aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/Makefile30
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/README2
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/doc/contents.html81
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/doc/lua.193
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/doc/manual.html3256
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/doc/readme.html115
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/Makefile83
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lapi.c706
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lapi.h27
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.c385
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.h54
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lbaselib.c139
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lbitlib.c233
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lcode.c1141
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lcode.h34
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lcorolib.c89
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lctype.c43
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lctype.h18
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldblib.c94
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldebug.c462
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldebug.h21
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldo.c559
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldo.h38
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ldump.c197
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lfunc.c223
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lfunc.h50
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lgc.c1387
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lgc.h128
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/linit.c7
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/liolib.c121
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ljumptab.h112
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/llex.c74
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/llex.h12
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/llimits.h134
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lmathlib.c433
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lmem.c178
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lmem.h72
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/loadlib.c261
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lobject.c340
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lobject.h737
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lopcodes.c190
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lopcodes.h401
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lopnames.h103
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/loslib.c85
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lparser.c967
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lparser.h80
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lprefix.h4
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lstate.c221
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lstate.h202
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lstring.c135
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lstring.h22
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lstrlib.c504
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ltable.c692
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ltable.h22
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ltablib.c52
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ltm.c173
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/ltm.h37
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lua.c439
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lua.h60
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/luac.c470
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/luaconf.h.dist253
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lualib.h5
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lundump.c266
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lundump.h8
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lutf8lib.c117
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lvm.c1762
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lvm.h91
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lzio.c2
-rw-r--r--contrib/lua/src/lzio.h2
-rw-r--r--lib/liblua/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--lib/liblua/luaconf.h248
-rw-r--r--stand/liblua/luaconf.h244
72 files changed, 12943 insertions, 7085 deletions
diff --git a/contrib/lua/Makefile b/contrib/lua/Makefile
index a2820e04fe24..36447a0f61c7 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/Makefile
+++ b/contrib/lua/Makefile
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
-PLAT= none
+PLAT= guess
# Where to install. The installation starts in the src and doc directories,
# so take care if INSTALL_TOP is not an absolute path. See the local target.
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ RM= rm -f
# == END OF USER SETTINGS -- NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =======
# Convenience platforms targets.
-PLATS= aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
+PLATS= guess aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux linux-readline macosx mingw posix solaris
# What to install.
TO_BIN= lua luac
@@ -45,17 +45,14 @@ TO_LIB= liblua.a
TO_MAN= lua.1 luac.1
# Lua version and release.
-V= 5.3
-R= $V.6
+V= 5.4
+R= $V.2
# Targets start here.
all: $(PLAT)
-$(PLATS) clean:
- cd src && $(MAKE) $@
-
-test: dummy
- src/lua -v
+$(PLATS) help test clean:
+ @cd src && $(MAKE) $@
install: dummy
cd src && $(MKDIR) $(INSTALL_BIN) $(INSTALL_INC) $(INSTALL_LIB) $(INSTALL_MAN) $(INSTALL_LMOD) $(INSTALL_CMOD)
@@ -73,15 +70,10 @@ uninstall:
local:
$(MAKE) install INSTALL_TOP=../install
-none:
- @echo "Please do 'make PLATFORM' where PLATFORM is one of these:"
- @echo " $(PLATS)"
- @echo "See doc/readme.html for complete instructions."
-
-# make may get confused with test/ and install/
+# make may get confused with install/ if it does not support .PHONY.
dummy:
-# echo config parameters
+# Echo config parameters.
echo:
@cd src && $(MAKE) -s echo
@echo "PLAT= $(PLAT)"
@@ -101,14 +93,14 @@ echo:
@echo "INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL_EXEC)"
@echo "INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL_DATA)"
-# echo pkg-config data
+# Echo pkg-config data.
pc:
@echo "version=$R"
@echo "prefix=$(INSTALL_TOP)"
@echo "libdir=$(INSTALL_LIB)"
@echo "includedir=$(INSTALL_INC)"
-# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
-.PHONY: all $(PLATS) clean test install local none dummy echo pecho lecho
+# Targets that do not create files (not all makes understand .PHONY).
+.PHONY: all $(PLATS) help test clean install uninstall local dummy echo pc
# (end of Makefile)
diff --git a/contrib/lua/README b/contrib/lua/README
index f8bdb6f41d00..bc8a9d737d26 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/README
+++ b/contrib/lua/README
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-This is Lua 5.3.6, released on 14 Sep 2020.
+This is Lua 5.4.2, released on 13 Nov 2020.
For installation instructions, license details, and
further information about Lua, see doc/readme.html.
diff --git a/contrib/lua/doc/contents.html b/contrib/lua/doc/contents.html
index 3a357b1ed653..8ea0616b25ce 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/doc/contents.html
+++ b/contrib/lua/doc/contents.html
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua 5.3 Reference Manual - contents</TITLE>
+<TITLE>Lua 5.4 Reference Manual - contents</TITLE>
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="index.css">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
<H1>
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="Lua"></A>
-Lua 5.3 Reference Manual
+Lua 5.4 Reference Manual
</H1>
<P>
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ For a complete introduction to Lua programming, see the book
<P>
<SMALL>
-Copyright &copy; 2015&ndash;2020 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
+Copyright &copy; 2020 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/license.html">Lua license</A>.
</SMALL>
@@ -49,8 +49,10 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4">2.4 &ndash; Metatables and Metamethods</A>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5">2.5 &ndash; Garbage Collection</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">2.5.1 &ndash; Garbage-Collection Metamethods</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">2.5.2 &ndash; Weak Tables</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">2.5.1 &ndash; Incremental Garbage Collection</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">2.5.2 &ndash; Generational Garbage Collection</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.3">2.5.3 &ndash; Garbage-Collection Metamethods</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.4">2.5.4 &ndash; Weak Tables</A>
</UL>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.6">2.6 &ndash; Coroutines</A>
</UL>
@@ -68,6 +70,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.5">3.3.5 &ndash; For Statement</A>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.6">3.3.6 &ndash; Function Calls as Statements</A>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.7">3.3.7 &ndash; Local Declarations</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3.8">3.3.8 &ndash; To-be-closed Variables</A>
</UL>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4">3.4 &ndash; Expressions</A>
<UL>
@@ -89,14 +92,20 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4">4 &ndash; The Application Program Interface</A>
<UL>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1">4.1 &ndash; The Stack</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.2">4.2 &ndash; Stack Size</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.3">4.3 &ndash; Valid and Acceptable Indices</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.4">4.4 &ndash; C Closures</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.5">4.5 &ndash; Registry</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.6">4.6 &ndash; Error Handling in C</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.7">4.7 &ndash; Handling Yields in C</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.8">4.8 &ndash; Functions and Types</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.9">4.9 &ndash; The Debug Interface</A>
+<UL>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1.1">4.1.1 &ndash; Stack Size</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1.2">4.1.2 &ndash; Valid and Acceptable Indices</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1.3">4.1.3 &ndash; Pointers to strings</A>
+</UL>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.2">4.2 &ndash; C Closures</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.3">4.3 &ndash; Registry</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.4">4.4 &ndash; Error Handling in C</A>
+<UL>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.4.1">4.4.1 &ndash; Status Codes</A>
+</UL>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.5">4.5 &ndash; Handling Yields in C</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.6">4.6 &ndash; Functions and Types</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.7">4.7 &ndash; The Debug Interface</A>
</UL>
<P>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5">5 &ndash; The Auxiliary Library</A>
@@ -104,7 +113,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.1">5.1 &ndash; Functions and Types</A>
</UL>
<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6">6 &ndash; Standard Libraries</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6">6 &ndash; The Standard Libraries</A>
<UL>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.1">6.1 &ndash; Basic Functions</A>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6.2">6.2 &ndash; Coroutine Manipulation</A>
@@ -126,9 +135,9 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<P>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8">8 &ndash; Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</A>
<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.1">8.1 &ndash; Changes in the Language</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.2">8.2 &ndash; Changes in the Libraries</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.3">8.3 &ndash; Changes in the API</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.1">8.1 &ndash; Incompatibilities in the Language</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.2">8.2 &ndash; Incompatibilities in the Libraries</A>
+<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8.3">8.3 &ndash; Incompatibilities in the API</A>
</UL>
<P>
<LI><A HREF="manual.html#9">9 &ndash; The Complete Syntax of Lua</A>
@@ -165,10 +174,12 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tonumber">tonumber</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tostring">tostring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-type">type</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-warn">warn</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-xpcall">xpcall</A><BR>
<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#6.2">coroutine</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.close">coroutine.close</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.create">coroutine.create</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.isyieldable">coroutine.isyieldable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.resume">coroutine.resume</A><BR>
@@ -326,10 +337,11 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__bor</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__bxor</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__call</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#3.3.8">__close</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__concat</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__div</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__eq</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">__gc</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#2.5.3">__gc</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__idiv</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__index</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__le</A><BR>
@@ -337,7 +349,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__lt</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-getmetatable">__metatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__mod</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">__mode</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#2.5.4">__mode</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__mul</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newmetatable">__name</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#2.4">__newindex</A><BR>
@@ -352,11 +364,11 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<H3><A NAME="env">environment<BR>variables</A></H3>
<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_CPATH">LUA_CPATH</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_CPATH_5_3">LUA_CPATH_5_3</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_CPATH_5_4">LUA_CPATH_5_4</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_INIT">LUA_INIT</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_INIT_5_3">LUA_INIT_5_3</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_INIT_5_4">LUA_INIT_5_4</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_PATH">LUA_PATH</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_PATH_5_3">LUA_PATH_5_3</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_PATH_5_4">LUA_PATH_5_4</A><BR>
</TD>
<TD>
@@ -373,6 +385,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Reader">lua_Reader</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_State">lua_State</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Unsigned">lua_Unsigned</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_WarnFunction">lua_WarnFunction</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Writer">lua_Writer</A><BR>
<P>
@@ -399,13 +412,13 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gethookmask">lua_gethookmask</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_geti">lua_geti</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getinfo">lua_getinfo</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getiuservalue">lua_getiuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getlocal">lua_getlocal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getmetatable">lua_getmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getstack">lua_getstack</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettable">lua_gettable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettop">lua_gettop</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getupvalue">lua_getupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getuservalue">lua_getuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_insert">lua_insert</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isboolean">lua_isboolean</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_iscfunction">lua_iscfunction</A><BR>
@@ -426,7 +439,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newstate">lua_newstate</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newtable">lua_newtable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newthread">lua_newthread</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newuserdata">lua_newuserdata</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newuserdatauv">lua_newuserdatauv</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_next">lua_next</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_numbertointeger">lua_numbertointeger</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pcall">lua_pcall</A><BR>
@@ -458,6 +471,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_register">lua_register</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_remove">lua_remove</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_replace">lua_replace</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_resetthread">lua_resetthread</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_resume">lua_resume</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rotate">lua_rotate</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setallocf">lua_setallocf</A><BR>
@@ -465,16 +479,18 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setglobal">lua_setglobal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_sethook">lua_sethook</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_seti">lua_seti</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setiuservalue">lua_setiuservalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setlocal">lua_setlocal</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setmetatable">lua_setmetatable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settable">lua_settable</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settop">lua_settop</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setupvalue">lua_setupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setuservalue">lua_setuservalue</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setwarnf">lua_setwarnf</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_status">lua_status</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_stringtonumber">lua_stringtonumber</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_toboolean">lua_toboolean</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tocfunction">lua_tocfunction</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_toclose">lua_toclose</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tointeger">lua_tointeger</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tointegerx">lua_tointegerx</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tolstring">lua_tolstring</A><BR>
@@ -490,6 +506,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvalueindex">lua_upvalueindex</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvaluejoin">lua_upvaluejoin</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_version">lua_version</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#lua_warning">lua_warning</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_xmove">lua_xmove</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_yield">lua_yield</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#lua_yieldk">lua_yieldk</A><BR>
@@ -504,14 +521,19 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addchar">luaL_addchar</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addgsub">luaL_addgsub</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addlstring">luaL_addlstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addsize">luaL_addsize</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addstring">luaL_addstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addvalue">luaL_addvalue</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argcheck">luaL_argcheck</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argerror">luaL_argerror</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argexpected">luaL_argexpected</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffaddr">luaL_buffaddr</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffinit">luaL_buffinit</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffinitsize">luaL_buffinitsize</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_bufflen">luaL_bufflen</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffsub">luaL_buffsub</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_callmeta">luaL_callmeta</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkany">luaL_checkany</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkinteger">luaL_checkinteger</A><BR>
@@ -550,6 +572,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optstring">luaL_optstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_prepbuffer">luaL_prepbuffer</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_prepbuffsize">luaL_prepbuffsize</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushfail">luaL_pushfail</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushresult">luaL_pushresult</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushresultsize">luaL_pushresultsize</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_ref">luaL_ref</A><BR>
@@ -559,6 +582,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_testudata">luaL_testudata</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_tolstring">luaL_tolstring</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_traceback">luaL_traceback</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typeerror">luaL_typeerror</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typename">luaL_typename</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_unref">luaL_unref</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_where">luaL_where</A><BR>
@@ -580,7 +604,6 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<P>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRERR">LUA_ERRERR</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRFILE">LUA_ERRFILE</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRGCMM">LUA_ERRGCMM</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM">LUA_ERRMEM</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRRUN">LUA_ERRRUN</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX">LUA_ERRSYNTAX</A><BR>
@@ -589,6 +612,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_HOOKLINE">LUA_HOOKLINE</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_HOOKRET">LUA_HOOKRET</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_HOOKTAILCALL">LUA_HOOKTAILCALL</A><BR>
+<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUAL_BUFFERSIZE">LUAL_BUFFERSIZE</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_MASKCALL">LUA_MASKCALL</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_MASKCOUNT">LUA_MASKCOUNT</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_MASKLINE">LUA_MASKLINE</A><BR>
@@ -632,7 +656,6 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_TUSERDATA">LUA_TUSERDATA</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_USE_APICHECK">LUA_USE_APICHECK</A><BR>
<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUA_YIELD">LUA_YIELD</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-LUAL_BUFFERSIZE">LUAL_BUFFERSIZE</A><BR>
</TD>
</TR>
@@ -640,10 +663,10 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<P CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Tue Aug 25 13:45:14 UTC 2020
+Tue Nov 10 20:58:52 UTC 2020
</P>
<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.3.6
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.4.2
-->
</BODY>
diff --git a/contrib/lua/doc/lua.1 b/contrib/lua/doc/lua.1
index d728d0b80c17..a46a1a67dd04 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/doc/lua.1
+++ b/contrib/lua/doc/lua.1
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.\" $Id: lua.man,v 1.14 2016/10/17 15:43:50 lhf Exp $
-.TH LUA 1 "$Date: 2016/10/17 15:43:50 $"
+.\" $Id: lua.man,v 1.14 2020/05/21 19:31:21 lhf Exp $
+.TH LUA 1 "$Date: 2020/05/21 19:31:21 $"
.SH NAME
lua \- Lua interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
@@ -25,52 +25,57 @@ the Lua compiler.)
.B lua
can be used as a batch interpreter and also interactively.
.LP
-The given
-.I options
-are handled in order and then
+After handling the
+.IR options ,
the Lua program in file
.I script
is loaded and executed.
-The given
+The
.I args
are available to
.I script
as strings in a global table named
-.BR arg .
-If no options or arguments are given,
-then
-.B "\-v \-i"
-is assumed when the standard input is a terminal;
-otherwise,
-.B "\-"
-is assumed.
+.B arg
+and also as arguments to its main function.
+When called without arguments,
+.B lua
+behaves as
+.B "lua \-v \-i"
+if the standard input is a terminal,
+and as
+.B "lua \-"
+otherwise.
.LP
In interactive mode,
.B lua
prompts the user,
reads lines from the standard input,
and executes them as they are read.
-If the line contains an expression or list of expressions,
-then the line is evaluated and the results are printed.
+If the line contains an expression,
+then the line is evaluated and the result is printed.
If a line does not contain a complete statement,
then a secondary prompt is displayed and
lines are read until a complete statement is formed or
a syntax error is found.
.LP
-At the very start,
-before even handling the command line,
+Before handling command line options and scripts,
.B lua
checks the contents of the environment variables
-.B LUA_INIT_5_3
-or
+.B LUA_INIT_5_4
+and
.BR LUA_INIT ,
in that order.
-If the contents is of the form
+If the contents are of the form
.RI '@ filename ',
then
.I filename
is executed.
-Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
+Otherwise, the contents are assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
+When
+.B LUA_INIT_5_4
+is defined,
+.B LUA_INIT
+is ignored.
.SH OPTIONS
.TP
.BI \-e " stat"
@@ -82,10 +87,10 @@ enter interactive mode after executing
.IR script .
.TP
.BI \-l " name"
-execute the equivalent of
-.IB name =require(' name ')
-before executing
-.IR script .
+require library
+.I name
+into global
+.IR name .
.TP
.B \-v
show version information.
@@ -93,18 +98,50 @@ show version information.
.B \-E
ignore environment variables.
.TP
+.B \-W
+turn warnings on.
+.TP
.B \-\-
stop handling options.
.TP
.B \-
stop handling options and execute the standard input as a file.
+.SH ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
+The following environment variables affect the execution of
+.BR lua .
+When defined,
+the version-specific variants take priority
+and the version-neutral variants are ignored.
+.TP
+.B LUA_INIT, LUA_INIT_5_4
+Code to be executed before command line options and scripts.
+.TP
+.B LUA_PATH, LUA_PATH_5_4
+Initial value of package.cpath,
+the path used by require to search for Lua loaders.
+.TP
+.B LUA_CPATH, LUA_CPATH_5_4
+Initial value of package.cpath,
+the path used by require to search for C loaders.
+.SH EXIT STATUS
+If a script calls os.exit,
+then
+.B lua
+exits with the given exit status.
+Otherwise,
+.B lua
+exits
+with EXIT_SUCCESS (0 on POSIX systems) if there were no errors
+and
+with EXIT_FAILURE (1 on POSIX systems) if there were errors.
+Errors raised in interactive mode do not cause exits.
+.SH DIAGNOSTICS
+Error messages should be self explanatory.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.BR luac (1)
.br
The documentation at lua.org,
especially section 7 of the reference manual.
-.SH DIAGNOSTICS
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
.SH AUTHORS
R. Ierusalimschy,
L. H. de Figueiredo,
diff --git a/contrib/lua/doc/manual.html b/contrib/lua/doc/manual.html
index 57c778744b7a..6de396c41d1c 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/doc/manual.html
+++ b/contrib/lua/doc/manual.html
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua 5.3 Reference Manual</TITLE>
+<TITLE>Lua 5.4 Reference Manual</TITLE>
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="manual.css">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
<H1>
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="Lua"></A>
-Lua 5.3 Reference Manual
+Lua 5.4 Reference Manual
</H1>
<P>
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ by Roberto Ierusalimschy, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo, Waldemar Celes
<P>
<SMALL>
-Copyright &copy; 2015&ndash;2020 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
+Copyright &copy; 2020 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
Freely available under the terms of the
<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html">Lua license</a>.
</SMALL>
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Freely available under the terms of the
<!-- ====================================================================== -->
<p>
-<!-- $Id: manual.of,v 1.167.1.2 2018/06/26 15:49:07 roberto Exp $ -->
+<!-- $Id: manual.of $ -->
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ Lua is dynamically typed,
runs by interpreting bytecode with a register-based
virtual machine,
and has automatic memory management with
-incremental garbage collection,
+a generational garbage collection,
making it ideal for configuration, scripting,
and rapid prototyping.
@@ -106,15 +106,19 @@ see Roberto's book, <em>Programming in Lua</em>.
<h1>2 &ndash; <a name="2">Basic Concepts</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
This section describes the basic concepts of the language.
+
+
<h2>2.1 &ndash; <a name="2.1">Values and Types</a></h2>
<p>
-Lua is a <em>dynamically typed language</em>.
+Lua is a dynamically typed language.
This means that
variables do not have types; only values do.
There are no type definitions in the language.
@@ -122,7 +126,7 @@ All values carry their own type.
<p>
-All values in Lua are <em>first-class values</em>.
+All values in Lua are first-class values.
This means that all values can be stored in variables,
passed as arguments to other functions, and returned as results.
@@ -134,31 +138,17 @@ There are eight basic types in Lua:
<em>thread</em>, and <em>table</em>.
The type <em>nil</em> has one single value, <b>nil</b>,
whose main property is to be different from any other value;
-it usually represents the absence of a useful value.
+it often represents the absence of a useful value.
The type <em>boolean</em> has two values, <b>false</b> and <b>true</b>.
Both <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> make a condition false;
-any other value makes it true.
-The type <em>number</em> represents both
-integer numbers and real (floating-point) numbers.
-The type <em>string</em> represents immutable sequences of bytes.
-
-Lua is 8-bit clean:
-strings can contain any 8-bit value,
-including embedded zeros ('<code>\0</code>').
-Lua is also encoding-agnostic;
-it makes no assumptions about the contents of a string.
+they are collectively called <em>false values</em>.
+Any other value makes a condition true.
<p>
-The type <em>number</em> uses two internal representations,
-or two subtypes,
-one called <em>integer</em> and the other called <em>float</em>.
-Lua has explicit rules about when each representation is used,
-but it also converts between them automatically as needed (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>).
-Therefore,
-the programmer may choose to mostly ignore the difference
-between integers and floats
-or to assume complete control over the representation of each number.
+The type <em>number</em> represents both
+integer numbers and real (floating-point) numbers,
+using two subtypes: <em>integer</em> and <em>float</em>.
Standard Lua uses 64-bit integers and double-precision (64-bit) floats,
but you can also compile Lua so that it
uses 32-bit integers and/or single-precision (32-bit) floats.
@@ -169,6 +159,36 @@ for small machines and embedded systems.
<p>
+Unless stated otherwise,
+any overflow when manipulating integer values <em>wrap around</em>,
+according to the usual rules of two-complement arithmetic.
+(In other words,
+the actual result is the unique representable integer
+that is equal modulo <em>2<sup>n</sup></em> to the mathematical result,
+where <em>n</em> is the number of bits of the integer type.)
+
+
+<p>
+Lua has explicit rules about when each subtype is used,
+but it also converts between them automatically as needed (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>).
+Therefore,
+the programmer may choose to mostly ignore the difference
+between integers and floats
+or to assume complete control over the representation of each number.
+
+
+<p>
+The type <em>string</em> represents immutable sequences of bytes.
+
+Lua is 8-bit clean:
+strings can contain any 8-bit value,
+including embedded zeros ('<code>\0</code>').
+Lua is also encoding-agnostic;
+it makes no assumptions about the contents of a string.
+The length of any string in Lua must fit in a Lua integer.
+
+
+<p>
Lua can call (and manipulate) functions written in Lua and
functions written in C (see <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>).
Both are represented by the type <em>function</em>.
@@ -190,7 +210,8 @@ the programmer can define operations for full userdata values
(see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
Userdata values cannot be created or modified in Lua,
only through the C&nbsp;API.
-This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program.
+This guarantees the integrity of data owned by
+the host program and C&nbsp;libraries.
<p>
@@ -205,11 +226,12 @@ even those that do not support threads natively.
The type <em>table</em> implements associative arrays,
that is, arrays that can have as indices not only numbers,
but any Lua value except <b>nil</b> and NaN.
-(<em>Not a Number</em> is a special value used to represent
-undefined or unrepresentable numerical results, such as <code>0/0</code>.)
+(<em>Not a Number</em> is a special floating-point value
+used by the IEEE 754 standard to represent
+undefined numerical results, such as <code>0/0</code>.)
Tables can be <em>heterogeneous</em>;
that is, they can contain values of all types (except <b>nil</b>).
-Any key with value <b>nil</b> is not considered part of the table.
+Any key associated to the value <b>nil</b> is not considered part of the table.
Conversely, any key that is not part of a table has
an associated value <b>nil</b>.
@@ -245,14 +267,10 @@ In particular, floats with integral values
are equal to their respective integers
(e.g., <code>1.0 == 1</code>).
To avoid ambiguities,
-any float with integral value used as a key
-is converted to its respective integer.
+any float used as a key that is equal to an integer
+is converted to that integer.
For instance, if you write <code>a[2.0] = true</code>,
-the actual key inserted into the table will be the
-integer <code>2</code>.
-(On the other hand,
-2 and "<code>2</code>" are different Lua values and therefore
-denote different table entries.)
+the actual key inserted into the table will be the integer <code>2</code>.
<p>
@@ -266,7 +284,7 @@ these operations do not imply any kind of copy.
<p>
The library function <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> returns a string describing the type
-of a given value (see <a href="#6.1">&sect;6.1</a>).
+of a given value (see <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a>).
@@ -275,7 +293,7 @@ of a given value (see <a href="#6.1">&sect;6.1</a>).
<h2>2.2 &ndash; <a name="2.2">Environments and the Global Environment</a></h2>
<p>
-As will be discussed in <a href="#3.2">&sect;3.2</a> and <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>,
+As we will discuss further in <a href="#3.2">&sect;3.2</a> and <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>,
any reference to a free name
(that is, a name not bound to any declaration) <code>var</code>
is syntactically translated to <code>_ENV.var</code>.
@@ -301,24 +319,25 @@ Any table used as the value of <code>_ENV</code> is called an <em>environment</e
<p>
Lua keeps a distinguished environment called the <em>global environment</em>.
-This value is kept at a special index in the C registry (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+This value is kept at a special index in the C registry (see <a href="#4.3">&sect;4.3</a>).
In Lua, the global variable <a href="#pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a> is initialized with this same value.
-(<a href="#pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a> is never used internally.)
+(<a href="#pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a> is never used internally,
+so changing its value will affect only your own code.)
<p>
When Lua loads a chunk,
-the default value for its <code>_ENV</code> upvalue
+the default value for its <code>_ENV</code> variable
is the global environment (see <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>).
Therefore, by default,
free names in Lua code refer to entries in the global environment
-(and, therefore, they are also called <em>global variables</em>).
+and, therefore, they are also called <em>global variables</em>.
Moreover, all standard libraries are loaded in the global environment
and some functions there operate on that environment.
You can use <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a> (or <a href="#pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile</code></a>)
to load a chunk with a different environment.
(In C, you have to load the chunk and then change the value
-of its first upvalue.)
+of its first upvalue; see <a href="#lua_setupvalue"><code>lua_setupvalue</code></a>.)
@@ -327,38 +346,56 @@ of its first upvalue.)
<h2>2.3 &ndash; <a name="2.3">Error Handling</a></h2>
<p>
+Several operations in Lua can <em>raise</em> an error.
+An error interrupts the normal flow of the program,
+which can continue by <em>catching</em> the error.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua code can explicitly raise an error by calling the
+<a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> function.
+(This function never returns.)
+
+
+<p>
+To catch errors in Lua,
+you can do a <em>protected call</em>,
+using <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> (or <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a>).
+The function <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> calls a given function in <em>protected mode</em>.
+Any error while running the function stops its execution,
+and control returns immediately to <code>pcall</code>,
+which returns a status code.
+
+
+<p>
Because Lua is an embedded extension language,
-all Lua actions start from C&nbsp;code in the host program
-calling a function from the Lua library.
+Lua code starts running by a call
+from C&nbsp;code in the host program.
(When you use Lua standalone,
the <code>lua</code> application is the host program.)
-Whenever an error occurs during
+Usually, this call is protected;
+so, when an otherwise unprotected error occurs during
the compilation or execution of a Lua chunk,
control returns to the host,
-which can take appropriate measures
-(such as printing an error message).
-
-
-<p>
-Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the
-<a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> function.
-If you need to catch errors in Lua,
-you can use <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a>
-to call a given function in <em>protected mode</em>.
+which can take appropriate measures,
+such as printing an error message.
<p>
Whenever there is an error,
-an <em>error object</em> (also called an <em>error message</em>)
+an <em>error object</em>
is propagated with information about the error.
Lua itself only generates errors whose error object is a string,
but programs may generate errors with
any value as the error object.
It is up to the Lua program or its host to handle such error objects.
+For historical reasons,
+an error object is often called an <em>error message</em>,
+even though it does not have to be a string.
<p>
-When you use <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
+When you use <a href="#pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall</code></a> (or <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>, in C)
you may give a <em>message handler</em>
to be called in case of errors.
This function is called with the original error object
@@ -371,9 +408,17 @@ so, an error inside the message handler
will call the message handler again.
If this loop goes on for too long,
Lua breaks it and returns an appropriate message.
-(The message handler is called only for regular runtime errors.
+The message handler is called only for regular runtime errors.
It is not called for memory-allocation errors
-nor for errors while running finalizers.)
+nor for errors while running finalizers or other message handlers.
+
+
+<p>
+Lua also offers a system of <em>warnings</em> (see <a href="#pdf-warn"><code>warn</code></a>).
+Unlike errors, warnings do not interfere
+in any way with program execution.
+They typically only generate a message to the user,
+although this behavior can be adapted from C (see <a href="#lua_setwarnf"><code>lua_setwarnf</code></a>).
@@ -385,9 +430,9 @@ nor for errors while running finalizers.)
Every value in Lua can have a <em>metatable</em>.
This <em>metatable</em> is an ordinary Lua table
that defines the behavior of the original value
-under certain special operations.
+under certain events.
You can change several aspects of the behavior
-of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
+of a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
For instance, when a non-numeric value is the operand of an addition,
Lua checks for a function in the field "<code>__add</code>" of the value's metatable.
If it finds one,
@@ -397,35 +442,32 @@ Lua calls this function to perform the addition.
<p>
The key for each event in a metatable is a string
with the event name prefixed by two underscores;
-the corresponding values are called <em>metamethods</em>.
-In the previous example, the key is "<code>__add</code>"
+the corresponding value is called a <em>metavalue</em>.
+For most events, the metavalue must be a function,
+which is then called a <em>metamethod</em>.
+In the previous example, the key is the string "<code>__add</code>"
and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition.
Unless stated otherwise,
-metamethods should be function values.
+a metamethod may in fact be any callable value,
+which is either a function or a value with a <code>__call</code> metamethod.
<p>
You can query the metatable of any value
using the <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a> function.
Lua queries metamethods in metatables using a raw access (see <a href="#pdf-rawget"><code>rawget</code></a>).
-So, to retrieve the metamethod for event <code>ev</code> in object <code>o</code>,
-Lua does the equivalent to the following code:
-<pre>
- rawget(getmetatable(<em>o</em>) or {}, "__<em>ev</em>")
-</pre>
<p>
You can replace the metatable of tables
using the <a href="#pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable</code></a> function.
-You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua code
-(except by using the debug library (<a href="#6.10">&sect;6.10</a>));
-you should use the C&nbsp;API for that.
+You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua code,
+except by using the debug library (<a href="#6.10">&sect;6.10</a>).
<p>
-Tables and full userdata have individual metatables
-(although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables).
+Tables and full userdata have individual metatables,
+although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables.
Values of all other types share one single metatable per type;
that is, there is one single metatable for all numbers,
one for all strings, etc.
@@ -434,26 +476,10 @@ but the string library sets a metatable for the string type (see <a href="#6.4">
<p>
-A metatable controls how an object behaves in
-arithmetic operations, bitwise operations,
-order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, calls, and indexing.
-A metatable also can define a function to be called
-when a userdata or a table is garbage collected (<a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-For the unary operators (negation, length, and bitwise NOT),
-the metamethod is computed and called with a dummy second operand,
-equal to the first one.
-This extra operand is only to simplify Lua's internals
-(by making these operators behave like a binary operation)
-and may be removed in future versions.
-(For most uses this extra operand is irrelevant.)
-
-
-<p>
-A detailed list of events controlled by metatables is given next.
-Each operation is identified by its corresponding key.
+A detailed list of operations controlled by metatables is given next.
+Each event is identified by its corresponding key.
+By convention, all metatable keys used by Lua are composed by
+two underscores followed by lowercase Latin letters.
@@ -461,19 +487,18 @@ Each operation is identified by its corresponding key.
<li><b><code>__add</code>: </b>
the addition (<code>+</code>) operation.
-If any operand for an addition is not a number
-(nor a string coercible to a number),
+If any operand for an addition is not a number,
Lua will try to call a metamethod.
-First, Lua will check the first operand (even if it is valid).
-If that operand does not define a metamethod for <code>__add</code>,
+It starts by checking the first operand (even if it is a number);
+if that operand does not define a metamethod for <code>__add</code>,
then Lua will check the second operand.
If Lua can find a metamethod,
it calls the metamethod with the two operands as arguments,
and the result of the call
(adjusted to one value)
is the result of the operation.
-Otherwise,
-it raises an error.
+Otherwise, if no metamethod is found,
+Lua raises an error.
</li>
<li><b><code>__sub</code>: </b>
@@ -516,7 +541,7 @@ the bitwise AND (<code>&amp;</code>) operation.
Behavior similar to the addition operation,
except that Lua will try a metamethod
if any operand is neither an integer
-nor a value coercible to an integer (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>).
+nor a float coercible to an integer (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>).
</li>
<li><b><code>__bor</code>: </b>
@@ -580,43 +605,33 @@ the less than (<code>&lt;</code>) operation.
Behavior similar to the addition operation,
except that Lua will try a metamethod only when the values
being compared are neither both numbers nor both strings.
-The result of the call is always converted to a boolean.
+Moreover, the result of the call is always converted to a boolean.
</li>
<li><b><code>__le</code>: </b>
the less equal (<code>&lt;=</code>) operation.
-Unlike other operations,
-the less-equal operation can use two different events.
-First, Lua looks for the <code>__le</code> metamethod in both operands,
-like in the less than operation.
-If it cannot find such a metamethod,
-then it will try the <code>__lt</code> metamethod,
-assuming that <code>a &lt;= b</code> is equivalent to <code>not (b &lt; a)</code>.
-As with the other comparison operators,
-the result is always a boolean.
-(This use of the <code>__lt</code> event can be removed in future versions;
-it is also slower than a real <code>__le</code> metamethod.)
+Behavior similar to the less than operation.
</li>
<li><b><code>__index</code>: </b>
The indexing access operation <code>table[key]</code>.
This event happens when <code>table</code> is not a table or
when <code>key</code> is not present in <code>table</code>.
-The metamethod is looked up in <code>table</code>.
+The metavalue is looked up in the metatable of <code>table</code>.
<p>
-Despite the name,
-the metamethod for this event can be either a function or a table.
+The metavalue for this event can be either a function, a table,
+or any value with an <code>__index</code> metavalue.
If it is a function,
it is called with <code>table</code> and <code>key</code> as arguments,
and the result of the call
(adjusted to one value)
is the result of the operation.
-If it is a table,
-the final result is the result of indexing this table with <code>key</code>.
-(This indexing is regular, not raw,
-and therefore can trigger another metamethod.)
+Otherwise,
+the final result is the result of indexing this metavalue with <code>key</code>.
+This indexing is regular, not raw,
+and therefore can trigger another <code>__index</code> metavalue.
</li>
<li><b><code>__newindex</code>: </b>
@@ -624,26 +639,28 @@ The indexing assignment <code>table[key] = value</code>.
Like the index event,
this event happens when <code>table</code> is not a table or
when <code>key</code> is not present in <code>table</code>.
-The metamethod is looked up in <code>table</code>.
+The metavalue is looked up in the metatable of <code>table</code>.
<p>
Like with indexing,
-the metamethod for this event can be either a function or a table.
+the metavalue for this event can be either a function, a table,
+or any value with an <code>__newindex</code> metavalue.
If it is a function,
it is called with <code>table</code>, <code>key</code>, and <code>value</code> as arguments.
-If it is a table,
-Lua does an indexing assignment to this table with the same key and value.
-(This assignment is regular, not raw,
-and therefore can trigger another metamethod.)
+Otherwise,
+Lua repeats the indexing assignment over this metavalue
+with the same key and value.
+This assignment is regular, not raw,
+and therefore can trigger another <code>__newindex</code> metavalue.
<p>
-Whenever there is a <code>__newindex</code> metamethod,
+Whenever a <code>__newindex</code> metavalue is invoked,
Lua does not perform the primitive assignment.
-(If necessary,
+If needed,
the metamethod itself can call <a href="#pdf-rawset"><code>rawset</code></a>
-to do the assignment.)
+to do the assignment.
</li>
<li><b><code>__call</code>: </b>
@@ -655,17 +672,32 @@ If present,
the metamethod is called with <code>func</code> as its first argument,
followed by the arguments of the original call (<code>args</code>).
All results of the call
-are the result of the operation.
-(This is the only metamethod that allows multiple results.)
+are the results of the operation.
+This is the only metamethod that allows multiple results.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
-It is a good practice to add all needed metamethods to a table
-before setting it as a metatable of some object.
-In particular, the <code>__gc</code> metamethod works only when this order
-is followed (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>).
+In addition to the previous list,
+the interpreter also respects the following keys in metatables:
+<code>__gc</code> (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
+<code>__close</code> (see <a href="#3.3.8">&sect;3.3.8</a>),
+<code>__mode</code> (see <a href="#2.5.4">&sect;2.5.4</a>),
+and <code>__name</code>.
+(The entry <code>__name</code>,
+when it contains a string,
+may be used by <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> and in error messages.)
+
+
+<p>
+For the unary operators (negation, length, and bitwise NOT),
+the metamethod is computed and called with a dummy second operand,
+equal to the first one.
+This extra operand is only to simplify Lua's internals
+(by making these operators behave like a binary operation)
+and may be removed in future versions.
+For most uses this extra operand is irrelevant.
<p>
@@ -677,86 +709,191 @@ Some functions in the standard library
use other fields in metatables for their own purposes.
+<p>
+It is a good practice to add all needed metamethods to a table
+before setting it as a metatable of some object.
+In particular, the <code>__gc</code> metamethod works only when this order
+is followed (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>).
+It is also a good practice to set the metatable of an object
+right after its creation.
+
+
<h2>2.5 &ndash; <a name="2.5">Garbage Collection</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
Lua performs automatic memory management.
This means that
you do not have to worry about allocating memory for new objects
or freeing it when the objects are no longer needed.
Lua manages memory automatically by running
-a <em>garbage collector</em> to collect all <em>dead objects</em>
-(that is, objects that are no longer accessible from Lua).
+a <em>garbage collector</em> to collect all <em>dead</em> objects.
All memory used by Lua is subject to automatic management:
strings, tables, userdata, functions, threads, internal structures, etc.
<p>
-Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector.
-It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles:
-the <em>garbage-collector pause</em> and
-the <em>garbage-collector step multiplier</em>.
-Both use percentage points as units
-(e.g., a value of 100 means an internal value of 1).
+An object is considered <em>dead</em>
+as soon as the collector can be sure the object
+will not be accessed again in the normal execution of the program.
+("Normal execution" here excludes finalizers,
+which can resurrect dead objects (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
+and excludes also operations using the debug library.)
+Note that the time when the collector can be sure that an object
+is dead may not coincide with the programmer's expectations.
+The only guarantees are that Lua will not collect an object
+that may still be accessed in the normal execution of the program,
+and it will eventually collect an object
+that is inaccessible from Lua.
+(Here,
+<em>inaccessible from Lua</em> means that neither a variable nor
+another live object refer to the object.)
+Because Lua has no knowledge about C&nbsp;code,
+it never collects objects accessible through the registry (see <a href="#4.3">&sect;4.3</a>),
+which includes the global environment (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+The garbage collector (GC) in Lua can work in two modes:
+incremental and generational.
+
+
+<p>
+The default GC mode with the default parameters
+are adequate for most uses.
+However, programs that waste a large proportion of their time
+allocating and freeing memory can benefit from other settings.
+Keep in mind that the GC behavior is non-portable
+both across platforms and across different Lua releases;
+therefore, optimal settings are also non-portable.
+
+
+<p>
+You can change the GC mode and parameters by calling
+<a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> in&nbsp;C
+or <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> in Lua.
+You can also use these functions to control
+the collector directly (e.g., to stop and restart it).
+
+
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.1 &ndash; <a name="2.5.1">Incremental Garbage Collection</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+In incremental mode,
+each GC cycle performs a mark-and-sweep collection in small steps
+interleaved with the program's execution.
+In this mode,
+the collector uses three numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles:
+the <em>garbage-collector pause</em>,
+the <em>garbage-collector step multiplier</em>,
+and the <em>garbage-collector step size</em>.
<p>
The garbage-collector pause
controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle.
+The collector starts a new cycle when the use of memory
+hits <em>n%</em> of the use after the previous collection.
Larger values make the collector less aggressive.
-Values smaller than 100 mean the collector will not wait to
+Values equal to or less than 100 mean the collector will not wait to
start a new cycle.
A value of 200 means that the collector waits for the total memory in use
to double before starting a new cycle.
+The default value is 200; the maximum value is 1000.
<p>
The garbage-collector step multiplier
-controls the relative speed of the collector relative to
-memory allocation.
+controls the speed of the collector relative to
+memory allocation,
+that is,
+how many elements it marks or sweeps for each
+kilobyte of memory allocated.
Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase
the size of each incremental step.
-You should not use values smaller than 100,
+You should not use values less than 100,
because they make the collector too slow and
can result in the collector never finishing a cycle.
-The default is 200,
-which means that the collector runs at "twice"
-the speed of memory allocation.
+The default value is 100; the maximum value is 1000.
<p>
-If you set the step multiplier to a very large number
-(larger than 10% of the maximum number of
-bytes that the program may use),
-the collector behaves like a stop-the-world collector.
-If you then set the pause to 200,
-the collector behaves as in old Lua versions,
-doing a complete collection every time Lua doubles its
-memory usage.
+The garbage-collector step size controls the
+size of each incremental step,
+specifically how many bytes the interpreter allocates
+before performing a step.
+This parameter is logarithmic:
+A value of <em>n</em> means the interpreter will allocate <em>2<sup>n</sup></em>
+bytes between steps and perform equivalent work during the step.
+A large value (e.g., 60) makes the collector a stop-the-world
+(non-incremental) collector.
+The default value is 13,
+which means steps of approximately 8&nbsp;Kbytes.
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.2 &ndash; <a name="2.5.2">Generational Garbage Collection</a></h3>
+
<p>
-You can change these numbers by calling <a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> in C
-or <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> in Lua.
-You can also use these functions to control
-the collector directly (e.g., stop and restart it).
+In generational mode,
+the collector does frequent <em>minor</em> collections,
+which traverses only objects recently created.
+If after a minor collection the use of memory is still above a limit,
+the collector does a stop-the-world <em>major</em> collection,
+which traverses all objects.
+The generational mode uses two parameters:
+the <em>minor multiplier</em> and the <em>the major multiplier</em>.
+<p>
+The minor multiplier controls the frequency of minor collections.
+For a minor multiplier <em>x</em>,
+a new minor collection will be done when memory
+grows <em>x%</em> larger than the memory in use after the previous major
+collection.
+For instance, for a multiplier of 20,
+the collector will do a minor collection when the use of memory
+gets 20% larger than the use after the previous major collection.
+The default value is 20; the maximum value is 200.
-<h3>2.5.1 &ndash; <a name="2.5.1">Garbage-Collection Metamethods</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+The major multiplier controls the frequency of major collections.
+For a major multiplier <em>x</em>,
+a new major collection will be done when memory
+grows <em>x%</em> larger than the memory in use after the previous major
+collection.
+For instance, for a multiplier of 100,
+the collector will do a major collection when the use of memory
+gets larger than twice the use after the previous collection.
+The default value is 100; the maximum value is 1000.
+
+
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.3 &ndash; <a name="2.5.3">Garbage-Collection Metamethods</a></h3>
<p>
You can set garbage-collector metamethods for tables
and, using the C&nbsp;API,
for full userdata (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
-These metamethods are also called <em>finalizers</em>.
+These metamethods, called <em>finalizers</em>,
+are called when the garbage collector detects that the
+corresponding table or userdata is dead.
Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection
-with external resource management
-(such as closing files, network or database connections,
-or freeing your own memory).
+with external resource management such as closing files,
+network or database connections,
+or freeing your own memory.
<p>
@@ -771,22 +908,20 @@ the object will not be marked for finalization.
<p>
-When a marked object becomes garbage,
+When a marked object becomes dead,
it is not collected immediately by the garbage collector.
Instead, Lua puts it in a list.
After the collection,
Lua goes through that list.
For each object in the list,
it checks the object's <code>__gc</code> metamethod:
-If it is a function,
-Lua calls it with the object as its single argument;
-if the metamethod is not a function,
-Lua simply ignores it.
+If it is present,
+Lua calls it with the object as its single argument.
<p>
At the end of each garbage-collection cycle,
-the finalizers for objects are called in
+the finalizers are called in
the reverse order that the objects were marked for finalization,
among those collected in that cycle;
that is, the first finalizer to be called is the one associated
@@ -806,10 +941,10 @@ However, if the finalizer stores the object in some global place
then the resurrection is permanent.
Moreover, if the finalizer marks a finalizing object for finalization again,
its finalizer will be called again in the next cycle where the
-object is unreachable.
+object is dead.
In any case,
the object memory is freed only in a GC cycle where
-the object is unreachable and not marked for finalization.
