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-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/africa46
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/antarctica41
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/asia227
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/australasia108
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/backward3
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/etcetera10
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/europe1280
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/factory2
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/iso3166.tab11
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/leapseconds5
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/northamerica86
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/pacificnew2
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/southamerica117
-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/zone.tab16
14 files changed, 1176 insertions, 778 deletions
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/africa b/share/zoneinfo/africa
index f58719da5b8f..b84d6dcd209b 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/africa
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/africa
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)africa 7.20
+# @(#)africa 7.25
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
@@ -105,9 +105,6 @@ Zone Africa/Luanda 0:52:56 - LMT 1892
0:52:04 - LMT 1911 May 26 # Luanda Mean Time?
1:00 - WAT
-# Bassas da India
-# uninhabited
-
# Benin
# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934; go with Shanks.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -209,9 +206,10 @@ Rule Egypt 1983 only - Jul 12 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Egypt 1984 1988 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Egypt 1989 only - May 6 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Egypt 1990 1994 - May 1 1:00 1:00 S
-# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00; go with Shanks.
-Rule Egypt 1995 max - Apr lastFri 1:00 1:00 S
-Rule Egypt 1995 max - Sep lastFri 3:00 0 -
+# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
+# Go with IATA starting in 1995.
+Rule Egypt 1995 max - Apr Fri>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Egypt 1995 max - Sep lastFri 23:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Cairo 2:05:00 - LMT 1900 Oct
@@ -240,9 +238,6 @@ Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa 2:34:48 - LMT 1870
2:35:20 - ADMT 1936 May 5 # Adis Dera MT
3:00 - EAT
-# Europa Island
-# uninhabited
-
# Gabon
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Libreville 0:37:48 - LMT 1912
@@ -264,9 +259,6 @@ Rule Ghana 1936 1942 - Dec 31 0:00 0 GMT
Zone Africa/Accra -0:00:52 - LMT 1918
0:00 Ghana %s
-# Glorioso Is
-# uninhabited
-
# Guinea
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Conakry -0:54:52 - LMT 1912
@@ -280,9 +272,6 @@ Zone Africa/Bissau -1:02:20 - LMT 1911 May 26
-1:00 - WAT 1975
0:00 - GMT
-# Juan de Nova
-# uninhabited
-
# Kenya
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Nairobi 2:27:16 - LMT 1928 Jul
@@ -301,7 +290,7 @@ Zone Africa/Maseru 1:50:00 - LMT 1903 Mar
# Liberia
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch
-# from a GMT offset that was not a multiple of 15 minutes.
+# from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 minutes.
# Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday.
# Shanks reports the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan; go with Shanks.
# For Liberia before 1972, Shanks reports -0:44, whereas Howse and Whitman
@@ -335,15 +324,16 @@ Rule Libya 1987 1990 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Libya 1990 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Libya 1996 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Libya 1996 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Libya 1997 max - Mar lastThu 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Libya 1997 max - Oct Thu>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Libya 1997 only - Apr 4 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Libya 1997 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Tripoli 0:52:44 - LMT 1920
1:00 Libya CE%sT 1959
2:00 - EET 1982
1:00 Libya CE%sT 1991
2:00 - EET 1996 Mar 30 3:00
- 1:00 Libya CE%sT
+ 1:00 Libya CE%sT 1997 Oct 4 0:00
+ 2:00 - EET
# Madagascar
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -450,6 +440,19 @@ Zone Africa/Lagos 0:13:36 - LMT 1919 Sep
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Reunion 3:41:52 - LMT 1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
4:00 - RET # Reunion Time
+#
+# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
+# The following information about them is taken from
+# <a href="http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm">
+# Iles Eparses
+# </a>
+# (1997-07-22, in French). We have no info about their time zone histories.
+#
+# Bassas da India - uninhabited
+# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
+# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
+# Juan de Nova - uninhabited
+# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
# Rwanda
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -553,9 +556,6 @@ Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 - LMT 1931
Zone Africa/Lome 0:04:52 - LMT 1893
0:00 - GMT
-# Tromelin
-# uninhabited
-
# Tunisia
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Tunisia 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/antarctica b/share/zoneinfo/antarctica
index 83f0cfed760f..f5422b2bf1a6 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/antarctica
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/antarctica
@@ -1,9 +1,16 @@
-# @(#)antarctica 7.8
+# @(#)antarctica 7.14
# From Paul Eggert (1997-03-28):
# To keep things manageable, we list only locations occupied year-round;
-# see <URL:http://earth.agu.org/amen/nations.html> (1996-05-24)
-# and <URL:http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm> (1996-09-05).
+# see
+# <a href="http://earth.agu.org/amen/nations.html">
+# Antarctic Activities of Member Nations of the Antarctic Treaty (1996-05-24)
+# </a>
+# and
+# <a href="http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/bob/periant.htm">
+# Summary of the Peri-Antarctic Islands (1996-09-05)
+# </a>
+# for information.
# Unless otherwise specified, we have no time zone information.
#
# Except for the French entries,
@@ -34,17 +41,27 @@ Rule ChileAQ 1970 max - Mar Sun>=9 0:00 0 -
#
# year-round bases
# Casey, Bailey Peninsula, since 1969
-# Davis, Vestfold Hills, since 1957-01-13 (except 1965-01 - 1969-02)
+# Davis, Vestfold Hills, since 1957-01-13 (except 1964-11 - 1969-02)
# Mawson, Holme Bay, since 1954-02-13
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Antarctica/Casey 0 - ___ 1969
8:00 - WST # Western (Aus) Standard Time
-#Zone Antartica/Davis unknown
+Zone Antarctica/Davis 0 - ___ 1957 Jan 13
+ 7:00 - DAVT 1964 Nov # Davis Time
+ 0 - ___ 1969 Feb
+ 7:00 - DAVT
Zone Antarctica/Mawson 0 - ___ 1954 Feb 13
6:00 - MAWT # Mawson Time
# References:
-# <URL:http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html> (1996-07-15)
-# <URL:http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html> (1996-04-19)
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/casey/casey_aws.html">
+# Casey Weather (1998-02-26)
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/davis/video.html">
+# Davis Station, Antarctica (1998-02-26)
+# </a>
+# <a href="http://www.antdiv.gov.au/aad/exop/sfo/mawson/video.html">
+# Mawson Station, Antarctica (1998-02-25)
+# </a>
# Brazil - year-round base
# Ferraz, King George Island, since 1983/4
@@ -92,7 +109,9 @@ Zone Antarctica/DumontDUrville 0 - ___ 1947
0 - ___ 1956 Nov
10:00 - DDUT # Dumont-d'Urville Time
# Reference:
-# <URL:http://www.icair.iac.org.nz/science/reports/fr/IFRTP.html> (1996-09-10)
+# <a href="http://www.icair.iac.org.nz/science/reports/fr/IFRTP.html">
+# Support and Development of Polar Research and Technology (1997-02-03)
+# </a>
# Germany - year-round base
@@ -198,8 +217,10 @@ Zone Antarctica/McMurdo 0 - ___ 1956
# which was on GMT+12 because New Zealand was on GMT+12 all year
# at that time (1957). (Source: Siple's book 90 degrees SOUTH.)
#
-# From Susan Smith <URL:http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html>
-# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300): We use the same time as McMurdo does.
+# From Susan Smith
+# http://www.cybertours.com/whs/pole10.html
+# (1995-11-13 16:24:56 +1300, no longer available):
+# We use the same time as McMurdo does.
# And they use the same time as Christchurch, NZ does....
# One last quirk about South Pole time.
# All the electric clocks are usually wrong.
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/asia b/share/zoneinfo/asia
index 673474917937..9406aca86a06 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/asia
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/asia
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)asia 7.30
+# @(#)asia 7.40
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
@@ -7,8 +7,8 @@
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
#
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
# Except where otherwise noted, it is the source for the data below.
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
@@ -45,8 +45,6 @@
# 9:30 CST (Australian) Central Standard Time
#
# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
-#
-# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
# From Guy Harris:
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
@@ -80,24 +78,30 @@ Zone Asia/Kabul 4:36:48 - LMT 1890
4:30 - AFT
# Armenia
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-04):
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-??-??):
# Shanks has Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST) in spring 1991,
# but usno1995 has Armenia at 4:00 (with DST), and Edgar Der-Danieliantz
-# <edd@AIC.NET> reported today that Yerevan probably won't use DST this year,
-# though it did use DST in 1995. We guess Yerevan stayed in sync with Moscow
-# between 1990 and 1995, but stopped using DST in 1996.
-# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Armenia 1991 1995 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Armenia 1991 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+# <edd@AIC.NET> reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
+# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995. IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
+# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
+# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
+# What a mess! We guess Yerevan DST stayed in sync with Moscow between 1990
+# and 1995, did not use DST in 1996, and started using DST again in 1997.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Yerevan 2:58:00 - LMT 1924 May 2
3:00 - YERT 1957 Mar # Yerevan Time
4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
3:00 1:00 YERST 1991 Sep 23 # independence
- 3:00 Armenia AM%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Armenia Time
- 4:00 Armenia AM%sT
+ 3:00 1:00 AMST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s # Armenia Time
+ 3:00 - AMT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT 1996
+ 4:00 - AMT 1997
+ 4:00 RussiaAsia AM%sT
# Azerbaijan
+# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+Rule Azer 1997 max - Mar lastSun 1:00 1:00 S
+Rule Azer 1997 max - Oct lastSun 1:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
3:00 - BAKT 1957 Mar # Baku Time
@@ -105,7 +109,8 @@ Zone Asia/Baku 3:19:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
3:00 1:00 BAKST 1991 Aug 30 # independence
3:00 RussiaAsia AZ%sT 1992 Sep lastSun 2:00s
4:00 - AZT 1996 # Azerbaijan time
- 4:00 EUAsia AZ%sT
+ 4:00 EUAsia AZ%sT 1997
+ 4:00 Azer AZ%sT
# Bahrain
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -156,7 +161,7 @@ Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
8:00 - ICT 1931 May
7:00 - ICT
-# People's Republic of China
+# China
# From Guy Harris:
# People's Republic of China. Yes, they really have only one time zone.
@@ -185,7 +190,7 @@ Zone Asia/Phnom_Penh 6:59:40 - LMT 1906 Jun 9
# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
# Go with Shanks for now. I made up names for the other pre-1980 time zones.
-# From Shanks (1991):
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Shang 1940 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Shang 1940 1941 - Oct 1 0:00 0 S
@@ -239,7 +244,7 @@ Zone Asia/Hong_Kong 7:36:36 - LMT 1904 Oct 30
###############################################################################
-# Republic of China
+# Taiwan
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Taiwan 1945 1951 - May 1 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -354,8 +359,11 @@ Zone Asia/Jayapura 9:22:48 - LMT 1932 Nov
# Iran
# From Paul Eggert (1996-12-17), following up a suggestion by Rich Wales:
-# Ahmad Alavi <URL:http://tehran.stanford.edu/Iran_Lib/Calendar/taghveem.txt>
-# (1993-08-04) writes ``Daylight saving time in Iran starts from the first day
+# Ahmea Alavi in
+# <a href="http://tehran.stanford.edu/Iran_Lib/Calendar/taghveem.txt">
+# TAGHVEEM (1993-08-04)
+# </a>
+# writes ``Daylight saving time in Iran starts from the first day
# of Farvardin and ends the first day of Mehr.'' This disagrees with the SSIM:
#
# DST start DST end
@@ -457,12 +465,7 @@ Zone Asia/Baghdad 2:57:40 - LMT 1890
# ISRAEL 2 H AHEAD OF UTC
# ISRAEL 3 H AHEAD OF UTC APR 10 - SEP 3
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
-#
-# Shanks gives the following rules for Jerusalem from 1918 through 1991.
-# After 1989 Shanks often disagrees with Silverberg; we go with Silverberg.
-
-# From Shanks (1991):
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1940 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1942 1944 - Nov 1 0:00 0 S
@@ -505,7 +508,8 @@ Rule Zion 1987 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1988 only - Apr 9 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1988 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S
-# From Ephraim Silverberg (ephraim@cs.huji.ac.il), 1997-03-04:
+# From Ephraim Silverberg <ephraim@cs.huji.ac.il>
+# (1997-03-04 and 1998-03-16):
# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
@@ -546,16 +550,18 @@ Rule Zion 1995 only - Sep 3 0:00 0 S
# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
# time, Haim Ramon. The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
-# (with the dates for 1997 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
+# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
#
-# The dates for 1997 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
-# No changes have been made regarding 1998 as of yet.
