent.
+#
+# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
+# 1939, SR&O 1944 No. 932
+#
+# This changed the end date of double summer time to 17 September 1944.
+# (I don't have the text of this, just a note of what it did, the text almost
+# certainly had the `day after the nth Saturday' form.)
+#
+# (I am missing whatever regulations there were to change things in 1945
+# and the Summer Time Act, 1947.)
+#
+# - The British Standard Time Act, 1968
+#
+# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
+# the year as an experiment until it expired on 31 October 1971.
+# There was no double summer time so we didn't have to change the clocks at all.
+# It specifically said it applied to Northern Ireland. It also said it
+# applied to Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man unless they passed
+# measures saying it didn't.
+#
+# - The Manx Time Act, 1968
+#
+# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
+# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1972
+#
+# This specified a reversion to normal summer time behaviour with a start
+# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
+# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
+# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
+# 1 hour.
+#
+# It has the same wording about extent as the British Standard Time Act, 1968,
+# applying to Northern Ireland unconditionally and to Jersey, Guernsey and the
+# Isle of Man if they don't do something about it.
+#
+# (I am missing various Summer Time Orders that modified the 1972 Act to
+# harmonise with the EC since 1981. The major change is that the time changes
+# to 01:00 GMT.)
+#
+# - The Summer Time Order, 1992, SI 1992/1729 [SI == Statutary Instrument]
+#
+# This specifies dates of:
+# Start End
+# 1993 28 March 24 October
+# 1994 27 March 23 October
+# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT.
+# This is as far as it goes at present. A new EC directive is expected soon
+# and this will lead to a new Summer Time Order implementing it in the UK.
+#
+# - Some text on the extent of Acts, from Halsbury's Statutes
+#
+# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
+# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
+# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
+# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
+# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
+#
+# So, many of these measures specifically include Northern Ireland,
+# the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. None of them exclude any
+# part of the UK. The default interpretation of Acts is that they apply
+# throughout the UK.
+#
+# With that, I rest my case Milud :-)
+#
+# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
+# the dusty old statutes, and to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
+# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
+# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter).
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (November 18, 1993)
+#
+# Here is a revised version of my tabrules file for the perl script I sent
+# before. I have personally verified the various Orders back to 1953 and
+# all the Acts.
+#
+# There are no changes to the dates we already have.
+#
+# My doubt about an early start in 1967 on 18 Feb was misplaced, the Order
+# does say 18 Feb. This is an interesting case as the first Order gave a
+# different date of 7 April 1967 for the Isle of Man but this was changed
+# before it came into effect by another Order for the Isle of Man alone.
+#
+# I don't think I will be able to find any more of the earlier Orders.
+# The annual volumes for 1949--52 do not contain the various Summer Time
+# Orders. They therefore don't appear in the index. They rate a mention in
+# italics in the numerical list at the start but that is all.
+# I think what happens is that the annual volume is produced well after the
+# end of the year in question, by which time the Summer Time Order is spent.
+# They assume that nobody would ever be stupid enough to want to see it
+# again so they leave it out.
+#
+# It might be a good idea to put this table, or the output of tabscript
+# showing all the moves because of Easter, in the europe file comments in
+# place of my old transcription of the Green Paper table [the UK Government
+# paper "Summer Time: A Consultation Document" (HMSO Cm722 June 1989)].
+#
+# The next thing on the horizon is the 7th EC/EU directive and the matching
+# UK Order. I expect I will keep quiet until then.
+#
+#
+# Peter Ilieve peter@memex.co.uk
+#
+#
+# ## control file for tabscript, a program to generate UK summer time dates
+# ## matching the table in Cm 722, the 1989 Green Paper.
+# ## Lines like this are comments.
+# ## Lines with a single # at the start are copied into the output
+# ## Control lines are of the form
+# ## <years> <start date> <end date> <flags> <double start> <double end>
+# ## <years> is either a single year or a hyphen separated range, with --
+# ## also accepted as I use this in TeX a lot.
+# ## <start date> and <end date> are a digit followed bu a month name.
+# ## It is either an nth Saturday or an explicit date, depending on <flags>.
+# ## 0 and/or none are used when there is no date, as during 1968--71.
+# ## <flags> can contain `fixed' to indicate explicit dates and `double'
+# ## to indicate double summer time dates are present.
+# ## At present double requires fixed as well.