+the object is dead and not marked for finalization.
<p>
@@ -820,10 +955,26 @@ If any finalizer marks objects for collection during that phase,
these marks have no effect.
+<p>
+Finalizers cannot yield.
+Except for that, they can do anything,
+such as raise errors, create new objects,
+or even run the garbage collector.
+However, because they can run in unpredictable times,
+it is good practice to restrict each finalizer
+to the minimum necessary to properly release
+its associated resource.
+
+<p>
+Any error while running a finalizer generates a warning;
+the error is not propagated.
-<h3>2.5.2 &ndash; <a name="2.5.2">Weak Tables</a></h3>
+
+
+
+<h3>2.5.4 &ndash; <a name="2.5.4">Weak Tables</a></h3>
<p>
A <em>weak table</em> is a table whose elements are
@@ -844,10 +995,10 @@ In any case, if either the key or the value is collected,
the whole pair is removed from the table.
The weakness of a table is controlled by the
<code>__mode</code> field of its metatable.
-If the <code>__mode</code> field is a string containing the character&nbsp;'<code>k</code>',
-the keys in the table are weak.
-If <code>__mode</code> contains '<code>v</code>',
-the values in the table are weak.
+This metavalue, if present, must be one of the following strings:
+"<code>k</code>", for a table with weak keys;
+"<code>v</code>", for a table with weak values;
+or "<code>kv</code>", for a table with both weak keys and values.
<p>
@@ -876,8 +1027,10 @@ are not subject to garbage collection,
and therefore are not removed from weak tables
(unless their associated values are collected).
Although strings are subject to garbage collection,
-they do not have an explicit construction,
-and therefore are not removed from weak tables.
+they do not have an explicit construction and
+their equality is by value;
+they behave more like values than like objects.
+Therefore, they are not removed from weak tables.
<p>
@@ -944,7 +1097,10 @@ In case of normal termination,
<a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>true</b>,
plus any values returned by the coroutine main function.
In case of errors, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>false</b>
-plus an error object.
+plus the error object.
+In this case, the coroutine does not unwind its stack,
+so that it is possible to inspect it after the error
+with the debug API.
<p>
@@ -972,8 +1128,10 @@ go as extra arguments to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume<
<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> returns all the values returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
except the first one (the boolean error code).
Unlike <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> does not catch errors;
-any error is propagated to the caller.
+the function created by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a>
+propagates any error to the caller.
+In this case,
+the function also closes the coroutine (see <a href="#pdf-coroutine.close"><code>coroutine.close</code></a>).
<p>
@@ -1024,6 +1182,8 @@ and <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>.
<h1>3 &ndash; <a name="3">The Language</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
This section describes the lexis, the syntax, and the semantics of Lua.
In other words,
@@ -1046,20 +1206,25 @@ at the end of this manual.
+
+
<h2>3.1 &ndash; <a name="3.1">Lexical Conventions</a></h2>
<p>
Lua is a free-form language.
-It ignores spaces (including new lines) and comments
-between lexical elements (tokens),
-except as delimiters between names and keywords.
+It ignores spaces and comments between lexical elements (tokens),
+except as delimiters between two tokens.
+In source code,
+Lua recognizes as spaces the standard ASCII whitespace
+characters space, form feed, newline,
+carriage return, horizontal tab, and vertical tab.
<p>
<em>Names</em>
(also called <em>identifiers</em>)
-in Lua can be any string of letters,
-digits, and underscores,
+in Lua can be any string of Latin letters,
+Arabic-Indic digits, and underscores,
not beginning with a digit and
not being a reserved word.
Identifiers are used to name variables, table fields, and labels.
@@ -1115,7 +1280,7 @@ and '<code>\'</code>' (apostrophe [single quote]).
A backslash followed by a line break
results in a newline in the string.
The escape sequence '<code>\z</code>' skips the following span
-of white-space characters,
+of whitespace characters,
including line breaks;
it is particularly useful to break and indent a long literal string
into multiple lines without adding the newlines and spaces
@@ -1125,8 +1290,9 @@ nor escapes not forming a valid escape sequence.
<p>
-We can specify any byte in a short literal string by its numeric value
-(including embedded zeros).
+We can specify any byte in a short literal string,
+including embedded zeros,
+by its numeric value.
This can be done
with the escape sequence <code>\x<em>XX</em></code>,
where <em>XX</em> is a sequence of exactly two hexadecimal digits,
@@ -1140,9 +1306,12 @@ it must be expressed using exactly three digits.)
The UTF-8 encoding of a Unicode character
can be inserted in a literal string with
the escape sequence <code>\u{<em>XXX</em>}</code>
-(note the mandatory enclosing brackets),
+(with mandatory enclosing braces),
where <em>XXX</em> is a sequence of one or more hexadecimal digits
representing the character code point.
+This code point can be any value less than <em>2<sup>31</sup></em>.
+(Lua uses the original UTF-8 specification here,
+which is not restricted to valid Unicode code points.)
<p>
@@ -1167,12 +1336,11 @@ Any kind of end-of-line sequence
(carriage return, newline, carriage return followed by newline,
or newline followed by carriage return)
is converted to a simple newline.
+When the opening long bracket is immediately followed by a newline,
+the newline is not included in the string.
<p>
-For convenience,
-when the opening long bracket is immediately followed by a newline,
-the newline is not included in the string.
As an example, in a system using ASCII
(in which '<code>a</code>' is coded as&nbsp;97,
newline is coded as&nbsp;10, and '<code>1</code>' is coded as&nbsp;49),
@@ -1193,10 +1361,10 @@ the five literal strings below denote the same string:
Any byte in a literal string not
explicitly affected by the previous rules represents itself.
However, Lua opens files for parsing in text mode,
-and the system file functions may have problems with
+and the system's file functions may have problems with
some control characters.
So, it is safer to represent
-non-text data as a quoted literal with
+binary data as a quoted literal with
explicit escape sequences for the non-text characters.
@@ -1210,11 +1378,23 @@ which start with <code>0x</code> or <code>0X</code>.
Hexadecimal constants also accept an optional fractional part
plus an optional binary exponent,
marked by a letter '<code>p</code>' or '<code>P</code>'.
+
+
+<p>
A numeric constant with a radix point or an exponent
denotes a float;
otherwise,
-if its value fits in an integer,
-it denotes an integer.
+if its value fits in an integer or it is a hexadecimal constant,
+it denotes an integer;
+otherwise (that is, a decimal integer numeral that overflows),
+it denotes a float.
+Hexadecimal numerals with neither a radix point nor an exponent
+always denote an integer value;
+if the value overflows, it <em>wraps around</em>
+to fit into a valid integer.
+
+
+<p>
Examples of valid integer constants are
<pre>
@@ -1235,7 +1415,6 @@ the comment is a <em>short comment</em>,
which runs until the end of the line.
Otherwise, it is a <em>long comment</em>,
which runs until the corresponding closing long bracket.
-Long comments are frequently used to disable code temporarily.
@@ -1257,7 +1436,7 @@ which is a particular kind of local variable):
<pre>
var ::= Name
</pre><p>
-Name denotes identifiers, as defined in <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>.
+Name denotes identifiers (see <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>).
<p>
@@ -1294,7 +1473,7 @@ The syntax <code>var.Name</code> is just syntactic sugar for
An access to a global variable <code>x</code>
is equivalent to <code>_ENV.x</code>.
Due to the way that chunks are compiled,
-<code>_ENV</code> is never a global name (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
+the variable <code>_ENV</code> itself is never global (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
@@ -1302,15 +1481,19 @@ Due to the way that chunks are compiled,
<h2>3.3 &ndash; <a name="3.3">Statements</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
Lua supports an almost conventional set of statements,
-similar to those in Pascal or C.
+similar to those in other conventional languages.
This set includes
-assignments, control structures, function calls,
+blocks, assignments, control structures, function calls,
and variable declarations.
+
+
<h3>3.3.1 &ndash; <a name="3.3.1">Blocks</a></h3>
<p>
@@ -1330,7 +1513,7 @@ or write two semicolons in sequence:
</pre>
<p>
-Function calls and assignments
+Both function calls and assignments
can start with an open parenthesis.
This possibility leads to an ambiguity in Lua's grammar.
Consider the following fragment:
@@ -1339,7 +1522,7 @@ Consider the following fragment:
a = b + c
(print or io.write)('done')
</pre><p>
-The grammar could see it in two ways:
+The grammar could see this fragment in two ways:
<pre>
a = b + c(print or io.write)('done')
@@ -1393,7 +1576,7 @@ As such, chunks can define local variables,
receive arguments, and return values.
Moreover, such anonymous function is compiled as in the
scope of an external local variable called <code>_ENV</code> (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
-The resulting function always has <code>_ENV</code> as its only upvalue,
+The resulting function always has <code>_ENV</code> as its only external variable,
even if it does not use that variable.
@@ -1408,7 +1591,7 @@ with an interpreter for the virtual machine.
<p>
Chunks can also be precompiled into binary form;
-see program <code>luac</code> and function <a href="#pdf-string.dump"><code>string.dump</code></a> for details.
+see the program <code>luac</code> and the function <a href="#pdf-string.dump"><code>string.dump</code></a> for details.
Programs in source and compiled forms are interchangeable;
Lua automatically detects the file type and acts accordingly (see <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>).
@@ -1440,7 +1623,7 @@ the list of variables.
If there are more values than needed,
the excess values are thrown away.
If there are fewer values than needed,
-the list is extended with as many <b>nil</b>'s as needed.
+the list is extended with <b>nil</b>'s.
If the list of expressions ends with a function call,
then all values returned by that call enter the list of values,
before the adjustment
@@ -1507,9 +1690,9 @@ Lua also has a <b>for</b> statement, in two flavors (see <a href="#3.3.5">&sect;
<p>
The condition expression of a
control structure can return any value.
-Both <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b> are considered false.
-All values different from <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> are considered true
-(in particular, the number 0 and the empty string are also true).
+Both <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b> test false.
+All values different from <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> test true.
+In particular, the number 0 and the empty string also test true.
<p>
@@ -1535,11 +1718,12 @@ labels in Lua are considered statements too:
<p>
A label is visible in the entire block where it is defined,
-except
-inside nested blocks where a label with the same name is defined and
-inside nested functions.
+except inside nested functions.
A goto may jump to any visible label as long as it does not
enter into the scope of a local variable.
+A label should not be declared
+where a label with the same name is visible,
+even if this other label has been declared in an enclosing block.
<p>
@@ -1562,7 +1746,7 @@ A <b>break</b> ends the innermost enclosing loop.
<p>
The <b>return</b> statement is used to return values
from a function or a chunk
-(which is an anonymous function).
+(which is handled as an anonymous function).
Functions can return more than one value,
so the syntax for the <b>return</b> statement is
@@ -1574,7 +1758,7 @@ so the syntax for the <b>return</b> statement is
<p>
The <b>return</b> statement can only be written
as the last statement of a block.
-If it is really necessary to <b>return</b> in the middle of a block,
+If it is necessary to <b>return</b> in the middle of a block,
then an explicit inner block can be used,
as in the idiom <code>do return end</code>,
because now <b>return</b> is the last statement in its (inner) block.
@@ -1591,72 +1775,70 @@ The <b>for</b> statement has two forms:
one numerical and one generic.
+
+<h4>The numerical <b>for</b> loop</h4>
+
<p>
The numerical <b>for</b> loop repeats a block of code while a
-control variable runs through an arithmetic progression.
+control variable goes through an arithmetic progression.
It has the following syntax:
<pre>
stat ::= <b>for</b> Name &lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; exp &lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
</pre><p>
-The <em>block</em> is repeated for <em>name</em> starting at the value of
-the first <em>exp</em>, until it passes the second <em>exp</em> by steps of the
-third <em>exp</em>.
-More precisely, a <b>for</b> statement like
+The given identifier (Name) defines the control variable,
+which is a new variable local to the loop body (<em>block</em>).
-<pre>
- for v = <em>e1</em>, <em>e2</em>, <em>e3</em> do <em>block</em> end
-</pre><p>
-is equivalent to the code:
-<pre>
- do
- local <em>var</em>, <em>limit</em>, <em>step</em> = tonumber(<em>e1</em>), tonumber(<em>e2</em>), tonumber(<em>e3</em>)
- if not (<em>var</em> and <em>limit</em> and <em>step</em>) then error() end
- <em>var</em> = <em>var</em> - <em>step</em>
- while true do
- <em>var</em> = <em>var</em> + <em>step</em>
- if (<em>step</em> &gt;= 0 and <em>var</em> &gt; <em>limit</em>) or (<em>step</em> &lt; 0 and <em>var</em> &lt; <em>limit</em>) then
- break
- end
- local v = <em>var</em>
- <em>block</em>
- end
- end
-</pre>
+<p>
+The loop starts by evaluating once the three control expressions.
+Their values are called respectively
+the <em>initial value</em>, the <em>limit</em>, and the <em>step</em>.
+If the step is absent, it defaults to&nbsp;1.
+
<p>
-Note the following:
+If both the initial value and the step are integers,
+the loop is done with integers;
+note that the limit may not be an integer.
+Otherwise, the three values are converted to
+floats and the loop is done with floats.
+Beware of floating-point accuracy in this case.
-<ul>
-<li>
-All three control expressions are evaluated only once,
-before the loop starts.
-They must all result in numbers.
-</li>
+<p>
+After that initialization,
+the loop body is repeated with the value of the control variable
+going through an arithmetic progression,
+starting at the initial value,
+with a common difference given by the step.
+A negative step makes a decreasing sequence;
+a step equal to zero raises an error.
+The loop continues while the value is less than
+or equal to the limit
+(greater than or equal to for a negative step).
+If the initial value is already greater than the limit
+(or less than, if the step is negative),
+the body is not executed.
-<li>
-<code><em>var</em></code>, <code><em>limit</em></code>, and <code><em>step</em></code> are invisible variables.
-The names shown here are for explanatory purposes only.
-</li>
-<li>
-If the third expression (the step) is absent,
-then a step of&nbsp;1 is used.
-</li>
+<p>
+For integer loops,
+the control variable never wraps around;
+instead, the loop ends in case of an overflow.
-<li>
-You can use <b>break</b> and <b>goto</b> to exit a <b>for</b> loop.
-</li>
-<li>
-The loop variable <code>v</code> is local to the loop body.
+<p>
+You should not change the value of the control variable
+during the loop.
If you need its value after the loop,
assign it to another variable before exiting the loop.
-</li>
-</ul>
+
+
+
+
+<h4>The generic <b>for</b> loop</h4>
<p>
The generic <b>for</b> statement works over functions,
@@ -1672,49 +1854,50 @@ The generic <b>for</b> loop has the following syntax:
A <b>for</b> statement like
<pre>
- for <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> in <em>explist</em> do <em>block</em> end
+ for <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> in <em>explist</em> do <em>body</em> end
</pre><p>
-is equivalent to the code:
+works as follows.
-<pre>
- do
- local <em>f</em>, <em>s</em>, <em>var</em> = <em>explist</em>
- while true do
- local <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> = <em>f</em>(<em>s</em>, <em>var</em>)
- if <em>var_1</em> == nil then break end
- <em>var</em> = <em>var_1</em>
- <em>block</em>
- end
- end
-</pre><p>
-Note the following:
-<ul>
+<p>
+The names <em>var_i</em> declare loop variables local to the loop body.
+The first of these variables is the <em>control variable</em>.
-<li>
-<code><em>explist</em></code> is evaluated only once.
-Its results are an <em>iterator</em> function,
+
+<p>
+The loop starts by evaluating <em>explist</em>
+to produce four values:
+an <em>iterator function</em>,
a <em>state</em>,
-and an initial value for the first <em>iterator variable</em>.
-</li>
+an initial value for the control variable,
+and a <em>closing value</em>.
-<li>
-<code><em>f</em></code>, <code><em>s</em></code>, and <code><em>var</em></code> are invisible variables.
-The names are here for explanatory purposes only.
-</li>
-<li>
-You can use <b>break</b> to exit a <b>for</b> loop.
-</li>
+<p>
+Then, at each iteration,
+Lua calls the iterator function with two arguments:
+the state and the control variable.
+The results from this call are then assigned to the loop variables,
+following the rules of multiple assignments (see <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>).
+If the control variable becomes <b>nil</b>,
+the loop terminates.
+Otherwise, the body is executed and the loop goes
+to the next iteration.
+
+
+<p>
+The closing value behaves like a
+to-be-closed variable (see <a href="#3.3.8">&sect;3.3.8</a>),
+which can be used to release resources when the loop ends.
+Otherwise, it does not interfere with the loop.
+
+
+<p>
+You should not change the value of the control variable
+during the loop.
+
-<li>
-The loop variables <code><em>var_i</em></code> are local to the loop;
-you cannot use their values after the <b>for</b> ends.
-If you need these values,
-then assign them to other variables before breaking or exiting the loop.
-</li>
-</ul>
@@ -1735,10 +1918,11 @@ Function calls are explained in <a href="#3.4.10">&sect;3.4.10</a>.
<h3>3.3.7 &ndash; <a name="3.3.7">Local Declarations</a></h3><p>
Local variables can be declared anywhere inside a block.
-The declaration can include an initial assignment:
+The declaration can include an initialization:
<pre>
- stat ::= <b>local</b> namelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
+ stat ::= <b>local</b> attnamelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
+ attnamelist ::= Name attrib {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; Name attrib}
</pre><p>
If present, an initial assignment has the same semantics
of a multiple assignment (see <a href="#3.3.3">&sect;3.3.3</a>).
@@ -1746,6 +1930,21 @@ Otherwise, all variables are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
<p>
+Each variable name may be postfixed by an attribute
+(a name between angle brackets):
+
+<pre>
+ attrib ::= [&lsquo;<b>&lt;</b>&rsquo; Name &lsquo;<b>&gt;</b>&rsquo;]
+</pre><p>
+There are two possible attributes:
+<code>const</code>, which declares a constant variable,
+that is, a variable that cannot be assigned to
+after its initialization;
+and <code>close</code>, which declares a to-be-closed variable (see <a href="#3.3.8">&sect;3.3.8</a>).
+A list of variables can contain at most one to-be-closed variable.
+
+
+<p>
A chunk is also a block (see <a href="#3.3.2">&sect;3.3.2</a>),
and so local variables can be declared in a chunk outside any explicit block.
@@ -1757,10 +1956,81 @@ The visibility rules for local variables are explained in <a href="#3.5">&sect;3
+<h3>3.3.8 &ndash; <a name="3.3.8">To-be-closed Variables</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+A to-be-closed variable behaves like a constant local variable,
+except that its value is <em>closed</em> whenever the variable
+goes out of scope, including normal block termination,
+exiting its block by <b>break</b>/<b>goto</b>/<b>return</b>,
+or exiting by an error.
+
+
+<p>
+Here, to <em>close</em> a value means
+to call its <code>__close</code> metamethod.
+When calling the metamethod,
+the value itself is passed as the first argument
+and the error object that caused the exit (if any)
+is passed as a second argument;
+if there was no error, the second argument is <b>nil</b>.
+
+
+<p>
+The value assigned to a to-be-closed variable
+must have a <code>__close</code> metamethod
+or be a false value.
+(<b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> are ignored as to-be-closed values.)
+
+
+<p>
+If several to-be-closed variables go out of scope at the same event,
+they are closed in the reverse order that they were declared.
+
+
+<p>
+If there is any error while running a closing method,
+that error is handled like an error in the regular code
+where the variable was defined.
+However, Lua may call the method one more time.
+
+
+<p>
+After an error,
+the other pending closing methods will still be called.
+Errors in these methods
+interrupt the respective method and generate a warning,
+but are otherwise ignored;
+the error reported is only the original one.
+
+
+<p>
+If a coroutine yields and is never resumed again,
+some variables may never go out of scope,
+and therefore they will never be closed.
+(These variables are the ones created inside the coroutine
+and in scope at the point where the coroutine yielded.)
+Similarly, if a coroutine ends with an error,
+it does not unwind its stack,
+so it does not close any variable.
+In both cases,
+you can either use finalizers
+or call <a href="#pdf-coroutine.close"><code>coroutine.close</code></a> to close the variables.
+However, if the coroutine was created
+through <a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a>,
+then its corresponding function will close the coroutine
+in case of errors.
+
+
+
+
+
<h2>3.4 &ndash; <a name="3.4">Expressions</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
The basic expressions in Lua are the following:
@@ -1847,6 +2117,8 @@ or <b>nil</b> if <code>f</code> does not return any values.)
+
+
<h3>3.4.1 &ndash; <a name="3.4.1">Arithmetic Operators</a></h3><p>
Lua supports the following arithmetic operators:
@@ -1866,14 +2138,14 @@ With the exception of exponentiation and float division,
the arithmetic operators work as follows:
If both operands are integers,
the operation is performed over integers and the result is an integer.
-Otherwise, if both operands are numbers
-or strings that can be converted to
-numbers (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>),
+Otherwise, if both operands are numbers,
then they are converted to floats,
-the operation is performed following the usual rules
+the operation is performed following the machine's rules
for floating-point arithmetic
(usually the IEEE 754 standard),
and the result is a float.
+(The string library coerces strings to numbers in
+arithmetic operations; see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a> for details.)
<p>
@@ -1887,7 +2159,7 @@ so that it works for non-integer exponents too.
<p>
Floor division (<code>//</code>) is a division
that rounds the quotient towards minus infinity,
-that is, the floor of the division of its operands.
+resulting in the floor of the division of its operands.
<p>
@@ -1897,11 +2169,7 @@ that rounds the quotient towards minus infinity (floor division).
<p>
In case of overflows in integer arithmetic,
-all operations <em>wrap around</em>,
-according to the usual rules of two-complement arithmetic.
-(In other words,
-they return the unique representable integer
-that is equal modulo <em>2<sup>64</sup></em> to the mathematical result.)
+all operations <em>wrap around</em>.
@@ -1942,8 +2210,7 @@ Bitwise operators always convert float operands to integers.
Exponentiation and float division
always convert integer operands to floats.
All other arithmetic operations applied to mixed numbers
-(integers and floats) convert the integer operand to a float;
-this is called the <em>usual rule</em>.
+(integers and floats) convert the integer operand to a float.
The C API also converts both integers to floats and
floats to integers, as needed.
Moreover, string concatenation accepts numbers as arguments,
@@ -1951,11 +2218,6 @@ besides strings.
<p>
-Lua also converts strings to numbers,
-whenever a number is expected.
-
-
-<p>
In a conversion from integer to float,
if the integer value has an exact representation as a float,
that is the result.
@@ -1975,28 +2237,45 @@ Otherwise, the conversion fails.
<p>
-The conversion from strings to numbers goes as follows:
-First, the string is converted to an integer or a float,
-following its syntax and the rules of the Lua lexer.
-(The string may have also leading and trailing spaces and a sign.)
-Then, the resulting number (float or integer)
-is converted to the type (float or integer) required by the context
-(e.g., the operation that forced the conversion).
+Several places in Lua coerce strings to numbers when necessary.
+In particular,
+the string library sets metamethods that try to coerce
+strings to numbers in all arithmetic operations.
+If the conversion fails,
+the library calls the metamethod of the other operand
+(if present) or it raises an error.
+Note that bitwise operators do not do this coercion.
<p>
+Nonetheless, it is always a good practice not to rely on these
+implicit coercions, as they are not always applied;
+in particular, <code>"1"==1</code> is false and <code>"1"&lt;1</code> raises an error
+(see <a href="#3.4.4">&sect;3.4.4</a>).
+These coercions exist mainly for compatibility and may be removed
+in future versions of the language.
+
+
+<p>
+A string is converted to an integer or a float
+following its syntax and the rules of the Lua lexer.
+The string may have also leading and trailing whitespaces and a sign.
All conversions from strings to numbers
accept both a dot and the current locale mark
as the radix character.
(The Lua lexer, however, accepts only a dot.)
+If the string is not a valid numeral,
+the conversion fails.
+If necessary, the result of this first step is then converted
+to a specific number subtype following the previous rules
+for conversions between floats and integers.
<p>
The conversion from numbers to strings uses a
non-specified human-readable format.
-For complete control over how numbers are converted to strings,
-use the <code>format</code> function from the string library
-(see <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>).
+To convert numbers to strings in any specific way,
+use the function <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
@@ -2020,7 +2299,7 @@ These operators always result in <b>false</b> or <b>true</b>.
Equality (<code>==</code>) first compares the type of its operands.
If the types are different, then the result is <b>false</b>.
Otherwise, the values of the operands are compared.
-Strings are compared in the obvious way.
+Strings are equal if they have the same byte content.
Numbers are equal if they denote the same mathematical value.
@@ -2029,19 +2308,19 @@ Tables, userdata, and threads
are compared by reference:
two objects are considered equal only if they are the same object.
Every time you create a new object
-(a table, userdata, or thread),
+(a table, a userdata, or a thread),
this new object is different from any previously existing object.
-A closure is always equal to itself.
-Closures with any detectable difference
+A function is always equal to itself.
+Functions with any detectable difference
(different behavior, different definition) are always different.
-Closures created at different times but with no detectable differences
+Functions created at different times but with no detectable differences
may be classified as equal or not
(depending on internal caching details).
<p>
You can change the way that Lua compares tables and userdata
-by using the "eq" metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
+by using the <code>__eq</code> metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<p>
@@ -2059,11 +2338,11 @@ The operator <code>~=</code> is exactly the negation of equality (<code>==</code
<p>
The order operators work as follows.
If both arguments are numbers,
-then they are compared according to their mathematical values
-(regardless of their subtypes).
+then they are compared according to their mathematical values,
+regardless of their subtypes.
Otherwise, if both arguments are strings,
then their values are compared according to the current locale.
-Otherwise, Lua tries to call the "lt" or the "le"
+Otherwise, Lua tries to call the <code>__lt</code> or the <code>__le</code>
metamethod (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
A comparison <code>a &gt; b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt; a</code>
and <code>a &gt;= b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
@@ -2071,8 +2350,8 @@ and <code>a &gt;= b</code> is translated to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
<p>
Following the IEEE 754 standard,
-NaN is considered neither smaller than,
-nor equal to, nor greater than any value (including itself).
+the special value NaN is considered neither less than,
+nor equal to, nor greater than any value, including itself.
@@ -2108,10 +2387,7 @@ Here are some examples:
false and nil --&gt; false
false or nil --&gt; nil
10 and 20 --&gt; 20
-</pre><p>
-(In this manual,
-<code>--&gt;</code> indicates the result of the preceding expression.)
-
+</pre>
@@ -2119,8 +2395,9 @@ Here are some examples:
<h3>3.4.6 &ndash; <a name="3.4.6">Concatenation</a></h3><p>
The string concatenation operator in Lua is
denoted by two dots ('<code>..</code>').
-If both operands are strings or numbers, then they are converted to
-strings according to the rules described in <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>.
+If both operands are strings or numbers,
+then the numbers are converted to strings
+in a non-specified format (see <a href="#3.4.3">&sect;3.4.3</a>).
Otherwise, the <code>__concat</code> metamethod is called (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
@@ -2134,9 +2411,9 @@ The length operator is denoted by the unary prefix operator <code>#</code>.
<p>
-The length of a string is its number of bytes
-(that is, the usual meaning of string length when each
-character is one byte).
+The length of a string is its number of bytes.
+(That is the usual meaning of string length when each
+character is one byte.)
<p>
@@ -2149,9 +2426,9 @@ that satisfies the following condition:
(border == 0 or t[border] ~= nil) and t[border + 1] == nil
</pre><p>
In words,
-a border is any (natural) index in a table
-where a non-nil value is followed by a nil value
-(or zero, when index 1 is nil).
+a border is any (natural) index present in the table
+that is followed by an absent index
+(or zero, when index 1 is absent).
<p>
@@ -2160,8 +2437,10 @@ For instance, the table <code>{10, 20, 30, 40, 50}</code> is a sequence,
as it has only one border (5).
The table <code>{10, 20, 30, nil, 50}</code> has two borders (3 and 5),
and therefore it is not a sequence.
+(The <b>nil</b> at index 4 is called a <em>hole</em>.)
The table <code>{nil, 20, 30, nil, nil, 60, nil}</code>
-has three borders (0, 3, and 6),
+has three borders (0, 3, and 6) and three holes
+(at indices 1, 4, and 5),
so it is not a sequence, too.
The table <code>{}</code> is a sequence with border 0.
Note that non-natural keys do not interfere
@@ -2241,10 +2520,10 @@ Each field of the form <code>[exp1] = exp2</code> adds to the new table an entry
with key <code>exp1</code> and value <code>exp2</code>.
A field of the form <code>name = exp</code> is equivalent to
<code>["name"] = exp</code>.
-Finally, fields of the form <code>exp</code> are equivalent to
+Fields of the form <code>exp</code> are equivalent to
<code>[i] = exp</code>, where <code>i</code> are consecutive integers
-starting with 1.
-Fields in the other formats do not affect this counting.
+starting with 1;
+fields in the other formats do not affect this counting.
For example,
<pre>
@@ -2297,8 +2576,9 @@ first prefixexp and args are evaluated.
If the value of prefixexp has type <em>function</em>,
then this function is called
with the given arguments.
-Otherwise, the prefixexp "call" metamethod is called,
-having as first argument the value of prefixexp,
+Otherwise, if present,
+the prefixexp <code>__call</code> metamethod is called:
+its first argument is the value of prefixexp,
followed by the original call arguments
(see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
@@ -2309,7 +2589,7 @@ The form
<pre>
functioncall ::= prefixexp &lsquo;<b>:</b>&rsquo; Name args
</pre><p>
-can be used to call "methods".
+can be used to emulate methods.
A call <code>v:name(<em>args</em>)</code>
is syntactic sugar for <code>v.name(v,<em>args</em>)</code>,
except that <code>v</code> is evaluated only once.
@@ -2334,8 +2614,8 @@ that is, the argument list is a single literal string.
<p>
-A call of the form <code>return <em>functioncall</em></code> is called
-a <em>tail call</em>.
+A call of the form <code>return <em>functioncall</em></code> not in the
+scope of a to-be-closed variable is called a <em>tail call</em>.
Lua implements <em>proper tail calls</em>
(or <em>proper tail recursion</em>):
in a tail call,
@@ -2345,14 +2625,16 @@ a program can execute.
However, a tail call erases any debug information about the
calling function.
Note that a tail call only happens with a particular syntax,
-where the <b>return</b> has one single function call as argument;
-this syntax makes the calling function return exactly
-the returns of the called function.
+where the <b>return</b> has one single function call as argument,
+and it is outside the scope of any to-be-closed variable.
+This syntax makes the calling function return exactly
+the returns of the called function,
+without any intervening action.
So, none of the following examples are tail calls:
<pre>
return (f(x)) -- results adjusted to 1
- return 2 * f(x)
+ return 2 * f(x) -- result multiplied by 2
return x, f(x) -- additional results
f(x); return -- results discarded
return x or f(x) -- results adjusted to 1
@@ -2422,10 +2704,11 @@ contains references to <code>f</code>.)
A function definition is an executable expression,
whose value has type <em>function</em>.
When Lua precompiles a chunk,
-all its function bodies are precompiled too.
+all its function bodies are precompiled too,
+but they are not created yet.
Then, whenever Lua executes the function definition,
the function is <em>instantiated</em> (or <em>closed</em>).
-This function instance (or <em>closure</em>)
+This function instance, or <em>closure</em>,
is the final value of the expression.
@@ -2436,9 +2719,9 @@ initialized with the argument values:
<pre>
parlist ::= namelist [&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;] | &lsquo;<b>...</b>&rsquo;
</pre><p>
-When a function is called,
-the list of arguments is adjusted to
-the length of the list of parameters,
+When a Lua function is called,
+it adjusts its list of arguments to
+the length of its list of parameters,
unless the function is a <em>vararg function</em>,
which is indicated by three dots ('<code>...</code>')
at the end of its parameter list.
@@ -2468,7 +2751,7 @@ Then, we have the following mapping from arguments to parameters and
to the vararg expression:
<pre>
- CALL PARAMETERS
+ CALL PARAMETERS
f(3) a=3, b=nil
f(3, 4) a=3, b=4
@@ -2493,13 +2776,13 @@ then the function returns with no results.
There is a system-dependent limit on the number of values
that a function may return.
-This limit is guaranteed to be larger than 1000.
+This limit is guaranteed to be greater than 1000.
<p>
The <em>colon</em> syntax
-is used for defining <em>methods</em>,
-that is, functions that have an implicit extra parameter <code>self</code>.
+is used to emulate <em>methods</em>,
+adding an implicit extra parameter <code>self</code> to the function.
Thus, the statement
<pre>
@@ -2551,8 +2834,8 @@ and so the second <code>x</code> refers to the outside variable.
Because of the lexical scoping rules,
local variables can be freely accessed by functions
defined inside their scope.
-A local variable used by an inner function is called
-an <em>upvalue</em>, or <em>external local variable</em>,
+A local variable used by an inner function is called an <em>upvalue</em>
+(or <em>external local variable</em>, or simply <em>external variable</em>)
inside the inner function.
@@ -2564,9 +2847,9 @@ Consider the following example:
<pre>
a = {}
local x = 20
- for i=1,10 do
+ for i = 1, 10 do
local y = 0
- a[i] = function () y=y+1; return x+y end
+ a[i] = function () y = y + 1; return x + y end
end
</pre><p>
The loop creates ten closures
@@ -2580,6 +2863,8 @@ while all of them share the same <code>x</code>.
<h1>4 &ndash; <a name="4">The Application Program Interface</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
This section describes the C&nbsp;API for Lua, that is,
@@ -2600,7 +2885,8 @@ and so do not generate any hidden side-effects.
<p>
As in most C&nbsp;libraries,
-the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
+the Lua API functions do not check their arguments
+for validity or consistency.
However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua
with the macro <a name="pdf-LUA_USE_APICHECK"><code>LUA_USE_APICHECK</code></a> defined.
@@ -2628,8 +2914,12 @@ to the <em>main thread</em> in the new state.
+
+
<h2>4.1 &ndash; <a name="4.1">The Stack</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
Lua uses a <em>virtual stack</em> to pass values to and from C.
Each element in this stack represents a Lua value
@@ -2653,8 +2943,8 @@ For convenience,
most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack
by using an <em>index</em>:
-A positive index represents an absolute stack position
-(starting at&nbsp;1);
+A positive index represents an absolute stack position,
+starting at&nbsp;1 as the bottom of the stack;
a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack.
More specifically, if the stack has <em>n</em> elements,
then index&nbsp;1 represents the first element
@@ -2669,39 +2959,44 @@ and index <em>-n</em> represents the first element.
-<h2>4.2 &ndash; <a name="4.2">Stack Size</a></h2>
+<h3>4.1.1 &ndash; <a name="4.1.1">Stack Size</a></h3>
<p>
When you interact with the Lua API,
you are responsible for ensuring consistency.
In particular,
<em>you are responsible for controlling stack overflow</em>.
-You can use the function <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>
-to ensure that the stack has enough space for pushing new elements.
+When you call any API function,
+you must ensure the stack has enough room to accommodate the results.
+
+
+<p>
+There is one exception to the above rule:
+When you call a Lua function
+without a fixed number of results (see <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>),
+Lua ensures that the stack has enough space for all results.
+However, it does not ensure any extra space.
+So, before pushing anything on the stack after such a call
+you should use <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>.
<p>
Whenever Lua calls C,
it ensures that the stack has space for
-at least <a name="pdf-LUA_MINSTACK"><code>LUA_MINSTACK</code></a> extra slots.
+at least <a name="pdf-LUA_MINSTACK"><code>LUA_MINSTACK</code></a> extra elements;
+that is, you can safely push up to <code>LUA_MINSTACK</code> values into it.
<code>LUA_MINSTACK</code> is defined as 20,
so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space
unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-When you call a Lua function
-without a fixed number of results (see <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>),
-Lua ensures that the stack has enough space for all results,
-but it does not ensure any extra space.
-So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call
-you should use <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>.
+Whenever necessary,
+you can use the function <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>
+to ensure that the stack has enough space for pushing new elements.
-<h2>4.3 &ndash; <a name="4.3">Valid and Acceptable Indices</a></h2>
+<h3>4.1.2 &ndash; <a name="4.1.2">Valid and Acceptable Indices</a></h3>
<p>
Any function in the API that receives stack indices
@@ -2717,8 +3012,8 @@ It comprises stack indices between&nbsp;1 and the stack top
plus <em>pseudo-indices</em>,
which represent some positions that are accessible to C&nbsp;code
but that are not in the stack.
-Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>)
-and the upvalues of a C&nbsp;function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
+Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry (see <a href="#4.3">&sect;4.3</a>)
+and the upvalues of a C&nbsp;function (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
<p>
@@ -2730,6 +3025,8 @@ but it also can be any positive index after the stack top
within the space allocated for the stack,
that is, indices up to the stack size.
(Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.)
+Indices to upvalues (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>) greater than the real number
+of upvalues in the current C&nbsp;function are also acceptable (but invalid).
Except when noted otherwise,
functions in the API work with acceptable indices.
@@ -2738,7 +3035,7 @@ functions in the API work with acceptable indices.
Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests
against the stack top when querying the stack.
For instance, a C&nbsp;function can query its third argument
-without the need to first check whether there is a third argument,
+without the need to check whether there is a third argument,
that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index.
@@ -2752,7 +3049,52 @@ which behaves like a nil value.
-<h2>4.4 &ndash; <a name="4.4">C Closures</a></h2>
+<h3>4.1.3 &ndash; <a name="4.1.3">Pointers to strings</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Several functions in the API return pointers (<code>const char*</code>)
+to Lua strings in the stack.
+(See <a href="#lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a>, <a href="#lua_pushlstring"><code>lua_pushlstring</code></a>,
+<a href="#lua_pushstring"><code>lua_pushstring</code></a>, and <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a>.
+See also <a href="#luaL_checklstring"><code>luaL_checklstring</code></a>, <a href="#luaL_checkstring"><code>luaL_checkstring</code></a>,
+and <a href="#luaL_tolstring"><code>luaL_tolstring</code></a> in the auxiliary library.)
+
+
+<p>
+In general,
+Lua's garbage collection can free or move internal memory
+and then invalidate pointers to internal strings.
+To allow a safe use of these pointers,
+The API guarantees that any pointer to a string in a stack index
+is valid while the string value at that index is not removed from the stack.
+(It can be moved to another index, though.)
+When the index is a pseudo-index (referring to an upvalue),
+the pointer is valid while the corresponding call is active and
+the corresponding upvalue is not modified.
+
+
+<p>
+Some functions in the debug interface
+also return pointers to strings,
+namely <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a>, <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>,
+<a href="#lua_setlocal"><code>lua_setlocal</code></a>, and <a href="#lua_setupvalue"><code>lua_setupvalue</code></a>.
+For these functions, the pointer is guaranteed to
+be valid while the caller function is active and
+the given closure (if one was given) is in the stack.
+
+
+<p>
+Except for these guarantees,
+the garbage collector is free to invalidate
+any pointer to internal strings.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>4.2 &ndash; <a name="4.2">C Closures</a></h2>
<p>
When a C&nbsp;function is created,
@@ -2778,16 +3120,21 @@ which is one plus the maximum number of upvalues in a closure),
produces an acceptable but invalid index.
+<p>
+A C&nbsp;closure can also change the values
+of its corresponding upvalues.
+
+
-<h2>4.5 &ndash; <a name="4.5">Registry</a></h2>
+<h2>4.3 &ndash; <a name="4.3">Registry</a></h2>
<p>
Lua provides a <em>registry</em>,
a predefined table that can be used by any C&nbsp;code to
store whatever Lua values it needs to store.
-The registry table is always located at pseudo-index
+The registry table is always accessible at pseudo-index
<a name="pdf-LUA_REGISTRYINDEX"><code>LUA_REGISTRYINDEX</code></a>.
Any C&nbsp;library can store data into this table,
but it must take care to choose keys
@@ -2805,7 +3152,8 @@ uppercase letters are reserved for Lua.
The integer keys in the registry are used
by the reference mechanism (see <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>)
and by some predefined values.
-Therefore, integer keys must not be used for other purposes.
+Therefore, integer keys in the registry
+must not be used for other purposes.
<p>
@@ -2829,14 +3177,16 @@ the global environment.
-<h2>4.6 &ndash; <a name="4.6">Error Handling in C</a></h2>
+<h2>4.4 &ndash; <a name="4.4">Error Handling in C</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
Internally, Lua uses the C <code>longjmp</code> facility to handle errors.
(Lua will use exceptions if you compile it as C++;
search for <code>LUAI_THROW</code> in the source code for details.)
-When Lua faces any error
-(such as a memory allocation error or a type error)
+When Lua faces any error,
+such as a memory allocation error or a type error,
it <em>raises</em> an error;
that is, it does a long jump.
A <em>protected environment</em> uses <code>setjmp</code>
@@ -2845,7 +3195,8 @@ any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point.
<p>
-Inside a C&nbsp;function you can raise an error by calling <a href="#lua_error"><code>lua_error</code></a>.
+Inside a C&nbsp;function you can raise an error explicitly
+by calling <a href="#lua_error"><code>lua_error</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -2876,7 +3227,7 @@ it can do whatever it wants on that Lua state,
as it should be already protected.
However,
when C code operates on other Lua states
-(e.g., a Lua argument to the function,
+(e.g., a Lua-state argument to the function,
a Lua state stored in the registry, or
the result of <a href="#lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a>),
it should use them only in API calls that cannot raise errors.
@@ -2884,16 +3235,51 @@ it should use them only in API calls that cannot raise errors.
<p>
The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>);
-in particular, the error object is at the top of the stack.
+in particular, the error object is on the top of the stack.
However, there is no guarantee about stack space.
To push anything on the stack,
-the panic function must first check the available space (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
+the panic function must first check the available space (see <a href="#4.1.1">&sect;4.1.1</a>).
-<h2>4.7 &ndash; <a name="4.7">Handling Yields in C</a></h2>
+<h3>4.4.1 &ndash; <a name="4.4.1">Status Codes</a></h3>
+
+<p>
+Several functions that report errors in the API use the following
+status codes to indicate different kinds of errors or other conditions:
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> (0): </b> no errors.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>: </b> a runtime error.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>: </b>
+memory allocation error.
+For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler.
+</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>: </b> error while running the message handler.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>: </b> syntax error during precompilation.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a>: </b> the thread (coroutine) yields.</li>
+
+<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRFILE"><code>LUA_ERRFILE</code></a>: </b> a file-related error;
+e.g., it cannot open or read the file.</li>
+
+</ul><p>
+These constants are defined in the header file <code>lua.h</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+<h2>4.5 &ndash; <a name="4.5">Handling Yields in C</a></h2>
<p>
Internally, Lua uses the C <code>longjmp</code> facility to yield a coroutine.
@@ -2901,7 +3287,7 @@ Therefore, if a C&nbsp;function <code>foo</code> calls an API function
and this API function yields
(directly or indirectly by calling another function that yields),
Lua cannot return to <code>foo</code> any more,
-because the <code>longjmp</code> removes its frame from the C stack.
+because the <code>longjmp</code> removes its frame from the C&nbsp;stack.
<p>
@@ -2920,9 +3306,9 @@ the <em>original function</em>.
This original function then calls one of those three functions in the C API,
which we will call the <em>callee function</em>,
that then yields the current thread.
-(This can happen when the callee function is <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
+This can happen when the callee function is <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
or when the callee function is either <a href="#lua_callk"><code>lua_callk</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>
-and the function called by them yields.)
+and the function called by them yields.
<p>
@@ -2931,7 +3317,7 @@ After the thread resumes,
it eventually will finish running the callee function.
However,
the callee function cannot return to the original function,
-because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield.
+because its frame in the C&nbsp;stack was destroyed by the yield.
Instead, Lua calls a <em>continuation function</em>,
which was given as an argument to the callee function.
As the name implies,
@@ -2992,11 +3378,11 @@ you can do the equivalent work directly inside the original function.)
<p>
Besides the Lua state,
the continuation function has two other parameters:
-the final status of the call plus the context value (<code>ctx</code>) that
+the final status of the call and the context value (<code>ctx</code>) that
was passed originally to <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>.
-(Lua does not use this context value;
+Lua does not use this context value;
it only passes this value from the original function to the
-continuation function.)
+continuation function.
For <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>,
the status is the same value that would be returned by <a href="#lua_pcallk"><code>lua_pcallk</code></a>,
except that it is <a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> when being executed after a yield
@@ -3030,7 +3416,7 @@ of the original function.
-<h2>4.8 &ndash; <a name="4.8">Functions and Types</a></h2>
+<h2>4.6 &ndash; <a name="4.6">Functions and Types</a></h2>
<p>
Here we list all functions and types from the C&nbsp;API in
@@ -3050,17 +3436,16 @@ A field in the form <code>x|y</code> means the function can push (or pop)
depending on the situation;
an interrogation mark '<code>?</code>' means that
we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes
-by looking only at its arguments
-(e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).
+by looking only at its arguments.