-#
+# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
# The official announcement for the year 1997 can be viewed at:
#
# ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1997.ps.gz
+#
+# The official announcement for the year 1998 can be viewed at:
+#
+# ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1998.ps.gz
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1996 only - Mar 15 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -563,14 +569,20 @@ Rule Zion 1996 only - Sep 16 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1997 only - Mar 21 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Zion 1997 only - Sep 14 0:00 0 S
Rule Zion 1998 only - Mar 20 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Zion 1998 only - Oct 18 0:00 0 S
+Rule Zion 1998 only - Sep 6 0:00 0 S
+
+# From Member of Knesset Avraham Poraz, as quoted in Ha'aretz (1998-09-02):
+# [The 1998-09-06 transition is to] serve the interests of a small minority
+# of ultra-Orthodox Sephardic Jews who, during the [Hebrew] month of Elul,
+# recite Slihot penitential prayers in the early morning hours
+# and thus find daylight time inconvenient.
-# From Paul Eggert (1997-03-15):
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-01-12):
# Here are guesses for rules after 1998.
# They are probably wrong, but they are more likely than no DST at all.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Zion 1999 max - Mar Fri>=15 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Zion 1999 max - Sep Sun>=15 0:00 0 S
+Rule Zion 1999 max - Sep Sun>=1 0:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Jerusalem 2:20:56 - LMT 1880
@@ -640,7 +652,7 @@ Zone Asia/Amman 2:23:44 - LMT 1931
# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
#
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Asia/Alma-Ata 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Almaty
+Zone Asia/Almaty 5:07:48 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Alma-Ata
5:00 - ALMT 1957 Mar # Alma-Ata Time
6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 1:00 ALMST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
@@ -662,25 +674,27 @@ Zone Asia/Aqtau 3:21:04 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Aktau
# Kirgizstan
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Kirgiz 1992 max - Apr Sun>=7 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Kirgiz 1991 max - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Kirgiz 1992 1996 - Apr Sun>=7 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Kirgiz 1991 1996 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
+Rule Kirgiz 1997 max - Mar lastSun 2:30 1:00 S
+Rule Kirgiz 1997 max - Oct lastSun 2:30 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Bishkek 4:58:24 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 5:00 - FRUT 1957 Mar # Frunze Time
+ 5:00 - FRUT 1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 1:00 FRUST 1991 Aug 31 # independence
5:00 Kirgiz KG%sT # Kirgizstan Time
###############################################################################
-# Korea
+# Korea (North and South)
# From Guy Harris:
# According to someone at the Korean Times in San Francisco,
# Daylight Savings Time was not observed until 1987. He did not know
# at what time of day DST starts or ends.
-# From Shanks (1991):
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule ROK 1960 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule ROK 1960 only - Sep 13 0:00 0 S
@@ -775,8 +789,9 @@ Zone Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 - LMT 1880 # Male
5:00 - MVT # Maldives Time
# Mongolia
-# Shanks says that Mongolia has three time zones, but usno1995 and
-# <URL:http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/802389h.gif> (1995)
+# Shanks says that Mongolia has three time zones, but usno1995 and the CIA map
+# Standard Time Zones of the World (1997-01)
+# </a>
# both say that it has just one.
# Let's comment out the western and eastern Mongolian time zones
# till we know what their principal towns are.
@@ -821,6 +836,69 @@ Zone Asia/Karachi 4:28:12 - LMT 1907
5:00 - PKT # Pakistan Time
# Palestine
+
+# From Amos Shapir <amos@nsof.co.il> (1998-02-15):
+#
+# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
+# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
+# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
+#
+# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
+# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
+# time zone was affected then). It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
+# though.
+#
+# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
+# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
+# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
+# Trans-Jordan"). So the rules for Jordan for that time apply. Major
+# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
+# East Jerusalem.
+#
+# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
+# for East Jerusalem). They were on Israel time since then; there might
+# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
+# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
+# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
+#
+# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
+# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995. I know that in order to
+# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
+# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
+# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
+# Jordanian one).
+#
+# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
+#
+# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
+# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
+# Israel | Zion | Zion | Zion | Zion
+# West bank | Zion | Jordan | Zion | Jordan
+# Gaza | Zion | Egypt | Zion | Jordan
+#
+# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
+# have one).
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-02-25):
+# Shanks writes that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but we'll go
+# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
+# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
+# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
+# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
+# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
+# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
+# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
+# to Palestine's rules. If you have more info about this, please
+# send it to tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for incorporation into future editions.
+
+# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
+# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
+#
+# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
+# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
+# one-hour forward at this time. As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
+# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
+
# These rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule EgyptAsia 1957 only - May 10 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -831,9 +909,10 @@ Rule EgyptAsia 1959 1965 - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
Rule EgyptAsia 1966 only - Oct 1 3:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Gaza 2:17:52 - LMT 1900 Oct
- 2:00 - EET 1957 May 10
- 2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 30
- 2:00 Zion I%sT
+ 2:00 Zion EET 1948 May 15
+ 2:00 EgyptAsia EE%sT 1967 Jun 5
+ 2:00 Zion I%sT 1996
+ 2:00 Jordan EE%sT
# Paracel Is
# no information
@@ -883,19 +962,24 @@ Zone Asia/Singapore 6:55:24 - LMT 1880
# Sri Lanka
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
-# <URL:http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html> (1996-05-24)
+# <a href="http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html">
+# Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout (1996-05-24)
+# </a>
# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
-# Transitions before 1996 are from Shanks (1991).
+# Transitions before 1996 are from Shanks (1995).
#
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
-# in <URL:news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
+# by Shamindra in
+# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net">
+# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
+# </a>:
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Colombo 5:19:24 - LMT 1880
- 5:20 - CEYT 1906 # Ceylon Time
+ 5:19:32 - MMT 1906 # Moratuwa Mean Time
5:30 - IST 1942 Jan 5
5:30 0:30 IHST 1942 Sep
5:30 1:00 IST 1945 Oct 16 2:00
@@ -933,7 +1017,8 @@ Rule Syria 1991 1992 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Syria 1992 only - Apr 8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1993 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1993 only - Sep 25 0:00 0 -
-# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says 1997-03-31; assume that it should be 1997-04-01.
+# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says 1997-03-31; (1998-02) says 1998-04-02,
+# 1999-03-29, and 1999-09-29; ignore all these claims for now.
Rule Syria 1994 max - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Syria 1994 max - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -941,9 +1026,10 @@ Zone Asia/Damascus 2:25:12 - LMT 1920
2:00 Syria EE%sT
# Tajikistan
+# From Shanks (1995), who writes ``date of change uncertain'' for 1991.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Dushanbe 4:35:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 5:00 - DUST 1957 Mar # Dushanbe Time
+ 5:00 - DUST 1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
5:00 1:00 DUSST 1991 Sep 9 # independence
5:00 RussiaAsia TJ%sT 1992
@@ -956,14 +1042,17 @@ Zone Asia/Bangkok 6:42:04 - LMT 1880
7:00 - ICT
# Turkmenistan
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Ashkhabad 3:53:32 - LMT 1924 May 2 # or Ashgabat
- 4:00 - ASHT 1957 Mar # Ashkhabad Time
- 5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 4:00 1:00 ASHST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 4:00 - ASHT 1991 Oct 27 # independence
- 4:00 - TMT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 5:00 - TMT # Turkmenistan Time
+ 4:00 - ASHT 1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
+ 5:00 - ASHT 1981 Apr 1
+ 5:00 1:00 ASHST 1981 Oct 1
+ 6:00 - ASHT 1982 Apr 1
+ 5:00 RussiaAsia ASH%sT 1991
+ 5:00 - ASHT 1991 Oct 27 # independence
+ 5:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT 1993 # Turkmenistan Time
+ 5:00 - TMT
# United Arab Emirates
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -971,18 +1060,24 @@ Zone Asia/Dubai 3:41:12 - LMT 1920
4:00 - GST
# Uzbekistan
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Asia/Samarkand 4:27:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
+ 4:00 - SAMT 1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
+ 5:00 - SAMT 1981 Apr 1
+ 5:00 1:00 SAMST 1981 Oct 1
+ 6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00 # Tashkent Time
+ 5:00 - TAST 1991 Sep 1 # independence
+ 5:00 - UZT 1992
+ 5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1993
+ 5:00 - UZT
Zone Asia/Tashkent 4:37:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 5:00 - TAST 1957 Mar # Tashkent Time
+ 5:00 - TAST 1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 5:00 1:00 TASST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 5:00 - UZT # Uzbekistan Time
-# Shanks has Tashkent using DST after 1991, but usno1995 says they don't.
-# Guess no DST after 1991.
-# <URL:http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/802389h.gif> (1995)
-# says that Uzbekistan has two time zones, but a cable
-# <URL:http://www.itaiep.doc.gov/bisnis/cables/960510uz.html> (1996-05-10)
-# from the American Embassy in Tashkent implies that they have just one.
+ 5:00 - TAST 1991 Sep 1 # independence
+ 5:00 - UZT 1992
+ 5:00 RussiaAsia UZ%sT 1993
+ 5:00 - UZT
# Vietnam
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/australasia b/share/zoneinfo/australasia
index d981a6a9168b..7e52f181fe57 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/australasia
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/australasia
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)australasia 7.34
+# @(#)australasia 7.44
# This file also includes Pacific islands.
# Notes are at the end of this file
@@ -158,9 +158,6 @@ Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 - LMT 1895 Feb
10:30 LH LHST
# Australian miscellany
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
- 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
#
# Ashmore Is, Cartier
# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
@@ -178,12 +175,17 @@ Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
# Manihiki, Penrhyn, Rakehanga
# no information
+# Christmas
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Indian/Christmas 7:02:52 - LMT 1895 Feb
+ 7:00 - CXT # Christmas Island Time
# Cook Is
+# From Shanks (1995):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Cook 1978 only - Nov 12 0:00 0:30 HS
-Rule Cook 1979 max - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Cook 1979 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
+Rule Cook 1979 1991 - Mar Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Cook 1979 1990 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0:30 HS
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Rarotonga -10:39:04 - LMT 1901 # Avarua
-10:30 - CKT 1978 Nov 12 # Cook Is Time
@@ -207,27 +209,14 @@ Zone Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 - LMT 1912 Oct
-9:30 - MART # Marquesas Time
Zone Pacific/Tahiti -9:58:16 - LMT 1912 Oct # Papeete
-10:00 - TAHT # Tahiti Time
+# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
+# it is uninhabited.
# Guam
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Guam 9:39:00 - LMT 1901 # Agana
10:00 - GST
-# Howland, Baker
-# uninhabited since World War II
-# no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago
-
-# Jarvis
-# uninhabited since 1958
-# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
-
-# Johnston
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
-
-# Kingman
-# uninhabited
-
# Kiribati
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Tarawa 11:32:04 - LMT 1901 # Bairiki
@@ -282,9 +271,8 @@ Zone Pacific/Nauru 11:07:40 - LMT 1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule NC 1977 1978 - Dec Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule NC 1978 1979 - Feb 27 0:00 0 -
-Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule NC 1997 max - Mar Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule NC 1997 max - Nov lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule NC 1996 only - Dec 1 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule NC 1997 only - Mar 2 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Noumea 11:05:48 - LMT 1912 Jan 13
11:00 NC NC%sT
@@ -303,7 +291,7 @@ Rule NZ 1928 only - Nov 4 2:00 0:30 HD
Rule NZ 1929 only - Oct 30 2:00 0:30 HD
Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00 0 S
Rule NZ 1930 1933 - Oct Sun>=8 2:00 0:30 HD
-# Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base GMT offset
+# Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base UT offset
# didn't change until 1945 Apr 30; go with Shanks.
Rule NZ 1934 1940 - Apr lastSun 2:00 0 S
Rule NZ 1934 1939 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0:30 HD
@@ -352,9 +340,6 @@ Zone Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 - LMT 1901 # Kingston
Zone Pacific/Palau 8:57:56 - LMT 1901 # Koror
9:00 - PWT # Palau Time
-# Palmyra
-# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
-
# Papua New Guinea
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 - LMT 1880
@@ -402,6 +387,39 @@ Zone Pacific/Tongatapu 12:19:20 - LMT 1901
Zone Pacific/Funafuti 11:56:52 - LMT 1901
12:00 - TVT # Tuvalu Time
+
+# US minor outlying islands
+
+# Howland, Baker
+# uninhabited since World War II
+# no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago
+
+# Jarvis
+# uninhabited since 1958
+# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
+
+# Johnston
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Johnston -10:00 - HST
+
+# Kingman
+# uninhabited
+
+# Midway
+Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
+ -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
+ -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
+ -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
+
+# Palmyra
+# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
+
+# Wake
+# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
+ 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
+
+
# Vanuatu
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Vanuatu 1983 only - Sep 25 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -414,11 +432,6 @@ Rule Vanuatu 1992 only - Oct Sun>=23 0:00 1:00 S
Zone Pacific/Efate 11:13:16 - LMT 1912 Jan 13 # Vila
11:00 Vanuatu VU%sT # Vanuatu Time
-# Wake
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Wake 11:06:28 - LMT 1901
- 12:00 - WAKT # Wake Time
-
# Wallis and Futuna
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
@@ -434,8 +447,8 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
@@ -472,8 +485,6 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
#
# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.