+# ## <double start> and <double end> are like the start and end dates, with
+# ## the exception of the 0 and/or none feature.
+#
+# ## Blank lines are also ignored.
+#
+# ## Places where I am uncertain, not having personally verified the dates
+# ## against the Act or Order, are marked ???
+# ## These dates are taken from the Cm 722 table.
+#
+# # Summer Time Act, 1916
+# 1916 21 May 1 October fixed
+#
+# ## I haven't yet looked for Orders for 1916--22 and I doubt I will find them.
+# # unknown Order or Orders ???
+# 1917 8 apr 17 sep fixed
+# 1918 24 mar 30 sep fixed
+# 1919 30 mar 29 sep fixed
+# # end date extended in 1920 from 27 Sep because of coal strike (from Cm 722)
+# 1920 28 mar 25 oct fixed
+# 1921 3 apr 3 oct fixed
+#
+# # Summer Time Act, 1922
+# # came into force 22 July 1922, too late for 1922, so missing Order ???
+# 1922 26 mar 8 oct fixed
+# 1923-1924 3 April 3 September
+#
+# # Summer Time Act, 1925
+# 1925--1938 3 April 1 October
+#
+# # Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939
+# 1939 3 April 3 November
+# # 1940 amendment (SR&O 1940 Nos. 172 & 1883)
+# 1940 4 feb 0 none
+# # 1941 amendment (SR&O 1941 No. 476)
+# 1941 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 may 10 aug
+# # 1942 amendment (SR&O 1942 No. 506)
+# 1942 0 none 0 none fixed,double 5 apr 9 aug
+# 1943 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 apr 15 aug
+# # 1944 amendment (SR&O 1944 No. 932)
+# 1944 0 none 0 none fixed,double 2 apr 17 sep
+# # 1945 dates from Hansard, Oral Answers, 1 March 1945
+# 1945 0 none 7 oct fixed,double 2 apr 15 jul
+#
+# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
+# 1946 3 April 1 October
+#
+# # Summer Time Act, 1947
+# # Fixed dates for 1947 only, gives power to have double summer time
+# 1947 16 mar 2 nov fixed,double 13 apr 10 aug
+# ## I can't find any trace of the Order for 1948.
+# # Unknown Order ???
+# 1948 14 mar 31 oct fixed
+# ## I know the numbers for the 1949--52 ones but the text is missing from the
+# ## annual volumes. I also don't know if the 49 Order was for 49 or 50, etc.
+# # Summer Time Order, 1949 (SI1949/373) ???
+# 1949 3 apr 30 oct fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1950 (SI1950/518) ???
+# 1950 16 apr 22 oct fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1951 (SI1951/430) ???
+# 1951 15 apr 21 oct fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1952 (SI1952/451) ???
+# 1952 20 apr 26 oct fixed
+#
+# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
+# 1953--1960 3 April 1 October
+#
+# ## All Orders from here on specify fixed dates, not day after nth Sunday
+# ## Start pattern looks like Mar lastSun up to 1963, Mar Sun>=19 up to 1967.
+# ## End pattern looks like Oct Sun>=23 up to 1967.
+# # Summer Time Order, 1961 (SI1961/71)
+# 1961 26 March 29 October fixed
+# # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (SI1961/2465)
+# 1962 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1963 (SI1963/81)
+# 1963 31 March 27 October fixed
+# # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (SI1963/2101)
+# 1964 22 March 25 October fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1964 (SI1964/1201)
+# 1965 21 Mar 24 Oct fixed
+# 1966 20 Mar 23 Oct fixed
+# 1967 19 Mar 29 Oct fixed
+# # Summer Time Order, 1967 (SI1967/1148)
+# # Specifies different start date of 7 April for Isle of Man
+# # Summer Time Order, 1968 (SI1968/117)
+# # Changes Isle of Man start date to 18 Feb to match rest of UK
+# # British Standard Time Act, 1968
+# 1968 18 feb 0 none fixed
+# 1969--1970 0 none 0 none
+# 1971 0 none 31 oct fixed
+#
+# # Summer Time Act, 1972
+# 1972-1980 3 March 4 October
+#
+# # The pattern here looks like Last Sun in Mar, day after 4th Sat in Oct
+# # First EC Directive ???
+# # Summer Time Order, 1980 (SI1980/1089)
+# 1981 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
+# 1982 28 Mar 24 Oct fixed
+# # Second EC Directive ???