+(For instance, they may depend on what is in the stack.)
The third field, <code>x</code>,
tells whether the function may raise errors:
'<code>-</code>' means the function never raises any error;
-'<code>m</code>' means the function may raise out-of-memory errors
-and errors running a <code>__gc</code> metamethod;
-'<code>e</code>' means the function may raise any errors
-(it can run arbitrary Lua code,
-either directly or through metamethods);
-'<code>v</code>' means the function may raise an error on purpose.
+'<code>m</code>' means the function may raise only out-of-memory errors;
+'<code>v</code>' means the function may raise the errors explained in the text;
+'<code>e</code>' means the function can run arbitrary Lua code,
+either directly or through metamethods,
+and therefore may raise any errors.
@@ -3071,7 +3456,7 @@ either directly or through metamethods);
<p>
Converts the acceptable index <code>idx</code>
into an equivalent absolute index
-(that is, one that does not depend on the stack top).
+(that is, one that does not depend on the stack size).
@@ -3120,16 +3505,14 @@ Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function:
<p>
When <code>nsize</code> is zero,
the allocator must behave like <code>free</code>
-and return <code>NULL</code>.
+and then return <code>NULL</code>.
<p>
When <code>nsize</code> is not zero,
the allocator must behave like <code>realloc</code>.
-The allocator returns <code>NULL</code>
+In particular, the allocator returns <code>NULL</code>
if and only if it cannot fulfill the request.
-Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when
-<code>osize &gt;= nsize</code>.
<p>
@@ -3151,9 +3534,6 @@ It is used in the auxiliary library by <a href="#luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newst
Note that Standard&nbsp;C ensures
that <code>free(NULL)</code> has no effect and that
<code>realloc(NULL,size)</code> is equivalent to <code>malloc(size)</code>.
-This code assumes that <code>realloc</code> does not fail when shrinking a block.
-(Although Standard&nbsp;C does not ensure this behavior,
-it seems to be a safe assumption.)
@@ -3167,7 +3547,7 @@ it seems to be a safe assumption.)
Performs an arithmetic or bitwise operation over the two values
(or one, in the case of negations)
at the top of the stack,
-with the value at the top being the second operand,
+with the value on the top being the second operand,
pops these values, and pushes the result of the operation.
The function follows the semantics of the corresponding Lua operator
(that is, it may call metamethods).
@@ -3203,7 +3583,7 @@ The value of <code>op</code> must be one of the following constants:
<pre>lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf);</pre>
<p>
-Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see <a href="#4.6">&sect;4.6</a>).
+Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
@@ -3215,19 +3595,23 @@ Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see <a href="#4.6">&sect;4.6<
<p>
Calls a function.
+Like regular Lua calls,
+<code>lua_call</code> respects the <code>__call</code> metamethod.
+So, here the word "function"
+means any callable value.
<p>
-To call a function you must use the following protocol:
+To do a call you must use the following protocol:
first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack;
-then, the arguments to the function are pushed
+then, the arguments to the call are pushed
in direct order;
that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>;
<code>nargs</code> is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack.
-All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack
-when the function is called.
-The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
+When the function returns,
+all arguments and the function value are popped
+and the call results are pushed onto the stack.
The number of results is adjusted to <code>nresults</code>,
unless <code>nresults</code> is <a name="pdf-LUA_MULTRET"><code>LUA_MULTRET</code></a>.
In this case, all results from the function are pushed;
@@ -3239,7 +3623,7 @@ so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.
<p>
-Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards
+Any error while calling and running the function is propagated upwards
(with a <code>longjmp</code>).
@@ -3280,7 +3664,7 @@ This is considered good programming practice.
<p>
This function behaves exactly like <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>,
-but allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+but allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
@@ -3305,7 +3689,7 @@ The first argument (if any) is at index 1
and its last argument is at index <code>lua_gettop(L)</code>.
To return values to Lua, a C&nbsp;function just pushes them onto the stack,
in direct order (the first result is pushed first),
-and returns the number of results.
+and returns in C the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly
discarded by Lua.
Like a Lua function, a C&nbsp;function called by Lua can also return
@@ -3342,15 +3726,15 @@ of numeric arguments and returns their average and their sum:
<pre>int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int n);</pre>
<p>
-Ensures that the stack has space for at least <code>n</code> extra slots
-(that is, that you can safely push up to <code>n</code> values into it).
+Ensures that the stack has space for at least <code>n</code> extra elements,
+that is, that you can safely push up to <code>n</code> values into it.
It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request,
either because it would cause the stack
-to be larger than a fixed maximum size
+to be greater than a fixed maximum size
(typically at least several thousand elements) or
because it cannot allocate memory for the extra space.
This function never shrinks the stack;
-if the stack already has space for the extra slots,
+if the stack already has space for the extra elements,
it is left unchanged.
@@ -3362,10 +3746,14 @@ it is left unchanged.
<pre>void lua_close (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
-Destroys all objects in the given Lua state
-(calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any)
+Close all active to-be-closed variables in the main thread,
+release all objects in the given Lua state
+(calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any),
and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.
-In several platforms, you may not need to call this function,
+
+
+<p>
+On several platforms, you may not need to call this function,
because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states,
such as daemons or web servers,
@@ -3409,7 +3797,7 @@ The value of <code>op</code> must be one of the following constants:
<p>
Concatenates the <code>n</code> values at the top of the stack,
-pops them, and leaves the result at the top.
+pops them, and leaves the result on the top.
If <code>n</code>&nbsp;is&nbsp;1, the result is the single value on the stack
(that is, the function does nothing);
if <code>n</code> is 0, the result is the empty string.
@@ -3445,7 +3833,7 @@ will have as a sequence;
parameter <code>nrec</code> is a hint for how many other elements
the table will have.
Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for the new table.
-This preallocation is useful for performance when you know in advance
+This preallocation may help performance when you know in advance
how many elements the table will have.
Otherwise you can use the function <a href="#lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</code></a>.
@@ -3497,8 +3885,8 @@ This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
<pre>int lua_error (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
-Generates a Lua error,
-using the value at the top of the stack as the error object.
+Raises a Lua error,
+using the value on the top of the stack as the error object.
This function does a long jump,
and therefore never returns
(see <a href="#luaL_error"><code>luaL_error</code></a>).
@@ -3508,8 +3896,8 @@ and therefore never returns
<hr><h3><a name="lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data);</pre>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, ...);</pre>
<p>
Controls the garbage collector.
@@ -3517,55 +3905,56 @@ Controls the garbage collector.
<p>
This function performs several tasks,
-according to the value of the parameter <code>what</code>:
+according to the value of the parameter <code>what</code>.
+For options that need extra arguments,
+they are listed after the option.
<ul>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTOP</code>: </b>
-stops the garbage collector.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOLLECT</code>: </b>
+Performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCRESTART</code>: </b>
-restarts the garbage collector.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTOP</code>: </b>
+Stops the garbage collector.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOLLECT</code>: </b>
-performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCRESTART</code>: </b>
+Restarts the garbage collector.
</li>
<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNT</code>: </b>
-returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
+Returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
</li>
<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNTB</code>: </b>
-returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of
+Returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of
memory in use by Lua by 1024.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTEP</code>: </b>
-performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTEP</code> <code>(int stepsize)</code>: </b>
+Performs an incremental step of garbage collection,
+corresponding to the allocation of <code>stepsize</code> Kbytes.
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETPAUSE</code>: </b>
-sets <code>data</code> as the new value
-for the <em>pause</em> of the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>)
-and returns the previous value of the pause.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCISRUNNING</code>: </b>
+Returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
+(i.e., not stopped).
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL</code>: </b>
-sets <code>data</code> as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>)
-and returns the previous value of the step multiplier.
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCINC</code> (int pause, int stepmul, stepsize): </b>
+Changes the collector to incremental mode
+with the given parameters (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>).
+Returns the previous mode (<code>LUA_GCGEN</code> or <code>LUA_GCINC</code>).
</li>
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCISRUNNING</code>: </b>
-returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
-(i.e., not stopped).
+<li><b><code>LUA_GCGEN</code> (int minormul, int majormul): </b>
+Changes the collector to generational mode
+with the given parameters (see <a href="#2.5.2">&sect;2.5.2</a>).
+Returns the previous mode (<code>LUA_GCGEN</code> or <code>LUA_GCINC</code>).
</li>
-</ul>
-
-<p>
+</ul><p>
For more details about these options,
see <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a>.
@@ -3680,7 +4069,7 @@ the function returns&nbsp;0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
<p>
Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index
-and <code>k</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+and <code>k</code> is the value on the top of the stack.
<p>
@@ -3711,17 +4100,19 @@ in particular, 0&nbsp;means an empty stack.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getuservalue"><code>lua_getuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_getiuservalue"><code>lua_getiuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>int lua_getuservalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<pre>int lua_getiuservalue (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the full userdata
-at the given index.
+Pushes onto the stack the <code>n</code>-th user value associated with the
+full userdata at the given index and
+returns the type of the pushed value.
<p>
-Returns the type of the pushed value.
+If the userdata does not have that value,
+pushes <b>nil</b> and returns <a href="#pdf-LUA_TNONE"><code>LUA_TNONE</code></a>.
@@ -3956,7 +4347,7 @@ Otherwise, it is defined as <code>ptrdiff_t</code>.
<pre>typedef int (*lua_KFunction) (lua_State *L, int status, lua_KContext ctx);</pre>
<p>
-Type for continuation functions (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+Type for continuation functions (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
@@ -3993,27 +4384,6 @@ Otherwise, it pushes an error message.
<p>
-The return values of <code>lua_load</code> are:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>: </b> no errors;</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>: </b>
-syntax error during precompilation;</li>
-
-<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>: </b>
-memory allocation (out-of-memory) error;</li>
-
-<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRGCMM"><code>LUA_ERRGCMM</code></a>: </b>
-error while running a <code>__gc</code> metamethod.
-(This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded.
-It is generated by the garbage collector.)
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
The <code>lua_load</code> function uses a user-supplied <code>reader</code> function
to read the chunk (see <a href="#lua_Reader"><code>lua_Reader</code></a>).
The <code>data</code> argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
@@ -4021,7 +4391,7 @@ The <code>data</code> argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
<p>
The <code>chunkname</code> argument gives a name to the chunk,
-which is used for error messages and in debug information (see <a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>).
+which is used for error messages and in debug information (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
<p>
@@ -4039,9 +4409,16 @@ unmodified when returning.
<p>
+<code>lua_load</code> can return
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>, or <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>.
+The function may also return other values corresponding to
+errors raised by the read function (see <a href="#4.4.1">&sect;4.4.1</a>).
+
+
+<p>
If the resulting function has upvalues,
its first upvalue is set to the value of the global environment
-stored at index <code>LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS</code> in the registry (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+stored at index <code>LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS</code> in the registry (see <a href="#4.3">&sect;4.3</a>).
When loading main chunks,
this upvalue will be the <code>_ENV</code> variable (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
Other upvalues are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
@@ -4055,11 +4432,11 @@ Other upvalues are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
<pre>lua_State *lua_newstate (lua_Alloc f, void *ud);</pre>
<p>
-Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state.
-Returns <code>NULL</code> if it cannot create the thread or the state
+Creates a new independent state and returns its main thread.
+Returns <code>NULL</code> if it cannot create the state
(due to lack of memory).
The argument <code>f</code> is the allocator function;
-Lua does all memory allocation for this state
+Lua will do all memory allocation for this state
through this function (see <a href="#lua_Alloc"><code>lua_Alloc</code></a>).
The second argument, <code>ud</code>, is an opaque pointer that Lua
passes to the allocator in every call.
@@ -4093,7 +4470,6 @@ but has an independent execution stack.
<p>
-There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread.
Threads are subject to garbage collection,
like any Lua object.
@@ -4101,34 +4477,43 @@ like any Lua object.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_newuserdata"><code>lua_newuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_newuserdatauv"><code>lua_newuserdatauv</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size);</pre>
+<pre>void *lua_newuserdatauv (lua_State *L, size_t size, int nuvalue);</pre>
+
+<p>
+This function creates and pushes on the stack a new full userdata,
+with <code>nuvalue</code> associated Lua values, called <code>user values</code>,
+plus an associated block of raw memory with <code>size</code> bytes.
+(The user values can be set and read with the functions
+<a href="#lua_setiuservalue"><code>lua_setiuservalue</code></a> and <a href="#lua_getiuservalue"><code>lua_getiuservalue</code></a>.)
+
<p>
-This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size,
-pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address,
-and returns this address.
-The host program can freely use this memory.
+The function returns the address of the block of memory.
+Lua ensures that this address is valid as long as
+the corresponding userdata is alive (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
+Moreover, if the userdata is marked for finalization (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
+its address is valid at least until the call to its finalizer.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +(2|0), <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +(2|0), <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_next (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Pops a key from the stack,
-and pushes a key&ndash;value pair from the table at the given index
-(the "next" pair after the given key).
+and pushes a key&ndash;value pair from the table at the given index,
+the "next" pair after the given key.
If there are no more elements in the table,
-then <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a> returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
+then <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a> returns 0 and pushes nothing.
<p>
-A typical traversal looks like this:
+A typical table traversal looks like this:
<pre>
/* table is in the stack at index 't' */
@@ -4145,7 +4530,7 @@ A typical traversal looks like this:
<p>
While traversing a table,
-do not call <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> directly on a key,
+avoid calling <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> directly on a key,
unless you know that the key is actually a string.
Recall that <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> may change
the value at the given index;
@@ -4153,6 +4538,8 @@ this confuses the next call to <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>.
<p>
+This function may raise an error if the given key
+is neither <b>nil</b> nor present in the table.
See function <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> for the caveats of modifying
the table during its traversal.
@@ -4180,15 +4567,14 @@ but that can be changed to a single float or a long double.
<pre>int lua_numbertointeger (lua_Number n, lua_Integer *p);</pre>
<p>
-Converts a Lua float to a Lua integer.
-This macro assumes that <code>n</code> has an integral value.
+Tries to convert a Lua float to a Lua integer;
+the float <code>n</code> must have an integral value.
If that value is within the range of Lua integers,
it is converted to an integer and assigned to <code>*p</code>.
The macro results in a boolean indicating whether the
conversion was successful.
(Note that this range test can be tricky to do
-correctly without this macro,
-due to roundings.)
+correctly without this macro, due to rounding.)
<p>
@@ -4203,7 +4589,7 @@ This macro may evaluate its arguments more than once.
<pre>int lua_pcall (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int msgh);</pre>
<p>
-Calls a function in protected mode.
+Calls a function (or a callable object) in protected mode.
<p>
@@ -4228,7 +4614,7 @@ Otherwise, <code>msgh</code> is the stack index of a
<em>message handler</em>.
(This index cannot be a pseudo-index.)
In case of runtime errors,
-this function will be called with the error object
+this handler will be called with the error object
and its return value will be the object
returned on the stack by <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>.
@@ -4241,35 +4627,9 @@ since by then the stack has unwound.
<p>
-The <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> function returns one of the following constants
-(defined in <code>lua.h</code>):
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> (0): </b>
-success.</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>: </b>
-a runtime error.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>: </b>
-memory allocation error.
-For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>: </b>
-error while running the message handler.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRGCMM"><code>LUA_ERRGCMM</code></a>: </b>
-error while running a <code>__gc</code> metamethod.
-For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler
-(as this kind of error typically has no relation
-with the function being called).
-</li>
+The <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> function returns one of the following status codes:
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>, or <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>.
-</ul>
@@ -4285,20 +4645,25 @@ with the function being called).
<p>
This function behaves exactly like <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
-but allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+except that it allows the called function to yield (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pop"><code>lua_pop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-n, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_pop (lua_State *L, int n);</pre>
<p>
Pops <code>n</code> elements from the stack.
+<p>
+This function can run arbitrary code when removing an index
+marked as to-be-closed from the stack.
+
+
@@ -4319,16 +4684,28 @@ Pushes a boolean value with value <code>b</code> onto the stack.
<p>
Pushes a new C&nbsp;closure onto the stack.
+This function receives a pointer to a C&nbsp;function
+and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type <code>function</code> that,
+when called, invokes the corresponding C&nbsp;function.
+The parameter <code>n</code> tells how many upvalues this function will have
+(see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
+
+
+<p>
+Any function to be callable by Lua must
+follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters
+and return its results (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
<p>
When a C&nbsp;function is created,
it is possible to associate some values with it,
-thus creating a C&nbsp;closure (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>);
-these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
-To associate values with a C&nbsp;function,
-first these values must be pushed onto the stack
-(when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first).
+the so called upvalues;
+these upvalues are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
+This association is called a C&nbsp;closure (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
+To create a C&nbsp;closure,
+first the initial values for its upvalues must be pushed onto the stack.
+(When there are multiple upvalues, the first value is pushed first.)
Then <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a>
is called to create and push the C&nbsp;function onto the stack,
with the argument <code>n</code> telling how many values will be
@@ -4356,58 +4733,42 @@ In that case, it never raises a memory error.
<p>
Pushes a C&nbsp;function onto the stack.
-This function receives a pointer to a C&nbsp;function
-and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type <code>function</code> that,
-when called, invokes the corresponding C&nbsp;function.
-
-
-<p>
-Any function to be callable by Lua must
-follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters
-and return its results (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
+This function is equivalent to <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a> with no upvalues.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_pushfstring (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...);</pre>
<p>
Pushes onto the stack a formatted string
-and returns a pointer to this string.
+and returns a pointer to this string (see <a href="#4.1.3">&sect;4.1.3</a>).
It is similar to the ISO&nbsp;C function <code>sprintf</code>,
-but has some important differences:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>
-You do not have to allocate space for the result:
+but has two important differences.
+First,
+you do not have to allocate space for the result;
the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation
(and deallocation, through garbage collection).
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.
+Second,
+the conversion specifiers are quite restricted.
There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
The conversion specifiers can only be
'<code>%%</code>' (inserts the character '<code>%</code>'),
'<code>%s</code>' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions),
'<code>%f</code>' (inserts a <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a>),
'<code>%I</code>' (inserts a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>),
-'<code>%p</code>' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral),
+'<code>%p</code>' (inserts a pointer),
'<code>%d</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code>),
'<code>%c</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code> as a one-byte character), and
'<code>%U</code>' (inserts a <code>long int</code> as a UTF-8 byte sequence).
-</li>
-</ul>
<p>
-Unlike other push functions,
-this function checks for the stack space it needs,
-including the slot for its result.
+This function may raise errors due to memory overflow
+or an invalid conversion specifier.
@@ -4463,6 +4824,7 @@ light userdata with the same C&nbsp;address.
<p>
This macro is equivalent to <a href="#lua_pushstring"><code>lua_pushstring</code></a>,
but should be used only when <code>s</code> is a literal string.
+(Lua may optimize this case.)
@@ -4475,7 +4837,7 @@ but should be used only when <code>s</code> is a literal string.
<p>
Pushes the string pointed to by <code>s</code> with size <code>len</code>
onto the stack.
-Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
+Lua will make or reuse an internal copy of the given string,
so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
the function returns.
The string can contain any binary data,
@@ -4483,7 +4845,7 @@ including embedded zeros.
<p>
-Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string.
+Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string (see <a href="#4.1.3">&sect;4.1.3</a>).
@@ -4518,13 +4880,13 @@ Pushes a float with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
<p>
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by <code>s</code>
onto the stack.
-Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
+Lua will make or reuse an internal copy of the given string,
so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
the function returns.
<p>
-Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string.
+Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string (see <a href="#4.1.3">&sect;4.1.3</a>).
<p>
@@ -4559,7 +4921,7 @@ onto the stack.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushvfstring"><code>lua_pushvfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>const char *lua_pushvfstring (lua_State *L,
const char *fmt,
va_list argp);</pre>
@@ -4579,7 +4941,7 @@ instead of a variable number of arguments.
<p>
Returns 1 if the two values in indices <code>index1</code> and
<code>index2</code> are primitively equal
-(that is, without calling the <code>__eq</code> metamethod).
+(that is, equal without calling the <code>__eq</code> metamethod).
Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices are not valid.
@@ -4607,7 +4969,7 @@ Similar to <a href="#lua_gettable"><code>lua_gettable</code></a>, but does a raw
Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[n]</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index.
The access is raw,
-that is, it does not invoke the <code>__index</code> metamethod.
+that is, it does not use the <code>__index</code> metavalue.
<p>
@@ -4626,7 +4988,7 @@ Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index and
<code>k</code> is the pointer <code>p</code> represented as a light userdata.
The access is raw;
-that is, it does not invoke the <code>__index</code> metamethod.
+that is, it does not use the <code>__index</code> metavalue.
<p>
@@ -4638,7 +5000,7 @@ Returns the type of the pushed value.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawlen"><code>lua_rawlen</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>size_t lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<pre>lua_Unsigned lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Returns the raw "length" of the value at the given index:
@@ -4646,8 +5008,8 @@ for strings, this is the string length;
for tables, this is the result of the length operator ('<code>#</code>')
with no metamethods;
for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated
-for the userdata;
-for other values, it is&nbsp;0.
+for the userdata.
+For other values, this call returns&nbsp;0.
@@ -4672,13 +5034,13 @@ Similar to <a href="#lua_settable"><code>lua_settable</code></a>, but does a raw
<p>
Does the equivalent of <code>t[i] = v</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+and <code>v</code> is the value on the top of the stack.
<p>
This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw,
-that is, it does not invoke the <code>__newindex</code> metamethod.
+that is, it does not use the <code>__newindex</code> metavalue.
@@ -4692,13 +5054,13 @@ that is, it does not invoke the <code>__newindex</code> metamethod.
Does the equivalent of <code>t[p] = v</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the table at the given index,
<code>p</code> is encoded as a light userdata,
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+and <code>v</code> is the value on the top of the stack.
<p>
This function pops the value from the stack.
The assignment is raw,
-that is, it does not invoke <code>__newindex</code> metamethod.
+that is, it does not use the <code>__newindex</code> metavalue.
@@ -4711,8 +5073,8 @@ that is, it does not invoke <code>__newindex</code> metamethod.
<p>
The reader function used by <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
-Every time it needs another piece of the chunk,
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> calls the reader,
+Every time <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> needs another piece of the chunk,
+it calls the reader,
passing along its <code>data</code> parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory
with a new piece of the chunk
@@ -4770,9 +5132,27 @@ and then pops the top element.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_resetthread"><code>lua_resetthread</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +?, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_resetthread (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Resets a thread, cleaning its call stack and closing all pending
+to-be-closed variables.
+Returns a status code:
+<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> for no errors in closing methods,
+or an error status otherwise.
+In case of error,
+leaves the error object on the top of the stack,
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>int lua_resume (lua_State *L, lua_State *from, int nargs);</pre>
+<pre>int lua_resume (lua_State *L, lua_State *from, int nargs,
+ int *nresults);</pre>
<p>
Starts and resumes a coroutine in the given thread <code>L</code>.
@@ -4780,31 +5160,29 @@ Starts and resumes a coroutine in the given thread <code>L</code>.
<p>
To start a coroutine,
-you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments;
+you push the main function plus any arguments
+onto the empty stack of the thread.
then you call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>,
with <code>nargs</code> being the number of arguments.
This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
-When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>,
-or all values returned by the body function.
+When it returns,
+<code>*nresults</code> is updated and
+the top of the stack contains
+the <code>*nresults</code> values passed to <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>
+or returned by the body function.
<a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> returns
<a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the coroutine yields,
<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> if the coroutine finishes its execution
without errors,
-or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
+or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#4.4.1">&sect;4.4.1</a>).
In case of errors,
-the stack is not unwound,
-so you can use the debug API over it.
-The error object is on the top of the stack.
+the error object is on the top of the stack.
<p>
To resume a coroutine,
-you remove any results from the last <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>,
-put on its stack only the values to
-be passed as results from <code>yield</code>,
+you remove the <code>*nresults</code> yielded values from its stack,
+push the values to be passed as results from <code>yield</code>,
and then call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
@@ -4856,7 +5234,7 @@ with user data <code>ud</code>.
<p>
Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+and <code>v</code> is the value on the top of the stack.
<p>
@@ -4887,7 +5265,7 @@ sets it as the new value of global <code>name</code>.
<p>
Does the equivalent to <code>t[n] = v</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
+and <code>v</code> is the value on the top of the stack.
<p>
@@ -4899,13 +5277,33 @@ for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_setiuservalue"><code>lua_setiuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>int lua_setiuservalue (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pops a value from the stack and sets it as
+the new <code>n</code>-th user value associated to the
+full userdata at the given index.
+Returns 0 if the userdata does not have that value.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_setmetatable"><code>lua_setmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>void lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+<pre>int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
-Pops a table from the stack and
-sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.
+Pops a table or <b>nil</b> from the stack and
+sets that value as the new metatable for the value at the given index.
+(<b>nil</b> means no metatable.)
+
+
+<p>
+(For historical reasons, this function returns an <code>int</code>,
+which now is always 1.)
@@ -4918,7 +5316,7 @@ sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given index.
<p>
Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
where <code>t</code> is the value at the given index,
-<code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack,
+<code>v</code> is the value on the top of the stack,
and <code>k</code> is the value just below the top.
@@ -4932,27 +5330,34 @@ for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.4">&sect;2.4</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_settop"><code>lua_settop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, &ndash;]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
<p>
Accepts any index, or&nbsp;0,
and sets the stack top to this index.
-If the new top is larger than the old one,
+If the new top is greater than the old one,
then the new elements are filled with <b>nil</b>.
If <code>index</code> is&nbsp;0, then all stack elements are removed.
+<p>
+This function can run arbitrary code when removing an index
+marked as to-be-closed from the stack.
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setuservalue"><code>lua_setuservalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>void lua_setuservalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_setwarnf"><code>lua_setwarnf</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_setwarnf (lua_State *L, lua_WarnFunction f, void *ud);</pre>
<p>
-Pops a value from the stack and sets it as
-the new value associated to the full userdata at the given index.
+Sets the warning function to be used by Lua to emit warnings
+(see <a href="#lua_WarnFunction"><code>lua_WarnFunction</code></a>).
+The <code>ud</code> parameter sets the value <code>ud</code> passed to
+the warning function.
@@ -4987,14 +5392,14 @@ Returns the status of the thread <code>L</code>.
<p>
-The status can be 0 (<a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>) for a normal thread,
+The status can be <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> for a normal thread,
an error code if the thread finished the execution
of a <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> with an error,
-or <a name="pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the thread is suspended.
+or <a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the thread is suspended.
<p>
-You can only call functions in threads with status <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>.
+You can call functions only in threads with status <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>.
You can resume threads with status <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a>
(to start a new coroutine) or <a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a>
(to resume a coroutine).
@@ -5014,7 +5419,7 @@ and returns the total size of the string,
that is, its length plus one.
The conversion can result in an integer or a float,
according to the lexical conventions of Lua (see <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>).
-The string may have leading and trailing spaces and a sign.
+The string may have leading and trailing whitespaces and a sign.
If the string is not a valid numeral,
returns 0 and pushes nothing.
(Note that the result can be used as a boolean,
@@ -5055,6 +5460,47 @@ otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_toclose"><code>lua_toclose</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<pre>void lua_toclose (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Marks the given index in the stack as a
+to-be-closed "variable" (see <a href="#3.3.8">&sect;3.3.8</a>).
+Like a to-be-closed variable in Lua,
+the value at that index in the stack will be closed
+when it goes out of scope.
+Here, in the context of a C function,
+to go out of scope means that the running function returns to Lua,
+there is an error,
+or the index is removed from the stack through
+<a href="#lua_settop"><code>lua_settop</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pop"><code>lua_pop</code></a>.
+An index marked as to-be-closed should not be removed from the stack
+by any other function in the API except <a href="#lua_settop"><code>lua_settop</code></a> or <a href="#lua_pop"><code>lua_pop</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+This function should not be called for an index
+that is equal to or below an active to-be-closed index.
+
+
+<p>
+In the case of an out-of-memory error,
+the value in the given index is immediately closed,
+as if it was already marked.
+
+
+<p>
+Note that, both in case of errors and of a regular return,
+by the time the <code>__close</code> metamethod runs,
+the C&nbsp;stack was already unwound,
+so that any automatic C&nbsp;variable declared in the calling function
+will be out of scope.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="lua_tointeger"><code>lua_tointeger</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>lua_Integer lua_tointeger (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
@@ -5106,18 +5552,12 @@ when <code>lua_tolstring</code> is applied to keys during a table traversal.)
<p>
<code>lua_tolstring</code> returns a pointer
-to a string inside the Lua state.
+to a string inside the Lua state (see <a href="#4.1.3">&sect;4.1.3</a>).
This string always has a zero ('<code>\0</code>')
after its last character (as in&nbsp;C),
but can contain other zeros in its body.
-<p>
-Because Lua has garbage collection,
-there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by <code>lua_tolstring</code>
-will be valid after the corresponding Lua value is removed from the stack.
-
-
@@ -5160,7 +5600,7 @@ indicates whether the operation succeeded.
<p>
Converts the value at the given index to a generic
C&nbsp;pointer (<code>void*</code>).
-The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function;
+The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, a string, or a function;
otherwise, <code>lua_topointer</code> returns <code>NULL</code>.
Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
@@ -5204,9 +5644,9 @@ otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
<p>
If the value at the given index is a full userdata,
-returns its block address.
+returns its memory-block address.
If the value is a light userdata,
-returns its pointer.
+returns its value (a pointer).
Otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
@@ -5219,10 +5659,10 @@ Otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
<p>
Returns the type of the value in the given valid index,
-or <code>LUA_TNONE</code> for a non-valid (but acceptable) index.
+or <code>LUA_TNONE</code> for a non-valid but acceptable index.
The types returned by <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> are coded by the following constants
defined in <code>lua.h</code>:
-<a name="pdf-LUA_TNIL"><code>LUA_TNIL</code></a> (0),
+<a name="pdf-LUA_TNIL"><code>LUA_TNIL</code></a>,
<a name="pdf-LUA_TNUMBER"><code>LUA_TNUMBER</code></a>,
<a name="pdf-LUA_TBOOLEAN"><code>LUA_TBOOLEAN</code></a>,
<a name="pdf-LUA_TSTRING"><code>LUA_TSTRING</code></a>,
@@ -5265,7 +5705,8 @@ The unsigned version of <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
<p>
Returns the pseudo-index that represents the <code>i</code>-th upvalue of
-the running function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
+the running function (see <a href="#4.2">&sect;4.2</a>).
+<code>i</code> must be in the range <em>[1,256]</em>.
@@ -5273,16 +5714,47 @@ the running function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>).
<hr><h3><a name="lua_version"><code>lua_version</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
-<pre>const lua_Number *lua_version (lua_State *L);</pre>
+<pre>lua_Number lua_version (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the version number of this core.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_WarnFunction"><code>lua_WarnFunction</code></a></h3>
+<pre>typedef void (*lua_WarnFunction) (void *ud, const char *msg, int tocont);</pre>
+
+<p>
+The type of warning functions, called by Lua to emit warnings.
+The first parameter is an opaque pointer
+set by <a href="#lua_setwarnf"><code>lua_setwarnf</code></a>.
+The second parameter is the warning message.
+The third parameter is a boolean that
+indicates whether the message is
+to be continued by the message in the next call.
+
+
+<p>
+See <a href="#pdf-warn"><code>warn</code></a> for more details about warnings.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="lua_warning"><code>lua_warning</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void lua_warning (lua_State *L, const char *msg, int tocont);</pre>
<p>
-Returns the address of the version number
-(a C static variable)
-stored in the Lua core.
-When called with a valid <a href="#lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a>,
-returns the address of the version used to create that state.
-When called with <code>NULL</code>,
-returns the address of the version running the call.
+Emits a warning with the given message.
+A message in a call with <code>tocont</code> true should be
+continued in another call to this function.
+
+
+<p>
+See <a href="#pdf-warn"><code>warn</code></a> for more details about warnings.
@@ -5296,11 +5768,11 @@ returns the address of the version running the call.
<p>
The type of the writer function used by <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a>.
-Every time it produces another piece of chunk,
-<a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> calls the writer,
+Every time <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> produces another piece of chunk,
+it calls the writer,
passing along the buffer to be written (<code>p</code>),
its size (<code>sz</code>),
-and the <code>data</code> parameter supplied to <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a>.
+and the <code>ud</code> parameter supplied to <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -5330,22 +5802,24 @@ and pushes them onto the stack <code>to</code>.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_yield (lua_State *L, int nresults);</pre>
<p>
This function is equivalent to <a href="#lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a>,
-but it has no continuation (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+but it has no continuation (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
Therefore, when the thread resumes,
it continues the function that called
the function calling <code>lua_yield</code>.
+To avoid surprises,
+this function should be called only in a tail call.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_yieldk"><code>lua_yieldk</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>v</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_yieldk (lua_State *L,
int nresults,
lua_KContext ctx,
@@ -5366,7 +5840,7 @@ that will be passed as results to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code><
<p>
When the coroutine is resumed again,
Lua calls the given continuation function <code>k</code> to continue
-the execution of the C&nbsp;function that yielded (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
+the execution of the C&nbsp;function that yielded (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
This continuation function receives the same stack
from the previous function,
with the <code>n</code> results removed and
@@ -5382,7 +5856,7 @@ when the coroutine eventually resumes,
it continues executing the continuation function.
However, there is one special case,
which is when this function is called
-from inside a line or a count hook (see <a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>).
+from inside a line or a count hook (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
In that case, <code>lua_yieldk</code> should be called with no continuation
(probably in the form of <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>) and no results,
and the hook should return immediately after the call.
@@ -5394,9 +5868,10 @@ of the (Lua) function that triggered the hook.
<p>
This function can raise an error if it is called from a thread
-with a pending C call with no continuation function,
+with a pending C call with no continuation function
+(what is called a <em>C-call boundary</em>),
or it is called from a thread that is not running inside a resume
-(e.g., the main thread).
+(typically the main thread).
@@ -5404,7 +5879,7 @@ or it is called from a thread that is not running inside a resume
-<h2>4.9 &ndash; <a name="4.9">The Debug Interface</a></h2>
+<h2>4.7 &ndash; <a name="4.7">The Debug Interface</a></h2>
<p>
Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.
@@ -5423,6 +5898,7 @@ that need "inside information" from the interpreter.
const char *namewhat; /* (n) */
const char *what; /* (S) */
const char *source; /* (S) */
+ size_t srclen; /* (S) */
int currentline; /* (l) */
int linedefined; /* (S) */
int lastlinedefined; /* (S) */
@@ -5430,6 +5906,8 @@ that need "inside information" from the interpreter.
unsigned char nparams; /* (u) number of parameters */
char isvararg; /* (u) */
char istailcall; /* (t) */
+ unsigned short ftransfer; /* (r) index of first value transferred */
+ unsigned short ntransfer; /* (r) number of transferred values */
char short_src[LUA_IDSIZE]; /* (S) */
/* private part */
<em>other fields</em>
@@ -5441,7 +5919,7 @@ information about a function or an activation record.
<a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> fills only the private part
of this structure, for later use.
To fill the other fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> with useful information,
-call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
+you must call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -5450,17 +5928,21 @@ The fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> have the following
<ul>
<li><b><code>source</code>: </b>
-the name of the chunk that created the function.
+the source of the chunk that created the function.
If <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>@</code>',
it means that the function was defined in a file where
the file name follows the '<code>@</code>'.
If <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>=</code>',
-the remainder of its contents describe the source in a user-dependent manner.
+the remainder of its contents describes the source in a user-dependent manner.
Otherwise,
the function was defined in a string where
<code>source</code> is that string.
</li>
+<li><b><code>srclen</code>: </b>
+The length of the string <code>source</code>.
+</li>
+
<li><b><code>short_src</code>: </b>
a "printable" version of <code>source</code>, to be used in error messages.
</li>
@@ -5516,7 +5998,7 @@ the number of upvalues of the function.
</li>
<li><b><code>nparams</code>: </b>
-the number of fixed parameters of the function
+the number of parameters of the function
(always 0&nbsp;for C&nbsp;functions).
</li>
@@ -5525,6 +6007,24 @@ true if the function is a vararg function
(always true for C&nbsp;functions).
</li>
+<li><b><code>ftransfer</code>: </b>
+the index in the stack of the first value being "transferred",
+that is, parameters in a call or return values in a return.
+(The other values are in consecutive indices.)
+Using this index, you can access and modify these values
+through <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a> and <a href="#lua_setlocal"><code>lua_setlocal</code></a>.
+This field is only meaningful during a
+call hook, denoting the first parameter,
+or a return hook, denoting the first value being returned.
+(For call hooks, this value is always 1.)
+</li>
+
+<li><b><code>ntransfer</code>: </b>
+The number of values being transferred (see previous item).
+(For calls of Lua functions,
+this value is always equal to <code>nparams</code>.)
+</li>
+
</ul>
@@ -5564,7 +6064,7 @@ Returns the current hook mask.
<hr><h3><a name="lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +(0|1|2), <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +(0|1|2), <em>m</em>]</span>
<pre>int lua_getinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
<p>
@@ -5634,13 +6134,17 @@ Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)
<p>
If this option is given together with option '<code>f</code>',
its table is pushed after the function.
+
+
+<p>
+This is the only option that can raise a memory error.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
-This function returns 0 on error
-(for instance, an invalid option in <code>what</code>).
+This function returns 0 to signal an invalid option in <code>what</code>;
+even then the valid options are handled correctly.
@@ -5651,8 +6155,8 @@ This function returns 0 on error
<pre>const char *lua_getlocal (lua_State *L, const lua_Debug *ar, int n);</pre>
<p>
-Gets information about a local variable of
-a given activation record or a given function.
+Gets information about a local variable or a temporary value
+of a given activation record or a given function.
<p>
@@ -5672,7 +6176,7 @@ and returns its name.
<p>
In the second case, <code>ar</code> must be <code>NULL</code> and the function
-to be inspected must be at the top of the stack.
+to be inspected must be on the top of the stack.
In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible
(as there is no information about what variables are active)
and no values are pushed onto the stack.
@@ -5701,10 +6205,10 @@ an identification of the <em>activation record</em>
of the function executing at a given level.
Level&nbsp;0 is the current running function,
whereas level <em>n+1</em> is the function that has called level <em>n</em>
-(except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack).
-When there are no errors, <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> returns 1;
-when called with a level greater than the stack depth,
-it returns 0.
+(except for tail calls, which do not count in the stack).
+When called with a level greater than the stack depth,
+<a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> returns 0;
+otherwise it returns 1.
@@ -5724,17 +6228,7 @@ when the index <code>n</code> is greater than the number of upvalues.
<p>
-For C&nbsp;functions, this function uses the empty string <code>""</code>
-as a name for all upvalues.
-(For Lua functions,
-upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses,
-and that are consequently included in its closure.)
-
-
-<p>
-Upvalues have no particular order,
-as they are active through the whole function.
-They are numbered in an arbitrary order.
+See <a href="#pdf-debug.getupvalue"><code>debug.getupvalue</code></a> for more information about upvalues.
@@ -5811,31 +6305,28 @@ For each event, the hook is called as explained below:
<ul>
<li><b>The call hook: </b> is called when the interpreter calls a function.
-The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function,
-before the function gets its arguments.
+The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function.
</li>
<li><b>The return hook: </b> is called when the interpreter returns from a function.
The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.
-There is no standard way to access the values
-to be returned by the function.
</li>
<li><b>The line hook: </b> is called when the interpreter is about to
start the execution of a new line of code,
or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line).
-(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
+This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.
</li>
<li><b>The count hook: </b> is called after the interpreter executes every
<code>count</code> instructions.
-(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
+This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.
</li>
</ul>
<p>
-A hook is disabled by setting <code>mask</code> to zero.
+Hooks are disabled by setting <code>mask</code> to zero.
@@ -5847,7 +6338,7 @@ A hook is disabled by setting <code>mask</code> to zero.
<p>
Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
-It assigns the value at the top of the stack
+It assigns the value on the top of the stack
to the variable and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack.
@@ -5859,7 +6350,7 @@ the number of active local variables.
<p>
-Parameters <code>ar</code> and <code>n</code> are as in function <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a>.
+Parameters <code>ar</code> and <code>n</code> are as in the function <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a>.
@@ -5871,7 +6362,7 @@ Parameters <code>ar</code> and <code>n</code> are as in function <a href="#lua_g
<p>
Sets the value of a closure's upvalue.
-It assigns the value at the top of the stack
+It assigns the value on the top of the stack
to the upvalue and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack.
@@ -5882,7 +6373,8 @@ when the index <code>n</code> is greater than the number of upvalues.
<p>
-Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in function <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>.
+Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in
+the function <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>.
@@ -5906,7 +6398,8 @@ will return identical ids for those upvalue indices.
<p>
-Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in function <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>,
+Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in
+the function <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>,
but <code>n</code> cannot be greater than the number of upvalues.
@@ -5930,6 +6423,8 @@ refer to the <code>n2</code>-th upvalue of the Lua closure at index <code>funcin
<h1>5 &ndash; <a name="5">The Auxiliary Library</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
The <em>auxiliary library</em> provides several convenient functions
@@ -5976,6 +6471,8 @@ always raise an error if the check is not satisfied.
+
+
<h2>5.1 &ndash; <a name="5.1">Functions and Types</a></h2>
<p>
@@ -5996,6 +6493,20 @@ Adds the byte <code>c</code> to the buffer <code>B</code>
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addgsub"><code>luaL_addgsub</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
+<pre>const void luaL_addgsub (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s,
+ const char *p, const char *r);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Adds a copy of the string <code>s</code> to the buffer <code>B</code> (see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>),
+replacing any occurrence of the string <code>p</code>
+with the string <code>r</code>.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addlstring"><code>luaL_addlstring</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l);</pre>
@@ -6015,7 +6526,7 @@ The string can contain embedded zeros.
<pre>void luaL_addsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t n);</pre>
<p>
-Adds to the buffer <code>B</code> (see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>)
+Adds to the buffer <code>B</code>
a string of length <code>n</code> previously copied to the
buffer area (see <a href="#luaL_prepbuffer"><code>luaL_prepbuffer</code></a>).
@@ -6041,7 +6552,7 @@ to the buffer <code>B</code>
<pre>void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
-Adds the value at the top of the stack
+Adds the value on the top of the stack
to the buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
Pops the value.
@@ -6090,6 +6601,22 @@ This function never returns.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_argexpected"><code>luaL_argexpected</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_argexpected (lua_State *L,
+ int cond,
+ int arg,
+ const char *tname);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Checks whether <code>cond</code> is true.
+If it is not, raises an error about the type of the argument <code>arg</code>
+with a standard message (see <a href="#luaL_typeerror"><code>luaL_typeerror</code></a>).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a></h3>
<pre>typedef struct luaL_Buffer luaL_Buffer;</pre>
@@ -6120,7 +6647,7 @@ This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
</ul>
<p>
-If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string,
+If you know beforehand the maximum size of the resulting string,
you can use the buffer like this:
<ul>
@@ -6130,12 +6657,13 @@ you can use the buffer like this:
<li>Then initialize it and preallocate a space of
size <code>sz</code> with a call <code>luaL_buffinitsize(L, &amp;b, sz)</code>.</li>
-<li>Then copy the string into that space.</li>
+<li>Then produce the string into that space.</li>
<li>
Finish by calling <code>luaL_pushresultsize(&amp;b, sz)</code>,
where <code>sz</code> is the total size of the resulting string
-copied into that space.
+copied into that space (which may be less than or
+equal to the preallocated size).
</li>
</ul>
@@ -6152,22 +6680,47 @@ when you call a buffer operation,
the stack is at the same level
it was immediately after the previous buffer operation.
(The only exception to this rule is <a href="#luaL_addvalue"><code>luaL_addvalue</code></a>.)
-After calling <a href="#luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a> the stack is back to its
-level when the buffer was initialized,
+After calling <a href="#luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a>,
+the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized,
plus the final string on its top.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffaddr"><code>luaL_buffaddr</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>char *luaL_buffaddr (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the address of the current content of buffer <code>B</code>
+(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
+Note that any addition to the buffer may invalidate this address.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffinit"><code>luaL_buffinit</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
<p>
-Initializes a buffer <code>B</code>.
+Initializes a buffer <code>B</code>
+(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
This function does not allocate any space;
-the buffer must be declared as a variable
+the buffer must be declared as a variable.
+
+
+
+
+
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_bufflen"><code>luaL_bufflen</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>size_t luaL_bufflen (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Returns the length of the current content of buffer <code>B</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
@@ -6186,6 +6739,19 @@ Equivalent to the sequence
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffsub"><code>luaL_buffsub</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_buffsub (luaL_Buffer *B, int n);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Removes <code>n</code> bytes from the the buffer <code>B</code>
+(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
+The buffer must have at least that many bytes.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_callmeta"><code>luaL_callmeta</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>e</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_callmeta (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);</pre>
@@ -6201,7 +6767,7 @@ this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument.
In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the
stack the value returned by the call.
If there is no metatable or no metamethod,
-this function returns false (without pushing any value on the stack).