-#
-# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
###############################################################################
@@ -511,6 +522,25 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
+# From Eric Ulevik <eau@zip.com.au> (1998-01-05):
+#
+# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
+# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
+# relevant entries in this database.
+#
+# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
+# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
+# </a>
+# ACT
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
+# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
+# </a>
+# SA
+# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
+# Standard Time Act, 1898
+# </a>
+
# Northern Territory
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
@@ -783,7 +813,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# # YANCOWINNA.. [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
# # [ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
-# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite it's location on the
+# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
@@ -804,7 +834,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Wallis 12:15:20 - LMT 1901
# hour ahead of NSW time.
# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
-# For Lord Howe we use Shanks through its time of publication (1991).
+# For Lord Howe we use Shanks through 1991.
# Lord Howe is part of NSW, so we'll guess it has used the same transition
# times as NSW since 1991, even though Shanks writes that Lord Howe went
# with Victoria when NSW and Victoria disagreed in 1982.
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/backward b/share/zoneinfo/backward
index 59fcffcdffe3..84f3de51b15a 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/backward
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/backward
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)backward 7.13
+# @(#)backward 7.15
# This file provides links between current names for time zones
# and their old names. Many names changed in late 1993.
@@ -38,7 +38,6 @@ Link America/Havana Cuba
Link Africa/Cairo Egypt
Link Europe/Dublin Eire
Link Europe/London GB
-Link Etc/GMT GMT
Link Etc/GMT+0 GMT+0
Link Etc/GMT-0 GMT-0
Link Etc/GMT0 GMT0
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/etcetera b/share/zoneinfo/etcetera
index c47fae7a68c3..4fb27acff37c 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/etcetera
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/etcetera
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)etcetera 7.6
+# @(#)etcetera 7.10
# These entries are mostly present for historical reasons, so that
# people in areas not otherwise covered by the tz files could "zic -l"
@@ -10,6 +10,12 @@ Zone Etc/GMT 0 - GMT
Zone Etc/UTC 0 - UTC
Zone Etc/UCT 0 - UCT
+# The following link uses older naming conventions,
+# but it belongs here, not in the file `backward',
+# as functions like gmtime load the "GMT" file to handle leap seconds properly.
+# We want this to work even on installations that omit the other older names.
+Link Etc/GMT GMT
+
Link Etc/UTC Etc/Universal
Link Etc/UTC Etc/Zulu
@@ -20,7 +26,7 @@ Link Etc/GMT Etc/GMT0
# We use POSIX-style signedness in the names and output,
# internal-style signedness in the specifications.
-# For example, TZ=Etc/GMT+4 corresponds to 4 hours _behind_ GMT;
+# For example, TZ=Etc/GMT+4 corresponds to 4 hours _behind_ UTC;
# it is equivalent to TZ=GMT+4, which is implemented directly as per POSIX.
# Earlier incarnations of this package were not POSIX-compliant,
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/europe b/share/zoneinfo/europe
index 2948ba1cafda..9e908327590f 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/europe
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/europe
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)europe 7.46
+# @(#)europe 7.57
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
@@ -6,8 +6,8 @@
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
@@ -37,8 +37,6 @@
# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
#
-# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
-#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).
@@ -67,7 +65,7 @@
###############################################################################
-# United Kingdom
+# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
# The UK and its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar on 1752-09-14.
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06):
@@ -143,299 +141,387 @@
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-09-03):
-#
-# Our Government...couldn't...make a decision after the 1989 consultation
-# exercise about the UK changing its timezone so it just let things drift
-# (different from deciding to keep the status quo). According to the
-# Summer Time Order 1992 (SI 1992/1729) the dates of Summer Time for 1993
-# and 1994 are:
-# Start End
-# 1993 28 March 24 October
-# 1994 27 March 23 October
-# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT.
-#
-# There [was] an error in your tables for the start and end times prior to 1981.
-# The UK always used to change at 02:00 GMT. In 1981 it changed to 01:00 GMT
-# as a part of EC harmonisation and has remained at that time since.
-#
-# I have found the default algorithm for UK Summer Time, it is in the
-# Summer Time Act 1972. Section 1 states that in the absence of an Order
-# in Council Summer Time starts at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day
-# after the third Saturday in March, unless that day is Easter Day, in
-# which case it is the morning of the day after the second Saturday.
-# It ends at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day after the fourth Saturday
-# in October. (All the redundant `morning of the day ...' is in the Act.)
-# This is only of passing interest now as it will always be overridden by
-# an Order in Council (a Statutory Instrument, the SI thing mentioned above)
-# to specify the EC specified dates.
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-18):
-#
-# My contact in the Ministry of Defence Public Relations department
-# accepted the challenge of looking into this and produced the following,
-# from Hansard (the official record of the UK Parliament), Oral Answers,
-# 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60:
-#
-# `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
-# Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
-# regarding double summer time.
-#
-# [two other similar questions omitted]
-#
-# Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
-# considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
-# double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
-# maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
-# when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
-# double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
-# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday- Monday so that it will operate from
-# Monday, 2nd April.'
-
# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14):
# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-09-03):
-#
-# > # Current rules
-# > Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 BST
-# > Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Oct Sun>=23 1:00s 0 GMT
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19):
+# The following list attempts to show the complete history of Summer Time
+# legislation in the United Kingdom, and has quite a bit to say about
+# the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
#
-# The ending rule here doesn't match the EC rules, which specify the fourth
-# Sunday in October for the UK and Eire. The `fourth Sunday' rule wasn't
-# followed in 1989, but then the sixth EC directive wasn't in force then
-# and I don't know what previous ones said. 1995 is the next year with
-# the 4th Sun on 22 Oct, but that year isn't covered by the UK Summer Time
-# Order or the sixth EC directive. Your Oct Sun>=23 rule matches history
-# and with things only announced for 2 years or so in advance who knows
-# what will happen.
+# Things that I have not personally seen are marked (???). Things that
+# I haven't seen but Joseph Myers has are marked (jsm). The problem
+# with finding old Orders (rather than Acts) is that nobody seems to
+# keep the actual documents themselves, not even the Government. They
+# get bound into annual volumes, which are published, but by the time
+# this happens the Orders are mainly spent as the years they refer
+# to have come and gone, so they don't get included in the annual
+# volumes.
#
-# There are renewed rumours that the Government here will make another
-# attempt at resolving this issue, which is what prompted me to start
-# asking the Home Office and the EC about it again. The EC categorically
-# state they are not asking anybody to change timezone, they only want
-# common start/end dates. The UK Govt. seem to want to change our zone
-# and blame the resulting fuss on the EC. Me, I think we should scrap
-# summer time completely, noon is when the Sun is overhead, and that should
-# be the end of it.
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-22):
+# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
+# the dusty old statutes, to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
+# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
+# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter),
+# and to Joseph Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk>, who tracked down the Orders
+# up to 1945, some of the old Acts, and the first five EC Directives.
#
-# I now have the text of the Summer Time Act 1916, the granddaddy of them all.
-# It is headed: `An Act to provide for the Time in Great Britain and Ireland
-# being in advance of Greenwich and Dublin mean time respectively in the
-# summer months'.
+# Some definitions:
#
-# It specifies 21 May and 1 October for 1916 (both at 02:00 GMT) and whatever
-# dates an Order in Council may specify for subsequent years.
+# Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales
+# United Kingdom: Great Britain plus Ireland (up to 1922) or Northern
+# Ireland (since 1922)
+# S.I.: Statutory Instrument, the modern name for secondary legislation
+# S.R.&O.: Statutory Rules and Orders, the older name for secondary legislation
#
-# Section 4 states: `This act shall apply to Ireland in like manner as it
-# applies to Great Britain, with the substitution however of references
-# to Dublin mean time for references to Greenwich mean time.'
+# Unless otherwise specified, Acts and secondary legislation are assumed
+# to apply throughout the United Kingdom, but not to the Isle of Man
+# or the Channel Islands.
#
-# Lorna, my learned legal friend who supplied it, also offers this quote
-# from Halsbury's Statutes on the extent of Acts:
+# Some of the Acts and Orders I found in various libraries, and I don't
+# have copies. When I looked at them I was looking for dates and not things
+# like whether they applied to the Bailiwick of Jersey. I will try to
+# check these documents again.
#
-# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
-# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
-# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
-# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
-# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
+# ---
#
-# She goes on to say the seminal event of 1922 was the establishment of
-# the Irish Free State, now called Eire.
+# - The Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880 (43 & 44 Vict. c. 9)
#
-# The Act doesn't say anything about Wales (or Scotland) so I would assert
-# that Shanks is wrong here. I would like to know why he thinks Wales
-# was different.
+# Defined Greenwich mean time to be the standard time in Great Britain
+# and Dublin mean time to be the standard time in Ireland, superseding
+# various forms of local mean time.
#
-# It also confirms the fact that Ireland followed Dublin time back then,
-# and 25 minutes behind Greenwich, as Shanks has it, would be correct.
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-28):
+# - The Statutory Time Act, 1883 (???)
#
-# I now have before me, thanks to my learned legal friend Lorna, the text of
-# the Time (Ireland) Act 1916.
+# An Act of Tynwald, the Isle of Man Parliament. It appears to have
+# defined the standard time on the Isle of Man as GMT but as I haven't
+# seen it I don't know if it used Greenwich mean time, some other definition,
+# or just said that Isle of Man time would be the same as in Great Britain.
#
-# It says that as from 2 AM Dublin Mean Time on 1 October 1916 the time
-# for general purposes in Ireland shall be the same as the rest of Great
-# Britain (ie. GMT with the Summer Time periods specified by the Summer Time
-# Act 1916).... As Ireland was behind GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct GB would
-# have already put the clocks back. Using DST as Dublin Summer Time the
-# sequence would have been:
-# Dublin London
-# 02:34 DST 02:59 BST
-# 02:35 DST 02:00 GMT
-# 02:59 DST 02:24 GMT
-# 02:25 GMT 02:25 GMT
-# with the transition 03:00 DST -> 02:00 DMT -> 02:25 GMT all at once.
+# - The Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5. c. 62)
#
-# In a table of repeals in the Schedule to the Act it mentions the
-# Statutes (Definition of Time) Act 1880. This is presumably the source
-# of the 1880 date in Shanks. The little bit of it that is repealed
-# also refers solely to Ireland and Dublin Mean Time.
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-29):
+# Gives the power, by Order in Council, to extend wartime legislation
+# to the Isle of Man.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 14)
+#
+# Introduced Summer Time for the first time, in Great Britain and Ireland.
+# Specified a one hour offset from GMT (DMT in Ireland), dates of
+# Sunday 21 May and Sunday 1 October and times of 02:00 (GMT/DMT).
+# Gave a power to make Orders in subsequent years, for the duration
+# of the then current war.
+#
+# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 45)
+#
+# This abolished Dublin mean time at 02:00 DMT on Sunday 1 October 1916,
+# bringing the whole of the United Kingdom onto GMT. As Ireland was behind
+# GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct Great Britain had already put the clocks back.
+# Using Paul Eggert's suggestion of IST for Irish Summer Time and the figure
+# derived from Whitman for the offset of IST from GMT (00:34:39) the sequence
+# would have been:
+# Dublin London
+# 02:34:38 IST 02:59:59 BST
+# 02:34:39 IST 02:00:00 GMT
+# 02:59:59 IST 02:25:20 GMT
+# 02:25:21 GMT 02:25:21 GMT
+# with the transition 03:00:00 IST -> 02:00:00 DMT -> 02:25:21 GMT all at once.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382
+#
+# An Order made under the Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914
+# extending the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man. Dated
+# 23 May 1916, two days after the start of Summer Time, but it says that
+# the Act is deemed to have taken effect in the Isle of Man at the same
+# time as it took effect in the United Kingdom.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 362
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
+# for Summer Time in 1917 of Sunday 8 April to Monday 17 September,
+# both at 02:00 GMT. Note that Summer Time ends on a Monday.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time (Isle of Man) Act, 1916
+# (the thing created by S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382) specifying the same
+# dates of 8 April to 17 September, at 02:00 GMT for the Isle of Man.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
+# for Summer Time in 1918 of Sunday 24 March to Monday 30 September,
+# both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 429
+#
+# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1918 with the same dates and times.
+#
+# - The Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918
+# (8 & 9 Geo. 5. c. 59)
+#
+# This gave power to specify a legal end date for the war just ended,
+# which would affect things like the Summer Time Act, 1916, which applied
+# only in wartime. This date was to be close to the date of formal
+# ratification of the treaty or treaties of peace.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
+# for Summer Time in 1919 of Sunday 30 March to Monday 29 September,
+# both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 366
+#
+# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1919 with the same dates and times.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
+# for Summer Time in 1920 of Sunday 28 March to Monday 27 September,
+# both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573
+#
+# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1920 with the same dates and times.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
+#
+# An Order modifying both S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 and S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573 to
+# change the end date for Summer Time from Monday 27 September to
+# Monday 25 October (the time remaining 02:00 GMT). The 1989 Green
+# Paper (Cm 722) says this was done because of a coal strike.