+# # Summer Time Order, 1982 (SI1982/1673)
+# 1983 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
+# 1984 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
+# 1985 31 Mar 27 Oct fixed
+# # Third EC Directive ???
+# # Summer Time Order, 1986 (SI1986/223)
+# 1986 30 Mar 26 Oct fixed
+# 1987 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
+# 1988 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
+# # Fourth EC Directive ???
+# # Summer Time Order, 1988 (SI1988/931)
+# 1989 26 Mar 29 Oct fixed
+# # Fifth EC Directive ???
+# # Summer Time Order, 1989 (SI1989/985)
+# 1990 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
+# 1991 31 Mar 27 Oct fixed
+# 1992 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
+# # Sixth EC Directive
+# # Summer Time Order, 1992 (SI1992/1729)
+# 1993 28 Mar 24 Oct fixed
+# 1994 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (June 8, 1994):
+# The European Union bureaucracy has edged a step closer to a 7th Directive
+# on summer-time arrangements. I have the text of a Common Position
+# (EC No 9/94) and a statement of the Council's reasons dated 4 March 94,
+# reported in the Official Journal of the EC, No. C 137/38--41....
+# The dates again:
+# Year Start End End (UK & Eire, 1995 only)
+# (rule) (last Sun) (last Sun) (4th Sun)
+# 1995 26 March 24 September 22 October
+# 1996 31 March 27 October
+# 1997 30 March 26 October
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (March 28, 1994):
+# The UK/Eire end date of 22 October [1995] conflicts with your current rule of
+# Oct Sun>=23, and the historical UK formula of Sun after 4th Sat.
+# The last time 4th Sun and Sun after 4th Sat differed was in 1989,
+# when 29 October was used. That year was covered by a UK Summer Time Order
+# for only a single year and it looks as though there was a matching 4th EC
+# directive for just this year. I don't have the text of the 5th EC
+# directive (for 1990--92) but my guess would be it said 4th Sun.
+# To maintain strict historical accuracy you could start a new UK ending rule
+# of Oct Sun>=22 in 1990.
+
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
+#
+# As Ilieve remarks, the date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
+# Consultation Document'' (Cm 722, 1989) table is a transcription error;
+# 20 April was an Easter Sunday. Shanks has 13 April, the correct date.
+# Also, the table is not quite right for 1925 through 1938; the correct rules
+# (which Shanks uses) are given in the Summer Time Acts of 1922 and 1925.
+# Shanks and the UK Government paper disagree about the Apr 1956 transition;
+# since we have no other data, and since Shanks was correct in the other
+# points of disagreement about London, we'll believe Shanks for now.
+# Also, for lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
+#
+# Given Peter Ilieve's comments, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
+# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight savings time until
+# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
+# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
+# * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
+# It actually just had one transition.
+# * Northern Ireland used single daylight savings time throughout WW II.
+# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
+#
+# The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful;
+# we'll ignore it for now.
+# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
+# to daylight savings time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
+# conform with Great Britain.
+#
+# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks.
+
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule GB-Eire 1847 only - Sep 22 0:00 0 GMT
+# 1916 to 1925--irregular
+Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# 1925 to 1939 start--regular, except for avoiding Easter
+Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# 1939 end to 1947--irregular, and with double summer time
+Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
+# Double daylight starts on a Monday in 1945--see above.
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr 2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul 15 1:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
+# So much for double saving time. 1948 and 1949, irregular.
+Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1948 1949 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# 1950 through start of 1953, regular.
+Rule GB-Eire 1950 1953 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
+# 1954 to 1980, starting rules
+Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# 1953 to 1980, ending rules
+Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1961 1967 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1971 only - Oct 31 3:00 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
+# Current rules
+Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Oct Sun>=23 1:00s 0 GMT
+# Under the 7th EU proposal, replace the above line with the following three:
+#Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00s 0 GMT
+#Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 GMT
+#Rule GB-Eire 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 GMT
+
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Sep 22
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Feb 18 2:00
+ 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s
+Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
+ -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
+ -0:25:21 1:00 DST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Feb 18 2:00
+ 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 3:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s
+Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
+ -0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
+ -0:25:21 1:00 DST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1940 Feb 25 2:00
+ 0:00 1:00 BST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
+ 0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
+ 0:00 1:00 BST 1947 Nov 2 2:00
+ 0:00 - GMT 1948 Apr 18 2:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Feb 18 2:00
+ 1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 3:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# Continental Europe
+
+Rule W-Eur 1800 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
+Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
+Rule W-Eur 1979 max - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
+Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+
+Rule M-Eur 1800 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Shanks says DST was continuous from 1940 Apr 1 to 1942 Nov 2; go with Whitman.