+this function returns false without pushing any value on the stack.
@@ -6226,7 +6792,7 @@ of any type (including <b>nil</b>) at position <code>arg</code>.
<p>
Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is an integer
(or can be converted to an integer)
-and returns this integer cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
+and returns this integer.
@@ -6239,7 +6805,7 @@ and returns this integer cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</cod
<p>
Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a string
and returns this string;
-if <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code> fills <code>*l</code>
+if <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code> fills its referent
with the string's length.
@@ -6257,7 +6823,7 @@ so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
<p>
Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number
-and returns this number.
+and returns this number converted to a <code>lua_Number</code>.
@@ -6344,7 +6910,7 @@ See <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> for the encoding of types for
<p>
Checks whether the function argument <code>arg</code> is a userdata
of the type <code>tname</code> (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>) and
-returns the userdata address (see <a href="#lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata</code></a>).
+returns the userdata's memory-block address (see <a href="#lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata</code></a>).
@@ -6355,19 +6921,15 @@ returns the userdata address (see <a href="#lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata
<pre>void luaL_checkversion (lua_State *L);</pre>
<p>
-Checks whether the core running the call,
-the core that created the Lua state,
-and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua.
-Also checks whether the core running the call
-and the core that created the Lua state
-are using the same address space.
+Checks whether the code making the call and the Lua library being called
+are using the same version of Lua and the same numeric types.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_dofile"><code>luaL_dofile</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
<pre>int luaL_dofile (lua_State *L, const char *filename);</pre>
<p>
@@ -6377,8 +6939,8 @@ It is defined as the following macro:
<pre>
(luaL_loadfile(L, filename) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
</pre><p>
-It returns false if there are no errors
-or true in case of errors.
+It returns <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> if there are no errors,
+or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#4.4.1">&sect;4.4.1</a>).
@@ -6395,8 +6957,8 @@ It is defined as the following macro:
<pre>
(luaL_loadstring(L, str) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
</pre><p>
-It returns false if there are no errors
-or true in case of errors.
+It returns <a href="#pdf-LUA_OK"><code>LUA_OK</code></a> if there are no errors,
+or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#4.4.1">&sect;4.4.1</a>).
@@ -6471,9 +7033,9 @@ pushes nothing and returns <code>LUA_TNIL</code>.
<pre>int luaL_getmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name <code>tname</code>
-in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>)
-(<b>nil</b> if there is no metatable associated with that name).
+Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with the name <code>tname</code>
+in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>),
+or <b>nil</b> if there is no metatable associated with that name.
Returns the type of the pushed value.
@@ -6504,8 +7066,8 @@ and false if it creates a new table.
const char *r);</pre>
<p>
-Creates a copy of string <code>s</code> by replacing
-any occurrence of the string <code>p</code>
+Creates a copy of string <code>s</code>,
+replacing any occurrence of the string <code>p</code>
with the string <code>r</code>.
Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it.
@@ -6522,7 +7084,7 @@ Returns the "length" of the value at the given index
as a number;
it is equivalent to the '<code>#</code>' operator in Lua (see <a href="#3.4.7">&sect;3.4.7</a>).
Raises an error if the result of the operation is not an integer.
-(This case only can happen through metamethods.)
+(This case can only happen through metamethods.)
@@ -6560,7 +7122,7 @@ buffer pointed to by <code>buff</code> with size <code>sz</code>.
This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
<code>name</code> is the chunk name,
used for debug information and error messages.
-The string <code>mode</code> works as in function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
+The string <code>mode</code> works as in the function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
@@ -6592,14 +7154,12 @@ The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a <code>#</code>.
<p>
-The string <code>mode</code> works as in function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
+The string <code>mode</code> works as in the function <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
<p>
-This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>,
-but it has an extra error code <a name="pdf-LUA_ERRFILE"><code>LUA_ERRFILE</code></a>
-for file-related errors
-(e.g., it cannot open or read the file).
+This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>
+or <a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRFILE"><code>LUA_ERRFILE</code></a> for file-related errors.
<p>
@@ -6638,7 +7198,7 @@ it does not run it.
<p>
Creates a new table and registers there
-the functions in list <code>l</code>.
+the functions in the list <code>l</code>.
<p>
@@ -6687,11 +7247,11 @@ creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata,
adds to this new table the pair <code>__name = tname</code>,
adds to the registry the pair <code>[tname] = new table</code>,
and returns 1.
-(The entry <code>__name</code> is used by some error-reporting functions.)
<p>
-In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated
+In both cases,
+the function pushes onto the stack the final value associated
with <code>tname</code> in the registry.
@@ -6705,10 +7265,9 @@ with <code>tname</code> in the registry.
<p>
Creates a new Lua state.
It calls <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a> with an
-allocator based on the standard&nbsp;C <code>realloc</code> function
-and then sets a panic function (see <a href="#4.6">&sect;4.6</a>) that prints
-an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal
-errors.
+allocator based on the standard&nbsp;C allocation functions
+and then sets a warning function and a panic function (see <a href="#4.4">&sect;4.4</a>)
+that print messages to the standard error output.
<p>
@@ -6731,7 +7290,7 @@ Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_opt"><code>luaL_opt</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>T luaL_opt (L, func, arg, dflt);</pre>
<p>
@@ -6759,7 +7318,7 @@ Note that it evaluates the expression <code>dflt</code> only if needed.
<p>
If the function argument <code>arg</code> is an integer
-(or convertible to an integer),
+(or it is convertible to an integer),
returns this integer.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
@@ -6786,7 +7345,7 @@ Otherwise, raises an error.
<p>
If <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
-fills the position <code>*l</code> with the result's length.
+fills its referent with the result's length.
If the result is <code>NULL</code>
(only possible when returning <code>d</code> and <code>d == NULL</code>),
its length is considered zero.
@@ -6806,7 +7365,7 @@ so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
<p>
If the function argument <code>arg</code> is a number,
-returns this number.
+returns this number as a <code>lua_Number</code>.
If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
returns <code>d</code>.
Otherwise, raises an error.
@@ -6860,6 +7419,17 @@ it to the buffer.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_pushfail"><code>luaL_pushfail</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +1, &ndash;]</span>
+<pre>void luaL_pushfail (lua_State *L);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Pushes the <b>fail</b> value onto the stack (see <a href="#6">&sect;6</a>).
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-?, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
<pre>void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
@@ -6890,20 +7460,20 @@ Equivalent to the sequence <a href="#luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a>
<p>
Creates and returns a <em>reference</em>,
in the table at index <code>t</code>,
-for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
+for the object on the top of the stack (and pops the object).
<p>
A reference is a unique integer key.
-As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table <code>t</code>,
+As long as you do not manually add integer keys into the table <code>t</code>,
<a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a> ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
-You can retrieve an object referred by reference <code>r</code>
+You can retrieve an object referred by the reference <code>r</code>
by calling <code>lua_rawgeti(L, t, r)</code>.
-Function <a href="#luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a> frees a reference and its associated object.
+The function <a href="#luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a> frees a reference.
<p>
-If the object at the top of the stack is <b>nil</b>,
+If the object on the top of the stack is <b>nil</b>,
<a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a> returns the constant <a name="pdf-LUA_REFNIL"><code>LUA_REFNIL</code></a>.
The constant <a name="pdf-LUA_NOREF"><code>LUA_NOREF</code></a> is guaranteed to be different
from any reference returned by <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>.
@@ -6936,15 +7506,15 @@ in which both <code>name</code> and <code>func</code> are <code>NULL</code>.
lua_CFunction openf, int glb);</pre>
<p>
-If <code>modname</code> is not already present in <a href="#pdf-package.loaded"><code>package.loaded</code></a>,
-calls function <code>openf</code> with string <code>modname</code> as an argument
-and sets the call result in <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
+If <code>package.loaded[modname]</code> is not true,
+calls the function <code>openf</code> with the string <code>modname</code> as an argument
+and sets the call result to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
as if that function has been called through <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
<p>
If <code>glb</code> is true,
-also stores the module into global <code>modname</code>.
+also stores the module into the global <code>modname</code>.
<p>
@@ -6966,8 +7536,9 @@ Registers all functions in the array <code>l</code>
<p>
When <code>nup</code> is not zero,
-all functions are created sharing <code>nup</code> upvalues,
-which must be previously pushed on the stack
+all functions are created with <code>nup</code> upvalues,
+initialized with copies of the <code>nup</code> values
+previously pushed on the stack
on top of the library table.
These values are popped from the stack after the registration.
@@ -6980,7 +7551,7 @@ These values are popped from the stack after the registration.
<pre>void luaL_setmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
<p>
-Sets the metatable of the object at the top of the stack
+Sets the metatable of the object on the top of the stack
as the metatable associated with name <code>tname</code>
in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>).
@@ -6995,8 +7566,8 @@ in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code>
} luaL_Stream;</pre>
<p>
-The standard representation for file handles,
-which is used by the standard I/O library.
+The standard representation for file handles
+used by the standard I/O library.
<p>
@@ -7010,14 +7581,14 @@ The metatable is created by the I/O library
<p>
This userdata must start with the structure <code>luaL_Stream</code>;
it can contain other data after this initial structure.
-Field <code>f</code> points to the corresponding C stream
+The field <code>f</code> points to the corresponding C stream
(or it can be <code>NULL</code> to indicate an incompletely created handle).
-Field <code>closef</code> points to a Lua function
+The field <code>closef</code> points to a Lua function
that will be called to close the stream
when the handle is closed or collected;
this function receives the file handle as its sole argument and
-must return either <b>true</b> (in case of success)
-or <b>nil</b> plus an error message (in case of error).
+must return either a true value, in case of success,
+or a false value plus an error message, in case of error.
Once Lua calls this field,
it changes the field value to <code>NULL</code>
to signal that the handle is closed.
@@ -7047,7 +7618,7 @@ it returns <code>NULL</code> instead of raising an error.
Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C&nbsp;string
in a reasonable format.
The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also
-returned by the function.
+returned by the function (see <a href="#4.1.3">&sect;4.1.3</a>).
If <code>len</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
the function also sets <code>*len</code> with the string length.
@@ -7069,7 +7640,7 @@ and uses the result of the call as its result.
<p>
Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack <code>L1</code>.
-If <code>msg</code> is not <code>NULL</code> it is appended
+If <code>msg</code> is not <code>NULL</code>, it is appended
at the beginning of the traceback.
The <code>level</code> parameter tells at which level
to start the traceback.
@@ -7078,6 +7649,23 @@ to start the traceback.
+<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typeerror"><code>luaL_typeerror</code></a></h3><p>
+<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
+<pre>const char *luaL_typeerror (lua_State *L,
+ int arg,
+ const char *tname);</pre>
+
+<p>
+Raises a type error for the argument <code>arg</code>
+of the C&nbsp;function that called it,
+using a standard message;
+<code>tname</code> is a "name" for the expected type.
+This function never returns.
+
+
+
+
+
<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typename"><code>luaL_typename</code></a></h3><p>
<span class="apii">[-0, +0, &ndash;]</span>
<pre>const char *luaL_typename (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
@@ -7094,7 +7682,7 @@ Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.
<pre>void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref);</pre>
<p>
-Releases reference <code>ref</code> from the table at index <code>t</code>
+Releases the reference <code>ref</code> from the table at index <code>t</code>
(see <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>).
The entry is removed from the table,
so that the referred object can be collected.
@@ -7135,22 +7723,41 @@ This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
-<h1>6 &ndash; <a name="6">Standard Libraries</a></h1>
+<h1>6 &ndash; <a name="6">The Standard Libraries</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions
-that are implemented directly through the C&nbsp;API.
+that are implemented in&nbsp;C through the C&nbsp;API.
Some of these functions provide essential services to the language
(e.g., <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a>);
-others provide access to "outside" services (e.g., I/O);
+others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O);
and others could be implemented in Lua itself,
-but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that
+but that for different reasons
deserve an implementation in C (e.g., <a href="#pdf-table.sort"><code>table.sort</code></a>).
<p>
All libraries are implemented through the official C&nbsp;API
and are provided as separate C&nbsp;modules.
+Unless otherwise noted,
+these library functions do not adjust its number of arguments
+to its expected parameters.
+For instance, a function documented as <code>foo(arg)</code>
+should not be called without an argument.
+
+
+<p>
+The notation <b>fail</b> means a false value representing
+some kind of failure.
+(Currently, <b>fail</b> is equal to <b>nil</b>,
+but that may change in future versions.
+The recommendation is to always test the success of these functions
+with <code>(not status)</code>, instead of <code>(status == nil)</code>.)
+
+
+<p>
Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries:
<ul>
@@ -7192,7 +7799,7 @@ the host program can open them individually by using
<a name="pdf-luaopen_package"><code>luaopen_package</code></a> (for the package library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_coroutine"><code>luaopen_coroutine</code></a> (for the coroutine library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_string"><code>luaopen_string</code></a> (for the string library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_utf8"><code>luaopen_utf8</code></a> (for the UTF8 library),
+<a name="pdf-luaopen_utf8"><code>luaopen_utf8</code></a> (for the UTF-8 library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_table"><code>luaopen_table</code></a> (for the table library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_math"><code>luaopen_math</code></a> (for the mathematical library),
<a name="pdf-luaopen_io"><code>luaopen_io</code></a> (for the I/O library),
@@ -7202,6 +7809,8 @@ These functions are declared in <a name="pdf-lualib.h"><code>lualib.h</code></a>
+
+
<h2>6.1 &ndash; <a name="6.1">Basic Functions</a></h2>
<p>
@@ -7216,7 +7825,7 @@ implementations for some of its facilities.
<p>
-Calls <a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> if
+Raises an error if
the value of its argument <code>v</code> is false (i.e., <b>nil</b> or <b>false</b>);
otherwise, returns all its arguments.
In case of error,
@@ -7237,77 +7846,84 @@ It performs different functions according to its first argument, <code>opt</code
<ul>
<li><b>"<code>collect</code>": </b>
-performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
+Performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
This is the default option.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>stop</code>": </b>
-stops automatic execution of the garbage collector.
+Stops automatic execution of the garbage collector.
The collector will run only when explicitly invoked,
until a call to restart it.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>restart</code>": </b>
-restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector.
+Restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>count</code>": </b>
-returns the total memory in use by Lua in Kbytes.
+Returns the total memory in use by Lua in Kbytes.
The value has a fractional part,
so that it multiplied by 1024
-gives the exact number of bytes in use by Lua
-(except for overflows).
+gives the exact number of bytes in use by Lua.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>step</code>": </b>
-performs a garbage-collection step.
+Performs a garbage-collection step.
The step "size" is controlled by <code>arg</code>.
With a zero value,
the collector will perform one basic (indivisible) step.
For non-zero values,
the collector will perform as if that amount of memory
-(in KBytes) had been allocated by Lua.
+(in Kbytes) had been allocated by Lua.
Returns <b>true</b> if the step finished a collection cycle.
</li>
-<li><b>"<code>setpause</code>": </b>
-sets <code>arg</code> as the new value for the <em>pause</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
-Returns the previous value for <em>pause</em>.
+<li><b>"<code>isrunning</code>": </b>
+Returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
+(i.e., not stopped).
</li>
-<li><b>"<code>setstepmul</code>": </b>
-sets <code>arg</code> as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
-Returns the previous value for <em>step</em>.
+<li><b>"<code>incremental</code>": </b>
+Change the collector mode to incremental.
+This option can be followed by three numbers:
+the garbage-collector pause,
+the step multiplier,
+and the step size (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>).
+A zero means to not change that value.
</li>
-<li><b>"<code>isrunning</code>": </b>
-returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running
-(i.e., not stopped).
+<li><b>"<code>generational</code>": </b>
+Change the collector mode to generational.
+This option can be followed by two numbers:
+the garbage-collector minor multiplier
+and the major multiplier (see <a href="#2.5.2">&sect;2.5.2</a>).
+A zero means to not change that value.
</li>
-</ul>
+</ul><p>
+See <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a> for more details about garbage collection
+and some of these options.
+
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-dofile"><code>dofile ([filename])</code></a></h3>
-Opens the named file and executes its contents as a Lua chunk.
+Opens the named file and executes its content as a Lua chunk.
When called without arguments,
-<code>dofile</code> executes the contents of the standard input (<code>stdin</code>).
+<code>dofile</code> executes the content of the standard input (<code>stdin</code>).
Returns all values returned by the chunk.
In case of errors, <code>dofile</code> propagates the error
-to its caller (that is, <code>dofile</code> does not run in protected mode).
+to its caller.
+(That is, <code>dofile</code> does not run in protected mode.)
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-error"><code>error (message [, level])</code></a></h3>
-Terminates the last protected function called
-and returns <code>message</code> as the error object.
-Function <code>error</code> never returns.
+Raises an error (see <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>) with @{message} as the error object.
+This function never returns.
<p>
@@ -7362,7 +7978,7 @@ so that the construction
</pre><p>
will iterate over the key&ndash;value pairs
(<code>1,t[1]</code>), (<code>2,t[2]</code>), ...,
-up to the first nil value.
+up to the first absent index.
@@ -7386,29 +8002,35 @@ A return of an empty string, <b>nil</b>, or no value signals the end of the chun
<p>
If there are no syntactic errors,
-returns the compiled chunk as a function;
-otherwise, returns <b>nil</b> plus the error message.
+<code>load</code> returns the compiled chunk as a function;
+otherwise, it returns <b>fail</b> plus the error message.
<p>
-If the resulting function has upvalues,
-the first upvalue is set to the value of <code>env</code>,
-if that parameter is given,
-or to the value of the global environment.
-Other upvalues are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
-(When you load a main chunk,
+When you load a main chunk,
the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue,
the <code>_ENV</code> variable (see <a href="#2.2">&sect;2.2</a>).
However,
when you load a binary chunk created from a function (see <a href="#pdf-string.dump"><code>string.dump</code></a>),
-the resulting function can have an arbitrary number of upvalues.)
+the resulting function can have an arbitrary number of upvalues,
+and there is no guarantee that its first upvalue will be
+the <code>_ENV</code> variable.
+(A non-main function may not even have an <code>_ENV</code> upvalue.)
+
+
+<p>
+Regardless, if the resulting function has any upvalues,
+its first upvalue is set to the value of <code>env</code>,
+if that parameter is given,
+or to the value of the global environment.
+Other upvalues are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
All upvalues are fresh, that is,
they are not shared with any other function.
<p>
<code>chunkname</code> is used as the name of the chunk for error messages
-and debug information (see <a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>).
+and debug information (see <a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>).
When absent,
it defaults to <code>chunk</code>, if <code>chunk</code> is a string,
or to "<code>=(load)</code>" otherwise.
@@ -7424,9 +8046,11 @@ The default is "<code>bt</code>".
<p>
-Lua does not check the consistency of binary chunks.
-Maliciously crafted binary chunks can crash
-the interpreter.
+It is safe to load malformed binary chunks;
+<code>load</code> signals an appropriate error.
+However,
+Lua does not check the consistency of the code inside binary chunks;
+running maliciously crafted bytecode can crash the interpreter.
@@ -7452,7 +8076,7 @@ if no file name is given.
Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.
Its first argument is a table and its second argument
is an index in this table.
-<code>next</code> returns the next index of the table
+A call to <code>next</code> returns the next index of the table
and its associated value.
When called with <b>nil</b> as its second argument,
<code>next</code> returns an initial index
@@ -7477,7 +8101,7 @@ The behavior of <code>next</code> is undefined if,
during the traversal,
you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
You may however modify existing fields.
-In particular, you may clear existing fields.
+In particular, you may set existing fields to nil.
@@ -7515,7 +8139,7 @@ the table during its traversal.
<p>
-Calls function <code>f</code> with
+Calls the function <code>f</code> with
the given arguments in <em>protected mode</em>.
This means that any error inside&nbsp;<code>f</code> is not propagated;
instead, <code>pcall</code> catches the error
@@ -7524,7 +8148,8 @@ Its first result is the status code (a boolean),
which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, <code>pcall</code> also returns all results from the call,
after this first result.
-In case of any error, <code>pcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error message.
+In case of any error, <code>pcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error object.
+Note that errors caught by <code>pcall</code> do not call a message handler.
@@ -7533,8 +8158,12 @@ In case of any error, <code>pcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error mes
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-print"><code>print (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
Receives any number of arguments
and prints their values to <code>stdout</code>,
-using the <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> function to convert each argument to a string.
-<code>print</code> is not intended for formatted output,
+converting each argument to a string
+following the same rules of <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a>.
+
+
+<p>
+The function <code>print</code> is not intended for formatted output,
but only as a quick way to show a value,
for instance for debugging.
For complete control over the output,
@@ -7555,7 +8184,7 @@ Returns a boolean.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawget"><code>rawget (table, index)</code></a></h3>
Gets the real value of <code>table[index]</code>,
-without invoking the <code>__index</code> metamethod.
+without using the <code>__index</code> metavalue.
<code>table</code> must be a table;
<code>index</code> may be any value.
@@ -7575,7 +8204,7 @@ Returns an integer.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawset"><code>rawset (table, index, value)</code></a></h3>
Sets the real value of <code>table[index]</code> to <code>value</code>,
-without invoking the <code>__newindex</code> metamethod.
+without using the <code>__newindex</code> metavalue.
<code>table</code> must be a table,
<code>index</code> any value different from <b>nil</b> and NaN,
and <code>value</code> any Lua value.
@@ -7607,8 +8236,6 @@ and <code>select</code> returns the total number of extra arguments it received.
<p>
Sets the metatable for the given table.
-(To change the metatable of other types from Lua code,
-you must use the debug library (<a href="#6.10">&sect;6.10</a>).)
If <code>metatable</code> is <b>nil</b>,
removes the metatable of the given table.
If the original metatable has a <code>__metatable</code> field,
@@ -7619,6 +8246,11 @@ raises an error.
This function returns <code>table</code>.
+<p>
+To change the metatable of other types from Lua code,
+you must use the debug library (<a href="#6.10">&sect;6.10</a>).
+
+
<p>
@@ -7631,13 +8263,13 @@ When called with no <code>base</code>,
If the argument is already a number or
a string convertible to a number,
then <code>tonumber</code> returns this number;
-otherwise, it returns <b>nil</b>.
+otherwise, it returns <b>fail</b>.
<p>
The conversion of strings can result in integers or floats,
according to the lexical conventions of Lua (see <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>).
-(The string may have leading and trailing spaces and a sign.)
+The string may have leading and trailing spaces and a sign.
<p>
@@ -7649,17 +8281,18 @@ In bases above&nbsp;10, the letter '<code>A</code>' (in either upper or lower ca
represents&nbsp;10, '<code>B</code>' represents&nbsp;11, and so forth,
with '<code>Z</code>' representing 35.
If the string <code>e</code> is not a valid numeral in the given base,
-the function returns <b>nil</b>.
+the function returns <b>fail</b>.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tostring"><code>tostring (v)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Receives a value of any type and
converts it to a string in a human-readable format.
-(For complete control of how numbers are converted,
-use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.)
<p>
@@ -7667,12 +8300,23 @@ If the metatable of <code>v</code> has a <code>__tostring</code> field,
then <code>tostring</code> calls the corresponding value
with <code>v</code> as argument,
and uses the result of the call as its result.
+Otherwise, if the metatable of <code>v</code> has a <code>__name</code> field
+with a string value,
+<code>tostring</code> may use that string in its final result.
+
+
+<p>
+For complete control of how numbers are converted,
+use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-type"><code>type (v)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns the type of its only argument, coded as a string.
The possible results of this function are
"<code>nil</code>" (a string, not the value <b>nil</b>),
@@ -7694,7 +8338,30 @@ and "<code>userdata</code>".
<p>
A global variable (not a function) that
holds a string containing the running Lua version.
-The current value of this variable is "<code>Lua 5.3</code>".
+The current value of this variable is "<code>Lua 5.4</code>".
+
+
+
+
+<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-warn"><code>warn (msg1, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Emits a warning with a message composed by the concatenation
+of all its arguments (which should be strings).
+
+
+<p>
+By convention,
+a one-piece message starting with '<code>@</code>'
+is intended to be a <em>control message</em>,
+which is a message to the warning system itself.
+In particular, the standard warning function in Lua
+recognizes the control messages "<code>@off</code>",
+to stop the emission of warnings,
+and "<code>@on</code>", to (re)start the emission;
+it ignores unknown control messages.
@@ -7722,6 +8389,23 @@ See <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a> for a general description of coroutines.
<p>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.close"><code>coroutine.close (co)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Closes coroutine <code>co</code>,
+that is,
+closes all its pending to-be-closed variables
+and puts the coroutine in a dead state.
+The given coroutine must be dead or suspended.
+In case of error closing some variable,
+returns <b>false</b> plus the error object;
+otherwise returns <b>true</b>.
+
+
+
+
+<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create (f)</code></a></h3>
@@ -7735,15 +8419,16 @@ an object with type <code>"thread"</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.isyieldable"><code>coroutine.isyieldable ()</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.isyieldable"><code>coroutine.isyieldable ([co])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Returns true when the running coroutine can yield.
+Returns true when the coroutine <code>co</code> can yield.
+The default for <code>co</code> is the running coroutine.
<p>
-A running coroutine is yieldable if it is not the main thread and
+A coroutine is yieldable if it is not the main thread and
it is not inside a non-yieldable C&nbsp;function.
@@ -7792,9 +8477,10 @@ true when the running coroutine is the main one.
<p>
-Returns the status of coroutine <code>co</code>, as a string:
+Returns the status of the coroutine <code>co</code>, as a string:
<code>"running"</code>,
-if the coroutine is running (that is, it called <code>status</code>);
+if the coroutine is running
+(that is, it is the one that called <code>status</code>);
<code>"suspended"</code>, if the coroutine is suspended in a call to <code>yield</code>,
or if it has not started running yet;
<code>"normal"</code> if the coroutine is active but not running
@@ -7810,14 +8496,15 @@ or if it has stopped with an error.
<p>
-Creates a new coroutine, with body <code>f</code>.
+Creates a new coroutine, with body <code>f</code>;
<code>f</code> must be a function.
Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
-Any arguments passed to the function behave as the
+Any arguments passed to this function behave as the
extra arguments to <code>resume</code>.
-Returns the same values returned by <code>resume</code>,
+The function returns the same values returned by <code>resume</code>,
except the first boolean.
-In case of error, propagates the error.
+In case of error,
+the function closes the coroutine and propagates the error.
@@ -7843,7 +8530,7 @@ The package library provides basic
facilities for loading modules in Lua.
It exports one function directly in the global environment:
<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
-Everything else is exported in a table <a name="pdf-package"><code>package</code></a>.
+Everything else is exported in the table <a name="pdf-package"><code>package</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -7856,13 +8543,17 @@ The function starts by looking into the <a href="#pdf-package.loaded"><code>pack
to determine whether <code>modname</code> is already loaded.
If it is, then <code>require</code> returns the value stored
at <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
+(The absence of a second result in this case
+signals that this call did not have to load the module.)
Otherwise, it tries to find a <em>loader</em> for the module.
<p>
To find a loader,
-<code>require</code> is guided by the <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a> sequence.
-By changing this sequence,
+<code>require</code> is guided by the table <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a>.
+Each item in this table is a search function,
+that searches for the module in a particular way.
+By changing this table,
we can change how <code>require</code> looks for a module.
The following explanation is based on the default configuration
for <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><code>package.searchers</code></a>.
@@ -7883,9 +8574,14 @@ it tries an <em>all-in-one</em> loader (see <a href="#pdf-package.searchers"><co
<p>
Once a loader is found,
<code>require</code> calls the loader with two arguments:
-<code>modname</code> and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader.
-(If the loader came from a file,
-this extra value is the file name.)
+<code>modname</code> and an extra value,
+a <em>loader data</em>,
+also returned by the searcher.
+The loader data can be any value useful to the module;
+for the default searchers,
+it indicates where the loader was found.
+(For instance, if the loader came from a file,
+this extra value is the file path.)
If the loader returns any non-nil value,
<code>require</code> assigns the returned value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
If the loader does not return a non-nil value and
@@ -7893,6 +8589,9 @@ has not assigned any value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
then <code>require</code> assigns <b>true</b> to this entry.
In any case, <code>require</code> returns the
final value of <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
+Besides that value, <code>require</code> also returns as a second result
+the loader data returned by the searcher,
+which indicates how <code>require</code> found the module.
<p>
@@ -7940,13 +8639,14 @@ Default is '<code>-</code>'.</li>
<p>
-The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a C&nbsp;loader.
+A string with the path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>
+to search for a C&nbsp;loader.
<p>
Lua initializes the C&nbsp;path <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a> in the same way
it initializes the Lua path <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>,
-using the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH_5_3"><code>LUA_CPATH_5_3</code></a>,
+using the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH_5_4"><code>LUA_CPATH_5_4</code></a>,
or the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH"><code>LUA_CPATH</code></a>,
or a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
@@ -8012,6 +8712,18 @@ As such, it is only available on some platforms
plus other Unix systems that support the <code>dlfcn</code> standard).
+<p>
+This function is inherently insecure,
+as it allows Lua to call any function in any readable dynamic
+library in the system.
+(Lua calls any function assuming the function
+has a proper prototype and respects a proper protocol
+(see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
+Therefore,
+calling an arbitrary function in an arbitrary dynamic library
+more often than not results in an access violation.)
+
+
<p>
@@ -8019,16 +8731,17 @@ plus other Unix systems that support the <code>dlfcn</code> standard).
<p>
-The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a Lua loader.
+A string with the path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>
+to search for a Lua loader.
<p>
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with
-the value of the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH_5_3"><code>LUA_PATH_5_3</code></a> or
+the value of the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH_5_4"><code>LUA_PATH_5_4</code></a> or
the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH"><code>LUA_PATH</code></a> or
with a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>,
if those environment variables are not defined.
-Any "<code>;;</code>" in the value of the environment variable
+A "<code>;;</code>" in the value of the environment variable
is replaced by the default path.
@@ -8056,7 +8769,7 @@ table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
<p>
-A table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to control how to load modules.
+A table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to control how to find modules.
<p>
@@ -8064,10 +8777,14 @@ Each entry in this table is a <em>searcher function</em>.
When looking for a module,
<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> calls each of these searchers in ascending order,
with the module name (the argument given to <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>) as its
-sole parameter.
-The function can return another function (the module <em>loader</em>)
-plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader,
-or a string explaining why it did not find that module
+sole argument.
+If the searcher finds the module,
+it returns another function, the module <em>loader</em>,
+plus an extra value, a <em>loader data</em>,
+that will be passed to that loader and
+returned as a second result by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>.
+If it cannot find the module,
+it returns a string explaining why
(or <b>nil</b> if it has nothing to say).
@@ -8130,9 +8847,15 @@ with each submodule keeping its original open function.
<p>
All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value
-the file name where the module was found,
+the file path where the module was found,
as returned by <a href="#pdf-package.searchpath"><code>package.searchpath</code></a>.
-The first searcher returns no extra value.
+The first searcher always returns the string "<code>:preload:</code>".
+
+
+<p>
+Searchers should raise no errors and have no side effects in Lua.
+(They may have side effects in C,
+for instance by linking the application with a library.)
@@ -8173,7 +8896,7 @@ will try to open the files
<p>
Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can
open in read mode (after closing the file),
-or <b>nil</b> plus an error message if none succeeds.
+or <b>fail</b> plus an error message if none succeeds.
(This error message lists all file names it tried to open.)
@@ -8184,6 +8907,8 @@ or <b>nil</b> plus an error message if none succeeds.
<h2>6.4 &ndash; <a name="6.4">String Manipulation</a></h2>
+
+
<p>
This library provides generic functions for string manipulation,
such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
@@ -8257,8 +8982,10 @@ to save space.
<p>
Functions with upvalues have only their number of upvalues saved.
When (re)loaded,
-those upvalues receive fresh instances containing <b>nil</b>.
-(You can use the debug library to serialize
+those upvalues receive fresh instances.
+(See the <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a> function for details about
+how these upvalues are initialized.
+You can use the debug library to serialize
and reload the upvalues of a function
in a way adequate to your needs.)
@@ -8274,7 +9001,7 @@ Looks for the first match of
<code>pattern</code> (see <a href="#6.4.1">&sect;6.4.1</a>) in the string <code>s</code>.
If it finds a match, then <code>find</code> returns the indices of&nbsp;<code>s</code>
where this occurrence starts and ends;
-otherwise, it returns <b>nil</b>.
+otherwise, it returns <b>fail</b>.
A third, optional numeric argument <code>init</code> specifies
where to start the search;
its default value is&nbsp;1 and can be negative.
@@ -8282,7 +9009,6 @@ A value of <b>true</b> as a fourth, optional argument <code>plain</code>
turns off the pattern matching facilities,
so the function does a plain "find substring" operation,
with no characters in <code>pattern</code> being considered magic.
-Note that if <code>plain</code> is given, then <code>init</code> must be given as well.
<p>
@@ -8300,16 +9026,22 @@ after the two indices.
<p>
Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments
-following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string).
+following the description given in its first argument,
+which must be a string.
The format string follows the same rules as the ISO&nbsp;C function <code>sprintf</code>.
-The only differences are that the options/modifiers
-<code>*</code>, <code>h</code>, <code>L</code>, <code>l</code>, <code>n</code>,
-and <code>p</code> are not supported
-and that there is an extra option, <code>q</code>.
+The only differences are that the conversion specifiers and modifiers
+<code>*</code>, <code>h</code>, <code>L</code>, <code>l</code>, and <code>n</code> are not supported
+and that there is an extra specifier, <code>q</code>.
<p>
-The <code>q</code> option formats a string between double quotes,
+The specifier <code>q</code> formats booleans, nil, numbers, and strings
+in a way that the result is a valid constant in Lua source code.
+Booleans and nil are written in the obvious way
+(<code>true</code>, <code>false</code>, <code>nil</code>).
+Floats are written in hexadecimal,
+to preserve full precision.
+A string is written between double quotes,
using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that
it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter.
For instance, the call
@@ -8322,38 +9054,53 @@ may produce the string:
<pre>
"a string with \"quotes\" and \
new line"
-</pre>
+</pre><p>
+This specifier does not support modifiers (flags, width, length).
+
<p>
-Options
+The conversion specifiers
<code>A</code>, <code>a</code>, <code>E</code>, <code>e</code>, <code>f</code>,
<code>G</code>, and <code>g</code> all expect a number as argument.
-Options <code>c</code>, <code>d</code>,
+The specifiers <code>c</code>, <code>d</code>,
<code>i</code>, <code>o</code>, <code>u</code>, <code>X</code>, and <code>x</code>
expect an integer.
When Lua is compiled with a C89 compiler,
-options <code>A</code> and <code>a</code> (hexadecimal floats)
-do not support any modifier (flags, width, length).
+the specifiers <code>A</code> and <code>a</code> (hexadecimal floats)
+do not support modifiers.
<p>
-Option <code>s</code> expects a string;
+The specifier <code>s</code> expects a string;
if its argument is not a string,
it is converted to one following the same rules of <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a>.
-If the option has any modifier (flags, width, length),
-the string argument should not contain embedded zeros.
+If the specifier has any modifier,
+the corresponding string argument should not contain embedded zeros.
+
+
+<p>
+The specifier <code>p</code> formats the pointer
+returned by <a href="#lua_topointer"><code>lua_topointer</code></a>.
+That gives a unique string identifier for tables, userdata,
+threads, strings, and functions.
+For other values (numbers, nil, booleans),
+this specifier results in a string representing
+the pointer <code>NULL</code>.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.gmatch"><code>string.gmatch (s, pattern)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.gmatch"><code>string.gmatch (s, pattern [, init])</code></a></h3>
Returns an iterator function that,
each time it is called,
returns the next captures from <code>pattern</code> (see <a href="#6.4.1">&sect;6.4.1</a>)
over the string <code>s</code>.
If <code>pattern</code> specifies no captures,
then the whole match is produced in each call.
+A third, optional numeric argument <code>init</code> specifies
+where to start the search;
+its default value is&nbsp;1 and can be negative.
<p>
@@ -8402,9 +9149,9 @@ If <code>repl</code> is a string, then its value is used for replacement.
The character&nbsp;<code>%</code> works as an escape character:
any sequence in <code>repl</code> of the form <code>%<em>d</em></code>,
with <em>d</em> between 1 and 9,
-stands for the value of the <em>d</em>-th captured substring.
-The sequence <code>%0</code> stands for the whole match.
-The sequence <code>%%</code> stands for a single&nbsp;<code>%</code>.
+stands for the value of the <em>d</em>-th captured substring;
+the sequence <code>%0</code> stands for the whole match;
+the sequence <code>%%</code> stands for a single&nbsp;<code>%</code>.
<p>
@@ -8454,15 +9201,18 @@ Here are some examples:
end)
--&gt; x="4+5 = 9"
- local t = {name="lua", version="5.3"}
+ local t = {name="lua", version="5.4"}
x = string.gsub("$name-$version.tar.gz", "%$(%w+)", t)
- --&gt; x="lua-5.3.tar.gz"
+ --&gt; x="lua-5.4.tar.gz"
</pre>
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.len"><code>string.len (s)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Receives a string and returns its length.
The empty string <code>""</code> has length 0.
Embedded zeros are counted,
@@ -8473,6 +9223,9 @@ so <code>"a\000bc\000"</code> has length 5.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.lower"><code>string.lower (s)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Receives a string and returns a copy of this string with all
uppercase letters changed to lowercase.
All other characters are left unchanged.
@@ -8483,11 +9236,14 @@ The definition of what an uppercase letter is depends on the current locale.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.match"><code>string.match (s, pattern [, init])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Looks for the first <em>match</em> of
-<code>pattern</code> (see <a href="#6.4.1">&sect;6.4.1</a>) in the string <code>s</code>.
+the <code>pattern</code> (see <a href="#6.4.1">&sect;6.4.1</a>) in the string <code>s</code>.
If it finds one, then <code>match</code> returns
the captures from the pattern;
-otherwise it returns <b>nil</b>.
+otherwise it returns <b>fail</b>.
If <code>pattern</code> specifies no captures,
then the whole match is returned.
A third, optional numeric argument <code>init</code> specifies
@@ -8503,7 +9259,7 @@ its default value is&nbsp;1 and can be negative.
<p>
Returns a binary string containing the values <code>v1</code>, <code>v2</code>, etc.
-packed (that is, serialized in binary form)
+serialized in binary form (packed)
according to the format string <code>fmt</code> (see <a href="#6.4.2">&sect;6.4.2</a>).
@@ -8524,6 +9280,9 @@ The format string cannot have the variable-length options
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.rep"><code>string.rep (s, n [, sep])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns a string that is the concatenation of <code>n</code> copies of
the string <code>s</code> separated by the string <code>sep</code>.
The default value for <code>sep</code> is the empty string
@@ -8540,6 +9299,9 @@ with a single call to this function.)
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.reverse"><code>string.reverse (s)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns a string that is the string <code>s</code> reversed.
@@ -8547,6 +9309,9 @@ Returns a string that is the string <code>s</code> reversed.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.sub"><code>string.sub (s, i [, j])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns the substring of <code>s</code> that
starts at <code>i</code> and continues until <code>j</code>;
<code>i</code> and <code>j</code> can be negative.
@@ -8590,6 +9355,9 @@ this function also returns the index of the first unread byte in <code>s</code>.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.upper"><code>string.upper (s)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Receives a string and returns a copy of this string with all
lowercase letters changed to uppercase.
All other characters are left unchanged.
@@ -8599,8 +9367,12 @@ The definition of what a lowercase letter is depends on the current locale.
+
+
<h3>6.4.1 &ndash; <a name="6.4.1">Patterns</a></h3>
+
+
<p>
Patterns in Lua are described by regular strings,
which are interpreted as patterns by the pattern-matching functions
@@ -8613,6 +9385,8 @@ This section describes the syntax and the meaning
+
+
<h4>Character Class:</h4><p>
A <em>character class</em> is used to represent a set of characters.
The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class:
@@ -8652,8 +9426,7 @@ represents the character <em>x</em>.
This is the standard way to escape the magic characters.
Any non-alphanumeric character
(including all punctuation characters, even the non-magical)
-can be preceded by a '<code>%</code>'
-when used to represent itself in a pattern.
+can be preceded by a '<code>%</code>' to represent itself in a pattern.
</li>
<li><b><code>[<em>set</em>]</code>: </b>
@@ -8718,19 +9491,19 @@ which matches any single character in the class;
<li>
a single character class followed by '<code>*</code>',
-which matches zero or more repetitions of characters in the class.
+which matches sequences of zero or more characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence;
</li>
<li>
a single character class followed by '<code>+</code>',
-which matches one or more repetitions of characters in the class.
+which matches sequences of one or more characters in the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence;
</li>
<li>
a single character class followed by '<code>-</code>',
-which also matches zero or more repetitions of characters in the class.
+which also matches sequences of zero or more characters in the class.
Unlike '<code>*</code>',
these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence;
</li>
@@ -8794,13 +9567,13 @@ that match captures are stored (<em>captured</em>) for future use.
Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses.
For instance, in the pattern <code>"(a*(.)%w(%s*))"</code>,
the part of the string matching <code>"a*(.)%w(%s*)"</code> is
-stored as the first capture (and therefore has number&nbsp;1);
+stored as the first capture, and therefore has number&nbsp;1;
the character matching "<code>.</code>" is captured with number&nbsp;2,
and the part matching "<code>%s*</code>" has number&nbsp;3.
<p>
-As a special case, the empty capture <code>()</code> captures
+As a special case, the capture <code>()</code> captures
the current string position (a number).
For instance, if we apply the pattern <code>"()aa()"</code> on the
string <code>"flaaap"</code>, there will be two captures: 3&nbsp;and&nbsp;5.
@@ -8809,6 +9582,32 @@ string <code>"flaaap"</code>, there will be two captures: 3&nbsp;and&nbsp;5.
+<h4>Multiple matches:</h4><p>
+The function <a href="#pdf-string.gsub"><code>string.gsub</code></a> and the iterator <a href="#pdf-string.gmatch"><code>string.gmatch</code></a>
+match multiple occurrences of the given pattern in the subject.
+For these functions,
+a new match is considered valid only
+if it ends at least one byte after the end of the previous match.
+In other words, the pattern machine never accepts the
+empty string as a match immediately after another match.
+As an example,
+consider the results of the following code:
+
+<pre>
+ &gt; string.gsub("abc", "()a*()", print);
+ --&gt; 1 2
+ --&gt; 3 3
+ --&gt; 4 4
+</pre><p>
+The second and third results come from Lua matching an empty
+string after '<code>b</code>' and another one after '<code>c</code>'.
+Lua does not match an empty string after '<code>a</code>',
+because it would end at the same position of the previous match.
+
+
+
+
+
<h3>6.4.2 &ndash; <a name="6.4.2">Format Strings for Pack and Unpack</a></h3>
@@ -8855,13 +9654,13 @@ coded as an unsigned integer with <code>n</code> bytes
<li><b><code>X<em>op</em></code>: </b>an empty item that aligns
according to option <code>op</code>
(which is otherwise ignored)</li>
-<li><b>'<code> </code>': </b>(empty space) ignored</li>
+<li><b>'<code> </code>': </b>(space) ignored</li>
</ul><p>
(A "<code>[<em>n</em>]</code>" means an optional integral numeral.)
Except for padding, spaces, and configurations
(options "<code>xX &lt;=&gt;!</code>"),
-each option corresponds to an argument (in <a href="#pdf-string.pack"><code>string.pack</code></a>)
-or a result (in <a href="#pdf-string.unpack"><code>string.unpack</code></a>).
+each option corresponds to an argument in <a href="#pdf-string.pack"><code>string.pack</code></a>
+or a result in <a href="#pdf-string.unpack"><code>string.unpack</code></a>.
<p>
@@ -8870,6 +9669,8 @@ For options "<code>!<em>n</em></code>", "<code>s<em>n</em></code>", "<code>i<em>
All integral options check overflows;
<a href="#pdf-string.pack"><code>string.pack</code></a> checks whether the given value fits in the given size;
<a href="#pdf-string.unpack"><code>string.unpack</code></a> checks whether the read value fits in a Lua integer.
+For the unsigned options,
+Lua integers are treated as unsigned values too.
<p>
@@ -8880,6 +9681,13 @@ and native endianness.
<p>
+Native endianness assumes that the whole system is
+either big or little endian.
+The packing functions will not emulate correctly the behavior
+of mixed-endian formats.
+
+
+<p>
Alignment works as follows:
For each option,
the format gets extra padding until the data starts
@@ -8892,7 +9700,7 @@ option "<code>s</code>" follows the alignment of its starting integer.
<p>
All padding is filled with zeros by <a href="#pdf-string.pack"><code>string.pack</code></a>
-(and ignored by <a href="#pdf-string.unpack"><code>string.unpack</code></a>).
+and ignored by <a href="#pdf-string.unpack"><code>string.unpack</code></a>.
@@ -8921,7 +9729,29 @@ negative indices count from the end of the string.