+#
+# - The War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 (10 Geo. 5. c. 5)
+#
+# This extends the power to make Orders under the Summer Time Act, 1916
+# for a period of 12 months after the termination of the war.
+# Came into force on 31 March 1920. Although the war had been over for more
+# than 12 months by then the legal end date had not yet been set.
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
+#
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
+# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
+# in 1921 of Sunday 3 April to Monday 3 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
-# My case is that, with the sole exception of Ireland in 1916 using Dublin
-# Mean Time, Summer Time has been uniform throughout the United Kingdom
-# ever since it first started in 1916.
+# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 364
#
-# The United Kingdom is England, Wales and Scotland plus all of Ireland from
-# 1916 up to and including 1921, or plus Northern Ireland from 1922 to date.
+# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1921 with the same dates and times.
#
-# The dates used are those specified in the table in Summer Time: A Consultation
-# Document (Cm 722, 1989) that are now included in the europe file, with a
-# change to a single date, the start in 1924. I made a typo in my 1989 mail
-# and the table itself is also wrong. The correct date is 13 April.
-# The times were 02:00 GMT up to and including 1980, 01:00 GMT from 1981 on,
-# except for wartime double summer time.
+# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
#
-# As evidence I would cite:
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
+# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
+# in 1921 of Sunday 26 March to Sunday 8 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
+# It also mentions the arrangements for defining the legal end date
+# for the late war. An Order was made on 10 August 1921, under the
+# Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918, setting
+# a date of 31 August 1921. This means the powers of the Summer Time
+# Act, 1916 would finally expire on 31 August 1922.
#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1916.
+# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 290 (???)
#
-# This specifically states that it applies to Ireland, specifies dates of
-# 21 May and 1 October and times of 02:00, and says that in Ireland the
-# times relate to Dublin mean time. It specifies an offset of 1 hour.
-#
-# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916
-#
-# This abolishes Dublin mean time on 02:00 DMT 1 October 1916.
-# It repeals that section of the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880
-# that specifies DMT. It is therefore a safe bet that DMT existed at least
-# from 1880 and was the only alternative standard time in the UK.
+# This is probably the matching Isle of Man Order.
#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1922
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1922 (12 & 13 Geo. 5. c. 22)
#
# This specifies an offset of 1 hour and dates of the day after the third
# Saturday in April, unless that be Easter, in which case it is the day after
# the second Saturday, and the day after the third Saturday in September.
# The time is 02:00 GMT. It applied in 1922 and 1923, and longer if Parliament
-# so approved.
+# so approved. It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
+# Came into Force on 20 July 1920. Note the reversion to ending on a Sunday.
#
-# It specifically states that it applies to Northern Ireland, the Channel
-# Islands, and the Isle of Man.
+# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 1205
#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1925
+# An Order made under the War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920
+# dated 13 October 1922. It revokes (among other things) the Order extending
+# the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man.
+#
+# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1923 (13 & 14 Geo. 5. c. 37)
+#
+# This extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
+# 31 December 1924.
+#
+# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1924 (15 Geo. 5. c. 1) (jsm)
+#
+# This further extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
+# 31 December 1925.
+#
+# - The Time Act (Northern Ireland), 1924 (14 & 15 Geo. 5. c. 24 (N.I.))
+#
+# This Act says that while it remains in force, any Act or Order relating
+# to the time for general purposes in Great Britain shall also apply
+# in Northern Ireland, and the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 shall have effect
+# accordingly.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1925 (15 & 16 Geo. 5. c. 64)
#
# This makes the 1922 Act permanent, with a change to the end date to the
-# day after the first Saturday in October. It says nothing about extent,
-# so that part of the 1922 Act will still apply.
+# day after the first Saturday in October. Came into force on 7 August 1925.
+#
+# - The Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939 (2 & 3 Geo. 6. c. 62) (???)
+#
+# I haven't seen this one. It presumably gave the Government powers to
+# do all manner of things during the newly started war.
#
-# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, SR&O 1939 No. 1379
-# [SR&O == Statutory Regulation and Order]
+# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
#
# These were made under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
-# It changes the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
-# It makes consequential changes to some vehicle lighting legislation,
-# which includes the Motor Vehicles and Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Act,
-# 1934, so it seems clear it applies in Northern Ireland.
+# They change the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
#
-# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
-# 1939, SR&O 1940 No. 1883
+# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172
#
+# An Order in Council amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
+# It changed the start date to the day after the fourth Saturday in February
+# (ie. 25 Feb 1940).
+#
+# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 1883
+#
+# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This continues summer time throughout the year after it starts in 1940.
-# It says nothing about extent and has no consequential changes.
#
-# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
-# 1939, SR&O 1941 No. 476
+# - S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
#
+# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
# This introduces double summer time, starting at 01:00 GMT on the day after
# the first Saturday in May and ending at 01:00 GMT on the day after the
# second Saturday in August, offset another hour from normal summer time,
-# which continues throughout the rest of the year. It goes on a lot about
-# consequential changes to agricultural wages legislation, and says in part
-# `... and in its application to Northern Ireland have effect as
-# if for the references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation) Acts, 1924 and
-# 1940, there were substituted references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation)
-# Acts (Northern Ireland), 1939 and 1940, ...'. It also has a similar section
-# for Scotland. Both sections substitute the local Agricultural Wages Board
-# for the Agricultural Wages Board for England and Wales, showing that
-# England and Wales were indivisible.
+# which continues throughout the rest of the year.
#
-# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
-# 1939, SR&O 1942 No. 506
+# - S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
#
-# This changes the start date of double summer time to the day after the first
-# Saturday in April. It says nothing about extent.
+# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
+# This changes the start date of Double Summer Time to the day after the first
+# Saturday in April, bringing it forward from May.
#
-# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
-# 1939, SR&O 1944 No. 932
+# - S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
#
-# This changed the end date of double summer time to 17 September 1944.
-# (I don't have the text of this, just a note of what it did, the text almost
-# certainly had the `day after the nth Saturday' form.)
+# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
+# This changed the end date of Double Summer Time to the day after the
+# third Saturday in September (ie. 17 September 1944).
#
-# (I am missing whatever regulations there were to change things in 1945
-# and the Summer Time Act, 1947.)
+# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
#
-# - The British Standard Time Act, 1968
+# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
+# This changes the start and end dates of Double Summer Time to the
+# day after the first Sunday in April and the day after the second Saturday
+# in July (ie. Mon 2 April to Sun 15 July).
#
-# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
-# the year as an experiment until it expired on 31 October 1971.
-# There was no double summer time so we didn't have to change the clocks at all.
-# It specifically said it applied to Northern Ireland. It also said it
-# applied to Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man unless they passed
-# measures saying it didn't.
+# I have this quote from Hansard (the official record of the United Kingdom
+# Parliament), Oral Answers, 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60, explaining the
+# unusual start on a Monday:
#
-# - The Manx Time Act, 1968
+# `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
+# Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
+# regarding double summer time.
#
-# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
-# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
+# [two other similar questions omitted]
#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1972
+# Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
+# considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
+# double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
+# maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
+# when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
+# double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
+# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday-Monday so that it will operate from
+# Monday, 2nd April.'
#
-# This specified a reversion to normal summer time behaviour with a start
-# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
-# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
-# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
-# 1 hour.
+# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
#
-# It has the same wording about extent as the British Standard Time Act, 1968,
-# applying to Northern Ireland unconditionally and to Jersey, Guernsey and the
-# Isle of Man if they don't do something about it.
+# An Order under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Acts, 1939 and 1940 revoking
+# a long list of things, including the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
+# This meant that Summer Time reverted to being set by the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
+# It was made on 28 September, early enough to end Summer Time on the
+# date defined by the 1925 Act: 7 October.
#
-# (I am missing various Summer Time Orders that modified the 1972 Act to
-# harmonise with the EC since 1981. The major change is that the time changes
-# to 01:00 GMT.)
+# - The Summer Time Act, 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. 6. c. 16)
#
-# - The Summer Time Order, 1992, SI 1992/1729 [SI == Statutory Instrument]
+# Came into force on 11 March 1947. Amended the Summer Time Acts, 1922 and
+# 1925 to change the dates of Summer Time and to introduce Double Summer Time
+# (although it doesn't give this, or any, name for this period of 2 hour
+# offset from GMT). Dates are given for 1947 only and are: 02:00 GMT Sunday
+# 16 March, 01:00 GMT Sunday 13 April, 01:00 GMT Sunday 10 August, and 02:00
+# Sunday 2 November. It gave a power to make Orders for subsequent years,
+# both to vary the dates and to continue Double Summer Time. It applied
+# to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
#
-# This specifies dates of:
-# Start End
-# 1993 28 March 24 October
-# 1994 27 March 23 October
-# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT....
+# - Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
#
-# - Some text on the extent of Acts, from Halsbury's Statutes
+# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1948 of
+# 14 March and 31 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
-# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
-# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
-# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
-# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
-# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
+# Although the 1947 Act had legislated for Double Summer Time, this was
+# not continued after 1947.
#
-# So, many of these measures specifically include Northern Ireland,
-# the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. None of them exclude any
-# part of the UK. The default interpretation of Acts is that they apply
-# throughout the UK.
+# - Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
#
-# With that, I rest my case Milud :-)
+# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1949
+# of 3 April and 30 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
#
-# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
-# the dusty old statutes, and to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
-# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
-# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter).
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1996-05-29):
-# I have now got a copy of the British Standard Time Act 1968.
-# It says (S4(2)) that it expires at 02:00 GMT on 31 October 1971 unless
-# an Order in Council was passed in Parliament to make the Act permanent.
-# No Order was passed, so 02:00 1971-10-31 it is...
+# - Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
+#
+# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1950
+# of 16 April and 22 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
+#
+# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1951
+# of 15 April and 21 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
+#
+# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1952
+# of 20 April and 26 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
+#
+# This is the last of this run of Orders, so for 1953 things reverted
+# to the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
+#
+# - The Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland), 1954 (1954 c. 33 (N.I.)) (???)
+#
+# I presume that section 39 of this Act is similar to section 9 of the
+# Interpretation Act, 1978 (listed below) in specifying GMT as the
+# legal time in Northern Ireland, replacing the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916.
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
+#
+# Specified dates of 26 March and 29 October (02:00 GMT) for 1961
+#
+# - Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
+#
+# Specified dates of 25 March to 28 October (02:00 GMT) for 1962.
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
+#
+# Specified dates of 31 March to 27 October (02:00 GMT) for 1963.
+#
+# - Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
+#
+# Specified dates of 22 March to 25 October (02:00 GMT) for 1964.
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
+#
+# Specified dates for three years (all 02:00 GMT):
+# 1965: 21 March to 24 October
+# 1966: 20 March to 23 October
+# 1967: 19 March to 29 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
+# - Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
+#
+# The first of these specifies dates for 1968 of 18 February for the United
+# Kingdom but 7 April for the Isle of Man, both ending on 27 October,
+# all at 02:00 GMT. The second Order changes the Isle of Man start date
+# to 18 February to match the United Kingdom.
+#
+# - The British Standard Time Act 1968 (1968 c. 45)
+#
+# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
+# the year. It expired at 02:00 GMT on 31 October 1971, as specified in the
+# Act, as Parliament did not move to make this experment permanent.
+# It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
#
# Interestingly, it says baldly `This Act shall come into force on
# 27 October 1968', without giving a time. As S1 of the Act merely
@@ -445,218 +531,184 @@
# possibly argue that the start time of BStandardT was 00:00 1968-10-27,
# especially as the Act repealed the Summer Time Acts 1916--1947 in toto,
# thereby destroying the authority of the Summer Time Order specifying
-# summer time in 1968....
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-11-18)
-#
-# Here is a revised version of my tabrules file for the perl script I sent
-# before. I have personally verified the various Orders back to 1953 and
-# all the Acts.
-#
-# There are no changes to the dates we already have.
-#
-# My doubt about an early start in 1967 on 18 Feb was misplaced, the Order
-# does say 18 Feb. This is an interesting case as the first Order gave a
-# different date of 7 April 1967 for the Isle of Man but this was changed
-# before it came into effect by another Order for the Isle of Man alone.
-#
-# I don't think I will be able to find any more of the earlier Orders.
-# The annual volumes for 1949--52 do not contain the various Summer Time
-# Orders. They therefore don't appear in the index. They rate a mention in
-# italics in the numerical list at the start but that is all.
-# I think what happens is that the annual volume is produced well after the
-# end of the year in question, by which time the Summer Time Order is spent.
-# They assume that nobody would ever be stupid enough to want to see it
-# again so they leave it out.