+Rule M-Eur 1940 only - Dec 31 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1941 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1941 only - Oct 5 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1942 only - Jan 1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
+Rule M-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule M-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1979 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+# Under the 7th EU proposal, replace the above line with the following two:
+#Rule M-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+#Rule M-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule M-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+
+Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 3:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule E-Eur 1981 max - Sep lastSun 3:00s 0 -
+
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Russia 1880 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 -
+Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 D
+Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 K
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 D
+# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
+# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
+# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 DD
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 K
+Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 K
+Rule Russia 1984 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 K
+Rule Russia 1985 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+
+# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
+
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone WET 0:00 W-Eur WET%s
+Zone MET 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+Zone EET 2:00 E-Eur EET%s
+Zone W-SU 3:00 M-Eur ????
+
+# Tom Hoffman says that MET is also known as Central European Time
+
+Link MET CET
+
+# Albania
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1984 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
+ 1:00 - MET 1940 Jun 16
+ 1:00 Albania MET%s 1985 Mar 31 1:00
+ 1:00 W-Eur MET%s
+
+# Andorra
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
+ 0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
+ 1:00 - MET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Austria
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Austria 1918 only - Jun 16 3:00 0 -
+Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918 Jun 16 3:00
+ 1:00 Austria MET%s 1940 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Austria MET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Belarus
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
+ 2:31 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1922 Oct
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994): A guess at recent dates:
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 - EET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s
+
+# Belgium
+# Whitman and Shanks disagree; go with Shanks, usually.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+# From Whitman:
+Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1919 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
+# Shanks gives 1920 Feb 14 23:00s; go with Whitman.
+Rule Belgium 1920 1921 - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1927 Oct 1 2:00s and 1928 Oct 7 2:00s; go with Shanks.
+Rule Belgium 1922 1928 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1929 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman says 1937 Apr 18 2:00s; go with Shanks.
+Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman says 1938 Apr 10 2:00s; go with Shanks.
+Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:20 - LMT 1880
+ 0:17 - BST 1892 May 1 12:00
+ 0:00 - WET 1914 Aug 4
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1919 Mar 1 23:00
+ 0:00 Belgium WET%s 1940 Feb 24 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Belgium MET%s 1977 Apr 3 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Bosnia and Herzegovina
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Sarajevo 1:13:40 - LMT 1884
+ 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1983 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Bulgaria
+# Part switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1915 Nov 14;
+# the rest switched on 1920 Sep 17.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
+Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
+ 1:57 - TST 1894 Nov 30
+ 2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 3:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
+ 2:00 Bulg EET%s 1982 Sep 26 2:00
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Croatia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Zagreb 1:03:52 - LMT 1884
+ 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1983 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Czech Republic
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Czech 1944 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
+ 0:58 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
+ 1:00 Czech MET%s 1979 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Denmark
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
+Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
+# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways
+# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks.
+#
+# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
+ 0:50 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time
+ 1:00 Denmark MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Denmark MET%s 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
+ 0:00 - WET 1981 Mar 29 1:00
+ 0:00 W-Eur WET%s
+Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
+ -2:00 - MGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ -2:00 M-Eur MGT%s 1981 Mar 29
+ -1:00 M-Eur EGT%s
+Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
+ -3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ -3:00 M-Eur WGT%s
+Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
+ -4:00 - AST
+
+# Estonia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
+ 1:39 - LST 1918 Feb
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1919 Jul
+ 1:39 - LST 1921 May
+ 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Sep 22
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Finland
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Finland 1921 only - May 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
+ 1:40 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
+ 2:00 Finland EET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# France
+# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
+# From Shanks (1991):
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule France 1911 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
+Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
+Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
+Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
+Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
+# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
+Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1942 only - Mar 8 0:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1943 only - Nov 4 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com) (November 18, 1993):
+# Shanks gives no times for 1975, but according to Cm722,
+# France introduced summer time in 1975 from 20 March to 22 September.