<p>
+Functions that create byte sequences
+accept all values up to <code>0x7FFFFFFF</code>,
+as defined in the original UTF-8 specification;
+that implies byte sequences of up to six bytes.
+
+
+<p>
+Functions that interpret byte sequences only accept
+valid sequences (well formed and not overlong).
+By default, they only accept byte sequences
+that result in valid Unicode code points,
+rejecting values greater than <code>10FFFF</code> and surrogates.
+A boolean argument <code>lax</code>, when available,
+lifts these checks,
+so that all values up to <code>0x7FFFFFFF</code> are accepted.
+(Not well formed and overlong sequences are still rejected.)
+
+
+<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.char"><code>utf8.char (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Receives zero or more integers,
converts each one to its corresponding UTF-8 byte sequence
and returns a string with the concatenation of all these sequences.
@@ -8931,7 +9761,10 @@ and returns a string with the concatenation of all these sequences.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.charpattern"><code>utf8.charpattern</code></a></h3>
-The pattern (a string, not a function) "<code>[\0-\x7F\xC2-\xF4][\x80-\xBF]*</code>"
+
+
+<p>
+The pattern (a string, not a function) "<code>[\0-\x7F\xC2-\xFD][\x80-\xBF]*</code>"
(see <a href="#6.4.1">&sect;6.4.1</a>),
which matches exactly one UTF-8 byte sequence,
assuming that the subject is a valid UTF-8 string.
@@ -8940,7 +9773,7 @@ assuming that the subject is a valid UTF-8 string.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.codes"><code>utf8.codes (s)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.codes"><code>utf8.codes (s [, lax])</code></a></h3>
<p>
@@ -8949,7 +9782,7 @@ Returns values so that the construction
<pre>
for p, c in utf8.codes(s) do <em>body</em> end
</pre><p>
-will iterate over all characters in string <code>s</code>,
+will iterate over all UTF-8 characters in string <code>s</code>,
with <code>p</code> being the position (in bytes) and <code>c</code> the code point
of each character.
It raises an error if it meets any invalid byte sequence.
@@ -8958,8 +9791,11 @@ It raises an error if it meets any invalid byte sequence.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.codepoint"><code>utf8.codepoint (s [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the codepoints (as integers) from all characters in <code>s</code>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.codepoint"><code>utf8.codepoint (s [, i [, j [, lax]]])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
+Returns the code points (as integers) from all characters in <code>s</code>
that start between byte position <code>i</code> and <code>j</code> (both included).
The default for <code>i</code> is 1 and for <code>j</code> is <code>i</code>.
It raises an error if it meets any invalid byte sequence.
@@ -8968,18 +9804,24 @@ It raises an error if it meets any invalid byte sequence.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.len"><code>utf8.len (s [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.len"><code>utf8.len (s [, i [, j [, lax]]])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns the number of UTF-8 characters in string <code>s</code>
that start between positions <code>i</code> and <code>j</code> (both inclusive).
The default for <code>i</code> is 1 and for <code>j</code> is -1.
If it finds any invalid byte sequence,
-returns a false value plus the position of the first invalid byte.
+returns <b>fail</b> plus the position of the first invalid byte.
<p>
<hr><h3><a name="pdf-utf8.offset"><code>utf8.offset (s, n [, i])</code></a></h3>
+
+
+<p>
Returns the position (in bytes) where the encoding of the
<code>n</code>-th character of <code>s</code>
(counting from position <code>i</code>) starts.
@@ -8990,7 +9832,7 @@ so that <code>utf8.offset(s, -n)</code> gets the offset of the
<code>n</code>-th character from the end of the string.
If the specified character is neither in the subject
nor right after its end,
-the function returns <b>nil</b>.
+the function returns <b>fail</b>.
<p>
@@ -9047,7 +9889,7 @@ shifting up the elements
<code>list[pos], list[pos+1], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[#list]</code>.
The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>#list+1</code>,
so that a call <code>table.insert(t,x)</code> inserts <code>x</code> at the end
-of list <code>t</code>.
+of the list <code>t</code>.
@@ -9057,7 +9899,7 @@ of list <code>t</code>.
<p>
-Moves elements from table <code>a1</code> to table <code>a2</code>,
+Moves elements from the table <code>a1</code> to the table <code>a2</code>,
performing the equivalent to the following
multiple assignment:
<code>a2[t],&middot;&middot;&middot; = a1[f],&middot;&middot;&middot;,a1[e]</code>.
@@ -9079,7 +9921,8 @@ Returns the destination table <code>a2</code>.
<p>
Returns a new table with all arguments stored into keys 1, 2, etc.
and with a field "<code>n</code>" with the total number of arguments.
-Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence.
+Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence,
+if some arguments are <b>nil</b>.
@@ -9096,14 +9939,13 @@ it shifts down the elements
<code>list[pos+1], list[pos+2], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[#list]</code>
and erases element <code>list[#list]</code>;
The index <code>pos</code> can also be 0 when <code>#list</code> is 0,
-or <code>#list + 1</code>;
-in those cases, the function erases the element <code>list[pos]</code>.
+or <code>#list + 1</code>.
<p>
The default value for <code>pos</code> is <code>#list</code>,
so that a call <code>table.remove(l)</code> removes the last element
-of list <code>l</code>.
+of the list <code>l</code>.
@@ -9113,7 +9955,7 @@ of list <code>l</code>.
<p>
-Sorts list elements in a given order, <em>in-place</em>,
+Sorts the list elements in a given order, <em>in-place</em>,
from <code>list[1]</code> to <code>list[#list]</code>.
If <code>comp</code> is given,
then it must be a function that receives two list elements
@@ -9166,9 +10008,9 @@ This library provides basic mathematical functions.
It provides all its functions and constants inside the table <a name="pdf-math"><code>math</code></a>.
Functions with the annotation "<code>integer/float</code>" give
integer results for integer arguments
-and float results for float (or mixed) arguments.
-Rounding functions
-(<a href="#pdf-math.ceil"><code>math.ceil</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-math.floor"><code>math.floor</code></a>, and <a href="#pdf-math.modf"><code>math.modf</code></a>)
+and float results for non-integer arguments.
+The rounding functions
+<a href="#pdf-math.ceil"><code>math.ceil</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-math.floor"><code>math.floor</code></a>, and <a href="#pdf-math.modf"><code>math.modf</code></a>
return an integer when the result fits in the range of an integer,
or a float otherwise.
@@ -9178,7 +10020,7 @@ or a float otherwise.
<p>
-Returns the absolute value of <code>x</code>. (integer/float)
+Returns the maximum value between <code>x</code> and <code>-x</code>. (integer/float)
@@ -9212,7 +10054,7 @@ Returns the arc sine of <code>x</code> (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of <code>y/x</code> (in radians),
but uses the signs of both arguments to find the
quadrant of the result.
-(It also handles correctly the case of <code>x</code> being zero.)
+It also handles correctly the case of <code>x</code> being zero.
<p>
@@ -9228,7 +10070,7 @@ returns the arc tangent of <code>y</code>.
<p>
-Returns the smallest integral value larger than or equal to <code>x</code>.
+Returns the smallest integral value greater than or equal to <code>x</code>.
@@ -9269,7 +10111,7 @@ Returns the value <em>e<sup>x</sup></em>
<p>
-Returns the largest integral value smaller than or equal to <code>x</code>.
+Returns the largest integral value less than or equal to <code>x</code>.
@@ -9291,7 +10133,7 @@ that rounds the quotient towards zero. (integer/float)
<p>
The float value <code>HUGE_VAL</code>,
-a value larger than any other numeric value.
+a value greater than any other numeric value.
@@ -9314,7 +10156,7 @@ The default for <code>base</code> is <em>e</em>
<p>
Returns the argument with the maximum value,
-according to the Lua operator <code>&lt;</code>. (integer/float)
+according to the Lua operator <code>&lt;</code>.
@@ -9332,7 +10174,7 @@ An integer with the maximum value for an integer.
<p>
Returns the argument with the minimum value,
-according to the Lua operator <code>&lt;</code>. (integer/float)
+according to the Lua operator <code>&lt;</code>.
@@ -9386,25 +10228,59 @@ in the range <em>[0,1)</em>.
When called with two integers <code>m</code> and <code>n</code>,
<code>math.random</code> returns a pseudo-random integer
with uniform distribution in the range <em>[m, n]</em>.
-(The value <em>n-m</em> cannot be negative and must fit in a Lua integer.)
-The call <code>math.random(n)</code> is equivalent to <code>math.random(1,n)</code>.
+The call <code>math.random(n)</code>, for a positive <code>n</code>,
+is equivalent to <code>math.random(1,n)</code>.
+The call <code>math.random(0)</code> produces an integer with
+all bits (pseudo)random.
+
+
+<p>
+This function uses the <code>xoshiro256**</code> algorithm to produce
+pseudo-random 64-bit integers,
+which are the results of calls with argument&nbsp;0.
+Other results (ranges and floats)
+are unbiased extracted from these integers.
<p>
-This function is an interface to the underling
-pseudo-random generator function provided by C.
+Lua initializes its pseudo-random generator with the equivalent of
+a call to <a href="#pdf-math.randomseed"><code>math.randomseed</code></a> with no arguments,
+so that <code>math.random</code> should generate
+different sequences of results each time the program runs.
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-math.randomseed"><code>math.randomseed (x)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-math.randomseed"><code>math.randomseed ([x [, y]])</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Sets <code>x</code> as the "seed"
-for the pseudo-random generator:
+When called with at least one argument,
+the integer parameters <code>x</code> and <code>y</code> are
+joined into a 128-bit <em>seed</em> that
+is used to reinitialize the pseudo-random generator;
equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers.
+The default for <code>y</code> is zero.
+
+
+<p>
+When called with no arguments,
+Lua generates a seed with
+a weak attempt for randomness.
+
+
+<p>
+This function returns the two seed components
+that were effectively used,
+so that setting them again repeats the sequence.
+
+
+<p>
+To ensure a required level of randomness to the initial state
+(or contrarily, to have a deterministic sequence,
+for instance when debugging a program),
+you should call <a href="#pdf-math.randomseed"><code>math.randomseed</code></a> with explicit arguments.
@@ -9447,7 +10323,7 @@ Returns the tangent of <code>x</code> (assumed to be in radians).
<p>
If the value <code>x</code> is convertible to an integer,
returns that integer.
-Otherwise, returns <b>nil</b>.
+Otherwise, returns <b>fail</b>.
@@ -9459,7 +10335,7 @@ Otherwise, returns <b>nil</b>.
<p>
Returns "<code>integer</code>" if <code>x</code> is an integer,
"<code>float</code>" if it is a float,
-or <b>nil</b> if <code>x</code> is not a number.
+or <b>fail</b> if <code>x</code> is not a number.
@@ -9486,7 +10362,7 @@ The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation.
The first one uses implicit file handles;
that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a
default output file,
-and all input/output operations are over these default files.
+and all input/output operations are done over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file handles.
@@ -9499,6 +10375,12 @@ and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file handle.
<p>
+The metatable for file handles provides metamethods
+for <code>__gc</code> and <code>__close</code> that try
+to close the file when called.
+
+
+<p>
The table <code>io</code> also provides
three predefined file handles with their usual meanings from C:
<a name="pdf-io.stdin"><code>io.stdin</code></a>, <a name="pdf-io.stdout"><code>io.stdout</code></a>, and <a name="pdf-io.stderr"><code>io.stderr</code></a>.
@@ -9507,11 +10389,11 @@ The I/O library never closes these files.
<p>
Unless otherwise stated,
-all I/O functions return <b>nil</b> on failure
-(plus an error message as a second result and
-a system-dependent error code as a third result)
-and some value different from <b>nil</b> on success.
-In non-POSIX systems,
+all I/O functions return <b>fail</b> on failure,
+plus an error message as a second result and
+a system-dependent error code as a third result,
+and some non-false value on success.
+On non-POSIX systems,
the computation of the error message and error code
in case of errors
may be not thread safe,
@@ -9567,19 +10449,27 @@ instead of returning an error code.
Opens the given file name in read mode
and returns an iterator function that
works like <code>file:lines(&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code> over the opened file.
-When the iterator function detects the end of file,
-it returns no values (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file.
+When the iterator function fails to read any value,
+it automatically closes the file.
+Besides the iterator function,
+<code>io.lines</code> returns three other values:
+two <b>nil</b> values as placeholders,
+plus the created file handle.
+Therefore, when used in a generic <b>for</b> loop,
+the file is closed also if the loop is interrupted by an
+error or a <b>break</b>.
<p>
The call <code>io.lines()</code> (with no file name) is equivalent
-to <code>io.input():lines("*l")</code>;
+to <code>io.input():lines("l")</code>;
that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.
In this case, the iterator does not close the file when the loop ends.
<p>
-In case of errors this function raises the error,
+In case of errors opening the file,
+this function raises the error,
instead of returning an error code.
@@ -9634,7 +10524,7 @@ on all platforms.
<p>
-Starts program <code>prog</code> in a separated process and returns
+Starts the program <code>prog</code> in a separated process and returns
a file handle that you can use to read data from this program
(if <code>mode</code> is <code>"r"</code>, the default)
or to write data to this program
@@ -9674,7 +10564,7 @@ and it is automatically removed when the program ends.
Checks whether <code>obj</code> is a valid file handle.
Returns the string <code>"file"</code> if <code>obj</code> is an open file handle,
<code>"closed file"</code> if <code>obj</code> is a closed file handle,
-or <b>nil</b> if <code>obj</code> is not a file handle.
+or <b>fail</b> if <code>obj</code> is not a file handle.
@@ -9739,11 +10629,6 @@ Unlike <a href="#pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines</code></a>, this function does not
when the loop ends.
-<p>
-In case of errors this function raises the error,
-instead of returning an error code.
-
-
<p>
@@ -9755,10 +10640,10 @@ Reads the file <code>file</code>,
according to the given formats, which specify what to read.
For each format,
the function returns a string or a number with the characters read,
-or <b>nil</b> if it cannot read data with the specified format.
+or <b>fail</b> if it cannot read data with the specified format.
(In this latter case,
the function does not read subsequent formats.)
-When called without formats,
+When called without arguments,
it uses a default format that reads the next line
(see below).
@@ -9771,36 +10656,38 @@ The available formats are
<li><b>"<code>n</code>": </b>
reads a numeral and returns it as a float or an integer,
following the lexical conventions of Lua.
-(The numeral may have leading spaces and a sign.)
+(The numeral may have leading whitespaces and a sign.)
This format always reads the longest input sequence that
is a valid prefix for a numeral;
if that prefix does not form a valid numeral
-(e.g., an empty string, "<code>0x</code>", or "<code>3.4e-</code>"),
-it is discarded and the function returns <b>nil</b>.
+(e.g., an empty string, "<code>0x</code>", or "<code>3.4e-</code>")
+or it is too long (more than 200 characters),
+it is discarded and the format returns <b>fail</b>.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>a</code>": </b>
reads the whole file, starting at the current position.
-On end of file, it returns the empty string.
+On end of file, it returns the empty string;
+this format never fails.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>l</code>": </b>
reads the next line skipping the end of line,
-returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
+returning <b>fail</b> on end of file.
This is the default format.
</li>
<li><b>"<code>L</code>": </b>
reads the next line keeping the end-of-line character (if present),
-returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
+returning <b>fail</b> on end of file.
</li>
<li><b><em>number</em>: </b>
reads a string with up to this number of bytes,
-returning <b>nil</b> on end of file.
+returning <b>fail</b> on end of file.
If <code>number</code> is zero,
it reads nothing and returns an empty string,
-or <b>nil</b> on end of file.
+or <b>fail</b> on end of file.
</li>
</ul><p>
@@ -9826,7 +10713,7 @@ specified by the string <code>whence</code>, as follows:
</ul><p>
In case of success, <code>seek</code> returns the final file position,
measured in bytes from the beginning of the file.
-If <code>seek</code> fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
+If <code>seek</code> fails, it returns <b>fail</b>,
plus a string describing the error.
@@ -9848,31 +10735,25 @@ end of the file, and returns its size.
<p>
-Sets the buffering mode for an output file.
+Sets the buffering mode for a file.
There are three available modes:
<ul>
+<li><b>"<code>no</code>": </b> no buffering.</li>
+<li><b>"<code>full</code>": </b> full buffering.</li>
+<li><b>"<code>line</code>": </b> line buffering.</li>
+</ul>
-<li><b>"<code>no</code>": </b>
-no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"<code>full</code>": </b>
-full buffering; output operation is performed only
-when the buffer is full or when
-you explicitly <code>flush</code> the file (see <a href="#pdf-io.flush"><code>io.flush</code></a>).
-</li>
+<p>
+For the last two cases,
+<code>size</code> is a hint for the size of the buffer, in bytes.
+The default is an appropriate size.
-<li><b>"<code>line</code>": </b>
-line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output
-or there is any input from some special files
-(such as a terminal device).
-</li>
-</ul><p>
-For the last two cases, <code>size</code>
-specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes.
-The default is an appropriate size.
+<p>
+The specific behavior of each mode is non portable;
+check the underlying ISO&nbsp;C function <code>setvbuf</code> in your platform for
+more details.
@@ -9888,7 +10769,6 @@ The arguments must be strings or numbers.
<p>
In case of success, this function returns <code>file</code>.
-Otherwise it returns <b>nil</b> plus a string describing the error.
@@ -9908,7 +10788,8 @@ This library is implemented through table <a name="pdf-os"><code>os</code></a>.
<p>
Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time
-used by the program.
+used by the program,
+as returned by the underlying ISO&nbsp;C function <code>clock</code>.
@@ -9936,7 +10817,8 @@ After this optional character,
if <code>format</code> is the string "<code>*t</code>",
then <code>date</code> returns a table with the following fields:
<code>year</code>, <code>month</code> (1&ndash;12), <code>day</code> (1&ndash;31),
-<code>hour</code> (0&ndash;23), <code>min</code> (0&ndash;59), <code>sec</code> (0&ndash;61),
+<code>hour</code> (0&ndash;23), <code>min</code> (0&ndash;59),
+<code>sec</code> (0&ndash;61, due to leap seconds),
<code>wday</code> (weekday, 1&ndash;7, Sunday is&nbsp;1),
<code>yday</code> (day of the year, 1&ndash;366),
and <code>isdst</code> (daylight saving flag, a boolean).
@@ -9951,14 +10833,13 @@ formatted according to the same rules as the ISO&nbsp;C function <code>strftime<
<p>
-When called without arguments,
-<code>date</code> returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on
-the host system and on the current locale.
-(More specifically, <code>os.date()</code> is equivalent to <code>os.date("%c")</code>.)
+If <code>format</code> is absent, it defaults to "<code>%c</code>",
+which gives a human-readable date and time representation
+using the current locale.
<p>
-In non-POSIX systems,
+On non-POSIX systems,
this function may be not thread safe
because of its reliance on C&nbsp;function <code>gmtime</code> and C&nbsp;function <code>localtime</code>.
@@ -9988,7 +10869,7 @@ This function is equivalent to the ISO&nbsp;C function <code>system</code>.
It passes <code>command</code> to be executed by an operating system shell.
Its first result is <b>true</b>
if the command terminated successfully,
-or <b>nil</b> otherwise.
+or <b>fail</b> otherwise.
After this first result
the function returns a string plus a number,
as follows:
@@ -10041,8 +10922,8 @@ closes the Lua state before exiting.
<p>
-Returns the value of the process environment variable <code>varname</code>,
-or <b>nil</b> if the variable is not defined.
+Returns the value of the process environment variable <code>varname</code>
+or <b>fail</b> if the variable is not defined.
@@ -10054,7 +10935,7 @@ or <b>nil</b> if the variable is not defined.
<p>
Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems)
with the given name.
-If this function fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
+If this function fails, it returns <b>fail</b>
plus a string describing the error and the error code.
Otherwise, it returns true.
@@ -10067,7 +10948,7 @@ Otherwise, it returns true.
<p>
Renames the file or directory named <code>oldname</code> to <code>newname</code>.
-If this function fails, it returns <b>nil</b>,
+If this function fails, it returns <b>fail</b>,
plus a string describing the error and the error code.
Otherwise, it returns true.
@@ -10086,7 +10967,7 @@ Sets the current locale of the program.
<code>"monetary"</code>, <code>"numeric"</code>, or <code>"time"</code>;
the default category is <code>"all"</code>.
The function returns the name of the new locale,
-or <b>nil</b> if the request cannot be honored.
+or <b>fail</b> if the request cannot be honored.
<p>
@@ -10127,11 +11008,12 @@ For a description of these fields, see the <a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date<
<p>
-The values in these fields do not need to be inside their valid ranges.
+When the function is called,
+the values in these fields do not need to be inside their valid ranges.
For instance, if <code>sec</code> is -10,
-it means -10 seconds from the time specified by the other fields;
+it means 10 seconds before the time specified by the other fields;
if <code>hour</code> is 1000,
-it means +1000 hours from the time specified by the other fields.
+it means 1000 hours after the time specified by the other fields.
<p>
@@ -10144,6 +11026,14 @@ and the number returned by <code>time</code> can be used only as an argument to
<a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-os.difftime"><code>os.difftime</code></a>.
+<p>
+When called with a table,
+<code>os.time</code> also normalizes all the fields
+documented in the <a href="#pdf-os.date"><code>os.date</code></a> function,
+so that they represent the same time as before the call
+but with values inside their valid ranges.
+
+
<p>
@@ -10182,7 +11072,7 @@ which automatically removes the file when the program ends.
<p>
This library provides
-the functionality of the debug interface (<a href="#4.9">&sect;4.9</a>) to Lua programs.
+the functionality of the debug interface (<a href="#4.7">&sect;4.7</a>) to Lua programs.
You should exert care when using this library.
Several of its functions
violate basic assumptions about Lua code
@@ -10231,8 +11121,12 @@ within any function and so have no direct access to local variables.
<p>
Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values:
the current hook function, the current hook mask,
-and the current hook count
-(as set by the <a href="#pdf-debug.sethook"><code>debug.sethook</code></a> function).
+and the current hook count,
+as set by the <a href="#pdf-debug.sethook"><code>debug.sethook</code></a> function.
+
+
+<p>
+Returns <b>fail</b> if there is no active hook.
@@ -10249,10 +11143,10 @@ which means the function running at level <code>f</code> of the call stack
of the given thread:
level&nbsp;0 is the current function (<code>getinfo</code> itself);
level&nbsp;1 is the function that called <code>getinfo</code>
-(except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack);
+(except for tail calls, which do not count in the stack);
and so on.
-If <code>f</code> is a number larger than the number of active functions,
-then <code>getinfo</code> returns <b>nil</b>.
+If <code>f</code> is a number greater than the number of active functions,
+then <code>getinfo</code> returns <b>fail</b>.
<p>
@@ -10288,7 +11182,7 @@ about the <a href="#pdf-print"><code>print</code></a> function.
This function returns the name and the value of the local variable
with index <code>local</code> of the function at level <code>f</code> of the stack.
This function accesses not only explicit local variables,
-but also parameters, temporaries, etc.
+but also parameters and temporary values.
<p>
@@ -10296,9 +11190,12 @@ The first parameter or local variable has index&nbsp;1, and so on,
following the order that they are declared in the code,
counting only the variables that are active
in the current scope of the function.
+Compile-time constants may not appear in this listing,
+if they were optimized away by the compiler.
Negative indices refer to vararg arguments;
-1 is the first vararg argument.
-The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no variable with the given index,
+The function returns <b>fail</b>
+if there is no variable with the given index,
and raises an error when called with a level out of range.
(You can call <a href="#pdf-debug.getinfo"><code>debug.getinfo</code></a> to check whether the level is valid.)
@@ -10333,7 +11230,7 @@ or <b>nil</b> if it does not have a metatable.
<p>
-Returns the registry table (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
+Returns the registry table (see <a href="#4.3">&sect;4.3</a>).
@@ -10345,25 +11242,37 @@ Returns the registry table (see <a href="#4.5">&sect;4.5</a>).
<p>
This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue
with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>f</code>.
-The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no upvalue with the given index.
+The function returns <b>fail</b>
+if there is no upvalue with the given index.
<p>
-Variable names starting with '<code>(</code>' (open parenthesis)
-represent variables with no known names
+(For Lua functions,
+upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses,
+and that are consequently included in its closure.)
+
+
+<p>
+For C&nbsp;functions, this function uses the empty string <code>""</code>
+as a name for all upvalues.
+
+
+<p>
+Variable name '<code>?</code>' (interrogation mark)
+represents variables with no known names
(variables from chunks saved without debug information).
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getuservalue"><code>debug.getuservalue (u)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.getuservalue"><code>debug.getuservalue (u, n)</code></a></h3>
<p>
-Returns the Lua value associated to <code>u</code>.
-If <code>u</code> is not a full userdata,
-returns <b>nil</b>.
+Returns the <code>n</code>-th user value associated
+to the userdata <code>u</code> plus a boolean,
+<b>false</b> if the userdata does not have that value.
@@ -10373,7 +11282,7 @@ returns <b>nil</b>.
<p>
-Sets the given function as a hook.
+Sets the given function as the debug hook.
The string <code>mask</code> and the number <code>count</code> describe
when the hook will be called.
The string mask may have any combination of the following characters,
@@ -10395,18 +11304,17 @@ When called without arguments,
<p>
-When the hook is called, its first argument is a string
+When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string
describing the event that has triggered its call:
-<code>"call"</code> (or <code>"tail call"</code>),
-<code>"return"</code>,
+<code>"call"</code>, <code>"tail call"</code>, <code>"return"</code>,
<code>"line"</code>, and <code>"count"</code>.
For line events,
the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter.
Inside a hook,
you can call <code>getinfo</code> with level&nbsp;2 to get more information about
-the running function
-(level&nbsp;0 is the <code>getinfo</code> function,
-and level&nbsp;1 is the hook function).
+the running function.
+(Level&nbsp;0 is the <code>getinfo</code> function,
+and level&nbsp;1 is the hook function.)
@@ -10418,7 +11326,7 @@ and level&nbsp;1 is the hook function).
<p>
This function assigns the value <code>value</code> to the local variable
with index <code>local</code> of the function at level <code>level</code> of the stack.
-The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no local
+The function returns <b>fail</b> if there is no local
variable with the given index,
and raises an error when called with a <code>level</code> out of range.
(You can call <code>getinfo</code> to check whether the level is valid.)
@@ -10451,25 +11359,30 @@ Returns <code>value</code>.
<p>
This function assigns the value <code>value</code> to the upvalue
with index <code>up</code> of the function <code>f</code>.
-The function returns <b>nil</b> if there is no upvalue
+The function returns <b>fail</b> if there is no upvalue
with the given index.
Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue.
+<p>
+See <a href="#pdf-debug.getupvalue"><code>debug.getupvalue</code></a> for more information about upvalues.
+
+
<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setuservalue"><code>debug.setuservalue (udata, value)</code></a></h3>
+<hr><h3><a name="pdf-debug.setuservalue"><code>debug.setuservalue (udata, value, n)</code></a></h3>
<p>
Sets the given <code>value</code> as
-the Lua value associated to the given <code>udata</code>.
+the <code>n</code>-th user value associated to the given <code>udata</code>.
<code>udata</code> must be a full userdata.
<p>
-Returns <code>udata</code>.
+Returns <code>udata</code>,
+or <b>fail</b> if the userdata does not have that value.
@@ -10536,7 +11449,7 @@ An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language,
called simply <code>lua</code>,
is provided with the standard distribution.
The standalone interpreter includes
-all standard libraries, including the debug library.
+all standard libraries.
Its usage is:
<pre>
@@ -10545,14 +11458,15 @@ Its usage is:
The options are:
<ul>
-<li><b><code>-e <em>stat</em></code>: </b> executes string <em>stat</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-l <em>mod</em></code>: </b> "requires" <em>mod</em> and assigns the
- result to global @<em>mod</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-i</code>: </b> enters interactive mode after running <em>script</em>;</li>
-<li><b><code>-v</code>: </b> prints version information;</li>
-<li><b><code>-E</code>: </b> ignores environment variables;</li>
-<li><b><code>--</code>: </b> stops handling options;</li>
-<li><b><code>-</code>: </b> executes <code>stdin</code> as a file and stops handling options.</li>
+<li><b><code>-e <em>stat</em></code>: </b> execute string <em>stat</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-i</code>: </b> enter interactive mode after running <em>script</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-l <em>mod</em></code>: </b> "require" <em>mod</em> and assign the
+ result to global <em>mod</em>;</li>
+<li><b><code>-v</code>: </b> print version information;</li>
+<li><b><code>-E</code>: </b> ignore environment variables;</li>
+<li><b><code>-W</code>: </b> turn warnings on;</li>
+<li><b><code>--</code>: </b> stop handling options;</li>
+<li><b><code>-</code>: </b> execute <code>stdin</code> as a file and stop handling options.</li>
</ul><p>
After handling its options, <code>lua</code> runs the given <em>script</em>.
When called without arguments,
@@ -10562,8 +11476,8 @@ and as <code>lua -</code> otherwise.
<p>
-When called without option <code>-E</code>,
-the interpreter checks for an environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT_5_3"><code>LUA_INIT_5_3</code></a>
+When called without the option <code>-E</code>,
+the interpreter checks for an environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT_5_4"><code>LUA_INIT_5_4</code></a>
(or <a name="pdf-LUA_INIT"><code>LUA_INIT</code></a> if the versioned name is not defined)
before running any argument.
If the variable content has the format <code>@<em>filename</em></code>,
@@ -10572,23 +11486,22 @@ Otherwise, <code>lua</code> executes the string itself.
<p>
-When called with option <code>-E</code>,
-besides ignoring <code>LUA_INIT</code>,
-Lua also ignores
-the values of <code>LUA_PATH</code> and <code>LUA_CPATH</code>,
-setting the values of
-<a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>
-with the default paths defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
+When called with the option <code>-E</code>,
+Lua does not consult any environment variables.
+In particular,
+the values of <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>
+are set with the default paths defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
<p>
-All options are handled in order, except <code>-i</code> and <code>-E</code>.
+The options <code>-e</code>, <code>-l</code>, and <code>-W</code> are handled in
+the order they appear.
For instance, an invocation like
<pre>
- $ lua -e'a=1' -e 'print(a)' script.lua
+ $ lua -e 'a=1' -llib1 script.lua
</pre><p>
-will first set <code>a</code> to 1, then print the value of <code>a</code>,
+will first set <code>a</code> to 1, then require the library <code>lib1</code>,
and finally run the file <code>script.lua</code> with no arguments.
(Here <code>$</code> is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
@@ -10627,8 +11540,8 @@ will print "<code>-e</code>".
If there is a script,
the script is called with arguments
<code>arg[1]</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <code>arg[#arg]</code>.
-(Like all chunks in Lua,
-the script is compiled as a vararg function.)
+Like all chunks in Lua,
+the script is compiled as a vararg function.
<p>
@@ -10659,6 +11572,8 @@ has a metamethod <code>__tostring</code>,
the interpreter calls this metamethod to produce the final message.
Otherwise, the interpreter converts the error object to a string
and adds a stack traceback to it.
+When warnings are on,
+they are simply printed in the standard error output.
<p>
@@ -10672,8 +11587,7 @@ calling <a href="#pdf-os.exit"><code>os.exit</code></a> to terminate.
<p>
To allow the use of Lua as a
script interpreter in Unix systems,
-the standalone interpreter skips
-the first line of a chunk if it starts with <code>#</code>.
+Lua skips the first line of a file chunk if it starts with <code>#</code>.
Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs
by using <code>chmod +x</code> and the&nbsp;<code>#!</code> form,
as in
@@ -10681,7 +11595,7 @@ as in
<pre>
#!/usr/local/bin/lua
</pre><p>
-(Of course,
+Of course,
the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If <code>lua</code> is in your <code>PATH</code>,
then
@@ -10689,19 +11603,31 @@ then
<pre>
#!/usr/bin/env lua
</pre><p>
-is a more portable solution.)
+is a more portable solution.
<h1>8 &ndash; <a name="8">Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</a></h1>
+
+
<p>
Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program
-from Lua&nbsp;5.2 to Lua&nbsp;5.3.
+from Lua&nbsp;5.3 to Lua&nbsp;5.4.
+
+
+<p>
You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with
appropriate options (see file <code>luaconf.h</code>).
However,
all these compatibility options will be removed in the future.
+More often than not,
+compatibility issues arise when these compatibility options
+are removed.
+So, whenever you have the chance,
+you should try to test your code with a version of Lua compiled
+with all compatibility options turned off.
+That will ease transitions to newer versions of Lua.
<p>
@@ -10710,7 +11636,7 @@ do not imply source-code changes in a program,
such as the numeric values for constants
or the implementation of functions as macros.
Therefore,
-you should not assume that binaries are compatible between
+you should never assume that binaries are compatible between
different Lua versions.
Always recompile clients of the Lua API when
using a new version.
@@ -10728,49 +11654,57 @@ change between versions.
-<h2>8.1 &ndash; <a name="8.1">Changes in the Language</a></h2>
+
+
+<h2>8.1 &ndash; <a name="8.1">Incompatibilities in the Language</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-The main difference between Lua&nbsp;5.2 and Lua&nbsp;5.3 is the
-introduction of an integer subtype for numbers.
-Although this change should not affect "normal" computations,
-some computations
-(mainly those that involve some kind of overflow)
-can give different results.
-
-
-<p>
-You can fix these differences by forcing a number to be a float
-(in Lua&nbsp;5.2 all numbers were float),
-in particular writing constants with an ending <code>.0</code>
-or using <code>x = x + 0.0</code> to convert a variable.
-(This recommendation is only for a quick fix
-for an occasional incompatibility;
-it is not a general guideline for good programming.
-For good programming,
-use floats where you need floats
-and integers where you need integers.)
+The coercion of strings to numbers in
+arithmetic and bitwise operations
+has been removed from the core language.
+The string library does a similar job
+for arithmetic (but not for bitwise) operations
+using the string metamethods.
+However, unlike in previous versions,
+the new implementation preserves the implicit type of the numeral
+in the string.
+For instance, the result of <code>"1" + "2"</code> now is an integer,
+not a float.
</li>
<li>
-The conversion of a float to a string now adds a <code>.0</code> suffix
-to the result if it looks like an integer.
-(For instance, the float 2.0 will be printed as <code>2.0</code>,
-not as <code>2</code>.)
-You should always use an explicit format
-when you need a specific format for numbers.
+Literal decimal integer constants that overflow are read as floats,
+instead of wrapping around.
+You can use hexadecimal notation for such constants if you
+want the old behavior
+(reading them as integers with wrap around).
+</li>
+<li>
+The use of the <code>__lt</code> metamethod to emulate <code>__le</code>
+has been removed.
+When needed, this metamethod must be explicitly defined.
+</li>
-<p>
-(Formally this is not an incompatibility,
-because Lua does not specify how numbers are formatted as strings,
-but some programs assumed a specific format.)
+<li>
+The semantics of the numerical <b>for</b> loop
+over integers changed in some details.
+In particular, the control variable never wraps around.
</li>
<li>
-The generational mode for the garbage collector was removed.
-(It was an experimental feature in Lua&nbsp;5.2.)
+A label for a <b>goto</b> cannot be declared where a label with the same
+name is visible, even if this other label is declared in an enclosing
+block.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+When finalizing an object,
+Lua does not ignore <code>__gc</code> metamethods that are not functions.
+Any value will be called, if present.
+(Non-callable values will generate a warning,
+like any other error when calling a finalizer.)
</li>
</ul>
@@ -10778,61 +11712,43 @@ The generational mode for the garbage collector was removed.
-<h2>8.2 &ndash; <a name="8.2">Changes in the Libraries</a></h2>
+<h2>8.2 &ndash; <a name="8.2">Incompatibilities in the Libraries</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-The <code>bit32</code> library has been deprecated.
-It is easy to require a compatible external library or,
-better yet, to replace its functions with appropriate bitwise operations.
-(Keep in mind that <code>bit32</code> operates on 32-bit integers,
-while the bitwise operators in Lua&nbsp;5.3 operate on Lua integers,
-which by default have 64&nbsp;bits.)
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The Table library now respects metamethods
-for setting and getting elements.
+The function <a href="#pdf-print"><code>print</code></a> does not call <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a>
+to format its arguments;
+instead, it has this functionality hardwired.
+You should use <code>__tostring</code> to modify how values are printed.
</li>
<li>
-The <a href="#pdf-ipairs"><code>ipairs</code></a> iterator now respects metamethods and
-its <code>__ipairs</code> metamethod has been deprecated.
+The pseudo-random number generator used by the function <a href="#pdf-math.random"><code>math.random</code></a>
+now starts with a somewhat random seed.
+Moreover, it uses a different algorithm.
</li>
<li>
-Option names in <a href="#pdf-io.read"><code>io.read</code></a> do not have a starting '<code>*</code>' anymore.
-For compatibility, Lua will continue to accept (and ignore) this character.
+By default, the decoding functions in the <a href="#pdf-utf8"><code>utf8</code></a> library
+do not accept surrogates as valid code points.
+An extra parameter in these functions makes them more permissive.
</li>
<li>
-The following functions were deprecated in the mathematical library:
-<code>atan2</code>, <code>cosh</code>, <code>sinh</code>, <code>tanh</code>, <code>pow</code>,
-<code>frexp</code>, and <code>ldexp</code>.
-You can replace <code>math.pow(x,y)</code> with <code>x^y</code>;
-you can replace <code>math.atan2</code> with <code>math.atan</code>,
-which now accepts one or two arguments;
-you can replace <code>math.ldexp(x,exp)</code> with <code>x * 2.0^exp</code>.
-For the other operations,
-you can either use an external library or
-implement them in Lua.
+The options "<code>setpause</code>" and "<code>setstepmul</code>"
+of the function <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> are deprecated.
+You should use the new option "<code>incremental</code>" to set them.
</li>
<li>
-The searcher for C loaders used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>
-changed the way it handles versioned names.
-Now, the version should come after the module name
-(as is usual in most other tools).
-For compatibility, that searcher still tries the old format
-if it cannot find an open function according to the new style.
-(Lua&nbsp;5.2 already worked that way,
-but it did not document the change.)
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The call <code>collectgarbage("count")</code> now returns only one result.
-(You can compute that second result from the fractional part
-of the first result.)
+The function <a href="#pdf-io.lines"><code>io.lines</code></a> now returns four values,
+instead of just one.
+That can be a problem when it is used as the sole
+argument to another function that has optional parameters,
+such as in <code>load(io.lines(filename, "L"))</code>.
+To fix that issue,
+you can wrap the call into parentheses,
+to adjust its number of results to one.
</li>
</ul>
@@ -10840,37 +11756,54 @@ of the first result.)
-<h2>8.3 &ndash; <a name="8.3">Changes in the API</a></h2>
+<h2>8.3 &ndash; <a name="8.3">Incompatibilities in the API</a></h2>
<ul>
<li>
-Continuation functions now receive as arguments what they needed
-to get through <code>lua_getctx</code>,
-so <code>lua_getctx</code> has been removed.
-Adapt your code accordingly.
+Full userdata now has an arbitrary number of associated user values.
+Therefore, the functions <code>lua_newuserdata</code>,
+<code>lua_setuservalue</code>, and <code>lua_getuservalue</code> were
+replaced by <a href="#lua_newuserdatauv"><code>lua_newuserdatauv</code></a>,
+<a href="#lua_setiuservalue"><code>lua_setiuservalue</code></a>, and <a href="#lua_getiuservalue"><code>lua_getiuservalue</code></a>,
+which have an extra argument.
+
+
+<p>
+For compatibility, the old names still work as macros assuming
+one single user value.
+Note, however, that userdata with zero user values
+are more efficient memory-wise.
+</li>
+
+<li>
+The function <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> has an extra parameter.
+This out parameter returns the number of values on
+the top of the stack that were yielded or returned by the coroutine.
+(In previous versions,
+those values were the entire stack.)
</li>
<li>
-Function <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> has an extra parameter, <code>strip</code>.
-Use 0 as the value of this parameter to get the old behavior.
+The function <a href="#lua_version"><code>lua_version</code></a> returns the version number,
+instead of an address of the version number.
+The Lua core should work correctly with libraries using their
+own static copies of the same core,
+so there is no need to check whether they are using the same
+address space.
</li>
<li>
-Functions to inject/project unsigned integers
-(<code>lua_pushunsigned</code>, <code>lua_tounsigned</code>, <code>lua_tounsignedx</code>,
-<code>luaL_checkunsigned</code>, <code>luaL_optunsigned</code>)
-were deprecated.
-Use their signed equivalents with a type cast.
+The constant <code>LUA_ERRGCMM</code> was removed.
+Errors in finalizers are never propagated;
+instead, they generate a warning.
</li>
<li>
-Macros to project non-default integer types
-(<code>luaL_checkint</code>, <code>luaL_optint</code>, <code>luaL_checklong</code>, <code>luaL_optlong</code>)
-were deprecated.
-Use their equivalent over <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a> with a type cast
-(or, when possible, use <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a> in your code).
+The options <code>LUA_GCSETPAUSE</code> and <code>LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL</code>
+of the function <a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> are deprecated.
+You should use the new option <code>LUA_GCINC</code> to set them.
</li>
</ul>
@@ -10913,7 +11846,11 @@ and LiteralString, see <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>.)
<b>for</b> namelist <b>in</b> explist <b>do</b> block <b>end</b> |
<b>function</b> funcname funcbody |
<b>local</b> <b>function</b> Name funcbody |
- <b>local</b> namelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
+ <b>local</b> attnamelist [&lsquo;<b>=</b>&rsquo; explist]
+
+ attnamelist ::= Name attrib {&lsquo;<b>,</b>&rsquo; Name attrib}
+
+ attrib ::= [&lsquo;<b>&lt;</b>&rsquo; Name &lsquo;<b>&gt;</b>&rsquo;]
retstat ::= <b>return</b> [explist] [&lsquo;<b>;</b>&rsquo;]
@@ -10969,13 +11906,12 @@ and LiteralString, see <a href="#3.1">&sect;3.1</a>.)
-
<P CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Tue Jul 14 10:32:39 UTC 2020
+Fri Nov 13 15:35:22 UTC 2020
</P>
<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.3.6
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.4.2
-->
</body></html>
diff --git a/contrib/lua/doc/readme.html b/contrib/lua/doc/readme.html
index 50716f42d0cf..e20a9bda138a 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/doc/readme.html
+++ b/contrib/lua/doc/readme.html
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua 5.3 readme</TITLE>
+<TITLE>Lua 5.4 readme</TITLE>
<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
<STYLE TYPE="text/css">
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ tt, kbd, code {
<H1>
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="Lua"></A>
-Welcome to Lua 5.3
+Welcome to Lua 5.4
</H1>
<DIV CLASS="menubar">
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ Welcome to Lua 5.3
<H2><A NAME="about">About Lua</A></H2>
<P>
-Lua is a powerful, fast, lightweight, embeddable scripting language
+Lua is a powerful, efficient, lightweight, embeddable scripting language
developed by a
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/authors.html">team</A>
at
@@ -55,7 +55,9 @@ at
the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.
Lua is
<A HREF="#license">free software</A>
-used in many products and projects around the world.
+used in
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/uses.html">many products and projects</A>
+around the world.
<P>
Lua's
@@ -69,7 +71,7 @@ and
updated
<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/docs.html">documentation</A>,
especially the
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.3/">reference manual</A>,
+<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.4/">reference manual</A>,
which may differ slightly from the
<A HREF="contents.html">local copy</A>
distributed in this package.
@@ -85,7 +87,8 @@ because
Lua is implemented in pure ANSI C and compiles unmodified in all known
platforms that have an ANSI C compiler.
Lua also compiles unmodified as C++.
-The instructions given below for building Lua are for Unix-like platforms.
+The instructions given below for building Lua are for Unix-like platforms,
+such as Linux and Mac OS X.
See also
<A HREF="#other">instructions for other systems</A>
and
@@ -101,21 +104,24 @@ a multi-platform distribution of Lua that includes batteries.
<H3>Building Lua</H3>
<P>
-In most Unix-like platforms, simply do "<KBD>make</KBD>" with a suitable target.
+In most common Unix-like platforms, simply do "<KBD>make</KBD>".
Here are the details.
<OL>
<LI>
Open a terminal window and move to
-the top-level directory, which is named <TT>lua-5.3.6</TT>.
+the top-level directory, which is named <TT>lua-5.4.2</TT>.
The <TT>Makefile</TT> there controls both the build process and the installation process.
<P>
<LI>
- Do "<KBD>make</KBD>" and see if your platform is listed.
+ Do "<KBD>make</KBD>". The <TT>Makefile</TT> will guess your platform and build Lua for it.
+<P>
+<LI>
+ If the guess failed, do "<KBD>make help</KBD>" and see if your platform is listed.
The platforms currently supported are:
<P>
<P CLASS="display">
- aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
+ guess aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux linux-readline macosx mingw posix solaris
</P>
<P>
If your platform is listed, just do "<KBD>make xxx</KBD>", where xxx
@@ -136,25 +142,27 @@ and liblua.a (the library).
after building Lua. This will run the interpreter and print its version.