-#
-# It might be a good idea to put this table, or the output of tabscript
-# showing all the moves because of Easter, in the europe file comments in
-# place of my old transcription of the Green Paper table [the UK Government
-# paper "Summer Time: A Consultation Document" (HMSO Cm722 June 1989)].
-#
-# Peter Ilieve peter@memex.co.uk
-#
-#
-# ## control file for tabscript, a program to generate UK summer time dates
-# ## matching the table in Cm 722, the 1989 Green Paper.
-# ## Lines like this are comments.
-# ## Lines with a single # at the start are copied into the output
-# ## Control lines are of the form
-# ## <years> <start date> <end date> <flags> <double start> <double end>
-# ## <years> is either a single year or a hyphen separated range, with --
-# ## also accepted as I use this in TeX a lot.
-# ## <start date> and <end date> are a digit followed bu a month name.
-# ## It is either an nth Saturday or an explicit date, depending on <flags>.
-# ## 0 and/or none are used when there is no date, as during 1968--71.
-# ## <flags> can contain `fixed' to indicate explicit dates and `double'
-# ## to indicate double summer time dates are present.
-# ## At present double requires fixed as well.
-# ## <double start> and <double end> are like the start and end dates, with
-# ## the exception of the 0 and/or none feature.
-#
-# ## Blank lines are also ignored.
-#
-# ## Places where I am uncertain, not having personally verified the dates
-# ## against the Act or Order, are marked ???
-# ## These dates are taken from the Cm 722 table.
-#
-# # Summer Time Act, 1916
-# 1916 21 May 1 October fixed
-#
-# ## I haven't yet looked for Orders for 1916--22 and I doubt I will find them.
-# # unknown Order or Orders ???
-# 1917 8 apr 17 sep fixed
-# 1918 24 mar 30 sep fixed
-# 1919 30 mar 29 sep fixed
-# # end date extended in 1920 from 27 Sep because of coal strike (from Cm 722)
-# 1920 28 mar 25 oct fixed
-# 1921 3 apr 3 oct fixed
-#
-# # Summer Time Act, 1922
-# # came into force 22 July 1922, too late for 1922, so missing Order ???
-# 1922 26 mar 8 oct fixed
-# 1923-1924 3 April 3 September
-#
-# # Summer Time Act, 1925
-# 1925--1938 3 April 1 October
-#
-# # Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939
-# 1939 3 April 3 November
-# # 1940 amendment (SR&O 1940 Nos. 172 & 1883)
-# 1940 4 feb 0 none
-# # 1941 amendment (SR&O 1941 No. 476)
-# 1941 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 may 10 aug
-# # 1942 amendment (SR&O 1942 No. 506)
-# 1942 0 none 0 none fixed,double 5 apr 9 aug
-# 1943 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 apr 15 aug
-# # 1944 amendment (SR&O 1944 No. 932)
-# 1944 0 none 0 none fixed,double 2 apr 17 sep
-# # 1945 dates from Hansard, Oral Answers, 1 March 1945
-# 1945 0 none 7 oct fixed,double 2 apr 15 jul
-#
-# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
-# 1946 3 April 1 October
-#
-# # Summer Time Act, 1947
-# # Fixed dates for 1947 only, gives power to have double summer time
-# 1947 16 mar 2 nov fixed,double 13 apr 10 aug
-# ## I can't find any trace of the Order for 1948.
-# # Unknown Order ???
-# 1948 14 mar 31 oct fixed
-# ## I know the numbers for the 1949--52 ones but the text is missing from the
-# ## annual volumes. I also don't know if the 49 Order was for 49 or 50, etc.
-# # Summer Time Order, 1949 (SI1949/373) ???
-# 1949 3 apr 30 oct fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1950 (SI1950/518) ???
-# 1950 16 apr 22 oct fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1951 (SI1951/430) ???
-# 1951 15 apr 21 oct fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1952 (SI1952/451) ???
-# 1952 20 apr 26 oct fixed
-#
-# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
-# 1953--1960 3 April 1 October
-#
-# ## All Orders from here on specify fixed dates, not day after nth Sunday
-# ## Start pattern looks like Mar lastSun up to 1963, Mar Sun>=19 up to 1967.
-# ## End pattern looks like Oct Sun>=23 up to 1967.
-# # Summer Time Order, 1961 (SI1961/71)
-# 1961 26 March 29 October fixed
-# # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (SI1961/2465)
-# 1962 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1963 (SI1963/81)
-# 1963 31 March 27 October fixed
-# # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (SI1963/2101)
-# 1964 22 March 25 October fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1964 (SI1964/1201)
-# 1965 21 Mar 24 Oct fixed
-# 1966 20 Mar 23 Oct fixed
-# 1967 19 Mar 29 Oct fixed
-# # Summer Time Order, 1967 (SI1967/1148)
-# # Specifies different start date of 7 April for Isle of Man
-# # Summer Time Order, 1968 (SI1968/117)
-# # Changes Isle of Man start date to 18 Feb to match rest of UK
-# # British Standard Time Act, 1968
-# 1968 18 feb 0 none fixed
-# 1969--1970 0 none 0 none
-# 1971 0 none 31 oct fixed
-#
-# # Summer Time Act, 1972
-# 1972-1980 3 March 4 October
-#
-# # The pattern here looks like Last Sun in Mar, day after 4th Sat in Oct
-# # First EC Directive ???
-# # Summer Time Order, 1980 (SI1980/1089)
-# 1981 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
-# 1982 28 Mar 24 Oct fixed
-# # Second EC Directive ???
-# # Summer Time Order, 1982 (SI1982/1673)
-# 1983 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
-# 1984 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
-# 1985 31 Mar 27 Oct fixed
-# # Third EC Directive ???
-# # Summer Time Order, 1986 (SI1986/223)
-# 1986 30 Mar 26 Oct fixed
-# 1987 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
-# 1988 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
-# # Fourth EC Directive ???
-# # Summer Time Order, 1988 (SI1988/931)
-# 1989 26 Mar 29 Oct fixed
-# # Fifth EC Directive ???
-# # Summer Time Order, 1989 (SI1989/985)
-# 1990 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
-# 1991 31 Mar 27 Oct fixed
-# 1992 29 Mar 25 Oct fixed
-# # Sixth EC Directive
-# # Summer Time Order, 1992 (SI1992/1729)
-# 1993 28 Mar 24 Oct fixed
-# 1994 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-08-18):
-# I now have the text of the 7th EC directive on summer time arrangements
-# (94/21/EC), which was approved on 30 May....
-# The major changes from existing practice are that 1995 will be the last year
-# that the UK and Eire finish on a different date from everyone else,
-# and the common end date from 1996 onwards will be the last Sunday in October.
-# Year Start End End (UK & Eire, 1995 only)
-# (rule) (last Sun) (last Sun) (4th Sun)
-# 1995 26 March 24 September 22 October
-# 1996 31 March 27 October
-# 1997 30 March 26 October
-#
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-01):
-# The final piece of the legislative jigsaw for summer time in the UK for
-# 1995-97 is now in place. The Summer Time Order 1994 (SI 1994/2798)
-# came into force on 16 November. It restates the dates from the EC
-# seventh Summer Time Directive....
-#
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1997-08-06):
-# I now have a copy of the ... Eighth Directive 97/44/EC of the European
-# Parliament and of the Council of 22 July 1997 on summer-time arrangements.
-# It runs for 4 years, 1998--2001, and confirms the current rules of
-# last Sunday in March to last Sunday in October....
-# The directive does not apply in overseas territories of the Member States.
-# It says the Commission should produce a proposal for 2002 and beyond
-# by 1 Jan 2000 and this should be adopted by 1 Jan 2001. I doubt that
-# this will happen though....
-# There is no mention of the French desire to abandon the whole idea.
-# France has had a change of government recently so maybe it will
-# be quietly dropped.
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-03-28):
-# The [GB-Eire] end date of 22 October [1995] conflicts with your current rule
-# of Oct Sun>=23, and the historical UK formula of Sun after 4th Sat.
-# The last time 4th Sun and Sun after 4th Sat differed was in 1989,
-# when 29 October was used. That year was covered by a UK Summer Time Order
-# for only a single year and it looks as though there was a matching 4th EC
-# directive for just this year. I don't have the text of the 5th EC
-# directive (for 1990--92) but my guess would be it said 4th Sun.
-# To maintain strict historical accuracy you could start a new UK ending rule
-# of Oct Sun>=22 in 1990.
+# summer time in 1968.
+#
+# - The Manx Time Act 1968
+#
+# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
+# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
+#
+# - The Summer Time Act 1972 (1972 c. 6)
+#
+# This specified a reversion to normal Summer Time behaviour with a start
+# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
+# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
+# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
+# 1 hour. It gives the power to make Orders to vary these dates and
+# times. This Act is still in force and is the legal authority for
+# implementing the EC Directives in the United Kingdom.
+#
+# - The Interpretation Act 1978 (1978 c. 30)
+#
+# Section 9 of this Act replaces section 1 of the Statutes (Definition of
+# Time) Act, 1880 with very similar wording maintaining GMT as the legal
+# time in Great Britain. This does not apply in Northern Ireland (it
+# has its own Interpretation Act listed above).
+#
+# - Council Directive of 22 July 1980 on summertime arrangements (80/737/EEC)
+#
+# The first of the European Directives on Summer Time. It specified start
+# dates for 1981 and 1982. No agreement had been reached on end dates.
+# Only dates were given, there was no rule like `last Sunday in March'.
+# The main change for the United Kingdom was a move to a 01:00 GMT change
+# time. The dates:
+# 1981: 29 March
+# 1982: 28 March
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
+#
+# Specified dates for 1981 and 1982, with the start dates as in the
+# EC Directive and all times 01:00 GMT:
+# 1981: 29 March to 25 October
+# 1982: 28 March to 24 October
+#
+# - Second Council Directive of 10 June 1982 on summertime arrangements
+# (82/399/EEC)
+#
+# The next European Directive. Specified dates for three years, 1983 to 1985.
+# Agreement still hadn't been reached on a common end date, and wouldn't
+# be until 1994 with the appeareance of the seventh Directive with a common
+# date for 1996 and beyond, but this time the Directive gave two sets of
+# end dates. The start date was specified by rule: the last Sunday in March.
+# All times were 01:00 GMT. The end dates were given without rule, as:
+# 1983: 25 September or 23 October
+# 1984: 30 September or 28 october
+# 1985: 29 September or 27 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
+#
+# Implemented the second EC Directive, using the October end dates.
+# 1983: 27 March to 23 October
+# 1984: 25 March to 28 october
+# 1985: 31 March to 27 October
+#
+# - Third Council Directive of 12 December 1984 on summertime arrangements
+# (84/634/EEC)
+#
+# Specified start dates of the last Sunday in March and two sets of end
+# dates, last Sunday in September and fourth Sunday in October, all at
+# 01:00 GMT. The end dates were also specified as dates:
+# 1986: 28 September or 26 October
+# 1987: 27 September or 25 October
+# 1988: 25 September or 23 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
+#
+# Implemented the third EC Directive, using the October end dates.
+# 1986: 30 March to 26 October
+# 1987: 29 March to 25 October
+# 1988: 27 March to 23 October
+#
+# - Council Directive of 20 December 1985 amending Directive 84/634/EEC
+# on summertime arrangements (85/582/EEC)
+#
+# This was to do with the accession of Spain and Portugal to the EEC.
+# The previous directve had used wording like `Member States belonging
+# to the zero (Greenwich) time zone' when refering to the different
+# sets of end dates. Portugal was in that time zone but was not going
+# to follow the United Kingdom and Ireland dates, so the text was reworded
+# without any change to the dates themselves.
+#
+# - Fourth Council Directive of 22 December 1987 on summertime arrangements
+# (88/14/EEC)
+#
+# This Directive covered only a single year: 1989. My guess is that
+# this was because 1989 was one of the years when the historic United Kingdom
+# end date of the Sunday after the fourth Saturday in October differed from
+# the rule in the previous Directive of the fourth Sunday in October.
+# All times are 01:00 GMT. No rule was specified, specific dates were given:
+# 1989: 26 March to 24 September or 29 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
+#
+# Implemented the dates of 26 March to 29 October for 1989.
+#
+# - Fifth Council Directive of 21 December 1988 on summertime arrangements
+# (89/47/EEC)
+#
+# Covered the three years 1990 to 1992. All times are 01:00 GMT. Gave both
+# rules (last Sunday in March, last Sunday in September or fourth Sunday
+# in October) and specific dates:
+# 1990: 25 March to 30 September or 28 October
+# 1991: 31 March to 29 September or 27 October
+# 1992: 29 March to 27 September or 25 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
+#
+# Implemented the fifth Directive using the October end dates.