+Rule France 1975 only - Mar 20 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1975 only - Sep 22 2:00s 0 -
+Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1976 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Whitman's more precise 0:09:05.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:05 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
+ 0:09:05 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
+ 0:00 France WET%s 1940 Jun 14
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug 25
+ 0:00 France WET%s 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+ 1:00 France MET%s 1977 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Germany
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1948 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
+Rule Germany 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Germany MET%s 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Gibraltar
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
+ 1:00 - MET 1982 Mar 28 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Greece
+# They adopted the Julian calendar in 1846.
+# Part switched to the Gregorian calendar on 1916 Jul 28.
+# The rest switched on 1920 Mar 18.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Greece 1916 only - July 28 0:01 0 -
+# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks.
+Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
+# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks.
+Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks.
+Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
+Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
+# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks.
+Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
+Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
+Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
+ 1:35 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
+ 2:00 Greece EET%s 1941 Apr 30
+ 1:00 Greece MET%s 1944 Apr 4
+ 2:00 Greece EET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Hungary
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
+Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918 Jul
+ 1:00 Hungary MET%s 1941 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 1 23:00
+ 1:00 Hungary MET%s 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Iceland
+#
+# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (November 6, 1993):
+# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
+#
+# (December 5, 1993):
+# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
+# Iceland Almanak.
+#
+# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
+# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
+# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
+# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
+#
+# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
+# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
+# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
+# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
+#
+# (December 10, 1993):
+# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
+# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
+# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
+# the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
+# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
+# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
+# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
+# might mean something else (???). The Gregorian calendar was not introduced
+# in Iceland until 1700.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (December 9, 1993):
+# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
+# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
+# Reykavik was -1:28 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
+#
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Iceland 1908 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 S
+# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
+Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 S
+# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
+Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
+# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
+Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 S
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
+ -1:28 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time
+ -1:00 Iceland I%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
+ 0:00 - GMT
+
+# Italy
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Italy 1893 only - Nov 1 0:00s 0 S
+# Shanks gives transition times of 1916-1920 as 24:00; go with Whitman.
+Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1917 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 9 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 20 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Shanks gives 1920 Sep 18; go with Whitman.
+Rule Italy 1920 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 17 0:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
+ 0:50 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time
+ 1:00 Italy MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 Italy MET%s 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+# Vatican is identical to Europe/Rome; San Marino is like Europe/Rome.
+
+# Latvia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
+ 1:36 - LST 1918 Apr 15 2:00
+ 1:36 M-Eur LST%s 1919 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:36 1:00 "LST DST" 1919 May 22 3:00
+ 1:36 - LST 1926 May 11
+ 2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug 8
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Liechtenstein
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun
+ 1:00 - MET 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Lithuania
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
+ 1:24 - LST 1917 # Kaunas
+ 1:36 - LST 1919 Oct 10
+ 1:00 - MET 1920 Jul 12
+ 2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
+ 1:00 - MET 1940 Aug 3
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Luxembourg
+# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Lux 1904 only - Jun 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
+Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
+ 1:00 Lux MET%s 1918 Nov 25
+ 0:00 Lux WET%s 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
+ 0:00 Belgium WET%s 1940 May 14 3:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur WET%s 1944 Sep 18 3:00
+ 1:00 Belgium MET%s 1979 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Macedonia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Skopje 1:25:44 - LMT 1884
+ 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1983 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Malta
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
+Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta
+ 1:00 Italy MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 Italy MET%s 1973 Mar 31
+ 1:00 Malta MET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Moldova
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1919 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Monaco
+# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Whitman's more precise 0:09:05.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
+ 0:09:05 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
+ 0:00 France WET%s 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+ 1:00 France MET%s 1977 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Netherlands
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Neth 1892 only - May 1 0:00 0 AMT
+# Shanks gives 1916 May 1 0:00 and 1916 Oct 1 0:00; go with Whitman.
+Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT
+Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
+# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks.
+Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT
+Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST
+# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
+Rule Neth 1922 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
+Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST
+# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
+Rule Neth 1925 only - Jun 5 2:00s 1:00 NST
+# For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks.
+Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
+# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks.
+Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 -
+Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 " DST"
+# Before 1937, Shanks says just `0:20'; we use Whitman's more precise figure.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May
+ 0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul
+ 0:20 Neth %s 1940 May 16 0:40
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Neth MET%s 1977 Apr Sun>=1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Norway
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Norway 1892 only - May 1 0:00 0 -
+# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
+Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
+# Shanks omits the following transition; go with Whitman.
+Rule Norway 1935 only - Aug 11 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman says DST observed until 1942 Nov 1, then 1943 Mar 29 - Oct 4,
+# 1944 Apr 3 - Oct 2, and 1945 Apr 1 - Oct 1; go with Shanks after 1940.
+Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895
+ 1:00 Norway MET%s 1940 Aug 10 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Norway MET%s 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+# Svalbard is like Europe/Oslo.
+#
+# From Whitman:
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT
+
+# Poland
+# Austrian and German Poland switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
+# on 1582 Oct 15. Russian Poland switched on 1918 Jan 14.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks.
+Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
+# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks.
+Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 -
+Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
+Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
+ 1:24 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918 Sep 16 3:00
+ 2:00 Poland EET%s 1922 Jun
+ 1:00 Poland MET%s 1940 Jun 23 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Oct
+ 1:00 Poland MET%s 1977 Apr 3 1:00
+ 1:00 W-Eur MET%s
+
+# Portugal
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Port 1911 only - May 24 0:00 0 -
+Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
+Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman.
+Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
+Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
+Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
+# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks.
+Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884
+ -0:37 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time
+ 0:00 Port WET%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
+ 1:00 - MET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
+ 0:00 Port WET%s 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+ 0:00 W-Eur WET%s 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
+# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (November 12, 1992):
+# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
+# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+# We don't know what happened to Madeira or the Azores,
+# so we'll just use Shanks for now.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
+ -1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time
+ -2:00 Port ACT%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
+ -1:00 - ACT 1977 Mar 27
+ -1:00 - ACT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+ -1:00 W-Eur ACT%s
+Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
+ -1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time
+ -1:00 Port ACT%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
+ 0:00 - WET 1977 Mar 27
+ 0:00 Port WET%s 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+ 0:00 W-Eur WET%s
+
+# Slovakia
+Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
+
+# Romania
+# Catholic Romania switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on
+# on 1919 Mar 18. Greek Orthodox Romania switched on 1920 Mar 18.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Romania 1931 only - Jul 24 0:00 0 -
+Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
+Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
+ 1:44 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+ 2:00 Romania EET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+
+# Russia
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
+# Moscow and Novosibirsk time zone names, and Moscow rules after 1991,
+# are from Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su>.
+# I invented the other time zone names, and (unless otherwise specified)
+# guessed what happened after 1991; the clocks were chaotic, and we know little.
+# The rest is from Shanks.
+#
+# From Shanks (1991):
+# Western Russia switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
+# on 1918 Jan 14. Eastern Russia switched on 1920 Mar 18.
+# In 1929 the Soviet Union instituted a 5 day week; in 1932 it instituted
+# a 6 day week; on 1940 Jun 27 it returned to the Gregorian week.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
+ 2:31 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1922 Oct
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 - EET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s
+Zone Europe/Kuybyshev 3:20:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 3:00 - KSK 1957 Mar
+ 4:00 Russia KS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 3:00 1:00 KSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 3:00 - KSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 4:00 Russia KS%s
+Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:34 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 4:00 - SSK 1957 Mar
+ 5:00 Russia SS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 4:00 1:00 SSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 4:00 - SSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 5:00 Russia ES%s # name change from Sverdlovsk
+Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 5:00 - OSK 1957 Mar
+ 6:00 Russia OS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 5:00 1:00 OSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 5:00 - OSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia OS%s
+# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (June 29, 1994):
+# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
+# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
+# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
+# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
+# Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
+Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 6:00 - NSK 1957 Mar
+ 7:00 Russia NS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 NSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 6:00 - NSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia NS%s 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 NSD 1994 Sep 25 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia NS%s
+Zone Asia/Tomsk 5:39:52 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 6:00 - TSK 1957 Mar
+ 7:00 Russia TS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 TSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 6:00 - TSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia TS%s
+Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
+ 6:57 - LST 1924 May 2
+ 7:00 - ISK 1957 Mar
+ 8:00 Russia IS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 7:00 1:00 ISD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 7:00 - ISK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 8:00 Russia IS%s
+Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 8:00 - YSK 1957 Mar
+ 9:00 Russia YS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 8:00 1:00 YSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 8:00 - YSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 9:00 Russia YS%s
+Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1880
+ 8:48 - LST 1924 May 2
+ 9:00 - VSK 1957 Mar
+ 10:00 Russia VS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 9:00 1:00 VSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 9:00 - VSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 10:00 Russia VS%s
+# MSK is taken; settle for GSK.
+Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 10:00 - GSK 1957 Mar
+ 11:00 Russia GS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 10:00 1:00 GSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 10:00 - GSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 11:00 Russia GS%s
+# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
+Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 11:00 - PSK 1957 Mar
+ 12:00 Russia PS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 11:00 1:00 PSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 11:00 - PSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 12:00 Russia PS%s
+Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 12:00 - ASK 1957 Mar
+ 13:00 Russia AS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 12:00 1:00 ASD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 12:00 - ASK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 13:00 Russia AS%s
+
+# Serbia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
+ 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1983 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Slovenia
+# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Ljubljana 0:58:04 - LMT 1884
+ 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1983 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Spain
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Spain 1901 only - Jan 1 0:00 0 -
+# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
+Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
+Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
+Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
+Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
+Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901
+ 0:00 Spain WET%s 1946 Sep 30
+ 1:00 Spain MET%s 1979 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
+ -1:00 - ACT 1946 Sep 30 1:00
+ 0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
+ 0:00 1:00 "WET DST" 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
+ 0:00 W-Eur WET%s
+
+# Sweden
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
+ 1:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT
+ 1:00 - MET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1916 Sep 30 23:00s
+ 1:00 - MET 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Switzerland
+# From Howse (1988), p 82:
+# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
+# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
+# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Swiss 1894 only - Jun 1 0:00 0 -
+# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
+Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 " DST"
+# From Shanks (1991):
+Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 " DST"
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
+ 0:30 - SST 1894 Jun # Swiss Standard Time
+ 1:00 Swiss MET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
+
+# Turkey
+# European Turkey switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1908.
+# Asian Turkey switched in 1914.
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Turkey 1910 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks.
+Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Shanks omits the first two transitions in 1940; go with Whitman.
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
+Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
+ 1:57 - OMT 1910 Oct # Ottoman Mean Time
+ 2:00 Turkey EET%s 1978 Oct 15
+ 3:00 Turkey TUR%s 1985 Apr 20
+ 2:00 Turkey EET%s 1986
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
+
+# Ukraine
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
+ 2:02 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:02 Ukraine LST%s 1924 May 2
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1990 Jul 17
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
+Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
+ 2:08 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:08 Ukraine LST%s 1924 May 2
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
+# Today's _Economist_ (p 45) reports that Crimea switched
+# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January elections.
+# For now, we'll guess that there was a 2-hour leap forward on March 27.
+ 2:00 M-Eur EET%s 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MS%s
+
+###############################################################################
+
+# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
+# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
+# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
+#
+# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
+# uses the WE DST rules. The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
+# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
+# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST). It also claims that Turkey
+# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
+# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)
+
+# ...
+# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
+# From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann)
+# Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp>
+# ...
+#
+# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
+# most European coun[tr]ies started DST. Before that year, only
+# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
+# to own national rules. In 1981, however, DST started on
+# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
+# years...
+# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
+# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
+# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
+# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
+#
+# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
+# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
+#
+# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
+# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
+# UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho
+
+# ...
+# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
+# From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter)
+# ...
+#
+# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
+# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
+# about DST in Europe. I was able to find all from about 1969.
+#
+# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
+# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
+# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
+# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March. And from 1982
+# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
+# the Sov[i]et Union. In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
+# dates...
+#
+# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
+# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
+# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
+# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
+# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe. Another note: it is always
+# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
+# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
+# in advance of normal time.
+#
+# ...
+# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
+# INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl
+# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax
+
+# From Bob Devine (January 28, 1988):
+# ...
+# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
+# Since 1978. Change at midnight.
+# ...
+# Monaco: has same DST as France.
+# ...
+
+# ...
+# Date: Fri, 3 Sep 93 13:43:41 BST
+# From: Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk>
+# ...
+# Turning to Europe, I now have a copy of the `Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC
+# of 26 March 1992 on summertime arrangements'. This only covers 1993 and
+# 1994, a seventh one is in the works but I doubt that the algorithm will
+# change. This says summertime starts at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March
+# and ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in September, except for the UK
+# and Eire where it ends at 01:00 GMT on the fourth Sunday in October.
+# It says the arrangements for 1995 onwards will be decided by 1 January 1994,
+# but as the sixth directive was supposed to appear by 1 Jan 92 and didn't
+# arrive til March I wouldn't hold your breath.
+#
+# The first summertime directive was adopted in 1980, although the UK didn't
+# seem to use it until 1981. I suspect it would be safe to move your start
+# dates for the -Eur rules back to 1981.