</OL>
<P>
-If you're running Linux and get compilation errors,
+If you're running Linux, try "<KBD>make linux-readline</KBD>" to build the interactive Lua interpreter with handy line-editing and history capabilities.
+If you get compilation errors,
make sure you have installed the <TT>readline</TT> development package
(which is probably named <TT>libreadline-dev</TT> or <TT>readline-devel</TT>).
If you get link errors after that,
-then try "<KBD>make linux MYLIBS=-ltermcap</KBD>".
+then try "<KBD>make linux-readline MYLIBS=-ltermcap</KBD>".
<H3>Installing Lua</H3>
<P>
Once you have built Lua, you may want to install it in an official
place in your system. In this case, do "<KBD>make install</KBD>". The official
place and the way to install files are defined in the <TT>Makefile</TT>. You'll
- probably need the right permissions to install files.
+ probably need the right permissions to install files, and so may need to do "<KBD>sudo make install</KBD>".
<P>
- To build and install Lua in one step, do "<KBD>make xxx install</KBD>",
+ To build and install Lua in one step, do "<KBD>make all install</KBD>",
+ or "<KBD>make xxx install</KBD>",
where xxx is your platform name.
<P>
- To install Lua locally, do "<KBD>make local</KBD>".
+ To install Lua locally after building it, do "<KBD>make local</KBD>".
This will create a directory <TT>install</TT> with subdirectories
<TT>bin</TT>, <TT>include</TT>, <TT>lib</TT>, <TT>man</TT>, <TT>share</TT>,
and install Lua as listed below.
@@ -223,11 +231,8 @@ then try "<KBD>make linux MYLIBS=-ltermcap</KBD>".
<DT>
library:
<DD>
-lapi.c lcode.c lctype.c ldebug.c ldo.c ldump.c lfunc.c lgc.c llex.c
-lmem.c lobject.c lopcodes.c lparser.c lstate.c lstring.c ltable.c
-ltm.c lundump.c lvm.c lzio.c
-lauxlib.c lbaselib.c lbitlib.c lcorolib.c ldblib.c liolib.c
-lmathlib.c loslib.c lstrlib.c ltablib.c lutf8lib.c loadlib.c linit.c
+lapi.c lcode.c lctype.c ldebug.c ldo.c ldump.c lfunc.c lgc.c llex.c lmem.c lobject.c lopcodes.c lparser.c lstate.c lstring.c ltable.c ltm.c lundump.c lvm.c lzio.c
+lauxlib.c lbaselib.c lcorolib.c ldblib.c liolib.c lmathlib.c loadlib.c loslib.c lstrlib.c ltablib.c lutf8lib.c linit.c
<DT>
interpreter:
<DD>
@@ -239,9 +244,9 @@ compiler:
</DL>
<P>
- To use Lua as a library in your own programs you'll need to know how to
+ To use Lua as a library in your own programs, you'll need to know how to
create and use libraries with your compiler. Moreover, to dynamically load
- C libraries for Lua you'll need to know how to create dynamic libraries
+ C libraries for Lua, you'll need to know how to create dynamic libraries
and you'll need to make sure that the Lua API functions are accessible to
those dynamic libraries &mdash; but <EM>don't</EM> link the Lua library
into each dynamic library. For Unix, we recommend that the Lua library
@@ -254,9 +259,9 @@ compiler:
As mentioned above, you may edit <TT>src/luaconf.h</TT> to customize
some features before building Lua.
-<H2><A NAME="changes">Changes since Lua 5.2</A></H2>
+<H2><A NAME="changes">Changes since Lua 5.3</A></H2>
<P>
-Here are the main changes introduced in Lua 5.3.
+Here are the main changes introduced in Lua 5.4.
The
<A HREF="contents.html">reference manual</A>
lists the
@@ -264,50 +269,20 @@ lists the
<H3>Main changes</H3>
<UL>
-<LI> integers (64-bit by default)
-<LI> official support for 32-bit numbers
-<LI> bitwise operators
-<LI> basic utf-8 support
-<LI> functions for packing and unpacking values
-
-</UL>
-
-Here are the other changes introduced in Lua 5.3:
-<H3>Language</H3>
-<UL>
-<LI> userdata can have any Lua value as uservalue
-<LI> floor division
-<LI> more flexible rules for some metamethods
-</UL>
-
-<H3>Libraries</H3>
-<UL>
-<LI> <CODE>ipairs</CODE> and the table library respect metamethods
-<LI> strip option in <CODE>string.dump</CODE>
-<LI> table library respects metamethods
-<LI> new function <CODE>table.move</CODE>
-<LI> new function <CODE>string.pack</CODE>
-<LI> new function <CODE>string.unpack</CODE>
-<LI> new function <CODE>string.packsize</CODE>
-</UL>
-
-<H3>C API</H3>
-<UL>
-<LI> simpler API for continuation functions in C
-<LI> <CODE>lua_gettable</CODE> and similar functions return type of resulted value
-<LI> strip option in <CODE>lua_dump</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_geti</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_seti</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_isyieldable</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_numbertointeger</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_rotate</CODE>
-<LI> new function: <CODE>lua_stringtonumber</CODE>
-</UL>
-
-<H3>Lua standalone interpreter</H3>
-<UL>
-<LI> can be used as calculator; no need to prefix with '='
-<LI> <CODE>arg</CODE> table available to all code
+<LI> new generational mode for garbage collection
+<LI> to-be-closed variables
+<LI> const variables
+<LI> userdata can have multiple user values
+<LI> new implementation for math.random
+<LI> warning system
+<LI> debug information about function arguments and returns
+<LI> new semantics for the integer 'for' loop
+<LI> optional 'init' argument to 'string.gmatch'
+<LI> new functions 'lua_resetthread' and 'coroutine.close'
+<LI> string-to-number coercions moved to the string library
+<LI> allocation function allowed to fail when shrinking a memory block
+<LI> new format '%p' in 'string.format'
+<LI> utf8 library accepts codepoints up to 2^31
</UL>
<H2><A NAME="license">License</A></H2>
@@ -355,10 +330,10 @@ THE SOFTWARE.
<P CLASS="footer">
Last update:
-Tue Jul 14 10:33:01 UTC 2020
+Tue Nov 10 20:55:28 UTC 2020
</P>
<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.3.6
+Last change: revised for Lua 5.4.2
-->
</BODY>
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/Makefile b/contrib/lua/src/Makefile
index a13afb996273..a99735a44145 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/Makefile
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/Makefile
@@ -4,16 +4,17 @@
# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
-PLAT= none
+PLAT= guess
CC= gcc -std=gnu99
-CFLAGS= -O2 -Wall -Wextra -DLUA_COMPAT_5_2 $(SYSCFLAGS) $(MYCFLAGS)
+CFLAGS= -O2 -Wall -Wextra -DLUA_COMPAT_5_3 $(SYSCFLAGS) $(MYCFLAGS)
LDFLAGS= $(SYSLDFLAGS) $(MYLDFLAGS)
LIBS= -lm $(SYSLIBS) $(MYLIBS)
AR= ar rcu
RANLIB= ranlib
RM= rm -f
+UNAME= uname
SYSCFLAGS=
SYSLDFLAGS=
@@ -24,16 +25,16 @@ MYLDFLAGS=
MYLIBS=
MYOBJS=
+# Special flags for compiler modules; -Os reduces code size.
+CMCFLAGS=
+
# == END OF USER SETTINGS -- NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =======
-PLATS= aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
+PLATS= guess aix bsd c89 freebsd generic linux linux-readline macosx mingw posix solaris
LUA_A= liblua.a
-CORE_O= lapi.o lcode.o lctype.o ldebug.o ldo.o ldump.o lfunc.o lgc.o llex.o \
- lmem.o lobject.o lopcodes.o lparser.o lstate.o lstring.o ltable.o \
- ltm.o lundump.o lvm.o lzio.o
-LIB_O= lauxlib.o lbaselib.o lbitlib.o lcorolib.o ldblib.o liolib.o \
- lmathlib.o loslib.o lstrlib.o ltablib.o lutf8lib.o loadlib.o linit.o
+CORE_O= lapi.o lcode.o lctype.o ldebug.o ldo.o ldump.o lfunc.o lgc.o llex.o lmem.o lobject.o lopcodes.o lparser.o lstate.o lstring.o ltable.o ltm.o lundump.o lvm.o lzio.o
+LIB_O= lauxlib.o lbaselib.o lcorolib.o ldblib.o liolib.o lmathlib.o loadlib.o loslib.o lstrlib.o ltablib.o lutf8lib.o linit.o
BASE_O= $(CORE_O) $(LIB_O) $(MYOBJS)
LUA_T= lua
@@ -65,6 +66,9 @@ $(LUA_T): $(LUA_O) $(LUA_A)
$(LUAC_T): $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A)
$(CC) -o $@ $(LDFLAGS) $(LUAC_O) $(LUA_A) $(LIBS)
+test:
+ ./lua -v
+
clean:
$(RM) $(ALL_T) $(ALL_O)
@@ -80,15 +84,21 @@ echo:
@echo "AR= $(AR)"
@echo "RANLIB= $(RANLIB)"
@echo "RM= $(RM)"
+ @echo "UNAME= $(UNAME)"
-# Convenience targets for popular platforms
+# Convenience targets for popular platforms.
ALL= all
-none:
- @echo "Please do 'make PLATFORM' where PLATFORM is one of these:"
+help:
+ @echo "Do 'make PLATFORM' where PLATFORM is one of these:"
@echo " $(PLATS)"
+ @echo "See doc/readme.html for complete instructions."
+
+guess:
+ @echo Guessing `$(UNAME)`
+ @$(MAKE) `$(UNAME)`
-aix:
+AIX aix:
$(MAKE) $(ALL) CC="xlc" CFLAGS="-O2 -DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN" SYSLIBS="-ldl" SYSLDFLAGS="-brtl -bexpall"
bsd:
@@ -100,20 +110,24 @@ c89:
@echo '*** C89 does not guarantee 64-bit integers for Lua.'
@echo ''
-
-freebsd:
- $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX -I/usr/include/edit" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ledit" CC="cc"
+FreeBSD NetBSD OpenBSD freebsd:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX -DLUA_USE_READLINE -I/usr/include/edit" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ledit" CC="cc"
generic: $(ALL)
-linux:
- $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl -lreadline"
+Linux linux: linux-noreadline
+
+linux-noreadline:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl"
-macosx:
- $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_MACOSX" SYSLIBS="-lreadline"
+linux-readline:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_LINUX -DLUA_USE_READLINE" SYSLIBS="-Wl,-E -ldl -lreadline"
+
+Darwin macos macosx:
+ $(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_MACOSX -DLUA_USE_READLINE" SYSLIBS="-lreadline"
mingw:
- $(MAKE) "LUA_A=lua53.dll" "LUA_T=lua.exe" \
+ $(MAKE) "LUA_A=lua54.dll" "LUA_T=lua.exe" \
"AR=$(CC) -shared -o" "RANLIB=strip --strip-unneeded" \
"SYSCFLAGS=-DLUA_BUILD_AS_DLL" "SYSLIBS=" "SYSLDFLAGS=-s" lua.exe
$(MAKE) "LUAC_T=luac.exe" luac.exe
@@ -121,11 +135,21 @@ mingw:
posix:
$(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX"
-solaris:
+SunOS solaris:
$(MAKE) $(ALL) SYSCFLAGS="-DLUA_USE_POSIX -DLUA_USE_DLOPEN -D_REENTRANT" SYSLIBS="-ldl"
-# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
-.PHONY: all $(PLATS) default o a clean depend echo none
+# Targets that do not create files (not all makes understand .PHONY).
+.PHONY: all $(PLATS) help test clean default o a depend echo
+
+# Compiler modules may use special flags.
+llex.o:
+ $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CMCFLAGS) -c llex.c
+
+lparser.o:
+ $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CMCFLAGS) -c lparser.c
+
+lcode.o:
+ $(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CMCFLAGS) -c lcode.c
# DO NOT DELETE
@@ -134,7 +158,6 @@ lapi.o: lapi.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h \
ltable.h lundump.h lvm.h
lauxlib.o: lauxlib.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h
lbaselib.o: lbaselib.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-lbitlib.o: lbitlib.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
lcode.o: lcode.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lcode.h llex.h lobject.h \
llimits.h lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lparser.h ldebug.h lstate.h ltm.h \
ldo.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
@@ -149,8 +172,8 @@ ldo.o: ldo.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lapi.h llimits.h lstate.h \
lparser.h lstring.h ltable.h lundump.h lvm.h
ldump.o: ldump.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lobject.h llimits.h lstate.h \
ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lundump.h
-lfunc.o: lfunc.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lfunc.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- lgc.h lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h
+lfunc.o: lfunc.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
+ llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h
lgc.o: lgc.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h
linit.o: linit.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h
@@ -180,17 +203,17 @@ ltable.o: ltable.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
ltablib.o: ltablib.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
ltm.o: ltm.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
- llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lstring.h lgc.h ltable.h lvm.h
+ llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lgc.h lstring.h ltable.h lvm.h
lua.o: lua.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
-luac.o: luac.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lobject.h llimits.h \
- lstate.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lundump.h ldebug.h lopcodes.h
+luac.o: luac.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h ldebug.h lstate.h \
+ lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h lopcodes.h lopnames.h lundump.h
lundump.o: lundump.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h \
lobject.h llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lstring.h lgc.h \
lundump.h
lutf8lib.o: lutf8lib.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h lauxlib.h lualib.h
lvm.o: lvm.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h ldebug.h lstate.h lobject.h \
llimits.h ltm.h lzio.h lmem.h ldo.h lfunc.h lgc.h lopcodes.h lstring.h \
- ltable.h lvm.h
+ ltable.h lvm.h ljumptab.h
lzio.o: lzio.c lprefix.h lua.h luaconf.h llimits.h lmem.h lstate.h \
lobject.h ltm.h lzio.h
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lapi.c b/contrib/lua/src/lapi.c
index 711895b395b6..c824da27cbc4 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lapi.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lapi.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lapi.c,v 2.259.1.2 2017/12/06 18:35:12 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lapi.c $
** Lua API
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
#include "lprefix.h"
+#include <limits.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <string.h>
@@ -36,11 +37,14 @@ const char lua_ident[] =
"$LuaAuthors: " LUA_AUTHORS " $";
-/* value at a non-valid index */
-#define NONVALIDVALUE cast(TValue *, luaO_nilobject)
-/* corresponding test */
-#define isvalid(o) ((o) != luaO_nilobject)
+/*
+** Test for a valid index.
+** '!ttisnil(o)' implies 'o != &G(L)->nilvalue', so it is not needed.
+** However, it covers the most common cases in a faster way.
+*/
+#define isvalid(L, o) (!ttisnil(o) || o != &G(L)->nilvalue)
+
/* test for pseudo index */
#define ispseudo(i) ((i) <= LUA_REGISTRYINDEX)
@@ -48,56 +52,54 @@ const char lua_ident[] =
/* test for upvalue */
#define isupvalue(i) ((i) < LUA_REGISTRYINDEX)
-/* test for valid but not pseudo index */
-#define isstackindex(i, o) (isvalid(o) && !ispseudo(i))
-
-#define api_checkvalidindex(l,o) api_check(l, isvalid(o), "invalid index")
-
-#define api_checkstackindex(l, i, o) \
- api_check(l, isstackindex(i, o), "index not in the stack")
-
-static TValue *index2addr (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+static TValue *index2value (lua_State *L, int idx) {
CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
if (idx > 0) {
- TValue *o = ci->func + idx;
- api_check(L, idx <= ci->top - (ci->func + 1), "unacceptable index");
- if (o >= L->top) return NONVALIDVALUE;
- else return o;
+ StkId o = ci->func + idx;
+ api_check(L, idx <= L->ci->top - (ci->func + 1), "unacceptable index");
+ if (o >= L->top) return &G(L)->nilvalue;
+ else return s2v(o);
}
else if (!ispseudo(idx)) { /* negative index */
api_check(L, idx != 0 && -idx <= L->top - (ci->func + 1), "invalid index");
- return L->top + idx;
+ return s2v(L->top + idx);
}
else if (idx == LUA_REGISTRYINDEX)
return &G(L)->l_registry;
else { /* upvalues */
idx = LUA_REGISTRYINDEX - idx;
api_check(L, idx <= MAXUPVAL + 1, "upvalue index too large");
- if (ttislcf(ci->func)) /* light C function? */
- return NONVALIDVALUE; /* it has no upvalues */
+ if (ttislcf(s2v(ci->func))) /* light C function? */
+ return &G(L)->nilvalue; /* it has no upvalues */
else {
- CClosure *func = clCvalue(ci->func);
- return (idx <= func->nupvalues) ? &func->upvalue[idx-1] : NONVALIDVALUE;
+ CClosure *func = clCvalue(s2v(ci->func));
+ return (idx <= func->nupvalues) ? &func->upvalue[idx-1] : &G(L)->nilvalue;
}
}
}
-/*
-** to be called by 'lua_checkstack' in protected mode, to grow stack
-** capturing memory errors
-*/
-static void growstack (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
- int size = *(int *)ud;
- luaD_growstack(L, size);
+static StkId index2stack (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
+ if (idx > 0) {
+ StkId o = ci->func + idx;
+ api_check(L, o < L->top, "unacceptable index");
+ return o;
+ }
+ else { /* non-positive index */
+ api_check(L, idx != 0 && -idx <= L->top - (ci->func + 1), "invalid index");
+ api_check(L, !ispseudo(idx), "invalid index");
+ return L->top + idx;
+ }
}
LUA_API int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int n) {
int res;
- CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
+ CallInfo *ci;
lua_lock(L);
+ ci = L->ci;
api_check(L, n >= 0, "negative 'n'");
if (L->stack_last - L->top > n) /* stack large enough? */
res = 1; /* yes; check is OK */
@@ -106,7 +108,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int n) {
if (inuse > LUAI_MAXSTACK - n) /* can grow without overflow? */
res = 0; /* no */
else /* try to grow stack */
- res = (luaD_rawrunprotected(L, &growstack, &n) == LUA_OK);
+ res = luaD_growstack(L, n, 0);
}
if (res && ci->top < L->top + n)
ci->top = L->top + n; /* adjust frame top */
@@ -124,7 +126,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_xmove (lua_State *from, lua_State *to, int n) {
api_check(from, to->ci->top - to->top >= n, "stack overflow");
from->top -= n;
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
- setobj2s(to, to->top, from->top + i);
+ setobjs2s(to, to->top, from->top + i);
to->top++; /* stack already checked by previous 'api_check' */
}
lua_unlock(to);
@@ -141,10 +143,9 @@ LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf) {
}
-LUA_API const lua_Number *lua_version (lua_State *L) {
- static const lua_Number version = LUA_VERSION_NUM;
- if (L == NULL) return &version;
- else return G(L)->version;
+LUA_API lua_Number lua_version (lua_State *L) {
+ UNUSED(L);
+ return LUA_VERSION_NUM;
}
@@ -170,18 +171,25 @@ LUA_API int lua_gettop (lua_State *L) {
LUA_API void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId func = L->ci->func;
+ CallInfo *ci;
+ StkId func;
+ ptrdiff_t diff; /* difference for new top */
lua_lock(L);
+ ci = L->ci;
+ func = ci->func;
if (idx >= 0) {
- api_check(L, idx <= L->stack_last - (func + 1), "new top too large");
- while (L->top < (func + 1) + idx)
- setnilvalue(L->top++);
- L->top = (func + 1) + idx;
+ api_check(L, idx <= ci->top - (func + 1), "new top too large");
+ diff = ((func + 1) + idx) - L->top;
+ for (; diff > 0; diff--)
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top++)); /* clear new slots */
}
else {
api_check(L, -(idx+1) <= (L->top - (func + 1)), "invalid new top");
- L->top += idx+1; /* 'subtract' index (index is negative) */
+ diff = idx + 1; /* will "subtract" index (as it is negative) */
}
+ if (diff < 0 && hastocloseCfunc(ci->nresults))
+ luaF_close(L, L->top + diff, LUA_OK);
+ L->top += diff; /* correct top only after closing any upvalue */
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -189,11 +197,13 @@ LUA_API void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int idx) {
/*
** Reverse the stack segment from 'from' to 'to'
** (auxiliary to 'lua_rotate')
+** Note that we move(copy) only the value inside the stack.
+** (We do not move additional fields that may exist.)
*/
static void reverse (lua_State *L, StkId from, StkId to) {
for (; from < to; from++, to--) {
TValue temp;
- setobj(L, &temp, from);
+ setobj(L, &temp, s2v(from));
setobjs2s(L, from, to);
setobj2s(L, to, &temp);
}
@@ -208,8 +218,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_rotate (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
StkId p, t, m;
lua_lock(L);
t = L->top - 1; /* end of stack segment being rotated */
- p = index2addr(L, idx); /* start of segment */
- api_checkstackindex(L, idx, p);
+ p = index2stack(L, idx); /* start of segment */
api_check(L, (n >= 0 ? n : -n) <= (t - p + 1), "invalid 'n'");
m = (n >= 0 ? t - n : p - n - 1); /* end of prefix */
reverse(L, p, m); /* reverse the prefix with length 'n' */
@@ -222,12 +231,12 @@ LUA_API void lua_rotate (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
LUA_API void lua_copy (lua_State *L, int fromidx, int toidx) {
TValue *fr, *to;
lua_lock(L);
- fr = index2addr(L, fromidx);
- to = index2addr(L, toidx);
- api_checkvalidindex(L, to);
+ fr = index2value(L, fromidx);
+ to = index2value(L, toidx);
+ api_check(L, isvalid(L, to), "invalid index");
setobj(L, to, fr);
if (isupvalue(toidx)) /* function upvalue? */
- luaC_barrier(L, clCvalue(L->ci->func), fr);
+ luaC_barrier(L, clCvalue(s2v(L->ci->func)), fr);
/* LUA_REGISTRYINDEX does not need gc barrier
(collector revisits it before finishing collection) */
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -236,7 +245,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_copy (lua_State *L, int fromidx, int toidx) {
LUA_API void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
lua_lock(L);
- setobj2s(L, L->top, index2addr(L, idx));
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, index2value(L, idx));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -249,53 +258,53 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API int lua_type (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
- return (isvalid(o) ? ttnov(o) : LUA_TNONE);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
+ return (isvalid(L, o) ? ttype(o) : LUA_TNONE);
}
LUA_API const char *lua_typename (lua_State *L, int t) {
UNUSED(L);
- api_check(L, LUA_TNONE <= t && t < LUA_NUMTAGS, "invalid tag");
+ api_check(L, LUA_TNONE <= t && t < LUA_NUMTYPES, "invalid type");
return ttypename(t);
}
LUA_API int lua_iscfunction (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return (ttislcf(o) || (ttisCclosure(o)));
}
LUA_API int lua_isinteger (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return ttisinteger(o);
}
LUA_API int lua_isnumber (lua_State *L, int idx) {
lua_Number n;
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return tonumber(o, &n);
}
LUA_API int lua_isstring (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return (ttisstring(o) || cvt2str(o));
}
LUA_API int lua_isuserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return (ttisfulluserdata(o) || ttislightuserdata(o));
}
LUA_API int lua_rawequal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2) {
- StkId o1 = index2addr(L, index1);
- StkId o2 = index2addr(L, index2);
- return (isvalid(o1) && isvalid(o2)) ? luaV_rawequalobj(o1, o2) : 0;
+ const TValue *o1 = index2value(L, index1);
+ const TValue *o2 = index2value(L, index2);
+ return (isvalid(L, o1) && isvalid(L, o2)) ? luaV_rawequalobj(o1, o2) : 0;
}
@@ -309,19 +318,20 @@ LUA_API void lua_arith (lua_State *L, int op) {
api_incr_top(L);
}
/* first operand at top - 2, second at top - 1; result go to top - 2 */
- luaO_arith(L, op, L->top - 2, L->top - 1, L->top - 2);
+ luaO_arith(L, op, s2v(L->top - 2), s2v(L->top - 1), L->top - 2);
L->top--; /* remove second operand */
lua_unlock(L);
}
LUA_API int lua_compare (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2, int op) {
- StkId o1, o2;
+ const TValue *o1;
+ const TValue *o2;
int i = 0;
lua_lock(L); /* may call tag method */
- o1 = index2addr(L, index1);
- o2 = index2addr(L, index2);
- if (isvalid(o1) && isvalid(o2)) {
+ o1 = index2value(L, index1);
+ o2 = index2value(L, index2);
+ if (isvalid(L, o1) && isvalid(L, o2)) {
switch (op) {
case LUA_OPEQ: i = luaV_equalobj(L, o1, o2); break;
case LUA_OPLT: i = luaV_lessthan(L, o1, o2); break;
@@ -335,7 +345,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_compare (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2, int op) {
LUA_API size_t lua_stringtonumber (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
- size_t sz = luaO_str2num(s, L->top);
+ size_t sz = luaO_str2num(s, s2v(L->top));
if (sz != 0)
api_incr_top(L);
return sz;
@@ -343,66 +353,66 @@ LUA_API size_t lua_stringtonumber (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
LUA_API lua_Number lua_tonumberx (lua_State *L, int idx, int *pisnum) {
- lua_Number n;
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ lua_Number n = 0;
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
int isnum = tonumber(o, &n);
- if (!isnum)
- n = 0; /* call to 'tonumber' may change 'n' even if it fails */
- if (pisnum) *pisnum = isnum;
+ if (pisnum)
+ *pisnum = isnum;
return n;
}
LUA_API lua_Integer lua_tointegerx (lua_State *L, int idx, int *pisnum) {
- lua_Integer res;
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ lua_Integer res = 0;
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
int isnum = tointeger(o, &res);
- if (!isnum)
- res = 0; /* call to 'tointeger' may change 'n' even if it fails */
- if (pisnum) *pisnum = isnum;
+ if (pisnum)
+ *pisnum = isnum;
return res;
}
LUA_API int lua_toboolean (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- const TValue *o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return !l_isfalse(o);
}
LUA_API const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ TValue *o;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ o = index2value(L, idx);
if (!ttisstring(o)) {
if (!cvt2str(o)) { /* not convertible? */
if (len != NULL) *len = 0;
+ lua_unlock(L);
return NULL;
}
- lua_lock(L); /* 'luaO_tostring' may create a new string */
luaO_tostring(L, o);
luaC_checkGC(L);
- o = index2addr(L, idx); /* previous call may reallocate the stack */
- lua_unlock(L);
+ o = index2value(L, idx); /* previous call may reallocate the stack */
}
if (len != NULL)
*len = vslen(o);
+ lua_unlock(L);
return svalue(o);
}
-LUA_API size_t lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
- case LUA_TSHRSTR: return tsvalue(o)->shrlen;
- case LUA_TLNGSTR: return tsvalue(o)->u.lnglen;
- case LUA_TUSERDATA: return uvalue(o)->len;
- case LUA_TTABLE: return luaH_getn(hvalue(o));
+LUA_API lua_Unsigned lua_rawlen (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
+ switch (ttypetag(o)) {
+ case LUA_VSHRSTR: return tsvalue(o)->shrlen;
+ case LUA_VLNGSTR: return tsvalue(o)->u.lnglen;
+ case LUA_VUSERDATA: return uvalue(o)->len;
+ case LUA_VTABLE: return luaH_getn(hvalue(o));
default: return 0;
}
}
LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_tocfunction (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
if (ttislcf(o)) return fvalue(o);
else if (ttisCclosure(o))
return clCvalue(o)->f;
@@ -410,9 +420,8 @@ LUA_API lua_CFunction lua_tocfunction (lua_State *L, int idx) {
}
-LUA_API void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
- switch (ttnov(o)) {
+static void *touserdata (const TValue *o) {
+ switch (ttype(o)) {
case LUA_TUSERDATA: return getudatamem(uvalue(o));
case LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA: return pvalue(o);
default: return NULL;
@@ -420,23 +429,37 @@ LUA_API void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
}
+LUA_API void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
+ return touserdata(o);
+}
+
+
LUA_API lua_State *lua_tothread (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
return (!ttisthread(o)) ? NULL : thvalue(o);
}
+/*
+** Returns a pointer to the internal representation of an object.
+** Note that ANSI C does not allow the conversion of a pointer to
+** function to a 'void*', so the conversion here goes through
+** a 'size_t'. (As the returned pointer is only informative, this
+** conversion should not be a problem.)
+*/
LUA_API const void *lua_topointer (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, idx);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
- case LUA_TTABLE: return hvalue(o);
- case LUA_TLCL: return clLvalue(o);
- case LUA_TCCL: return clCvalue(o);
- case LUA_TLCF: return cast(void *, cast(size_t, fvalue(o)));
- case LUA_TTHREAD: return thvalue(o);
- case LUA_TUSERDATA: return getudatamem(uvalue(o));
- case LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA: return pvalue(o);
- default: return NULL;
+ const TValue *o = index2value(L, idx);
+ switch (ttypetag(o)) {
+ case LUA_VLCF: return cast_voidp(cast_sizet(fvalue(o)));
+ case LUA_VUSERDATA: case LUA_VLIGHTUSERDATA:
+ return touserdata(o);
+ default: {
+ if (iscollectable(o))
+ return gcvalue(o);
+ else
+ return NULL;
+ }
}
}
@@ -449,7 +472,7 @@ LUA_API const void *lua_topointer (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API void lua_pushnil (lua_State *L) {
lua_lock(L);
- setnilvalue(L->top);
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -457,7 +480,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushnil (lua_State *L) {
LUA_API void lua_pushnumber (lua_State *L, lua_Number n) {
lua_lock(L);
- setfltvalue(L->top, n);
+ setfltvalue(s2v(L->top), n);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -465,7 +488,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushnumber (lua_State *L, lua_Number n) {
LUA_API void lua_pushinteger (lua_State *L, lua_Integer n) {
lua_lock(L);
- setivalue(L->top, n);
+ setivalue(s2v(L->top), n);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -491,7 +514,7 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len) {
LUA_API const char *lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
lua_lock(L);
if (s == NULL)
- setnilvalue(L->top);
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top));
else {
TString *ts;
ts = luaS_new(L, s);
@@ -532,7 +555,7 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_pushfstring (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...) {
LUA_API void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n) {
lua_lock(L);
if (n == 0) {
- setfvalue(L->top, fn);
+ setfvalue(s2v(L->top), fn);
api_incr_top(L);
}
else {
@@ -543,10 +566,11 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n) {
cl->f = fn;
L->top -= n;
while (n--) {
- setobj2n(L, &cl->upvalue[n], L->top + n);
+ setobj2n(L, &cl->upvalue[n], s2v(L->top + n));
/* does not need barrier because closure is white */
+ lua_assert(iswhite(cl));
}
- setclCvalue(L, L->top, cl);
+ setclCvalue(L, s2v(L->top), cl);
api_incr_top(L);
luaC_checkGC(L);
}
@@ -556,7 +580,10 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n) {
LUA_API void lua_pushboolean (lua_State *L, int b) {
lua_lock(L);
- setbvalue(L->top, (b != 0)); /* ensure that true is 1 */
+ if (b)
+ setbtvalue(s2v(L->top));
+ else
+ setbfvalue(s2v(L->top));
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -564,7 +591,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushboolean (lua_State *L, int b) {
LUA_API void lua_pushlightuserdata (lua_State *L, void *p) {
lua_lock(L);
- setpvalue(L->top, p);
+ setpvalue(s2v(L->top), p);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -572,7 +599,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_pushlightuserdata (lua_State *L, void *p) {
LUA_API int lua_pushthread (lua_State *L) {
lua_lock(L);
- setthvalue(L, L->top, L);
+ setthvalue(L, s2v(L->top), L);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
return (G(L)->mainthread == L);
@@ -595,89 +622,106 @@ static int auxgetstr (lua_State *L, const TValue *t, const char *k) {
else {
setsvalue2s(L, L->top, str);
api_incr_top(L);
- luaV_finishget(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 1, slot);
+ luaV_finishget(L, t, s2v(L->top - 1), L->top - 1, slot);
}
lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ return ttype(s2v(L->top - 1));
}
LUA_API int lua_getglobal (lua_State *L, const char *name) {
- Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
+ Table *reg;
lua_lock(L);
+ reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
return auxgetstr(L, luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS), name);
}
LUA_API int lua_gettable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId t;
+ const TValue *slot;
+ TValue *t;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- luaV_gettable(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 1);
+ t = index2value(L, idx);
+ if (luaV_fastget(L, t, s2v(L->top - 1), slot, luaH_get)) {
+ setobj2s(L, L->top - 1, slot);
+ }
+ else
+ luaV_finishget(L, t, s2v(L->top - 1), L->top - 1, slot);
lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ return ttype(s2v(L->top - 1));
}
LUA_API int lua_getfield (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *k) {
lua_lock(L);
- return auxgetstr(L, index2addr(L, idx), k);
+ return auxgetstr(L, index2value(L, idx), k);
}
LUA_API int lua_geti (lua_State *L, int idx, lua_Integer n) {
- StkId t;
+ TValue *t;
const TValue *slot;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- if (luaV_fastget(L, t, n, slot, luaH_getint)) {
+ t = index2value(L, idx);
+ if (luaV_fastgeti(L, t, n, slot)) {
setobj2s(L, L->top, slot);
- api_incr_top(L);
}
else {
- setivalue(L->top, n);
- api_incr_top(L);
- luaV_finishget(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 1, slot);
+ TValue aux;
+ setivalue(&aux, n);
+ luaV_finishget(L, t, &aux, L->top, slot);
}
+ api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ return ttype(s2v(L->top - 1));
+}
+
+
+static int finishrawget (lua_State *L, const TValue *val) {
+ if (isempty(val)) /* avoid copying empty items to the stack */
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top));
+ else
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, val);
+ api_incr_top(L);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+ return ttype(s2v(L->top - 1));
+}
+
+
+static Table *gettable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ TValue *t = index2value(L, idx);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
+ return hvalue(t);
}
LUA_API int lua_rawget (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId t;
+ Table *t;
+ const TValue *val;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
- setobj2s(L, L->top - 1, luaH_get(hvalue(t), L->top - 1));
- lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ api_checknelems(L, 1);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ val = luaH_get(t, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ L->top--; /* remove key */
+ return finishrawget(L, val);
}
LUA_API int lua_rawgeti (lua_State *L, int idx, lua_Integer n) {
- StkId t;
+ Table *t;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
- setobj2s(L, L->top, luaH_getint(hvalue(t), n));
- api_incr_top(L);
- lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ return finishrawget(L, luaH_getint(t, n));
}
LUA_API int lua_rawgetp (lua_State *L, int idx, const void *p) {
- StkId t;
+ Table *t;
TValue k;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
- setpvalue(&k, cast(void *, p));
- setobj2s(L, L->top, luaH_get(hvalue(t), &k));
- api_incr_top(L);
- lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ setpvalue(&k, cast_voidp(p));
+ return finishrawget(L, luaH_get(t, &k));
}
@@ -685,7 +729,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_createtable (lua_State *L, int narray, int nrec) {
Table *t;
lua_lock(L);
t = luaH_new(L);
- sethvalue(L, L->top, t);
+ sethvalue2s(L, L->top, t);
api_incr_top(L);
if (narray > 0 || nrec > 0)
luaH_resize(L, t, narray, nrec);
@@ -699,8 +743,8 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
Table *mt;
int res = 0;
lua_lock(L);
- obj = index2addr(L, objindex);
- switch (ttnov(obj)) {
+ obj = index2value(L, objindex);
+ switch (ttype(obj)) {
case LUA_TTABLE:
mt = hvalue(obj)->metatable;
break;
@@ -708,11 +752,11 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
mt = uvalue(obj)->metatable;
break;
default:
- mt = G(L)->mt[ttnov(obj)];
+ mt = G(L)->mt[ttype(obj)];
break;
}
if (mt != NULL) {
- sethvalue(L, L->top, mt);
+ sethvalue2s(L, L->top, mt);
api_incr_top(L);
res = 1;
}
@@ -721,15 +765,23 @@ LUA_API int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
}
-LUA_API int lua_getuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o;
+LUA_API int lua_getiuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
+ TValue *o;
+ int t;
lua_lock(L);
- o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ o = index2value(L, idx);
api_check(L, ttisfulluserdata(o), "full userdata expected");
- getuservalue(L, uvalue(o), L->top);
+ if (n <= 0 || n > uvalue(o)->nuvalue) {
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top));
+ t = LUA_TNONE;
+ }
+ else {
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, &uvalue(o)->uv[n - 1].uv);
+ t = ttype(s2v(L->top));
+ }
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
- return ttnov(L->top - 1);
+ return t;
}
@@ -744,12 +796,14 @@ static void auxsetstr (lua_State *L, const TValue *t, const char *k) {
const TValue *slot;
TString *str = luaS_new(L, k);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- if (luaV_fastset(L, t, str, slot, luaH_getstr, L->top - 1))
+ if (luaV_fastget(L, t, str, slot, luaH_getstr)) {
+ luaV_finishfastset(L, t, slot, s2v(L->top - 1));
L->top--; /* pop value */
+ }
else {
setsvalue2s(L, L->top, str); /* push 'str' (to make it a TValue) */
api_incr_top(L);
- luaV_finishset(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 2, slot);
+ luaV_finishset(L, t, s2v(L->top - 1), s2v(L->top - 2), slot);
L->top -= 2; /* pop value and key */
}
lua_unlock(L); /* lock done by caller */
@@ -757,18 +811,24 @@ static void auxsetstr (lua_State *L, const TValue *t, const char *k) {
LUA_API void lua_setglobal (lua_State *L, const char *name) {
- Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
+ Table *reg;
lua_lock(L); /* unlock done in 'auxsetstr' */
+ reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
auxsetstr(L, luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS), name);
}
LUA_API void lua_settable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId t;
+ TValue *t;
+ const TValue *slot;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 2);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- luaV_settable(L, t, L->top - 2, L->top - 1);
+ t = index2value(L, idx);
+ if (luaV_fastget(L, t, s2v(L->top - 2), slot, luaH_get)) {
+ luaV_finishfastset(L, t, slot, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ }
+ else
+ luaV_finishset(L, t, s2v(L->top - 2), s2v(L->top - 1), slot);
L->top -= 2; /* pop index and value */
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -776,68 +836,63 @@ LUA_API void lua_settable (lua_State *L, int idx) {
LUA_API void lua_setfield (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *k) {
lua_lock(L); /* unlock done in 'auxsetstr' */
- auxsetstr(L, index2addr(L, idx), k);
+ auxsetstr(L, index2value(L, idx), k);
}
LUA_API void lua_seti (lua_State *L, int idx, lua_Integer n) {
- StkId t;
+ TValue *t;
const TValue *slot;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- if (luaV_fastset(L, t, n, slot, luaH_getint, L->top - 1))
- L->top--; /* pop value */
+ t = index2value(L, idx);
+ if (luaV_fastgeti(L, t, n, slot)) {
+ luaV_finishfastset(L, t, slot, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ }
else {
- setivalue(L->top, n);
- api_incr_top(L);
- luaV_finishset(L, t, L->top - 1, L->top - 2, slot);
- L->top -= 2; /* pop value and key */
+ TValue aux;
+ setivalue(&aux, n);
+ luaV_finishset(L, t, &aux, s2v(L->top - 1), slot);
}
+ L->top--; /* pop value */
lua_unlock(L);
}
-LUA_API void lua_rawset (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o;
+static void aux_rawset (lua_State *L, int idx, TValue *key, int n) {
+ Table *t;
TValue *slot;
lua_lock(L);
- api_checknelems(L, 2);
- o = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(o), "table expected");
- slot = luaH_set(L, hvalue(o), L->top - 2);
- setobj2t(L, slot, L->top - 1);
- invalidateTMcache(hvalue(o));
- luaC_barrierback(L, hvalue(o), L->top-1);
- L->top -= 2;
+ api_checknelems(L, n);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ slot = luaH_set(L, t, key);
+ setobj2t(L, slot, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ invalidateTMcache(t);
+ luaC_barrierback(L, obj2gco(t), s2v(L->top - 1));
+ L->top -= n;
lua_unlock(L);
}
-LUA_API void lua_rawseti (lua_State *L, int idx, lua_Integer n) {
- StkId o;
- lua_lock(L);
- api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(o), "table expected");
- luaH_setint(L, hvalue(o), n, L->top - 1);
- luaC_barrierback(L, hvalue(o), L->top-1);
- L->top--;
- lua_unlock(L);
+LUA_API void lua_rawset (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ aux_rawset(L, idx, s2v(L->top - 2), 2);
}
LUA_API void lua_rawsetp (lua_State *L, int idx, const void *p) {
- StkId o;
- TValue k, *slot;
+ TValue k;
+ setpvalue(&k, cast_voidp(p));
+ aux_rawset(L, idx, &k, 1);
+}
+
+
+LUA_API void lua_rawseti (lua_State *L, int idx, lua_Integer n) {
+ Table *t;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(o), "table expected");
- setpvalue(&k, cast(void *, p));
- slot = luaH_set(L, hvalue(o), &k);
- setobj2t(L, slot, L->top - 1);
- luaC_barrierback(L, hvalue(o), L->top - 1);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ luaH_setint(L, t, n, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ luaC_barrierback(L, obj2gco(t), s2v(L->top - 1));
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
}
@@ -848,14 +903,14 @@ LUA_API int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
Table *mt;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- obj = index2addr(L, objindex);
- if (ttisnil(L->top - 1))
+ obj = index2value(L, objindex);
+ if (ttisnil(s2v(L->top - 1)))
mt = NULL;
else {
- api_check(L, ttistable(L->top - 1), "table expected");
- mt = hvalue(L->top - 1);
+ api_check(L, ttistable(s2v(L->top - 1)), "table expected");
+ mt = hvalue(s2v(L->top - 1));
}
- switch (ttnov(obj)) {
+ switch (ttype(obj)) {
case LUA_TTABLE: {
hvalue(obj)->metatable = mt;
if (mt) {
@@ -873,7 +928,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
break;
}
default: {
- G(L)->mt[ttnov(obj)] = mt;
+ G(L)->mt[ttype(obj)] = mt;
break;
}
}
@@ -883,16 +938,23 @@ LUA_API int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int objindex) {
}
-LUA_API void lua_setuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId o;
+LUA_API int lua_setiuservalue (lua_State *L, int idx, int n) {
+ TValue *o;
+ int res;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = index2addr(L, idx);
+ o = index2value(L, idx);
api_check(L, ttisfulluserdata(o), "full userdata expected");
- setuservalue(L, uvalue(o), L->top - 1);
- luaC_barrier(L, gcvalue(o), L->top - 1);
+ if (!(cast_uint(n) - 1u < cast_uint(uvalue(o)->nuvalue)))
+ res = 0; /* 'n' not in [1, uvalue(o)->nuvalue] */
+ else {
+ setobj(L, &uvalue(o)->uv[n - 1].uv, s2v(L->top - 1));
+ luaC_barrierback(L, gcvalue(o), s2v(L->top - 1));
+ res = 1;
+ }
L->top--;
lua_unlock(L);
+ return res;
}
@@ -916,7 +978,7 @@ LUA_API void lua_callk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults,
api_check(L, L->status == LUA_OK, "cannot do calls on non-normal thread");
checkresults(L, nargs, nresults);
func = L->top - (nargs+1);
- if (k != NULL && L->nny == 0) { /* need to prepare continuation? */
+ if (k != NULL && yieldable(L)) { /* need to prepare continuation? */
L->ci->u.c.k = k; /* save continuation */
L->ci->u.c.ctx = ctx; /* save context */
luaD_call(L, func, nresults); /* do the call */
@@ -959,12 +1021,12 @@ LUA_API int lua_pcallk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc,
if (errfunc == 0)
func = 0;
else {
- StkId o = index2addr(L, errfunc);
- api_checkstackindex(L, errfunc, o);
+ StkId o = index2stack(L, errfunc);
+ api_check(L, ttisfunction(s2v(o)), "error handler must be a function");
func = savestack(L, o);
}
c.func = L->top - (nargs+1); /* function to be called */
- if (k == NULL || L->nny > 0) { /* no continuation or no yieldable? */
+ if (k == NULL || !yieldable(L)) { /* no continuation or no yieldable? */
c.nresults = nresults; /* do a 'conventional' protected call */
status = luaD_pcall(L, f_call, &c, savestack(L, c.func), func);
}
@@ -973,7 +1035,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_pcallk (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc,
ci->u.c.k = k; /* save continuation */
ci->u.c.ctx = ctx; /* save context */
/* save information for error recovery */
- ci->extra = savestack(L, c.func);
+ ci->u2.funcidx = cast_int(savestack(L, c.func));
ci->u.c.old_errfunc = L->errfunc;
L->errfunc = func;
setoah(ci->callstatus, L->allowhook); /* save value of 'allowhook' */
@@ -998,14 +1060,14 @@ LUA_API int lua_load (lua_State *L, lua_Reader reader, void *data,
luaZ_init(L, &z, reader, data);
status = luaD_protectedparser(L, &z, chunkname, mode);
if (status == LUA_OK) { /* no errors? */
- LClosure *f = clLvalue(L->top - 1); /* get newly created function */
+ LClosure *f = clLvalue(s2v(L->top - 1)); /* get newly created function */
if (f->nupvalues >= 1) { /* does it have an upvalue? */
/* get global table from registry */
Table *reg = hvalue(&G(L)->l_registry);
const TValue *gt = luaH_getint(reg, LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS);
/* set global table as 1st upvalue of 'f' (may be LUA_ENV) */
setobj(L, f->upvals[0]->v, gt);
- luaC_upvalbarrier(L, f->upvals[0]);
+ luaC_barrier(L, f->upvals[0], gt);
}
}
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -1018,7 +1080,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_dump (lua_State *L, lua_Writer writer, void *data, int strip) {
TValue *o;
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- o = L->top - 1;
+ o = s2v(L->top - 1);
if (isLfunction(o))
status = luaU_dump(L, getproto(o), writer, data, strip);
else
@@ -1036,12 +1098,13 @@ LUA_API int lua_status (lua_State *L) {
/*
** Garbage-collection function
*/
-
-LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
+LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, ...) {
+ va_list argp;
int res = 0;
global_State *g;
lua_lock(L);
g = G(L);
+ va_start(argp, what);
switch (what) {
case LUA_GCSTOP: {
g->gcrunning = 0;
@@ -1066,11 +1129,12 @@ LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
break;
}
case LUA_GCSTEP: {
+ int data = va_arg(argp, int);
l_mem debt = 1; /* =1 to signal that it did an actual step */
lu_byte oldrunning = g->gcrunning;
g->gcrunning = 1; /* allow GC to run */
if (data == 0) {
- luaE_setdebt(g, -GCSTEPSIZE); /* to do a "small" step */
+ luaE_setdebt(g, 0); /* do a basic step */
luaC_step(L);
}
else { /* add 'data' to total debt */
@@ -1084,22 +1148,49 @@ LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
break;
}
case LUA_GCSETPAUSE: {
- res = g->gcpause;
- g->gcpause = data;
+ int data = va_arg(argp, int);
+ res = getgcparam(g->gcpause);
+ setgcparam(g->gcpause, data);
break;
}
case LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL: {
- res = g->gcstepmul;
- if (data < 40) data = 40; /* avoid ridiculous low values (and 0) */
- g->gcstepmul = data;
+ int data = va_arg(argp, int);
+ res = getgcparam(g->gcstepmul);
+ setgcparam(g->gcstepmul, data);
break;
}
case LUA_GCISRUNNING: {
res = g->gcrunning;
break;
}
+ case LUA_GCGEN: {
+ int minormul = va_arg(argp, int);
+ int majormul = va_arg(argp, int);
+ res = isdecGCmodegen(g) ? LUA_GCGEN : LUA_GCINC;
+ if (minormul != 0)
+ g->genminormul = minormul;
+ if (majormul != 0)
+ setgcparam(g->genmajormul, majormul);
+ luaC_changemode(L, KGC_GEN);
+ break;
+ }
+ case LUA_GCINC: {
+ int pause = va_arg(argp, int);
+ int stepmul = va_arg(argp, int);
+ int stepsize = va_arg(argp, int);
+ res = isdecGCmodegen(g) ? LUA_GCGEN : LUA_GCINC;
+ if (pause != 0)
+ setgcparam(g->gcpause, pause);
+ if (stepmul != 0)
+ setgcparam(g->gcstepmul, stepmul);
+ if (stepsize != 0)
+ g->gcstepsize = stepsize;
+ luaC_changemode(L, KGC_INC);
+ break;
+ }
default: res = -1; /* invalid option */
}
+ va_end(argp);
lua_unlock(L);
return res;
}
@@ -1112,21 +1203,27 @@ LUA_API int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data) {
LUA_API int lua_error (lua_State *L) {
+ TValue *errobj;
lua_lock(L);
+ errobj = s2v(L->top - 1);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- luaG_errormsg(L);
+ /* error object is the memory error message? */
+ if (ttisshrstring(errobj) && eqshrstr(tsvalue(errobj), G(L)->memerrmsg))
+ luaM_error(L); /* raise a memory error */
+ else
+ luaG_errormsg(L); /* raise a regular error */
/* code unreachable; will unlock when control actually leaves the kernel */
return 0; /* to avoid warnings */
}
LUA_API int lua_next (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId t;
+ Table *t;
int more;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
- api_check(L, ttistable(t), "table expected");
- more = luaH_next(L, hvalue(t), L->top - 1);
+ api_checknelems(L, 1);
+ t = gettable(L, idx);
+ more = luaH_next(L, t, L->top - 1);
if (more) {
api_incr_top(L);
}
@@ -1137,26 +1234,40 @@ LUA_API int lua_next (lua_State *L, int idx) {
}
+LUA_API void lua_toclose (lua_State *L, int idx) {
+ int nresults;
+ StkId o;
+ lua_lock(L);
+ o = index2stack(L, idx);
+ nresults = L->ci->nresults;
+ api_check(L, L->openupval == NULL || uplevel(L->openupval) <= o,
+ "marked index below or equal new one");
+ luaF_newtbcupval(L, o); /* create new to-be-closed upvalue */
+ if (!hastocloseCfunc(nresults)) /* function not marked yet? */
+ L->ci->nresults = codeNresults(nresults); /* mark it */
+ lua_assert(hastocloseCfunc(L->ci->nresults));
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
LUA_API void lua_concat (lua_State *L, int n) {
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, n);
- if (n >= 2) {
+ if (n > 0)
luaV_concat(L, n);
- }
- else if (n == 0) { /* push empty string */
- setsvalue2s(L, L->top, luaS_newlstr(L, "", 0));
+ else { /* nothing to concatenate */
+ setsvalue2s(L, L->top, luaS_newlstr(L, "", 0)); /* push empty string */
api_incr_top(L);
}
- /* else n == 1; nothing to do */
luaC_checkGC(L);
lua_unlock(L);
}
LUA_API void lua_len (lua_State *L, int idx) {
- StkId t;
+ TValue *t;
lua_lock(L);
- t = index2addr(L, idx);
+ t = index2value(L, idx);
luaV_objlen(L, L->top, t);
api_incr_top(L);
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -1181,11 +1292,28 @@ LUA_API void lua_setallocf (lua_State *L, lua_Alloc f, void *ud) {
}
-LUA_API void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size) {
+void lua_setwarnf (lua_State *L, lua_WarnFunction f, void *ud) {
+ lua_lock(L);
+ G(L)->ud_warn = ud;
+ G(L)->warnf = f;
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
+void lua_warning (lua_State *L, const char *msg, int tocont) {
+ lua_lock(L);
+ luaE_warning(L, msg, tocont);
+ lua_unlock(L);
+}
+
+
+
+LUA_API void *lua_newuserdatauv (lua_State *L, size_t size, int nuvalue) {
Udata *u;
lua_lock(L);
- u = luaS_newudata(L, size);
- setuvalue(L, L->top, u);
+ api_check(L, 0 <= nuvalue && nuvalue < USHRT_MAX, "invalid value");
+ u = luaS_newudata(L, size, nuvalue);
+ setuvalue(L, s2v(L->top), u);
api_incr_top(L);
luaC_checkGC(L);
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -1194,25 +1322,27 @@ LUA_API void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size) {
-static const char *aux_upvalue (StkId fi, int n, TValue **val,
- CClosure **owner, UpVal **uv) {
- switch (ttype(fi)) {
- case LUA_TCCL: { /* C closure */
+static const char *aux_upvalue (TValue *fi, int n, TValue **val,
+ GCObject **owner) {
+ switch (ttypetag(fi)) {
+ case LUA_VCCL: { /* C closure */
CClosure *f = clCvalue(fi);
- if (!(1 <= n && n <= f->nupvalues)) return NULL;
+ if (!(cast_uint(n) - 1u < cast_uint(f->nupvalues)))
+ return NULL; /* 'n' not in [1, f->nupvalues] */
*val = &f->upvalue[n-1];
- if (owner) *owner = f;
+ if (owner) *owner = obj2gco(f);
return "";
}
- case LUA_TLCL: { /* Lua closure */
+ case LUA_VLCL: { /* Lua closure */
LClosure *f = clLvalue(fi);
TString *name;
Proto *p = f->p;
- if (!(1 <= n && n <= p->sizeupvalues)) return NULL;
+ if (!(cast_uint(n) - 1u < cast_uint(p->sizeupvalues)))
+ return NULL; /* 'n' not in [1, p->sizeupvalues] */
*val = f->upvals[n-1]->v;
- if (uv) *uv = f->upvals[n - 1];
+ if (owner) *owner = obj2gco(f->upvals[n - 1]);
name = p->upvalues[n-1].name;
- return (name == NULL) ? "(*no name)" : getstr(name);
+ return (name == NULL) ? "(no name)" : getstr(name);
}
default: return NULL; /* not a closure */
}
@@ -1223,7 +1353,7 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
const char *name;
TValue *val = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
lua_lock(L);
- name = aux_upvalue(index2addr(L, funcindex), n, &val, NULL, NULL);
+ name = aux_upvalue(index2value(L, funcindex), n, &val, NULL);
if (name) {
setobj2s(L, L->top, val);
api_incr_top(L);
@@ -1236,47 +1366,52 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
LUA_API const char *lua_setupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n) {
const char *name;
TValue *val = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
- CClosure *owner = NULL;
- UpVal *uv = NULL;
- StkId fi;
+ GCObject *owner = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
+ TValue *fi;
lua_lock(L);
- fi = index2addr(L, funcindex);
+ fi = index2value(L, funcindex);
api_checknelems(L, 1);
- name = aux_upvalue(fi, n, &val, &owner, &uv);
+ name = aux_upvalue(fi, n, &val, &owner);
if (name) {
L->top--;
- setobj(L, val, L->top);
- if (owner) { luaC_barrier(L, owner, L->top); }
- else if (uv) { luaC_upvalbarrier(L, uv); }
+ setobj(L, val, s2v(L->top));
+ luaC_barrier(L, owner, val);
}
lua_unlock(L);
return name;
}
-static UpVal **getupvalref (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n) {
+static UpVal **getupvalref (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n, LClosure **pf) {
+ static const UpVal *const nullup = NULL;
LClosure *f;
- StkId fi = index2addr(L, fidx);
+ TValue *fi = index2value(L, fidx);
api_check(L, ttisLclosure(fi), "Lua function expected");
f = clLvalue(fi);
- api_check(L, (1 <= n && n <= f->p->sizeupvalues), "invalid upvalue index");
- return &f->upvals[n - 1]; /* get its upvalue pointer */
+ if (pf) *pf = f;
+ if (1 <= n && n <= f->p->sizeupvalues)
+ return &f->upvals[n - 1]; /* get its upvalue pointer */
+ else
+ return (UpVal**)&nullup;
}
LUA_API void *lua_upvalueid (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n) {
- StkId fi = index2addr(L, fidx);
- switch (ttype(fi)) {
- case LUA_TLCL: { /* lua closure */
- return *getupvalref(L, fidx, n);
+ TValue *fi = index2value(L, fidx);
+ switch (ttypetag(fi)) {
+ case LUA_VLCL: { /* lua closure */
+ return *getupvalref(L, fidx, n, NULL);
}
- case LUA_TCCL: { /* C closure */
+ case LUA_VCCL: { /* C closure */
CClosure *f = clCvalue(fi);
- api_check(L, 1 <= n && n <= f->nupvalues, "invalid upvalue index");
- return &f->upvalue[n - 1];
- }
+ if (1 <= n && n <= f->nupvalues)
+ return &f->upvalue[n - 1];
+ /* else */
+ } /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ case LUA_VLCF:
+ return NULL; /* light C functions have no upvalues */
default: {
- api_check(L, 0, "closure expected");
+ api_check(L, 0, "function expected");
return NULL;
}
}
@@ -1285,15 +1420,12 @@ LUA_API void *lua_upvalueid (lua_State *L, int fidx, int n) {
LUA_API void lua_upvaluejoin (lua_State *L, int fidx1, int n1,
int fidx2, int n2) {
- UpVal **up1 = getupvalref(L, fidx1, n1);
- UpVal **up2 = getupvalref(L, fidx2, n2);
- if (*up1 == *up2)
- return;
- luaC_upvdeccount(L, *up1);
+ LClosure *f1;
+ UpVal **up1 = getupvalref(L, fidx1, n1, &f1);
+ UpVal **up2 = getupvalref(L, fidx2, n2, NULL);
+ api_check(L, *up1 != NULL && *up2 != NULL, "invalid upvalue index");
*up1 = *up2;
- (*up1)->refcount++;
- if (upisopen(*up1)) (*up1)->u.open.touched = 1;
- luaC_upvalbarrier(L, *up1);
+ luaC_objbarrier(L, f1, *up1);
}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lapi.h b/contrib/lua/src/lapi.h
index 8e16ad53d999..41216b270902 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lapi.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lapi.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lapi.h,v 2.9.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lapi.h $
** Auxiliary functions from Lua API
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -11,14 +11,37 @@
#include "llimits.h"
#include "lstate.h"
+
+/* Increments 'L->top', checking for stack overflows */
#define api_incr_top(L) {L->top++; api_check(L, L->top <= L->ci->top, \
"stack overflow");}
+
+/*
+** If a call returns too many multiple returns, the callee may not have
+** stack space to accommodate all results. In this case, this macro
+** increases its stack space ('L->ci->top').