+#
+# - Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC of 26 March 1992 on summertime
+# arrangements
+#
+# Covered the two years 1993 and 1994. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specified
+# both rules (same as the fifth Directive) and specific dates:
+# 1993: 28 March to 26 September or 24 October
+# 1994: 27 March to 25 September or 23 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
+#
+# Implemented the sixth Directive using the October end dates.
+#
+# - Seventh Directive 94/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
+# of 30 May 1994 on summer-time arrangements
+#
+# Covered the three years 1995 to 1997. Agreement had finally been reached
+# on a common end date, to start in 1996. Both rules and dates were given.
+# The rules were the same last Sunday in March to last Sunday in September
+# or fourth Sunday in October for 1995, with the end rule changing to the
+# last Sunday in October for 1996 and 1997. The year 1995 was another of
+# the tricky ones where the EC and traditional United Kingdom rules differed
+# but this time the UK changed on the fourth Sunday, 22 October, earlier
+# than usual. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specific dates were also given:
+# 1995: 26 March to 24 September or 22 October
+# 1996: 31 March to 27 October
+# 1997: 30 March to 26 October
+#
+# - Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
+#
+# Implements the seventh Directive using the October end date in 1995.
+# Applies also to the Bailiwick of Guernsey but not to the Bailiwick of
+# Jersey or the Isle of Man, which have their own (unspecified) legislation
+# on the subject.
+#
+# - Eighth Directive 97/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
+# of 22 July 1997 on summer-time arrangements
+#
+# Covers four years: 1998 to 2001. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specifies both
+# rules, last Sunday in March and last Sunday in October, and specific dates:
+# 1998: 29 March to 25 October
+# 1999: 28 March to 31 October
+# 2000: 26 March to 29 October
+# 2001: 25 March to 28 October
+#
+# <a href="http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si1997/97298201.htm">
+# - Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
+# </a>
+#
+# Implements the eighth Directive. Has the same text about the Isle of Man,
+# Guernsey and Jersey as the 1994 Order.
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@hermes.cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06):
+#
+# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
+# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
+# <a href="http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/ld199697/ldhansrd/pdvn/lds97/text/70611-20.htm#70611-20_head0">
+# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
+# </a>.
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-06-12):
#
-# As Ilieve remarks, the date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
+# The date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
# Consultation Document'' (Cm 722, 1989) table is a transcription error;
# 20 April was an Easter Sunday. Shanks has 13 April, the correct date.
# Also, the table is not quite right for 1925 through 1938; the correct rules
@@ -697,79 +749,113 @@
# "Irish Summer Time", abbreviated to "IST".
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-# 1916 to 1925--irregular
+# Summer Time Act, 1916
Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - May 21 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1916 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Mar 24 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1918 only - Sep 30 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1919 only - Sep 29 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
Rule GB-Eire 1920 only - Oct 25 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
-Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 BST
-# 1925 to 1939 start--regular, except for avoiding Easter
+Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1925 1926 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# The Summer Time Act, 1925
Rule GB-Eire 1925 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
-Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1927 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1928 1929 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1930 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1931 1932 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1933 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1934 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1935 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1936 1937 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1938 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-# 1939 end to 1947--irregular, and with double summer time
-Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 GMT
-Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
+Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172 and No. 1883
+Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb Sun>=23 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
+# S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
+# S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
-# Double daylight starts on a Monday in 1945--see above.
-Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr 2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
-Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul 15 1:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 GMT
-Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 GMT
+# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr Mon>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
+# S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 1946 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# The Summer Time Act, 1947
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
-# So much for double saving time. 1948 and 1949, irregular.
+# Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Mar 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1948 1949 - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1948 only - Oct 31 2:00s 0 GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
-# 1950 through start of 1953, regular.
-Rule GB-Eire 1950 1953 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1949 only - Oct 30 2:00s 0 GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
+# Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
+# Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
+Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Apr Sun>=14 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1950 1952 - Oct Sun>=21 2:00s 0 GMT
-# 1954 to 1980, starting rules
-Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# revert to the rules of the Summer Time Act, 1925
+Rule GB-Eire 1953 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 GMT
+Rule GB-Eire 1954 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1955 1956 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1957 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1958 1959 - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1960 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
+# Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
+# Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
Rule GB-Eire 1961 1963 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 BST
+Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
+# Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
+# Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
+# Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
Rule GB-Eire 1964 1967 - Mar Sun>=19 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
Rule GB-Eire 1968 only - Feb 18 2:00s 1:00 BST
+# The British Standard Time Act, 1968
+# (no summer time)
+# The Summer Time Act, 1972
Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Mar Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-# 1953 to 1980, ending rules
-Rule GB-Eire 1953 1960 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 GMT
-Rule GB-Eire 1961 1968 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1972 1980 - Oct Sun>=23 2:00s 0 GMT
-# 1981 on
+# Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
+# Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
+# Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
+# Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
Rule GB-Eire 1981 1995 - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1981 1989 - Oct Sun>=23 1:00u 0 GMT
+# Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
+# Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
+# Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
+# Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -780,14 +866,14 @@ Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Sep 22
0:00 EU GMT/BST
Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
-0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
- -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 3:00 # Irish Summer Time
+ -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s # Irish Summer Time
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
0:00 EU GMT/BST
Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
-0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
- -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
+ -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 2:00s
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
@@ -862,13 +948,17 @@ Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (1993-11-12):
# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
-Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 DS
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+# Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1980-10-24):
Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+# Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1984-09-13), repeated in
+# Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1989-03-14):
Rule Russia 1984 1991 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
Rule Russia 1985 1991 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
+#
Rule Russia 1992 only - Mar lastSat 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1992 only - Sep lastSat 23:00 0 -
Rule Russia 1993 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -970,15 +1060,17 @@ Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Belarus
+# Transitions before 1991 are from Shanks (1995).
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
- 2:30:20 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
+ 1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT
# Belgium
@@ -1042,13 +1134,7 @@ Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Bosnia and Herzegovina
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Sarajevo 1:13:40 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
- 1:00 EU CE%sT
+# see Yugoslavia
# Bulgaria
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -1068,13 +1154,7 @@ Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
2:00 E-Eur EE%sT
# Croatia
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Zagreb 1:03:52 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
- 1:00 EU CE%sT
+# see Yugosloavia
# Czech Republic
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1584-01-17.
@@ -1093,7 +1173,7 @@ Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
1:00 EU CE%sT
-# Denmark
+# Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
@@ -1170,7 +1250,8 @@ Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
- 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Finland
# See Sweden for when the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
@@ -1194,13 +1275,14 @@ Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
# France
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
-# French Revolutionary calendar used 1792-09-22 - 1805-12-31.
+# French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
+# and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
#
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
-Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
+Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1231,43 +1313,64 @@ Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
-Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 DS
-Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 1:00 1:00 S
-Rule France 1942 only - Mar 8 0:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
+# Shanks says this transition occurred at Oct 6 1:00,
+# but go with Denis.Excoffier@ens.fr (1997-12-12),
+# who quotes the Ephemerides Astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
+# as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
+Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1942 only - Mar 9 0:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 DS
-Rule France 1943 only - Nov 4 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 M
+Rule France 1943 only - Oct 4 3:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
-Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 M
Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
-Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule France 1976 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+# Shanks gives Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
+# go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
+Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 1:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1976 only - Sep 26 1:00 0 -
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse. Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
+Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
- 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14
+# Shanks gives 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier's 14/6/40 22hUT.
+ 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14 23:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
- 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+ 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
1:00 France CE%sT 1977
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Germany
+# From Markus Kuhn <Markus.Kuhn@cl.cam.ac.uk> (1998-09-29):
+# The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
+# Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
+#
+# <a href="http://www.ptb.de/english/org/4/43/432/lega.htm">
+# Realisation of Legal Time in Germany
+# </a>
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Germany 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 DS
-Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
+# Shanks says 05-24 2:00 to 09-24 3:00 for DDST; go with the PTB, who quotes
+# the Archiv fuer publizist. Arbeit (Munzinger-Archiv) 652 (Zeitsystem)
+# (1961-11-25), which gives dates only. Guess 3:00 transition times.
+Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
-# Whitman gives 1948 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
-Rule Germany 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+# Shanks gives 1946-10-06; go with the PTB.
+Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 DS
+# The PTB gives 3:00 CET and 3:00 CEST for the midsummer transition times;
+# go with Shanks.
+Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 M
Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1416,9 +1519,11 @@ Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri
-# <URL:http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html> (1996-03-14) (`FP'
-# below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute publication.
-# When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
+# <a href="http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html">
+# Day-light Saving Time in Italy (1996-03-14)
+# </a>
+# (`FP' below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute
+# publication. When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
# year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
# 1916 06-03 06-03 24:00 06-03 00:00 FP & W
@@ -1486,14 +1591,45 @@ Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# Latvia
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
-# Rules after 1991 are by extension from Shanks. They contradict
-# IATA SSIM (1992/1996), which claims Latvia uses W-Eur rules, but
-# Peter Ilieve's relative writes that Latvia switched in September this year,
-# so we'll assume that the old C-Eur-style rules still apply.
+
+# From Liene Kanepe <Liene_Kanepe@lm.gov.lv> (1998-09-17):
+
+# I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
+# of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
+# correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
+# changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
+#
+# Act No.35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
+# according to the Act No.925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24
+# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
+# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on 1 April at 00:00 (GMT 31 March 21:00)
+# and 1 hour backward on the 1 October at 00:00 (GMT 30 September 20:00).
+#
+# Act No.592 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1984-09-24 ...
+# according to the Act No.967 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1984-09-13
+# ...: all year round the time of 2nd time zone + 1 hour, in addition turning
+# the hands of the clock 1 hour forward on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
+# (GMT 23:00 on the previous day) and 1 hour backward on the last Sunday of
+# September at 03:00 (GMT 23:00 on the previous day).
+#
+# Act No.81 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1989-03-22 ...
+# according to the Act No.227 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1989-03-14
+# ...: since the last Sunday of March 1989 in Lithuanian SSR, Latvian SSR,
+# Estonian SSR and Kaliningrad region of Russian Federation all year round the
+# time of 2nd time zone (Moscow time minus one hour). On the territory of Latvia
+# transition to summer time is performed on the last Sunday of March at 02:00
+# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour forward. The end of
+# daylight saving time is performed on the last Sunday of September at 03:00
+# (GMT 00:00), turning the hands of the clock 1 hour backward. Exception is
+# 1989-03-26, when we must not turn the hands of the clock....
+#
+# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia of
+# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
+# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Latvia 1992 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Latvia 1992 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
@@ -1503,10 +1639,13 @@ Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 8
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 Latvia EE%sT
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
+ # Shanks says 1944-08-08, but
+ # Riga fell to the Red Army on 1944-10-13.
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
+ 2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Liechtenstein
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1526,11 +1665,17 @@ Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
+ 2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
+# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07):
+# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
+# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
+
# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -1567,13 +1712,7 @@ Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Macedonia
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Skopje 1:25:44 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
- 1:00 EU CE%sT
+# see Yugoslavia
# Malta
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -1669,11 +1808,9 @@ Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
1:00 EU CE%sT
-#
-# Svalbard
+
+# Svalbard & Jan Mayen
Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
-#
-# Jan Mayen
# From Whitman:
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT
@@ -1711,8 +1848,10 @@ Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00
1:00 W-Eur CE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_
-# <URL:http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml>
-# (1995-09-24) says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00.
+# <a href="http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml">
+# http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24)
+# </a>
+# says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00.
# Stick with W-Eur for now.
# Portugal
@@ -1773,12 +1912,12 @@ Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1963,13 +2102,7 @@ Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
# Slovenia
-# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Ljubljana 0:58:04 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
- 1:00 EU CE%sT
+# see Yugoslavia
# Spain
# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
@@ -1996,9 +2129,9 @@ Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
-Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 M
Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
@@ -2044,7 +2177,11 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# Sweden
-# From: msb@sq.com (Mark Brader) <URL:news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com>:
+# From: msb@sq.com (Mark Brader)
+# <a href="news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com">
+# Subject: Re: Gregorian reform -- a part of locale?
+# </a>
+# Date: 1996-07-06
#
# In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian. Sweden
# decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
@@ -2074,6 +2211,8 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Switzerland
+# The Gregorian calendar was introduced gradually in Switzerland,
+# by omitting leap years during 1583-1812.
# From Howse (1988), p 82:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
@@ -2179,8 +2318,8 @@ Rule Crimea 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 CST
Rule Crimea 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 CDST
Rule Crimea 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 CST
Rule Crimea 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 NMT
-Rule Crimea 1996 max - Mar lastSun 0:00u 1:00 -
-Rule Crimea 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00u 0 -
+Rule Crimea 1996 only - Mar lastSun 0:00u 1:00 -
+Rule Crimea 1996 only - Oct lastSun 0:00u 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
2:02:04 Ukraine %s 1924 May 2
@@ -2198,9 +2337,12 @@ Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
# For now, guess it changed Feb 1.
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1994 Feb
-# From IATA SSIM (1994/1996), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
+# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996
- 3:00 Crimea MSK/MSD
+# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
+# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
+ 3:00 Crimea MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Yugoslavia
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -2213,6 +2355,10 @@ Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
# Shanks doesn't give as much detail, so go with Kozelj.
1:00 - CET 1982 Nov 27
1:00 EU CE%sT
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana # Slovenia
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo # Bosnia and Herzegovina
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje # Macedonia
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb # Croatia
###############################################################################
@@ -2289,21 +2435,3 @@ Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...