+*/
#define adjustresults(L,nres) \
- { if ((nres) == LUA_MULTRET && L->ci->top < L->top) L->ci->top = L->top; }
+ { if ((nres) <= LUA_MULTRET && L->ci->top < L->top) L->ci->top = L->top; }
+
+/* Ensure the stack has at least 'n' elements */
#define api_checknelems(L,n) api_check(L, (n) < (L->top - L->ci->func), \
"not enough elements in the stack")
+/*
+** To reduce the overhead of returning from C functions, the presence of
+** to-be-closed variables in these functions is coded in the CallInfo's
+** field 'nresults', in a way that functions with no to-be-closed variables
+** with zero, one, or "all" wanted results have no overhead. Functions
+** with other number of wanted results, as well as functions with
+** variables to be closed, have an extra check.
+*/
+
+#define hastocloseCfunc(n) ((n) < LUA_MULTRET)
+
+#define codeNresults(n) (-(n) - 3)
+
#endif
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.c b/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.c
index ac68bd32da90..73504389e1a4 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lauxlib.c,v 1.289.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lauxlib.c $
** Auxiliary functions for building Lua libraries
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -27,6 +27,12 @@
#include "lauxlib.h"
+#if !defined(MAX_SIZET)
+/* maximum value for size_t */
+#define MAX_SIZET ((size_t)(~(size_t)0))
+#endif
+
+
/*
** {======================================================
** Traceback
@@ -40,8 +46,8 @@
/*
-** search for 'objidx' in table at index -1.
-** return 1 + string at top if find a good name.
+** Search for 'objidx' in table at index -1. ('objidx' must be an
+** absolute index.) Return 1 + string at top if it found a good name.
*/
static int findfield (lua_State *L, int objidx, int level) {
if (level == 0 || !lua_istable(L, -1))
@@ -54,10 +60,10 @@ static int findfield (lua_State *L, int objidx, int level) {
return 1;
}
else if (findfield(L, objidx, level - 1)) { /* try recursively */
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove table (but keep name) */
- lua_pushliteral(L, ".");
- lua_insert(L, -2); /* place '.' between the two names */
- lua_concat(L, 3);
+ /* stack: lib_name, lib_table, field_name (top) */
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "."); /* place '.' between the two names */
+ lua_replace(L, -3); /* (in the slot occupied by table) */
+ lua_concat(L, 3); /* lib_name.field_name */
return 1;
}
}
@@ -76,12 +82,12 @@ static int pushglobalfuncname (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, LUA_LOADED_TABLE);
if (findfield(L, top + 1, 2)) {
const char *name = lua_tostring(L, -1);
- if (strncmp(name, "_G.", 3) == 0) { /* name start with '_G.'? */
+ if (strncmp(name, LUA_GNAME ".", 3) == 0) { /* name start with '_G.'? */
lua_pushstring(L, name + 3); /* push name without prefix */
lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove original name */
}
- lua_copy(L, -1, top + 1); /* move name to proper place */
- lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove pushed values */
+ lua_copy(L, -1, top + 1); /* copy name to proper place */
+ lua_settop(L, top + 1); /* remove table "loaded" and name copy */
return 1;
}
else {
@@ -124,32 +130,37 @@ static int lastlevel (lua_State *L) {
LUALIB_API void luaL_traceback (lua_State *L, lua_State *L1,
const char *msg, int level) {
+ luaL_Buffer b;
lua_Debug ar;
- int top = lua_gettop(L);
int last = lastlevel(L1);
- int n1 = (last - level > LEVELS1 + LEVELS2) ? LEVELS1 : -1;
- if (msg)
- lua_pushfstring(L, "%s\n", msg);
- luaL_checkstack(L, 10, NULL);
- lua_pushliteral(L, "stack traceback:");
+ int limit2show = (last - level > LEVELS1 + LEVELS2) ? LEVELS1 : -1;
+ luaL_buffinit(L, &b);
+ if (msg) {
+ luaL_addstring(&b, msg);
+ luaL_addchar(&b, '\n');
+ }
+ luaL_addstring(&b, "stack traceback:");
while (lua_getstack(L1, level++, &ar)) {
- if (n1-- == 0) { /* too many levels? */
- lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t..."); /* add a '...' */
- level = last - LEVELS2 + 1; /* and skip to last ones */
+ if (limit2show-- == 0) { /* too many levels? */
+ int n = last - level - LEVELS2 + 1; /* number of levels to skip */
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t...\t(skipping %d levels)", n);
+ luaL_addvalue(&b); /* add warning about skip */
+ level += n; /* and skip to last levels */
}
else {
lua_getinfo(L1, "Slnt", &ar);
- lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t%s:", ar.short_src);
- if (ar.currentline > 0)
- lua_pushfstring(L, "%d:", ar.currentline);
- lua_pushliteral(L, " in ");
+ if (ar.currentline <= 0)
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t%s: in ", ar.short_src);
+ else
+ lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t%s:%d: in ", ar.short_src, ar.currentline);
+ luaL_addvalue(&b);
pushfuncname(L, &ar);
+ luaL_addvalue(&b);
if (ar.istailcall)
- lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t(...tail calls...)");
- lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
+ luaL_addstring(&b, "\n\t(...tail calls...)");
}
}
- lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
+ luaL_pushresult(&b);
}
/* }====================================================== */
@@ -179,7 +190,7 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *extramsg) {
}
-static int typeerror (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname) {
+int luaL_typeerror (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname) {
const char *msg;
const char *typearg; /* name for the type of the actual argument */
if (luaL_getmetafield(L, arg, "__name") == LUA_TSTRING)
@@ -194,7 +205,7 @@ static int typeerror (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname) {
static void tag_error (lua_State *L, int arg, int tag) {
- typeerror(L, arg, lua_typename(L, tag));
+ luaL_typeerror(L, arg, lua_typename(L, tag));
}
@@ -238,7 +249,7 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_fileresult (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname) {
return 1;
}
else {
- lua_pushnil(L);
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
if (fname)
lua_pushfstring(L, "%s: %s", fname, strerror(en));
else
@@ -272,24 +283,25 @@ LUALIB_API int luaL_fileresult (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname) {
LUALIB_API int luaL_execresult (lua_State *L, int stat) {
- const char *what = "exit"; /* type of termination */
- if (stat == -1) /* error? */
+ if (stat != 0 && errno != 0) /* error with an 'errno'? */
return luaL_fileresult(L, 0, NULL);
else {
+ const char *what = "exit"; /* type of termination */
l_inspectstat(stat, what); /* interpret result */
if (*what == 'e' && stat == 0) /* successful termination? */
lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
else
- lua_pushnil(L);
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
lua_pushstring(L, what);
lua_pushinteger(L, stat);
- return 3; /* return true/nil,what,code */
+ return 3; /* return true/fail,what,code */
}
}
/* }====================================================== */
+
/*
** {======================================================
** Userdata's metatable manipulation
@@ -332,7 +344,7 @@ LUALIB_API void *luaL_testudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
LUALIB_API void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
void *p = luaL_testudata(L, ud, tname);
- if (p == NULL) typeerror(L, ud, tname);
+ luaL_argexpected(L, p != NULL, ud, tname);
return p;
}
@@ -464,8 +476,8 @@ static void *resizebox (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t newsize) {
UBox *box = (UBox *)lua_touserdata(L, idx);
void *temp = allocf(ud, box->box, box->bsize, newsize);
if (temp == NULL && newsize > 0) { /* allocation error? */
- resizebox(L, idx, 0); /* free buffer */
- luaL_error(L, "not enough memory for buffer allocation");
+ lua_pushliteral(L, "not enough memory");
+ lua_error(L); /* raise a memory error */
}
box->box = temp;
box->bsize = newsize;
@@ -479,16 +491,20 @@ static int boxgc (lua_State *L) {
}
-static void *newbox (lua_State *L, size_t newsize) {
- UBox *box = (UBox *)lua_newuserdata(L, sizeof(UBox));
+static const luaL_Reg boxmt[] = { /* box metamethods */
+ {"__gc", boxgc},
+ {"__close", boxgc},
+ {NULL, NULL}
+};
+
+
+static void newbox (lua_State *L) {
+ UBox *box = (UBox *)lua_newuserdatauv(L, sizeof(UBox), 0);
box->box = NULL;
box->bsize = 0;
- if (luaL_newmetatable(L, "LUABOX")) { /* creating metatable? */
- lua_pushcfunction(L, boxgc);
- lua_setfield(L, -2, "__gc"); /* metatable.__gc = boxgc */
- }
+ if (luaL_newmetatable(L, "_UBOX*")) /* creating metatable? */
+ luaL_setfuncs(L, boxmt, 0); /* set its metamethods */
lua_setmetatable(L, -2);
- return resizebox(L, -1, newsize);
}
@@ -496,38 +512,64 @@ static void *newbox (lua_State *L, size_t newsize) {
** check whether buffer is using a userdata on the stack as a temporary
** buffer
*/
-#define buffonstack(B) ((B)->b != (B)->initb)
+#define buffonstack(B) ((B)->b != (B)->init.b)
/*
-** returns a pointer to a free area with at least 'sz' bytes
+** Compute new size for buffer 'B', enough to accommodate extra 'sz'
+** bytes.
*/
-LUALIB_API char *luaL_prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
- lua_State *L = B->L;
- if (B->size - B->n < sz) { /* not enough space? */
+static size_t newbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
+ size_t newsize = B->size * 2; /* double buffer size */
+ if (MAX_SIZET - sz < B->n) /* overflow in (B->n + sz)? */
+ return luaL_error(B->L, "buffer too large");
+ if (newsize < B->n + sz) /* double is not big enough? */
+ newsize = B->n + sz;
+ return newsize;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Returns a pointer to a free area with at least 'sz' bytes in buffer
+** 'B'. 'boxidx' is the relative position in the stack where the
+** buffer's box is or should be.
+*/
+static char *prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz, int boxidx) {
+ if (B->size - B->n >= sz) /* enough space? */
+ return B->b + B->n;
+ else {
+ lua_State *L = B->L;
char *newbuff;
- size_t newsize = B->size * 2; /* double buffer size */
- if (newsize - B->n < sz) /* not big enough? */
- newsize = B->n + sz;
- if (newsize < B->n || newsize - B->n < sz)
- luaL_error(L, "buffer too large");
+ size_t newsize = newbuffsize(B, sz);
/* create larger buffer */
- if (buffonstack(B))
- newbuff = (char *)resizebox(L, -1, newsize);
- else { /* no buffer yet */
- newbuff = (char *)newbox(L, newsize);
+ if (buffonstack(B)) /* buffer already has a box? */
+ newbuff = (char *)resizebox(L, boxidx, newsize); /* resize it */
+ else { /* no box yet */
+ lua_pushnil(L); /* reserve slot for final result */
+ newbox(L); /* create a new box */
+ /* move box (and slot) to its intended position */
+ lua_rotate(L, boxidx - 1, 2);
+ lua_toclose(L, boxidx);
+ newbuff = (char *)resizebox(L, boxidx, newsize);
memcpy(newbuff, B->b, B->n * sizeof(char)); /* copy original content */
}
B->b = newbuff;
B->size = newsize;
+ return newbuff + B->n;
}
- return &B->b[B->n];
+}
+
+/*
+** returns a pointer to a free area with at least 'sz' bytes
+*/
+LUALIB_API char *luaL_prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
+ return prepbuffsize(B, sz, -1);
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l) {
if (l > 0) { /* avoid 'memcpy' when 's' can be NULL */
- char *b = luaL_prepbuffsize(B, l);
+ char *b = prepbuffsize(B, l, -1);
memcpy(b, s, l * sizeof(char));
luaL_addsize(B, l);
}
@@ -543,8 +585,8 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B) {
lua_State *L = B->L;
lua_pushlstring(L, B->b, B->n);
if (buffonstack(B)) {
- resizebox(L, -2, 0); /* delete old buffer */
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove its header from the stack */
+ lua_copy(L, -1, -3); /* move string to reserved slot */
+ lua_pop(L, 2); /* pop string and box (closing the box) */
}
}
@@ -555,20 +597,29 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresultsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
}
+/*
+** 'luaL_addvalue' is the only function in the Buffer system where the
+** box (if existent) is not on the top of the stack. So, instead of
+** calling 'luaL_addlstring', it replicates the code using -2 as the
+** last argument to 'prepbuffsize', signaling that the box is (or will
+** be) bellow the string being added to the buffer. (Box creation can
+** trigger an emergency GC, so we should not remove the string from the
+** stack before we have the space guaranteed.)
+*/
LUALIB_API void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B) {
lua_State *L = B->L;
- size_t l;
- const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &l);
- if (buffonstack(B))
- lua_insert(L, -2); /* put value below buffer */
- luaL_addlstring(B, s, l);
- lua_remove(L, (buffonstack(B)) ? -2 : -1); /* remove value */
+ size_t len;
+ const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &len);
+ char *b = prepbuffsize(B, len, -2);
+ memcpy(b, s, len * sizeof(char));
+ luaL_addsize(B, len);
+ lua_pop(L, 1); /* pop string */
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B) {
B->L = L;
- B->b = B->initb;
+ B->b = B->init.b;
B->n = 0;
B->size = LUAL_BUFFERSIZE;
}
@@ -576,7 +627,7 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B) {
LUALIB_API char *luaL_buffinitsize (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
luaL_buffinit(L, B);
- return luaL_prepbuffsize(B, sz);
+ return prepbuffsize(B, sz, -1);
}
/* }====================================================== */
@@ -846,87 +897,6 @@ LUALIB_API const char *luaL_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
/*
-** {======================================================
-** Compatibility with 5.1 module functions
-** =======================================================
-*/
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_MODULE)
-
-static const char *luaL_findtable (lua_State *L, int idx,
- const char *fname, int szhint) {
- const char *e;
- if (idx) lua_pushvalue(L, idx);
- do {
- e = strchr(fname, '.');
- if (e == NULL) e = fname + strlen(fname);
- lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
- if (lua_rawget(L, -2) == LUA_TNIL) { /* no such field? */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove this nil */
- lua_createtable(L, 0, (*e == '.' ? 1 : szhint)); /* new table for field */
- lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
- lua_pushvalue(L, -2);
- lua_settable(L, -4); /* set new table into field */
- }
- else if (!lua_istable(L, -1)) { /* field has a non-table value? */
- lua_pop(L, 2); /* remove table and value */
- return fname; /* return problematic part of the name */
- }
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove previous table */
- fname = e + 1;
- } while (*e == '.');
- return NULL;
-}
-
-
-/*
-** Count number of elements in a luaL_Reg list.
-*/
-static int libsize (const luaL_Reg *l) {
- int size = 0;
- for (; l && l->name; l++) size++;
- return size;
-}
-
-
-/*
-** Find or create a module table with a given name. The function
-** first looks at the LOADED table and, if that fails, try a
-** global variable with that name. In any case, leaves on the stack
-** the module table.
-*/
-LUALIB_API void luaL_pushmodule (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
- int sizehint) {
- luaL_findtable(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, LUA_LOADED_TABLE, 1);
- if (lua_getfield(L, -1, modname) != LUA_TTABLE) { /* no LOADED[modname]? */
- lua_pop(L, 1); /* remove previous result */
- /* try global variable (and create one if it does not exist) */
- lua_pushglobaltable(L);
- if (luaL_findtable(L, 0, modname, sizehint) != NULL)
- luaL_error(L, "name conflict for module '%s'", modname);
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_setfield(L, -3, modname); /* LOADED[modname] = new table */
- }
- lua_remove(L, -2); /* remove LOADED table */
-}
-
-
-LUALIB_API void luaL_openlib (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
- const luaL_Reg *l, int nup) {
- luaL_checkversion(L);
- if (libname) {
- luaL_pushmodule(L, libname, libsize(l)); /* get/create library table */
- lua_insert(L, -(nup + 1)); /* move library table to below upvalues */
- }
- if (l)
- luaL_setfuncs(L, l, nup);
- else
- lua_pop(L, nup); /* remove upvalues */
-}
-
-#endif
-/* }====================================================== */
-
-/*
** set functions from list 'l' into table at top - 'nup'; each
** function gets the 'nup' elements at the top as upvalues.
** Returns with only the table at the stack.
@@ -934,10 +904,14 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_openlib (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
LUALIB_API void luaL_setfuncs (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg *l, int nup) {
luaL_checkstack(L, nup, "too many upvalues");
for (; l->name != NULL; l++) { /* fill the table with given functions */
- int i;
- for (i = 0; i < nup; i++) /* copy upvalues to the top */
- lua_pushvalue(L, -nup);
- lua_pushcclosure(L, l->func, nup); /* closure with those upvalues */
+ if (l->func == NULL) /* place holder? */
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 0);
+ else {
+ int i;
+ for (i = 0; i < nup; i++) /* copy upvalues to the top */
+ lua_pushvalue(L, -nup);
+ lua_pushcclosure(L, l->func, nup); /* closure with those upvalues */
+ }
lua_setfield(L, -(nup + 2), l->name);
}
lua_pop(L, nup); /* remove upvalues */
@@ -988,18 +962,24 @@ LUALIB_API void luaL_requiref (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
}
-LUALIB_API const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L, const char *s, const char *p,
- const char *r) {
+LUALIB_API void luaL_addgsub (luaL_Buffer *b, const char *s,
+ const char *p, const char *r) {
const char *wild;
size_t l = strlen(p);
- luaL_Buffer b;
- luaL_buffinit(L, &b);
while ((wild = strstr(s, p)) != NULL) {
- luaL_addlstring(&b, s, wild - s); /* push prefix */
- luaL_addstring(&b, r); /* push replacement in place of pattern */
+ luaL_addlstring(b, s, wild - s); /* push prefix */
+ luaL_addstring(b, r); /* push replacement in place of pattern */
s = wild + l; /* continue after 'p' */
}
- luaL_addstring(&b, s); /* push last suffix */
+ luaL_addstring(b, s); /* push last suffix */
+}
+
+
+LUALIB_API const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L, const char *s,
+ const char *p, const char *r) {
+ luaL_Buffer b;
+ luaL_buffinit(L, &b);
+ luaL_addgsub(&b, s, p, r);
luaL_pushresult(&b);
return lua_tostring(L, -1);
}
@@ -1011,38 +991,93 @@ static void *l_alloc (void *ud, void *ptr, size_t osize, size_t nsize) {
free(ptr);
return NULL;
}
- else { /* cannot fail when shrinking a block */
- void *newptr = realloc(ptr, nsize);
- if (newptr == NULL && ptr != NULL && nsize <= osize)
- return ptr; /* keep the original block */
- else /* no fail or not shrinking */
- return newptr; /* use the new block */
- }
+ else
+ return realloc(ptr, nsize);
}
static int panic (lua_State *L) {
+ const char *msg = lua_tostring(L, -1);
+ if (msg == NULL) msg = "error object is not a string";
lua_writestringerror("PANIC: unprotected error in call to Lua API (%s)\n",
- lua_tostring(L, -1));
+ msg);
return 0; /* return to Lua to abort */
}
+/*
+** Warning functions:
+** warnfoff: warning system is off
+** warnfon: ready to start a new message
+** warnfcont: previous message is to be continued
+*/
+static void warnfoff (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont);
+static void warnfon (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont);
+static void warnfcont (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont);
+
+
+/*
+** Check whether message is a control message. If so, execute the
+** control or ignore it if unknown.
+*/
+static int checkcontrol (lua_State *L, const char *message, int tocont) {
+ if (tocont || *(message++) != '@') /* not a control message? */
+ return 0;
+ else {
+ if (strcmp(message, "off") == 0)
+ lua_setwarnf(L, warnfoff, L); /* turn warnings off */
+ else if (strcmp(message, "on") == 0)
+ lua_setwarnf(L, warnfon, L); /* turn warnings on */
+ return 1; /* it was a control message */
+ }
+}
+
+
+static void warnfoff (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont) {
+ checkcontrol((lua_State *)ud, message, tocont);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Writes the message and handle 'tocont', finishing the message
+** if needed and setting the next warn function.
+*/
+static void warnfcont (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont) {
+ lua_State *L = (lua_State *)ud;
+ lua_writestringerror("%s", message); /* write message */
+ if (tocont) /* not the last part? */
+ lua_setwarnf(L, warnfcont, L); /* to be continued */
+ else { /* last part */
+ lua_writestringerror("%s", "\n"); /* finish message with end-of-line */
+ lua_setwarnf(L, warnfon, L); /* next call is a new message */
+ }
+}
+
+
+static void warnfon (void *ud, const char *message, int tocont) {
+ if (checkcontrol((lua_State *)ud, message, tocont)) /* control message? */
+ return; /* nothing else to be done */
+ lua_writestringerror("%s", "Lua warning: "); /* start a new warning */
+ warnfcont(ud, message, tocont); /* finish processing */
+}
+
+
LUALIB_API lua_State *luaL_newstate (void) {
lua_State *L = lua_newstate(l_alloc, NULL);
- if (L) lua_atpanic(L, &panic);
+ if (L) {
+ lua_atpanic(L, &panic);
+ lua_setwarnf(L, warnfoff, L); /* default is warnings off */
+ }
return L;
}
LUALIB_API void luaL_checkversion_ (lua_State *L, lua_Number ver, size_t sz) {
- const lua_Number *v = lua_version(L);
+ lua_Number v = lua_version(L);
if (sz != LUAL_NUMSIZES) /* check numeric types */
luaL_error(L, "core and library have incompatible numeric types");
- if (v != lua_version(NULL))
- luaL_error(L, "multiple Lua VMs detected");
- else if (*v != ver)
+ else if (v != ver)
luaL_error(L, "version mismatch: app. needs %f, Lua core provides %f",
- (LUAI_UACNUMBER)ver, (LUAI_UACNUMBER)*v);
+ (LUAI_UACNUMBER)ver, (LUAI_UACNUMBER)v);
}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.h b/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.h
index 9857d3a835a9..59fef6af132b 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lauxlib.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lauxlib.h,v 1.131.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lauxlib.h $
** Auxiliary functions for building Lua libraries
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -15,6 +15,12 @@
#include "lua.h"
+/* global table */
+#define LUA_GNAME "_G"
+
+
+typedef struct luaL_Buffer luaL_Buffer;
+
/* extra error code for 'luaL_loadfilex' */
#define LUA_ERRFILE (LUA_ERRERR+1)
@@ -44,6 +50,7 @@ LUALIB_API int (luaL_getmetafield) (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);
LUALIB_API int (luaL_callmeta) (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);
LUALIB_API const char *(luaL_tolstring) (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len);
LUALIB_API int (luaL_argerror) (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *extramsg);
+LUALIB_API int (luaL_typeerror) (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *tname);
LUALIB_API const char *(luaL_checklstring) (lua_State *L, int arg,
size_t *l);
LUALIB_API const char *(luaL_optlstring) (lua_State *L, int arg,
@@ -73,6 +80,7 @@ LUALIB_API int (luaL_checkoption) (lua_State *L, int arg, const char *def,
LUALIB_API int (luaL_fileresult) (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname);
LUALIB_API int (luaL_execresult) (lua_State *L, int stat);
+
/* predefined references */
#define LUA_NOREF (-2)
#define LUA_REFNIL (-1)
@@ -93,8 +101,10 @@ LUALIB_API lua_State *(luaL_newstate) (void);
LUALIB_API lua_Integer (luaL_len) (lua_State *L, int idx);
-LUALIB_API const char *(luaL_gsub) (lua_State *L, const char *s, const char *p,
- const char *r);
+LUALIB_API void luaL_addgsub (luaL_Buffer *b, const char *s,
+ const char *p, const char *r);
+LUALIB_API const char *(luaL_gsub) (lua_State *L, const char *s,
+ const char *p, const char *r);
LUALIB_API void (luaL_setfuncs) (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg *l, int nup);
@@ -121,6 +131,10 @@ LUALIB_API void (luaL_requiref) (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
#define luaL_argcheck(L, cond,arg,extramsg) \
((void)((cond) || luaL_argerror(L, (arg), (extramsg))))
+
+#define luaL_argexpected(L,cond,arg,tname) \
+ ((void)((cond) || luaL_typeerror(L, (arg), (tname))))
+
#define luaL_checkstring(L,n) (luaL_checklstring(L, (n), NULL))
#define luaL_optstring(L,n,d) (luaL_optlstring(L, (n), (d), NULL))
@@ -139,19 +153,30 @@ LUALIB_API void (luaL_requiref) (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
#define luaL_loadbuffer(L,s,sz,n) luaL_loadbufferx(L,s,sz,n,NULL)
+/* push the value used to represent failure/error */
+#define luaL_pushfail(L) lua_pushnil(L)
+
+
/*
** {======================================================
** Generic Buffer manipulation
** =======================================================
*/
-typedef struct luaL_Buffer {
+struct luaL_Buffer {
char *b; /* buffer address */
size_t size; /* buffer size */
size_t n; /* number of characters in buffer */
lua_State *L;
- char initb[LUAL_BUFFERSIZE]; /* initial buffer */
-} luaL_Buffer;
+ union {
+ LUAI_MAXALIGN; /* ensure maximum alignment for buffer */
+ char b[LUAL_BUFFERSIZE]; /* initial buffer */
+ } init;
+};
+
+
+#define luaL_bufflen(bf) ((bf)->n)
+#define luaL_buffaddr(bf) ((bf)->b)
#define luaL_addchar(B,c) \
@@ -160,6 +185,8 @@ typedef struct luaL_Buffer {
#define luaL_addsize(B,s) ((B)->n += (s))
+#define luaL_buffsub(B,s) ((B)->n -= (s))
+
LUALIB_API void (luaL_buffinit) (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B);
LUALIB_API char *(luaL_prepbuffsize) (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz);
LUALIB_API void (luaL_addlstring) (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l);
@@ -197,21 +224,6 @@ typedef struct luaL_Stream {
/* }====================================================== */
-
-
-/* compatibility with old module system */
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_MODULE)
-
-LUALIB_API void (luaL_pushmodule) (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
- int sizehint);
-LUALIB_API void (luaL_openlib) (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
- const luaL_Reg *l, int nup);
-
-#define luaL_register(L,n,l) (luaL_openlib(L,(n),(l),0))
-
-#endif
-
-
/*
** {==================================================================
** "Abstraction Layer" for basic report of messages and errors
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lbaselib.c b/contrib/lua/src/lbaselib.c
index 6460e4f8d42b..747fd45a2fe5 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lbaselib.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lbaselib.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lbaselib.c,v 1.314.1.1 2017/04/19 17:39:34 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lbaselib.c $
** Basic library
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -24,18 +24,12 @@
static int luaB_print (lua_State *L) {
int n = lua_gettop(L); /* number of arguments */
int i;
- lua_getglobal(L, "tostring");
- for (i=1; i<=n; i++) {
- const char *s;
+ for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) { /* for each argument */
size_t l;
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1); /* function to be called */
- lua_pushvalue(L, i); /* value to print */
- lua_call(L, 1, 1);
- s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &l); /* get result */
- if (s == NULL)
- return luaL_error(L, "'tostring' must return a string to 'print'");
- if (i>1) lua_writestring("\t", 1);
- lua_writestring(s, l);
+ const char *s = luaL_tolstring(L, i, &l); /* convert it to string */
+ if (i > 1) /* not the first element? */
+ lua_writestring("\t", 1); /* add a tab before it */
+ lua_writestring(s, l); /* print it */
lua_pop(L, 1); /* pop result */
}
lua_writeline();
@@ -43,13 +37,31 @@ static int luaB_print (lua_State *L) {
}
+/*
+** Creates a warning with all given arguments.
+** Check first for errors; otherwise an error may interrupt
+** the composition of a warning, leaving it unfinished.