-
-# ...
-# Date: Fri, 3 Sep 93 13:43:41 BST
-# From: Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk>
-# ...
-# Turning to Europe, I now have a copy of the `Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC
-# of 26 March 1992 on summertime arrangements'. This only covers 1993 and
-# 1994, a seventh one is in the works but I doubt that the algorithm will
-# change. This says summertime starts at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March
-# and ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in September, except for the UK
-# and Eire where it ends at 01:00 GMT on the fourth Sunday in October.
-# It says the arrangements for 1995 onwards will be decided by 1 January 1994,
-# but as the sixth directive was supposed to appear by 1 Jan 92 and didn't
-# arrive til March I wouldn't hold your breath.
-#
-# The first summertime directive was adopted in 1980, although the UK didn't
-# seem to use it until 1981. I suspect it would be safe to move your start
-# dates for the -Eur rules back to 1981.
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/factory b/share/zoneinfo/factory
index d95df23c1dfe..ba27c6326940 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/factory
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/factory
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)factory 7.1
+# @(#)factory 7.3
# For companies who don't want to put time zone specification in
# their installation procedures. When users run date, they'll get the message.
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/iso3166.tab b/share/zoneinfo/iso3166.tab
index 6eb4d318db52..a3b2bee9fa0d 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/iso3166.tab
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/iso3166.tab
@@ -3,12 +3,16 @@
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-09-03):
#
# This file contains a table with the following columns:
-# 1. ISO 3166 2-character country code.
+# 1. ISO 3166-1:1997 2-character country code. See:
# 2. The usual English name for the country,
# chosen so that alphabetic sorting of subsets produces helpful lists.
+# This is not the same as the English name in the ISO 3166 tables.
#
-# For France in Europe, we follow common practice and use FR,
-# even though FX might be more technically correct.
+# The PS code below has been reserved for Palestine by the ISO;
+# however, the code is not yet officially assigned to Palestine. Please see
+# <a href="ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-erlangen.de/pub/doc/ISO/ISO-3166-background">
+# Cord Wischhoefer, Country Code Elements for Palestine (1996-07-24)
+# </a>.
#
# Columns are separated by a single tab.
# The table is sorted by country code.
@@ -191,6 +195,7 @@ PL Poland
PM St Pierre & Miquelon
PN Pitcairn
PR Puerto Rico
+PS Palestine
PT Portugal
PW Palau
PY Paraguay
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/leapseconds b/share/zoneinfo/leapseconds
index 6ff99ada3786..1cd114b91fbe 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/leapseconds
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/leapseconds
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)leapseconds 7.9
+# @(#)leapseconds 7.11
# Allowance for leapseconds added to each timezone file.
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
# Leap YEAR MON DAY 23:59:59 - R/S
# If the leapsecond is Rolling (R) the given time is local time
-# If the leapsecond is Stationary (S) the given time is GMT
+# If the leapsecond is Stationary (S) the given time is UTC
# Leap YEAR MONTH DAY HH:MM:SS CORR R/S
Leap 1972 Jun 30 23:59:60 + S
@@ -41,3 +41,4 @@ Leap 1993 Jun 30 23:59:60 + S
Leap 1994 Jun 30 23:59:60 + S
Leap 1995 Dec 31 23:59:60 + S
Leap 1997 Jun 30 23:59:60 + S
+Leap 1998 Dec 31 23:59:60 + S
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/northamerica b/share/zoneinfo/northamerica
index 635c4ef18069..150ba3d67e2f 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/northamerica
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/northamerica
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)northamerica 7.32
+# @(#)northamerica 7.41
# also includes Central America and the Caribbean
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
@@ -262,11 +262,6 @@ Zone Pacific/Honolulu -10:31:26 - LMT 1900 Jan 1 12:00
-10:30 US H%sT 1947 Jun 8 2:00
-10:00 - HST
-Zone Pacific/Midway -11:49:28 - LMT 1901
- -11:00 - NST 1967 Apr # N=Nome
- -11:00 - BST 1983 Nov 30 # B=Bering
- -11:00 - SST # S=Samoa
-
# Now we turn to US areas that have diverged from the consensus since 1970.
# Arizona mostly uses MST.
@@ -464,8 +459,8 @@ Link Pacific/Honolulu HST
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the US is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
@@ -481,8 +476,6 @@ Link Pacific/Honolulu HST
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# See the `europe' file for Greenland.
-#
-# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
# Canada
@@ -653,6 +646,20 @@ Zone America/Glace_Bay -3:59:48 - LMT 1902 Jun 15
# Nipigon (EST) and Rainy River (CST) are the largest that we know of.
# Far west Ontario is like Winnipeg; far east Quebec is like Halifax.
+# From Paul Eggert (1997-10-17):
+# msb@sq.com writes that an article in the 1997-10-14 Toronto Star
+# says that Atikokan, Ontario currently does not observe DST,
+# but will vote on 11-10 whether to use EST/EDT.
+# He also writes that the
+# <a href="http://www.gov.on.ca/MBS/english/publications/statregs/conttext.html">
+# Ontario Time Act (1990, Chapter T.9)
+# </a>
+# says that Ontario east of 90W uses EST/EDT, and west of 90W uses CST/CDT.
+# Officially Atikokan is therefore on CST/CDT, and most likely this report
+# concerns a non-official time observed as a matter of local practice.
+# For what it's worth, Shanks (1995) says that Atikokan has agreed with
+# Rainy River ever since standard time was introduced.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Mont 1917 only - Mar 25 2:00 1:00 D
Rule Mont 1917 only - Apr 24 0:00 0 S
@@ -895,7 +902,7 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
# From Guy Harris:
# Rules are from the Official Airline Guide, Worldwide Edition, for 1987.
-# Rules prior to 1987 are unknown.
+# Rules [before] 1987 are unknown.
# The comments in the OAG say "Only Ensenada, Mexicale, San Felipe and Tijuana
# observe DST." This is presumably Baja California Norte, above 28th parallel,
# as listed there; [there is also] "Baja California Sur and N. Pacific
@@ -973,9 +980,10 @@ Zone America/Dawson -9:17:40 - LMT 1900 Aug 20
#
# -------------- End Forwarded Message --------------
# From Paul Eggert (1996-06-12):
-# For an English translation of the decree,
-# see ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'',
-# <URL:http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html> (1996-01-04).
+# For an English translation of the decree, see
+# <a href="http://mexico-travel.com/extra/timezone_eng.html">
+# ``Diario Oficial: Time Zone Changeover'' (1996-01-04).
+# </a>
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
@@ -994,6 +1002,12 @@ Rule BajaN 1950 1966 - Apr lastSun 2:00 1:00 D
Rule BajaN 1950 1961 - Sep lastSun 2:00 0 S
Rule BajaN 1961 1966 - Oct lastSun 2:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+# Quintana Roo
+Zone America/Cancun -5:47:04 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 1:12:42
+ -6:00 - CST 1996
+ -6:00 Mexico C%sT 1997 Oct lastSun 2:00
+ -5:00 Mexico E%sT
+# Central Mexico
Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:23:24
-7:00 - MST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-6:00 - CST 1930 Nov 15
@@ -1001,6 +1015,18 @@ Zone America/Mexico_City -6:36:36 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:23:24
-6:00 - CST 1931 Oct
-7:00 - MST 1932 Mar 30 23:00
-6:00 Mexico C%sT
+# Chihuahua
+Zone America/Chihuahua -7:04:20 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:55:44
+ -7:00 - MST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
+ -6:00 - CST 1930 Nov 15
+ -7:00 - MST 1931 May 1 23:00
+ -6:00 - CST 1931 Oct
+ -7:00 - MST 1932 Mar 30 23:00
+ -6:00 - CST 1996
+ -6:00 Mexico C%sT 1998
+ -6:00 - CST 1998 Apr Sun>=1 3:00
+ -7:00 Mexico M%sT
+# S Baja California, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora
Zone America/Mazatlan -7:05:40 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
-7:00 - MST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-6:00 - CST 1930 Nov 15
@@ -1011,6 +1037,7 @@ Zone America/Mazatlan -7:05:40 - LMT 1921 Dec 31 23:54:20
-7:00 - MST 1949 Jan 14
-8:00 - PST 1970
-7:00 Mexico M%sT
+# N Baja California
Zone America/Tijuana -7:48:04 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:11:56
-8:00 - PST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-7:00 - MST 1930 Nov 16
@@ -1019,6 +1046,7 @@ Zone America/Tijuana -7:48:04 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:11:56
-8:00 BajaN P%sT 1967 Apr lastSun 2:00
-8:00 US P%sT 1996
-8:00 Mexico P%sT
+# Baja California
Zone America/Ensenada -7:46:28 - LMT 1922 Jan 1 0:13:32
-8:00 - PST 1927 Jun 10 23:00
-7:00 - MST 1930 Nov 16
@@ -1061,7 +1089,7 @@ Rule Barb 1979 only - Sep 30 2:00 0 S
Rule Barb 1980 only - Sep 25 2:00 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Barbados -3:58:28 - LMT 1924 # Bridgetown
- -3:58 - BMT 1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
+ -3:58:28 - BMT 1932 # Bridgetown Mean Time
-4:00 Barb A%sT
# Belize
@@ -1086,12 +1114,9 @@ Zone Atlantic/Bermuda -4:19:04 - LMT 1930 Jan 1 2:00 # Hamilton
# Cayman Is
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Cayman -5:25:32 - LMT 1890 # Georgetown
- -5:07 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
+ -5:07:12 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
-5:00 - EST
-# Clipperton
-# uninhabited
-
# Costa Rica
# Shanks gives some very odd dates for 1991, and stops there.
# For now, we won't guess further.
@@ -1145,10 +1170,13 @@ Rule Cuba 1978 1990 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00 0 S
Rule Cuba 1979 1980 - Mar Sun>=15 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Cuba 1981 1985 - May Sun>=5 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Cuba 1986 1989 - Mar Sun>=14 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Cuba 1990 max - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Cuba 1990 1997 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Cuba 1991 1995 - Oct Sun>=8 0:00s 0 S
-Rule Cuba 1996 only - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 S
-Rule Cuba 1997 max - Oct Sun>=8 0:00s 0 S
+Rule Cuba 1996 only - Oct 6 0:00s 0 S
+Rule Cuba 1997 only - Oct 12 0:00s 0 S
+Rule Cuba 1998 only - Mar 29 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Cuba 1998 max - Oct lastSun 0:00s 0 S
+Rule Cuba 1999 max - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 D
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Havana -5:29:28 - LMT 1890
@@ -1211,8 +1239,8 @@ Rule Haiti 1983 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Haiti 1984 1987 - Apr lastSun 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Haiti 1983 1987 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 S
# Shanks says AT is 2:00, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says 1:00s. Go with IATA.
-Rule Haiti 1988 max - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
-Rule Haiti 1988 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Haiti 1988 1997 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Haiti 1988 1997 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Port-au-Prince -4:49:20 - LMT 1890
-4:49 - PPMT 1917 Jan 24 12:00 # P-a-P MT
@@ -1235,7 +1263,7 @@ Zone America/Tegucigalpa -5:48:52 - LMT 1921 Apr
# From Shanks (1991):
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Jamaica -5:07:12 - LMT 1890 # Kingston
- -5:07 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
+ -5:07:12 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
-5:00 - EST 1974 Jan 6 2:00
-5:00 US E%sT 1984
-5:00 - EST
@@ -1305,12 +1333,12 @@ Zone America/Miquelon -3:44:40 - LMT 1911 May 15 # St Pierre
# St Vincent and the Grenadines
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/St_Vincent -4:04:56 - LMT 1890 # Kingstown
- -4:05 - KMT 1912 # Kingstown Mean Time
+ -4:04:56 - KMT 1912 # Kingstown Mean Time
-4:00 - AST
# Turks and Caicos
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
-# Shanks says they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1996)
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-08-06):
+# Shanks says they use US DST rules, but IATA SSIM (1991/1998)
# says they switch at midnight. Go with IATA SSIM.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule TC 1979 1986 - Apr lastSun 0:00 1:00 D
@@ -1318,7 +1346,7 @@ Rule TC 1979 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 S
Rule TC 1987 max - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Grand_Turk -4:44:32 - LMT 1890
- -5:07 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
+ -5:07:12 - KMT 1912 Feb # Kingston Mean Time
-5:00 TC E%sT
# British Virgin Is
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/pacificnew b/share/zoneinfo/pacificnew
index 883ccdca6978..86dd68834113 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/pacificnew
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/pacificnew
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)pacificnew 7.9
+# @(#)pacificnew 7.10
# From Arthur David Olson (1989-04-05):
# On 1989-04-05, the U. S. House of Representatives passed (238-154) a bill
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/southamerica b/share/zoneinfo/southamerica
index 09e0aa6d28af..3f0cf8c56493 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/southamerica
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/southamerica
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-# @(#)southamerica 7.18
+# @(#)southamerica 7.25
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
@@ -6,8 +6,8 @@
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
@@ -28,7 +28,6 @@
# -4:00 AST ADT Atlantic
# -5:00 AST ADT Acre
#
-# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
# Earlier editions of these tables used the North American style (e.g. ARST and
# ARDT for Argentine Standard and Daylight Time), but the following quote
# suggests that it's better to use European style (e.g. ART and ARST).
@@ -185,14 +184,6 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# Brazil
-# From Guy Harris:
-# The OAG lists 1987-10-25 and 1988-02-12 as the starting and
-# ending dates, giving them as "estimated date(s) based on previous year". We
-# infer a rule here from one example, always a dangerous practice.... Yes,
-# they really do switch on Saturday, according to the OAG.
-# "[America/Porto_Acre]" is for the Territory of Acre;
-# "[America/Noronha]" is for Fernando De Noronha.
-
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
# The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
# just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
@@ -243,35 +234,110 @@ Zone America/La_Paz -4:32:36 - LMT 1890
# Sao Paulo (UTC-3) and Cuiaba (UTC-4) always observed DST.
# Porto Acre (UTC-5) stopped observing DST in mid-1988.
+# From Rodrigo Feher <feher@pobox.com> (1998-01-17):
+# Reading "southamerica" file in timezone 7.55 I've found an
+# error. Line 193 say "Territory of Acre". It is not a territory anymore
+# but a state.
+
+# From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27):
+# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html">
+# Brazilian official page
+# </a>
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-09-28):
+# The official decrees referenced below are taken from
+# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html">
+# Decretos sobre o Horario de Verao no Brasil
+# </a> (1998-09-25, in Portuguese).
+# I don't read Portuguese, and haven't been able to verify them against
+# the Shanks and IATA data; there do seem to be minor discrepancies.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm">20.466</a> (1931-01-10)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm">21.896</a> (1932-01-10)
Rule Brazil 1931 only - Oct 3 11:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1932 1933 - Apr 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1932 only - Oct 3 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm">23.195</a> (1933-10-10)
+# revoked DST.
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm">27.496</a> (1949-11-24)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm">27.998</a> (1950-04-13)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm">32.308</a> (1953-02-24)
Rule Brazil 1949 1952 - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1950 only - Apr 16 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1951 1953 - Apr 1 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm">34.724</a> (1953-11-30)
+# revoked DST.
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm">52.700</a> (1963-10-18)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm">53.071</a> (1963-12-03)
Rule Brazil 1963 only - Dec 9 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm">53.604</a> (1964-02-25)
Rule Brazil 1964 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm">55.639</a> (1965-01-27)
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Jan 31 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Apr 1 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm">57.303</a> (1965-11-22)
Rule Brazil 1965 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm">57.843</a> (1966-02-18)
Rule Brazil 1966 1968 - Mar 1 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1966 1967 - Nov 1 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm">63.429</a> (1968-10-15)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm">91.698</a> (1985-09-27)
Rule Brazil 1985 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree 92.310 (1986-01-21)
+# Decree 92.463 (1986-03-13)
Rule Brazil 1986 only - Mar 15 0:00 0 S
+# Decree 93.316 (1986-10-01)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm">94.922</a> (1987-09-22)
Rule Brazil 1986 1987 - Oct Sat<=28 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1987 only - Feb 14 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1988 only - Feb 7 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm">96.676</a> (1988-09-12)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm">98.077</a> (1989-08-21)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm">99.530</a> (1990-09-17)
+# Decree 99.629 (1990-10-19)
+# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1991-09-25):
+# <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm">Unnumbered decree</a> (1992-10-16):
Rule Brazil 1989 only - Jan 22 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1988 1989 - Oct Sun>=10 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1990 1991 - Feb Sun>=11 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1990 1992 - Oct Sun>=20 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1992 only - Feb 9 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm">942</a> (1993-09-28)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm">1.252</a> (1994-09-22)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm">1.636</a> (1995-09-14)
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm">1.674</a> (1995-10-13)
Rule Brazil 1993 1995 - Oct Sun>=11 0:00 1:00 D
Rule Brazil 1993 only - Jan 31 0:00 0 S
Rule Brazil 1994 1995 - Feb Sun>=15 0:00 0 S
-Rule Brazil 1996 max - Feb Sun>=11 0:00 0 S
-Rule Brazil 1996 max - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm">2.000</a> (1996-09-04)
+Rule Brazil 1996 only - Feb Sun>=11 0:00 0 S
+Rule Brazil 1996 only - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 D
+# From Daniel C. Sobral <dcs@gns.com.br> (1998-02-12):
+# In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that
+# because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS,
+# they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit.
+# This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1
+# to help dealing with the shortages of electric power.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1998-02-25):
+# <a href="http://churchnet.ucsm.ac.uk/news/files2/news165.htm">
+# Brazil Prepares for Papal Visit
+# </a>,
+# Church Net UK (1997-10-02).
+#
+# Decree 2.317 (1997-09-04)
+Rule Brazil 1997 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 D
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG">2.495</a>
+# (1998-02-10)
+Rule Brazil 1998 only - Mar 1 0:00 0 S
+# Decree <a href="http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg">2.780</a> (1998-09-11)
+# specifies only the 1998-10-11 and 1999-02-21 transitions;
+# after that, these rules are guesses and are quite possibly wrong,
+# but they are more likely than no DST at all.
+Rule Brazil 1998 max - Oct Sun>=11 0:00 1:00 D
+Rule Brazil 1999 max - Feb Sun>=15 0:00 0 S
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
#
@@ -289,6 +355,8 @@ Zone America/Fortaleza -2:34:00 - LMT 1914
-3:00 - EST
#
# Alagoas, Sergipe, Tocantins
+# IATA SSIM (1996/1998) keeps bouncing back and forth as to whether
+# Alagoas and Sergipe observe DST. For now, continue to assume that they do.
Zone America/Maceio -2:22:52 - LMT 1914
-3:00 - EST 1963 Dec 9
-3:00 Brazil E%sT 1990 Jul
@@ -326,14 +394,20 @@ Zone America/Porto_Acre -4:31:12 - LMT 1914
# From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19):
# The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY
# of October.... The law is the same for March and October.
+# (1998-09-29):
+# Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into
+# DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ...
+# (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess).
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Chile 1918 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Chile 1919 only - Jul 2 0:00 0 -
Rule Chile 1927 1931 - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Chile 1928 1932 - Apr 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Chile 1969 max - Oct Sun>=9 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Chile 1969 1997 - Oct Sun>=9 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Chile 1970 max - Mar Sun>=9 0:00 0 -
+Rule Chile 1998 only - Sep 27 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Chile 1999 max - Oct Sun>=9 0:00 1:00 S
# IATA SSIM anomalies: (1990-09) says 1990-09-16; (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
# (1996-09) says 1998-03-08. Ignore these for now.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -354,6 +428,7 @@ Zone Pacific/Easter -7:17:28 - LMT 1890 # Mataveri
# Colombia
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule CO 1992 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
+# Shanks (1995) estimates 1993-04-03 24:00 for this; go with IATA.
Rule CO 1992 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Bogota -4:56:20 - LMT 1884 Mar 13
@@ -363,6 +438,10 @@ Zone America/Bogota -4:56:20 - LMT 1884 Mar 13
# no information; probably like America/Bogota
# Curacao
+# Shanks (1995) says that Bottom and Oranjestad have been at -4:00 since
+# standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that Kralendijk and Rincon
+# used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.
+# This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Curacao -4:35:44 - LMT 1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
-4:30 - ANT 1965 # Netherlands Antilles Time
@@ -437,9 +516,11 @@ Rule Para 1992 only - Oct 5 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Para 1993 only - Mar 31 0:00 0 -
Rule Para 1993 1995 - Oct 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Para 1994 1995 - Feb lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Para 1996 max - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Para 1996 only - Oct 6 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Para 1997 max - Oct 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Para 1996 1998 - Mar 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Para 1996 max - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
+# IATA SSIM (1998-02) claims that the 1999 switch will be on 02-27.
+# Assume this is a typo, and that 02-28 was meant.
+Rule Para 1999 max - Feb lastSun 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone America/Asuncion -3:50:40 - LMT 1890
-3:50:40 - AMT 1931 Oct 10 # Asuncion Mean Time
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab b/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
index df4c15778868..78a0ed458a68 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/zone.tab
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ AQ -7750+16636 Antarctica/McMurdo McMurdo Station, Ross Island
AQ -9000+00000 Antarctica/South_Pole Amundsen-Scott Station, South Pole
AQ -6448-06406 Antarctica/Palmer Palmer Station, Anvers Island
AQ -6736+06253 Antarctica/Mawson Mawson Station, Holme Bay
+AQ -6835+07758 Antarctica/Davis Davis Station, Vestfold Hills
AQ -6617+11031 Antarctica/Casey Casey Station, Bailey Peninsula
AQ -6640+14001 Antarctica/DumontDUrville Dumont-d'Urville Base, Terre Adelie
AR -3436-05827 America/Buenos_Aires E Argentina (BA, DF, SC, TF)
@@ -178,8 +179,7 @@ ID -0610+10648 Asia/Jakarta Java & Sumatra
ID -0507+11924 Asia/Ujung_Pandang Borneo & Celebes
ID -0232+14042 Asia/Jayapura Irian Jaya & the Moluccas
IE +5320-00615 Europe/Dublin
-IL +3146+03514 Asia/Jerusalem most locations
-IL +3130+03428 Asia/Gaza Gaza Strip
+IL +3146+03514 Asia/Jerusalem
IN +2232+08822 Asia/Calcutta
IO -0720+07225 Indian/Chagos
IQ +3321+04425 Asia/Baghdad
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ KP +3901+12545 Asia/Pyongyang
KR +3733+12658 Asia/Seoul
KW +2920+04759 Asia/Kuwait
KY +1918-08123 America/Cayman
-KZ +4315+07657 Asia/Alma-Ata east Kazakhstan
+KZ +4315+07657 Asia/Almaty east Kazakhstan
KZ +5017+05710 Asia/Aqtobe central Kazakhstan
KZ +4431+05016 Asia/Aqtau west Kazakhstan
LA +1758+10236 Asia/Vientiane
@@ -236,8 +236,10 @@ MT +3554+01431 Europe/Malta
MU -2010+05730 Indian/Mauritius
MV +0410+07330 Indian/Maldives
MW -1547+03500 Africa/Blantyre
+MX +2105-08646 America/Cancun Eastern Time
MX +1924-09909 America/Mexico_City Central Time
-MX +2313-10625 America/Mazatlan Mountain Time
+MX +2313-10625 America/Mazatlan Mountain Time - most locations
+MX +2838-10605 America/Chihuahua Mountain Time - Chihuahua
MX +3152-11637 America/Ensenada Pacific Time - most locations
MX +3232-11701 America/Tijuana Pacific Time - north Baja California
MY +0310+10142 Asia/Kuala_Lumpur peninsular Malaysia
@@ -255,7 +257,7 @@ NP +2743+08519 Asia/Katmandu
NR -0031+16655 Pacific/Nauru
NU -1901+16955 Pacific/Niue
NZ -3652+17446 Pacific/Auckland most locations
-NZ -4355+17630 Pacific/Chatham Chatham Island
+NZ -4355-17630 Pacific/Chatham Chatham Islands
OM +2336+05835 Asia/Muscat
PA +0858-07932 America/Panama
PE -1203-07703 America/Lima
@@ -269,6 +271,7 @@ PL +5215+02100 Europe/Warsaw
PM +4703-05620 America/Miquelon
PN -2504-13005 Pacific/Pitcairn
PR +182806-0660622 America/Puerto_Rico
+PS +3130+03428 Asia/Gaza
PT +3843-00908 Europe/Lisbon mainland
PT +3238-01654 Atlantic/Madeira Madeira Islands
PT +3744-02540 Atlantic/Azores Azores
@@ -353,7 +356,8 @@ US +643004-1652423 America/Nome Alaska Time - west Alaska
US +515248-1763929 America/Adak Aleutian Islands
US +211825-1575130 Pacific/Honolulu Hawaii
UY -3453-05611 America/Montevideo
-UZ +4120+06918 Asia/Tashkent
+UZ +3940+06648 Asia/Samarkand west Uzbekistan
+UZ +4120+06918 Asia/Tashkent east Uzbekistan
VA +4154+01227 Europe/Vatican
VC +1309-06114 America/St_Vincent
VE +1030-06656 America/Caracas