+*/
+static int luaB_warn (lua_State *L) {
+ int n = lua_gettop(L); /* number of arguments */
+ int i;
+ luaL_checkstring(L, 1); /* at least one argument */
+ for (i = 2; i <= n; i++)
+ luaL_checkstring(L, i); /* make sure all arguments are strings */
+ for (i = 1; i < n; i++) /* compose warning */
+ lua_warning(L, lua_tostring(L, i), 1);
+ lua_warning(L, lua_tostring(L, n), 0); /* close warning */
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
#define SPACECHARS " \f\n\r\t\v"
static const char *b_str2int (const char *s, int base, lua_Integer *pn) {
lua_Unsigned n = 0;
int neg = 0;
s += strspn(s, SPACECHARS); /* skip initial spaces */
- if (*s == '-') { s++; neg = 1; } /* handle signal */
+ if (*s == '-') { s++; neg = 1; } /* handle sign */
else if (*s == '+') s++;
if (!isalnum((unsigned char)*s)) /* no digit? */
return NULL;
@@ -68,7 +80,6 @@ static const char *b_str2int (const char *s, int base, lua_Integer *pn) {
static int luaB_tonumber (lua_State *L) {
if (lua_isnoneornil(L, 2)) { /* standard conversion? */
- luaL_checkany(L, 1);
if (lua_type(L, 1) == LUA_TNUMBER) { /* already a number? */
lua_settop(L, 1); /* yes; return it */
return 1;
@@ -79,6 +90,7 @@ static int luaB_tonumber (lua_State *L) {
if (s != NULL && lua_stringtonumber(L, s) == l + 1)
return 1; /* successful conversion to number */
/* else not a number */
+ luaL_checkany(L, 1); /* (but there must be some parameter) */
}
}
else {
@@ -94,7 +106,7 @@ static int luaB_tonumber (lua_State *L) {
return 1;
} /* else not a number */
} /* else not a number */
- lua_pushnil(L); /* not a number */
+ luaL_pushfail(L); /* not a number */
return 1;
}
@@ -125,8 +137,7 @@ static int luaB_getmetatable (lua_State *L) {
static int luaB_setmetatable (lua_State *L) {
int t = lua_type(L, 2);
luaL_checktype(L, 1, LUA_TTABLE);
- luaL_argcheck(L, t == LUA_TNIL || t == LUA_TTABLE, 2,
- "nil or table expected");
+ luaL_argexpected(L, t == LUA_TNIL || t == LUA_TTABLE, 2, "nil or table");
if (luaL_getmetafield(L, 1, "__metatable") != LUA_TNIL)
return luaL_error(L, "cannot change a protected metatable");
lua_settop(L, 2);
@@ -145,8 +156,8 @@ static int luaB_rawequal (lua_State *L) {
static int luaB_rawlen (lua_State *L) {
int t = lua_type(L, 1);
- luaL_argcheck(L, t == LUA_TTABLE || t == LUA_TSTRING, 1,
- "table or string expected");
+ luaL_argexpected(L, t == LUA_TTABLE || t == LUA_TSTRING, 1,
+ "table or string");
lua_pushinteger(L, lua_rawlen(L, 1));
return 1;
}
@@ -170,27 +181,58 @@ static int luaB_rawset (lua_State *L) {
}
+static int pushmode (lua_State *L, int oldmode) {
+ lua_pushstring(L, (oldmode == LUA_GCINC) ? "incremental" : "generational");
+ return 1;
+}
+
+
static int luaB_collectgarbage (lua_State *L) {
static const char *const opts[] = {"stop", "restart", "collect",
"count", "step", "setpause", "setstepmul",
- "isrunning", NULL};
+ "isrunning", "generational", "incremental", NULL};
static const int optsnum[] = {LUA_GCSTOP, LUA_GCRESTART, LUA_GCCOLLECT,
LUA_GCCOUNT, LUA_GCSTEP, LUA_GCSETPAUSE, LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL,
- LUA_GCISRUNNING};
+ LUA_GCISRUNNING, LUA_GCGEN, LUA_GCINC};
int o = optsnum[luaL_checkoption(L, 1, "collect", opts)];
- int ex = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 0);
- int res = lua_gc(L, o, ex);
switch (o) {
case LUA_GCCOUNT: {
- int b = lua_gc(L, LUA_GCCOUNTB, 0);
- lua_pushnumber(L, (lua_Number)res + ((lua_Number)b/1024));
+ int k = lua_gc(L, o);
+ int b = lua_gc(L, LUA_GCCOUNTB);
+ lua_pushnumber(L, (lua_Number)k + ((lua_Number)b/1024));
+ return 1;
+ }
+ case LUA_GCSTEP: {
+ int step = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 0);
+ int res = lua_gc(L, o, step);
+ lua_pushboolean(L, res);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ case LUA_GCSETPAUSE:
+ case LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL: {
+ int p = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 0);
+ int previous = lua_gc(L, o, p);
+ lua_pushinteger(L, previous);
return 1;
}
- case LUA_GCSTEP: case LUA_GCISRUNNING: {
+ case LUA_GCISRUNNING: {
+ int res = lua_gc(L, o);
lua_pushboolean(L, res);
return 1;
}
+ case LUA_GCGEN: {
+ int minormul = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 0);
+ int majormul = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 3, 0);
+ return pushmode(L, lua_gc(L, o, minormul, majormul));
+ }
+ case LUA_GCINC: {
+ int pause = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 0);
+ int stepmul = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 3, 0);
+ int stepsize = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 4, 0);
+ return pushmode(L, lua_gc(L, o, pause, stepmul, stepsize));
+ }
default: {
+ int res = lua_gc(L, o);
lua_pushinteger(L, res);
return 1;
}
@@ -206,23 +248,6 @@ static int luaB_type (lua_State *L) {
}
-static int pairsmeta (lua_State *L, const char *method, int iszero,
- lua_CFunction iter) {
- luaL_checkany(L, 1);
- if (luaL_getmetafield(L, 1, method) == LUA_TNIL) { /* no metamethod? */
- lua_pushcfunction(L, iter); /* will return generator, */
- lua_pushvalue(L, 1); /* state, */
- if (iszero) lua_pushinteger(L, 0); /* and initial value */
- else lua_pushnil(L);
- }
- else {
- lua_pushvalue(L, 1); /* argument 'self' to metamethod */
- lua_call(L, 1, 3); /* get 3 values from metamethod */
- }
- return 3;
-}
-
-
static int luaB_next (lua_State *L) {
luaL_checktype(L, 1, LUA_TTABLE);
lua_settop(L, 2); /* create a 2nd argument if there isn't one */
@@ -236,7 +261,17 @@ static int luaB_next (lua_State *L) {
static int luaB_pairs (lua_State *L) {
- return pairsmeta(L, "__pairs", 0, luaB_next);
+ luaL_checkany(L, 1);
+ if (luaL_getmetafield(L, 1, "__pairs") == LUA_TNIL) { /* no metamethod? */
+ lua_pushcfunction(L, luaB_next); /* will return generator, */
+ lua_pushvalue(L, 1); /* state, */
+ lua_pushnil(L); /* and initial value */
+ }
+ else {
+ lua_pushvalue(L, 1); /* argument 'self' to metamethod */
+ lua_call(L, 1, 3); /* get 3 values from metamethod */
+ }
+ return 3;
}
@@ -255,15 +290,11 @@ static int ipairsaux (lua_State *L) {
** (The given "table" may not be a table.)
*/
static int luaB_ipairs (lua_State *L) {
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_IPAIRS)
- return pairsmeta(L, "__ipairs", 1, ipairsaux);
-#else
luaL_checkany(L, 1);
lua_pushcfunction(L, ipairsaux); /* iteration function */
lua_pushvalue(L, 1); /* state */
lua_pushinteger(L, 0); /* initial value */
return 3;
-#endif
}
@@ -277,9 +308,9 @@ static int load_aux (lua_State *L, int status, int envidx) {
return 1;
}
else { /* error (message is on top of the stack) */
- lua_pushnil(L);
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
lua_insert(L, -2); /* put before error message */
- return 2; /* return nil plus error message */
+ return 2; /* return fail plus error message */
}
}
@@ -459,13 +490,11 @@ static const luaL_Reg base_funcs[] = {
{"ipairs", luaB_ipairs},
{"loadfile", luaB_loadfile},
{"load", luaB_load},
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_LOADSTRING)
- {"loadstring", luaB_load},
-#endif
{"next", luaB_next},
{"pairs", luaB_pairs},
{"pcall", luaB_pcall},
{"print", luaB_print},
+ {"warn", luaB_warn},
{"rawequal", luaB_rawequal},
{"rawlen", luaB_rawlen},
{"rawget", luaB_rawget},
@@ -477,7 +506,7 @@ static const luaL_Reg base_funcs[] = {
{"type", luaB_type},
{"xpcall", luaB_xpcall},
/* placeholders */
- {"_G", NULL},
+ {LUA_GNAME, NULL},
{"_VERSION", NULL},
{NULL, NULL}
};
@@ -489,7 +518,7 @@ LUAMOD_API int luaopen_base (lua_State *L) {
luaL_setfuncs(L, base_funcs, 0);
/* set global _G */
lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_setfield(L, -2, "_G");
+ lua_setfield(L, -2, LUA_GNAME);
/* set global _VERSION */
lua_pushliteral(L, LUA_VERSION);
lua_setfield(L, -2, "_VERSION");
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lbitlib.c b/contrib/lua/src/lbitlib.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 4786c0d48302..000000000000
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lbitlib.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,233 +0,0 @@
-/*
-** $Id: lbitlib.c,v 1.30.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
-** Standard library for bitwise operations
-** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
-*/
-
-#define lbitlib_c
-#define LUA_LIB
-
-#include "lprefix.h"
-
-
-#include "lua.h"
-
-#include "lauxlib.h"
-#include "lualib.h"
-
-
-#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_BITLIB) /* { */
-
-
-#define pushunsigned(L,n) lua_pushinteger(L, (lua_Integer)(n))
-#define checkunsigned(L,i) ((lua_Unsigned)luaL_checkinteger(L,i))
-
-
-/* number of bits to consider in a number */
-#if !defined(LUA_NBITS)
-#define LUA_NBITS 32
-#endif
-
-
-/*
-** a lua_Unsigned with its first LUA_NBITS bits equal to 1. (Shift must
-** be made in two parts to avoid problems when LUA_NBITS is equal to the
-** number of bits in a lua_Unsigned.)
-*/
-#define ALLONES (~(((~(lua_Unsigned)0) << (LUA_NBITS - 1)) << 1))
-
-
-/* macro to trim extra bits */
-#define trim(x) ((x) & ALLONES)
-
-
-/* builds a number with 'n' ones (1 <= n <= LUA_NBITS) */
-#define mask(n) (~((ALLONES << 1) << ((n) - 1)))
-
-
-
-static lua_Unsigned andaux (lua_State *L) {
- int i, n = lua_gettop(L);
- lua_Unsigned r = ~(lua_Unsigned)0;
- for (i = 1; i <= n; i++)
- r &= checkunsigned(L, i);
- return trim(r);
-}
-
-
-static int b_and (lua_State *L) {
- lua_Unsigned r = andaux(L);
- pushunsigned(L, r);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_test (lua_State *L) {
- lua_Unsigned r = andaux(L);
- lua_pushboolean(L, r != 0);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_or (lua_State *L) {
- int i, n = lua_gettop(L);
- lua_Unsigned r = 0;
- for (i = 1; i <= n; i++)
- r |= checkunsigned(L, i);
- pushunsigned(L, trim(r));
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_xor (lua_State *L) {
- int i, n = lua_gettop(L);
- lua_Unsigned r = 0;
- for (i = 1; i <= n; i++)
- r ^= checkunsigned(L, i);
- pushunsigned(L, trim(r));
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_not (lua_State *L) {
- lua_Unsigned r = ~checkunsigned(L, 1);
- pushunsigned(L, trim(r));
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_shift (lua_State *L, lua_Unsigned r, lua_Integer i) {
- if (i < 0) { /* shift right? */
- i = -i;
- r = trim(r);
- if (i >= LUA_NBITS) r = 0;
- else r >>= i;
- }
- else { /* shift left */
- if (i >= LUA_NBITS) r = 0;
- else r <<= i;
- r = trim(r);
- }
- pushunsigned(L, r);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_lshift (lua_State *L) {
- return b_shift(L, checkunsigned(L, 1), luaL_checkinteger(L, 2));
-}
-
-
-static int b_rshift (lua_State *L) {
- return b_shift(L, checkunsigned(L, 1), -luaL_checkinteger(L, 2));
-}
-
-
-static int b_arshift (lua_State *L) {
- lua_Unsigned r = checkunsigned(L, 1);
- lua_Integer i = luaL_checkinteger(L, 2);
- if (i < 0 || !(r & ((lua_Unsigned)1 << (LUA_NBITS - 1))))
- return b_shift(L, r, -i);
- else { /* arithmetic shift for 'negative' number */
- if (i >= LUA_NBITS) r = ALLONES;
- else
- r = trim((r >> i) | ~(trim(~(lua_Unsigned)0) >> i)); /* add signal bit */
- pushunsigned(L, r);
- return 1;
- }
-}
-
-
-static int b_rot (lua_State *L, lua_Integer d) {
- lua_Unsigned r = checkunsigned(L, 1);
- int i = d & (LUA_NBITS - 1); /* i = d % NBITS */
- r = trim(r);
- if (i != 0) /* avoid undefined shift of LUA_NBITS when i == 0 */
- r = (r << i) | (r >> (LUA_NBITS - i));
- pushunsigned(L, trim(r));
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_lrot (lua_State *L) {
- return b_rot(L, luaL_checkinteger(L, 2));
-}
-
-
-static int b_rrot (lua_State *L) {
- return b_rot(L, -luaL_checkinteger(L, 2));
-}
-
-
-/*
-** get field and width arguments for field-manipulation functions,
-** checking whether they are valid.
-** ('luaL_error' called without 'return' to avoid later warnings about
-** 'width' being used uninitialized.)
-*/
-static int fieldargs (lua_State *L, int farg, int *width) {
- lua_Integer f = luaL_checkinteger(L, farg);
- lua_Integer w = luaL_optinteger(L, farg + 1, 1);
- luaL_argcheck(L, 0 <= f, farg, "field cannot be negative");
- luaL_argcheck(L, 0 < w, farg + 1, "width must be positive");
- if (f + w > LUA_NBITS)
- luaL_error(L, "trying to access non-existent bits");
- *width = (int)w;
- return (int)f;
-}
-
-
-static int b_extract (lua_State *L) {
- int w;
- lua_Unsigned r = trim(checkunsigned(L, 1));
- int f = fieldargs(L, 2, &w);
- r = (r >> f) & mask(w);
- pushunsigned(L, r);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static int b_replace (lua_State *L) {
- int w;
- lua_Unsigned r = trim(checkunsigned(L, 1));
- lua_Unsigned v = trim(checkunsigned(L, 2));
- int f = fieldargs(L, 3, &w);
- lua_Unsigned m = mask(w);
- r = (r & ~(m << f)) | ((v & m) << f);
- pushunsigned(L, r);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-static const luaL_Reg bitlib[] = {
- {"arshift", b_arshift},
- {"band", b_and},
- {"bnot", b_not},
- {"bor", b_or},
- {"bxor", b_xor},
- {"btest", b_test},
- {"extract", b_extract},
- {"lrotate", b_lrot},
- {"lshift", b_lshift},
- {"replace", b_replace},
- {"rrotate", b_rrot},
- {"rshift", b_rshift},
- {NULL, NULL}
-};
-
-
-
-LUAMOD_API int luaopen_bit32 (lua_State *L) {
- luaL_newlib(L, bitlib);
- return 1;
-}
-
-
-#else /* }{ */
-
-
-LUAMOD_API int luaopen_bit32 (lua_State *L) {
- return luaL_error(L, "library 'bit32' has been deprecated");
-}
-
-#endif /* } */
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lcode.c b/contrib/lua/src/lcode.c
index dc7271d61419..14d41f1a7ef4 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lcode.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lcode.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lcode.c,v 2.112.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lcode.c $
** Code generator for Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
#include "lprefix.h"
+#include <limits.h>
#include <math.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
@@ -36,11 +37,22 @@
#define hasjumps(e) ((e)->t != (e)->f)
+static int codesJ (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int sj, int k);
+
+
+
+/* semantic error */
+l_noret luaK_semerror (LexState *ls, const char *msg) {
+ ls->t.token = 0; /* remove "near <token>" from final message */
+ luaX_syntaxerror(ls, msg);
+}
+
+
/*
** If expression is a numeric constant, fills 'v' with its value
** and returns 1. Otherwise, returns 0.
*/
-static int tonumeral(const expdesc *e, TValue *v) {
+static int tonumeral (const expdesc *e, TValue *v) {
if (hasjumps(e))
return 0; /* not a numeral */
switch (e->k) {
@@ -56,27 +68,78 @@ static int tonumeral(const expdesc *e, TValue *v) {
/*
+** Get the constant value from a constant expression
+*/
+static TValue *const2val (FuncState *fs, const expdesc *e) {
+ lua_assert(e->k == VCONST);
+ return &fs->ls->dyd->actvar.arr[e->u.info].k;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** If expression is a constant, fills 'v' with its value
+** and returns 1. Otherwise, returns 0.
+*/
+int luaK_exp2const (FuncState *fs, const expdesc *e, TValue *v) {
+ if (hasjumps(e))
+ return 0; /* not a constant */
+ switch (e->k) {
+ case VFALSE:
+ setbfvalue(v);
+ return 1;
+ case VTRUE:
+ setbtvalue(v);
+ return 1;
+ case VNIL:
+ setnilvalue(v);
+ return 1;
+ case VKSTR: {
+ setsvalue(fs->ls->L, v, e->u.strval);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ case VCONST: {
+ setobj(fs->ls->L, v, const2val(fs, e));
+ return 1;
+ }
+ default: return tonumeral(e, v);
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Return the previous instruction of the current code. If there
+** may be a jump target between the current instruction and the
+** previous one, return an invalid instruction (to avoid wrong
+** optimizations).
+*/
+static Instruction *previousinstruction (FuncState *fs) {
+ static const Instruction invalidinstruction = ~(Instruction)0;
+ if (fs->pc > fs->lasttarget)
+ return &fs->f->code[fs->pc - 1]; /* previous instruction */
+ else
+ return cast(Instruction*, &invalidinstruction);
+}
+
+
+/*
** Create a OP_LOADNIL instruction, but try to optimize: if the previous
** instruction is also OP_LOADNIL and ranges are compatible, adjust
** range of previous instruction instead of emitting a new one. (For
** instance, 'local a; local b' will generate a single opcode.)
*/
void luaK_nil (FuncState *fs, int from, int n) {
- Instruction *previous;
int l = from + n - 1; /* last register to set nil */
- if (fs->pc > fs->lasttarget) { /* no jumps to current position? */
- previous = &fs->f->code[fs->pc-1];
- if (GET_OPCODE(*previous) == OP_LOADNIL) { /* previous is LOADNIL? */
- int pfrom = GETARG_A(*previous); /* get previous range */
- int pl = pfrom + GETARG_B(*previous);
- if ((pfrom <= from && from <= pl + 1) ||
- (from <= pfrom && pfrom <= l + 1)) { /* can connect both? */
- if (pfrom < from) from = pfrom; /* from = min(from, pfrom) */
- if (pl > l) l = pl; /* l = max(l, pl) */
- SETARG_A(*previous, from);
- SETARG_B(*previous, l - from);
- return;
- }
+ Instruction *previous = previousinstruction(fs);
+ if (GET_OPCODE(*previous) == OP_LOADNIL) { /* previous is LOADNIL? */
+ int pfrom = GETARG_A(*previous); /* get previous range */
+ int pl = pfrom + GETARG_B(*previous);
+ if ((pfrom <= from && from <= pl + 1) ||
+ (from <= pfrom && pfrom <= l + 1)) { /* can connect both? */
+ if (pfrom < from) from = pfrom; /* from = min(from, pfrom) */
+ if (pl > l) l = pl; /* l = max(l, pl) */
+ SETARG_A(*previous, from);
+ SETARG_B(*previous, l - from);
+ return;
} /* else go through */
}
luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_LOADNIL, from, n - 1, 0); /* else no optimization */
@@ -88,7 +151,7 @@ void luaK_nil (FuncState *fs, int from, int n) {
** a list of jumps.
*/
static int getjump (FuncState *fs, int pc) {
- int offset = GETARG_sBx(fs->f->code[pc]);
+ int offset = GETARG_sJ(fs->f->code[pc]);
if (offset == NO_JUMP) /* point to itself represents end of list */
return NO_JUMP; /* end of list */
else
@@ -104,9 +167,10 @@ static void fixjump (FuncState *fs, int pc, int dest) {
Instruction *jmp = &fs->f->code[pc];
int offset = dest - (pc + 1);
lua_assert(dest != NO_JUMP);
- if (abs(offset) > MAXARG_sBx)
+ if (!(-OFFSET_sJ <= offset && offset <= MAXARG_sJ - OFFSET_sJ))
luaX_syntaxerror(fs->ls, "control structure too long");
- SETARG_sBx(*jmp, offset);
+ lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*jmp) == OP_JMP);
+ SETARG_sJ(*jmp, offset);
}
@@ -129,17 +193,10 @@ void luaK_concat (FuncState *fs, int *l1, int l2) {
/*
** Create a jump instruction and return its position, so its destination
-** can be fixed later (with 'fixjump'). If there are jumps to
-** this position (kept in 'jpc'), link them all together so that
-** 'patchlistaux' will fix all them directly to the final destination.
+** can be fixed later (with 'fixjump').
*/
int luaK_jump (FuncState *fs) {
- int jpc = fs->jpc; /* save list of jumps to here */
- int j;
- fs->jpc = NO_JUMP; /* no more jumps to here */
- j = luaK_codeAsBx(fs, OP_JMP, 0, NO_JUMP);
- luaK_concat(fs, &j, jpc); /* keep them on hold */
- return j;
+ return codesJ(fs, OP_JMP, NO_JUMP, 0);
}
@@ -147,7 +204,13 @@ int luaK_jump (FuncState *fs) {
** Code a 'return' instruction
*/
void luaK_ret (FuncState *fs, int first, int nret) {
- luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_RETURN, first, nret+1, 0);
+ OpCode op;
+ switch (nret) {
+ case 0: op = OP_RETURN0; break;
+ case 1: op = OP_RETURN1; break;
+ default: op = OP_RETURN; break;
+ }
+ luaK_codeABC(fs, op, first, nret + 1, 0);
}
@@ -155,8 +218,8 @@ void luaK_ret (FuncState *fs, int first, int nret) {
** Code a "conditional jump", that is, a test or comparison opcode
** followed by a jump. Return jump position.
*/
-static int condjump (FuncState *fs, OpCode op, int A, int B, int C) {
- luaK_codeABC(fs, op, A, B, C);
+static int condjump (FuncState *fs, OpCode op, int A, int B, int C, int k) {
+ luaK_codeABCk(fs, op, A, B, C, k);
return luaK_jump(fs);
}
@@ -201,7 +264,7 @@ static int patchtestreg (FuncState *fs, int node, int reg) {
else {
/* no register to put value or register already has the value;
change instruction to simple test */
- *i = CREATE_ABC(OP_TEST, GETARG_B(*i), 0, GETARG_C(*i));
+ *i = CREATE_ABCk(OP_TEST, GETARG_B(*i), 0, 0, GETARG_k(*i));
}
return 1;
}
@@ -235,73 +298,103 @@ static void patchlistaux (FuncState *fs, int list, int vtarget, int reg,
/*
-** Ensure all pending jumps to current position are fixed (jumping
-** to current position with no values) and reset list of pending
-** jumps
+** Path all jumps in 'list' to jump to 'target'.
+** (The assert means that we cannot fix a jump to a forward address
+** because we only know addresses once code is generated.)
*/
-static void dischargejpc (FuncState *fs) {
- patchlistaux(fs, fs->jpc, fs->pc, NO_REG, fs->pc);
- fs->jpc = NO_JUMP;
+void luaK_patchlist (FuncState *fs, int list, int target) {
+ lua_assert(target <= fs->pc);
+ patchlistaux(fs, list, target, NO_REG, target);
}
-/*
-** Add elements in 'list' to list of pending jumps to "here"
-** (current position)
-*/
void luaK_patchtohere (FuncState *fs, int list) {
- luaK_getlabel(fs); /* mark "here" as a jump target */
- luaK_concat(fs, &fs->jpc, list);
+ int hr = luaK_getlabel(fs); /* mark "here" as a jump target */
+ luaK_patchlist(fs, list, hr);
}
/*
-** Path all jumps in 'list' to jump to 'target'.
-** (The assert means that we cannot fix a jump to a forward address
-** because we only know addresses once code is generated.)
+** MAXimum number of successive Instructions WiTHout ABSolute line
+** information.
*/
-void luaK_patchlist (FuncState *fs, int list, int target) {
- if (target == fs->pc) /* 'target' is current position? */
- luaK_patchtohere(fs, list); /* add list to pending jumps */
- else {
- lua_assert(target < fs->pc);
- patchlistaux(fs, list, target, NO_REG, target);
+#if !defined(MAXIWTHABS)
+#define MAXIWTHABS 120
+#endif
+
+
+/* limit for difference between lines in relative line info. */
+#define LIMLINEDIFF 0x80
+
+
+/*
+** Save line info for a new instruction. If difference from last line
+** does not fit in a byte, of after that many instructions, save a new
+** absolute line info; (in that case, the special value 'ABSLINEINFO'
+** in 'lineinfo' signals the existence of this absolute information.)
+** Otherwise, store the difference from last line in 'lineinfo'.
+*/
+static void savelineinfo (FuncState *fs, Proto *f, int line) {
+ int linedif = line - fs->previousline;
+ int pc = fs->pc - 1; /* last instruction coded */
+ if (abs(linedif) >= LIMLINEDIFF || fs->iwthabs++ > MAXIWTHABS) {
+ luaM_growvector(fs->ls->L, f->abslineinfo, fs->nabslineinfo,
+ f->sizeabslineinfo, AbsLineInfo, MAX_INT, "lines");
+ f->abslineinfo[fs->nabslineinfo].pc = pc;
+ f->abslineinfo[fs->nabslineinfo++].line = line;
+ linedif = ABSLINEINFO; /* signal that there is absolute information */
+ fs->iwthabs = 0; /* restart counter */
}
+ luaM_growvector(fs->ls->L, f->lineinfo, pc, f->sizelineinfo, ls_byte,
+ MAX_INT, "opcodes");
+ f->lineinfo[pc] = linedif;
+ fs->previousline = line; /* last line saved */
}
/*
-** Path all jumps in 'list' to close upvalues up to given 'level'
-** (The assertion checks that jumps either were closing nothing
-** or were closing higher levels, from inner blocks.)
+** Remove line information from the last instruction.
+** If line information for that instruction is absolute, set 'iwthabs'
+** above its max to force the new (replacing) instruction to have
+** absolute line info, too.
*/
-void luaK_patchclose (FuncState *fs, int list, int level) {
- level++; /* argument is +1 to reserve 0 as non-op */
- for (; list != NO_JUMP; list = getjump(fs, list)) {
- lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(fs->f->code[list]) == OP_JMP &&
- (GETARG_A(fs->f->code[list]) == 0 ||
- GETARG_A(fs->f->code[list]) >= level));
- SETARG_A(fs->f->code[list], level);
+static void removelastlineinfo (FuncState *fs) {
+ Proto *f = fs->f;
+ int pc = fs->pc - 1; /* last instruction coded */
+ if (f->lineinfo[pc] != ABSLINEINFO) { /* relative line info? */
+ fs->previousline -= f->lineinfo[pc]; /* correct last line saved */
+ fs->iwthabs--; /* undo previous increment */
+ }
+ else { /* absolute line information */
+ lua_assert(f->abslineinfo[fs->nabslineinfo - 1].pc == pc);
+ fs->nabslineinfo--; /* remove it */
+ fs->iwthabs = MAXIWTHABS + 1; /* force next line info to be absolute */
}
}
/*
+** Remove the last instruction created, correcting line information
+** accordingly.
+*/
+static void removelastinstruction (FuncState *fs) {
+ removelastlineinfo(fs);
+ fs->pc--;
+}
+
+
+/*
** Emit instruction 'i', checking for array sizes and saving also its
** line information. Return 'i' position.
*/
-static int luaK_code (FuncState *fs, Instruction i) {
+int luaK_code (FuncState *fs, Instruction i) {
Proto *f = fs->f;
- dischargejpc(fs); /* 'pc' will change */
/* put new instruction in code array */
luaM_growvector(fs->ls->L, f->code, fs->pc, f->sizecode, Instruction,
MAX_INT, "opcodes");
- f->code[fs->pc] = i;
- /* save corresponding line information */
- luaM_growvector(fs->ls->L, f->lineinfo, fs->pc, f->sizelineinfo, int,
- MAX_INT, "opcodes");
- f->lineinfo[fs->pc] = fs->ls->lastline;
- return fs->pc++;
+ f->code[fs->pc++] = i;
+ savelineinfo(fs, f, fs->ls->lastline);
+ return fs->pc - 1; /* index of new instruction */
}
@@ -309,12 +402,11 @@ static int luaK_code (FuncState *fs, Instruction i) {
** Format and emit an 'iABC' instruction. (Assertions check consistency
** of parameters versus opcode.)
*/
-int luaK_codeABC (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, int b, int c) {
+int luaK_codeABCk (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, int b, int c, int k) {
lua_assert(getOpMode(o) == iABC);
- lua_assert(getBMode(o) != OpArgN || b == 0);
- lua_assert(getCMode(o) != OpArgN || c == 0);
- lua_assert(a <= MAXARG_A && b <= MAXARG_B && c <= MAXARG_C);
- return luaK_code(fs, CREATE_ABC(o, a, b, c));
+ lua_assert(a <= MAXARG_A && b <= MAXARG_B &&
+ c <= MAXARG_C && (k & ~1) == 0);
+ return luaK_code(fs, CREATE_ABCk(o, a, b, c, k));
}
@@ -322,14 +414,35 @@ int luaK_codeABC (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, int b, int c) {
** Format and emit an 'iABx' instruction.
*/
int luaK_codeABx (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, unsigned int bc) {
- lua_assert(getOpMode(o) == iABx || getOpMode(o) == iAsBx);
- lua_assert(getCMode(o) == OpArgN);
+ lua_assert(getOpMode(o) == iABx);
lua_assert(a <= MAXARG_A && bc <= MAXARG_Bx);
return luaK_code(fs, CREATE_ABx(o, a, bc));
}
/*
+** Format and emit an 'iAsBx' instruction.
+*/
+int luaK_codeAsBx (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, int bc) {
+ unsigned int b = bc + OFFSET_sBx;
+ lua_assert(getOpMode(o) == iAsBx);
+ lua_assert(a <= MAXARG_A && b <= MAXARG_Bx);
+ return luaK_code(fs, CREATE_ABx(o, a, b));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Format and emit an 'isJ' instruction.
+*/
+static int codesJ (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int sj, int k) {
+ unsigned int j = sj + OFFSET_sJ;
+ lua_assert(getOpMode(o) == isJ);
+ lua_assert(j <= MAXARG_sJ && (k & ~1) == 0);
+ return luaK_code(fs, CREATE_sJ(o, j, k));
+}
+
+
+/*
** Emit an "extra argument" instruction (format 'iAx')
*/
static int codeextraarg (FuncState *fs, int a) {
@@ -343,7 +456,7 @@ static int codeextraarg (FuncState *fs, int a) {
** (if constant index 'k' fits in 18 bits) or an 'OP_LOADKX'
** instruction with "extra argument".
*/
-int luaK_codek (FuncState *fs, int reg, int k) {
+static int luaK_codek (FuncState *fs, int reg, int k) {
if (k <= MAXARG_Bx)
return luaK_codeABx(fs, OP_LOADK, reg, k);
else {
@@ -384,7 +497,7 @@ void luaK_reserveregs (FuncState *fs, int n) {
)
*/
static void freereg (FuncState *fs, int reg) {
- if (!ISK(reg) && reg >= fs->nactvar) {
+ if (reg >= luaY_nvarstack(fs)) {
fs->freereg--;
lua_assert(reg == fs->freereg);
}
@@ -392,6 +505,21 @@ static void freereg (FuncState *fs, int reg) {
/*
+** Free two registers in proper order
+*/
+static void freeregs (FuncState *fs, int r1, int r2) {
+ if (r1 > r2) {
+ freereg(fs, r1);
+ freereg(fs, r2);
+ }
+ else {
+ freereg(fs, r2);
+ freereg(fs, r1);
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
** Free register used by expression 'e' (if any)
*/
static void freeexp (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
@@ -407,14 +535,7 @@ static void freeexp (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
static void freeexps (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
int r1 = (e1->k == VNONRELOC) ? e1->u.info : -1;
int r2 = (e2->k == VNONRELOC) ? e2->u.info : -1;
- if (r1 > r2) {
- freereg(fs, r1);
- freereg(fs, r2);
- }
- else {
- freereg(fs, r2);
- freereg(fs, r1);
- }
+ freeregs(fs, r1, r2);
}
@@ -433,7 +554,7 @@ static int addk (FuncState *fs, TValue *key, TValue *v) {
if (ttisinteger(idx)) { /* is there an index there? */
k = cast_int(ivalue(idx));
/* correct value? (warning: must distinguish floats from integers!) */
- if (k < fs->nk && ttype(&f->k[k]) == ttype(v) &&
+ if (k < fs->nk && ttypetag(&f->k[k]) == ttypetag(v) &&
luaV_rawequalobj(&f->k[k], v))
return k; /* reuse index */
}
@@ -455,7 +576,7 @@ static int addk (FuncState *fs, TValue *key, TValue *v) {
/*
** Add a string to list of constants and return its index.
*/
-int luaK_stringK (FuncState *fs, TString *s) {
+static int stringK (FuncState *fs, TString *s) {
TValue o;
setsvalue(fs->ls->L, &o, s);
return addk(fs, &o, &o); /* use string itself as key */
@@ -468,9 +589,9 @@ int luaK_stringK (FuncState *fs, TString *s) {
** same value; conversion to 'void*' is used only for hashing, so there
** are no "precision" problems.
*/
-int luaK_intK (FuncState *fs, lua_Integer n) {
+static int luaK_intK (FuncState *fs, lua_Integer n) {
TValue k, o;
- setpvalue(&k, cast(void*, cast(size_t, n)));
+ setpvalue(&k, cast_voidp(cast_sizet(n)));
setivalue(&o, n);
return addk(fs, &k, &o);
}
@@ -486,11 +607,21 @@ static int luaK_numberK (FuncState *fs, lua_Number r) {
/*
-** Add a boolean to list of constants and return its index.
+** Add a false to list of constants and return its index.
+*/
+static int boolF (FuncState *fs) {
+ TValue o;
+ setbfvalue(&o);
+ return addk(fs, &o, &o); /* use boolean itself as key */
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Add a true to list of constants and return its index.
*/
-static int boolK (FuncState *fs, int b) {
+static int boolT (FuncState *fs) {
TValue o;
- setbvalue(&o, b);
+ setbtvalue(&o);
return addk(fs, &o, &o); /* use boolean itself as key */
}
@@ -508,21 +639,92 @@ static int nilK (FuncState *fs) {
/*
+** Check whether 'i' can be stored in an 'sC' operand. Equivalent to
+** (0 <= int2sC(i) && int2sC(i) <= MAXARG_C) but without risk of
+** overflows in the hidden addition inside 'int2sC'.
+*/
+static int fitsC (lua_Integer i) {
+ return (l_castS2U(i) + OFFSET_sC <= cast_uint(MAXARG_C));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Check whether 'i' can be stored in an 'sBx' operand.
+*/
+static int fitsBx (lua_Integer i) {
+ return (-OFFSET_sBx <= i && i <= MAXARG_Bx - OFFSET_sBx);
+}
+
+
+void luaK_int (FuncState *fs, int reg, lua_Integer i) {
+ if (fitsBx(i))
+ luaK_codeAsBx(fs, OP_LOADI, reg, cast_int(i));
+ else
+ luaK_codek(fs, reg, luaK_intK(fs, i));
+}
+
+
+static void luaK_float (FuncState *fs, int reg, lua_Number f) {
+ lua_Integer fi;
+ if (luaV_flttointeger(f, &fi, F2Ieq) && fitsBx(fi))
+ luaK_codeAsBx(fs, OP_LOADF, reg, cast_int(fi));
+ else
+ luaK_codek(fs, reg, luaK_numberK(fs, f));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Convert a constant in 'v' into an expression description 'e'
+*/
+static void const2exp (TValue *v, expdesc *e) {
+ switch (ttypetag(v)) {
+ case LUA_VNUMINT:
+ e->k = VKINT; e->u.ival = ivalue(v);
+ break;
+ case LUA_VNUMFLT:
+ e->k = VKFLT; e->u.nval = fltvalue(v);
+ break;
+ case LUA_VFALSE:
+ e->k = VFALSE;
+ break;
+ case LUA_VTRUE:
+ e->k = VTRUE;
+ break;
+ case LUA_VNIL:
+ e->k = VNIL;
+ break;
+ case LUA_VSHRSTR: case LUA_VLNGSTR:
+ e->k = VKSTR; e->u.strval = tsvalue(v);
+ break;
+ default: lua_assert(0);
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
** Fix an expression to return the number of results 'nresults'.
-** Either 'e' is a multi-ret expression (function call or vararg)
-** or 'nresults' is LUA_MULTRET (as any expression can satisfy that).
+** 'e' must be a multi-ret expression (function call or vararg).
*/
void luaK_setreturns (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int nresults) {
- if (e->k == VCALL) { /* expression is an open function call? */
- SETARG_C(getinstruction(fs, e), nresults + 1);
- }
- else if (e->k == VVARARG) {
- Instruction *pc = &getinstruction(fs, e);
- SETARG_B(*pc, nresults + 1);
+ Instruction *pc = &getinstruction(fs, e);
+ if (e->k == VCALL) /* expression is an open function call? */
+ SETARG_C(*pc, nresults + 1);
+ else {
+ lua_assert(e->k == VVARARG);
+ SETARG_C(*pc, nresults + 1);
SETARG_A(*pc, fs->freereg);
luaK_reserveregs(fs, 1);
}
- else lua_assert(nresults == LUA_MULTRET);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Convert a VKSTR to a VK
+*/
+static void str2K (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
+ lua_assert(e->k == VKSTR);
+ e->u.info = stringK(fs, e->u.strval);
+ e->k = VK;
}
@@ -532,7 +734,7 @@ void luaK_setreturns (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int nresults) {
** vararg), it already returns one result, so nothing needs to be done.
** Function calls become VNONRELOC expressions (as its result comes
** fixed in the base register of the call), while vararg expressions
-** become VRELOCABLE (as OP_VARARG puts its results where it wants).
+** become VRELOC (as OP_VARARG puts its results where it wants).
** (Calls are created returning one result, so that does not need
** to be fixed.)
*/
@@ -544,39 +746,53 @@ void luaK_setoneret (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
e->u.info = GETARG_A(getinstruction(fs, e));
}
else if (e->k == VVARARG) {
- SETARG_B(getinstruction(fs, e), 2);
- e->k = VRELOCABLE; /* can relocate its simple result */
+ SETARG_C(getinstruction(fs, e), 2);
+ e->k = VRELOC; /* can relocate its simple result */
}
}
/*
-** Ensure that expression 'e' is not a variable.
+** Ensure that expression 'e' is not a variable (nor a <const>).
+** (Expression still may have jump lists.)
*/
void luaK_dischargevars (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
switch (e->k) {
+ case VCONST: {
+ const2exp(const2val(fs, e), e);
+ break;
+ }
case VLOCAL: { /* already in a register */
+ e->u.info = e->u.var.sidx;
e->k = VNONRELOC; /* becomes a non-relocatable value */
break;
}
case VUPVAL: { /* move value to some (pending) register */
e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_GETUPVAL, 0, e->u.info, 0);
- e->k = VRELOCABLE;
+ e->k = VRELOC;
+ break;
+ }
+ case VINDEXUP: {
+ e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_GETTABUP, 0, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
+ e->k = VRELOC;
+ break;
+ }
+ case VINDEXI: {
+ freereg(fs, e->u.ind.t);
+ e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_GETI, 0, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
+ e->k = VRELOC;
+ break;
+ }
+ case VINDEXSTR: {
+ freereg(fs, e->u.ind.t);
+ e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_GETFIELD, 0, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
+ e->k = VRELOC;
break;
}
case VINDEXED: {
- OpCode op;
- freereg(fs, e->u.ind.idx);
- if (e->u.ind.vt == VLOCAL) { /* is 't' in a register? */
- freereg(fs, e->u.ind.t);
- op = OP_GETTABLE;
- }
- else {
- lua_assert(e->u.ind.vt == VUPVAL);
- op = OP_GETTABUP; /* 't' is in an upvalue */
- }
- e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, op, 0, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
- e->k = VRELOCABLE;
+ freeregs(fs, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
+ e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_GETTABLE, 0, e->u.ind.t, e->u.ind.idx);
+ e->k = VRELOC;
break;
}
case VVARARG: case VCALL: {
@@ -589,8 +805,9 @@ void luaK_dischargevars (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
/*
-** Ensures expression value is in register 'reg' (and therefore
-** 'e' will become a non-relocatable expression).
+** Ensure expression value is in register 'reg', making 'e' a
+** non-relocatable expression.
+** (Expression still may have jump lists.)
*/
static void discharge2reg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int reg) {
luaK_dischargevars(fs, e);
@@ -599,23 +816,30 @@ static void discharge2reg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int reg) {
luaK_nil(fs, reg, 1);
break;
}
- case VFALSE: case VTRUE: {
- luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_LOADBOOL, reg, e->k == VTRUE, 0);
+ case VFALSE: {
+ luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_LOADFALSE, reg, 0, 0);
break;
}
+ case VTRUE: {
+ luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_LOADTRUE, reg, 0, 0);
+ break;
+ }
+ case VKSTR: {
+ str2K(fs, e);
+ } /* FALLTHROUGH */
case VK: {
luaK_codek(fs, reg, e->u.info);
break;
}
case VKFLT: {
- luaK_codek(fs, reg, luaK_numberK(fs, e->u.nval));
+ luaK_float(fs, reg, e->u.nval);
break;
}
case VKINT: {
- luaK_codek(fs, reg, luaK_intK(fs, e->u.ival));
+ luaK_int(fs, reg, e->u.ival);
break;
}
- case VRELOCABLE: {
+ case VRELOC: {
Instruction *pc = &getinstruction(fs, e);
SETARG_A(*pc, reg); /* instruction will put result in 'reg' */
break;
@@ -636,7 +860,9 @@ static void discharge2reg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int reg) {
/*
-** Ensures expression value is in any register.
+** Ensure expression value is in a register, making 'e' a
+** non-relocatable expression.
+** (Expression still may have jump lists.)
*/
static void discharge2anyreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
if (e->k != VNONRELOC) { /* no fixed register yet? */
@@ -646,9 +872,9 @@ static void discharge2anyreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
}
-static int code_loadbool (FuncState *fs, int A, int b, int jump) {
+static int code_loadbool (FuncState *fs, int A, OpCode op) {
luaK_getlabel(fs); /* those instructions may be jump targets */
- return luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_LOADBOOL, A, b, jump);
+ return luaK_codeABC(fs, op, A, 0, 0);
}
@@ -666,8 +892,8 @@ static int need_value (FuncState *fs, int list) {
/*
-** Ensures final expression result (including results from its jump
-** lists) is in register 'reg'.
+** Ensures final expression result (which includes results from its
+** jump lists) is in register 'reg'.
** If expression has jumps, need to patch these jumps either to
** its final position or to "load" instructions (for those tests
** that do not produce values).
@@ -682,8 +908,9 @@ static void exp2reg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int reg) {
int p_t = NO_JUMP; /* position of an eventual LOAD true */
if (need_value(fs, e->t) || need_value(fs, e->f)) {
int fj = (e->k == VJMP) ? NO_JUMP : luaK_jump(fs);
- p_f = code_loadbool(fs, reg, 0, 1);
- p_t = code_loadbool(fs, reg, 1, 0);
+ p_f = code_loadbool(fs, reg, OP_LFALSESKIP); /* skip next inst. */
+ p_t = code_loadbool(fs, reg, OP_LOADTRUE);
+ /* jump around these booleans if 'e' is not a test */
luaK_patchtohere(fs, fj);
}
final = luaK_getlabel(fs);
@@ -697,8 +924,7 @@ static void exp2reg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int reg) {
/*
-** Ensures final expression result (including results from its jump
-** lists) is in next available register.
+** Ensures final expression result is in next available register.
*/
void luaK_exp2nextreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
luaK_dischargevars(fs, e);
@@ -709,27 +935,30 @@ void luaK_exp2nextreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
/*
-** Ensures final expression result (including results from its jump
-** lists) is in some (any) register and return that register.
+** Ensures final expression result is in some (any) register
+** and return that register.
*/
int luaK_exp2anyreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
luaK_dischargevars(fs, e);
if (e->k == VNONRELOC) { /* expression already has a register? */
if (!hasjumps(e)) /* no jumps? */
return e->u.info; /* result is already in a register */
- if (e->u.info >= fs->nactvar) { /* reg. is not a local? */
+ if (e->u.info >= luaY_nvarstack(fs)) { /* reg. is not a local? */
exp2reg(fs, e, e->u.info); /* put final result in it */
return e->u.info;
}
+ /* else expression has jumps and cannot change its register
+ to hold the jump values, because it is a local variable.
+ Go through to the default case. */
}
- luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, e); /* otherwise, use next available register */
+ luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, e); /* default: use next available register */
return e->u.info;
}
/*
-** Ensures final expression result is either in a register or in an
-** upvalue.
+** Ensures final expression result is either in a register
+** or in an upvalue.
*/
void luaK_exp2anyregup (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
if (e->k != VUPVAL || hasjumps(e))
@@ -738,8 +967,8 @@ void luaK_exp2anyregup (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
/*
-** Ensures final expression result is either in a register or it is
-** a constant.
+** Ensures final expression result is either in a register
+** or it is a constant.
*/
void luaK_exp2val (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
if (hasjumps(e))
@@ -750,29 +979,53 @@ void luaK_exp2val (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
/*
+** Try to make 'e' a K expression with an index in the range of R/K
+** indices. Return true iff succeeded.
+*/
+static int luaK_exp2K (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
+ if (!hasjumps(e)) {
+ int info;
+ switch (e->k) { /* move constants to 'k' */
+ case VTRUE: info = boolT(fs); break;
+ case VFALSE: info = boolF(fs); break;
+ case VNIL: info = nilK(fs); break;
+ case VKINT: info = luaK_intK(fs, e->u.ival); break;
+ case VKFLT: info = luaK_numberK(fs, e->u.nval); break;
+ case VKSTR: info = stringK(fs, e->u.strval); break;
+ case VK: info = e->u.info; break;
+ default: return 0; /* not a constant */
+ }
+ if (info <= MAXINDEXRK) { /* does constant fit in 'argC'? */
+ e->k = VK; /* make expression a 'K' expression */
+ e->u.info = info;
+ return 1;
+ }
+ }
+ /* else, expression doesn't fit; leave it unchanged */
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
** Ensures final expression result is in a valid R/K index
** (that is, it is either in a register or in 'k' with an index
** in the range of R/K indices).
-** Returns R/K index.
+** Returns 1 iff expression is K.
*/
int luaK_exp2RK (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
- luaK_exp2val(fs, e);
- switch (e->k) { /* move constants to 'k' */
- case VTRUE: e->u.info = boolK(fs, 1); goto vk;
- case VFALSE: e->u.info = boolK(fs, 0); goto vk;
- case VNIL: e->u.info = nilK(fs); goto vk;
- case VKINT: e->u.info = luaK_intK(fs, e->u.ival); goto vk;
- case VKFLT: e->u.info = luaK_numberK(fs, e->u.nval); goto vk;
- case VK:
- vk:
- e->k = VK;
- if (e->u.info <= MAXINDEXRK) /* constant fits in 'argC'? */
- return RKASK(e->u.info);
- else break;
- default: break;
+ if (luaK_exp2K(fs, e))
+ return 1;
+ else { /* not a constant in the right range: put it in a register */
+ luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e);
+ return 0;
}
- /* not a constant in the right range: put it in a register */
- return luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e);
+}
+
+
+static void codeABRK (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int a, int b,
+ expdesc *ec) {
+ int k = luaK_exp2RK(fs, ec);
+ luaK_codeABCk(fs, o, a, b, ec->u.info, k);
}
@@ -783,7 +1036,7 @@ void luaK_storevar (FuncState *fs, expdesc *var, expdesc *ex) {
switch (var->k) {
case VLOCAL: {
freeexp(fs, ex);
- exp2reg(fs, ex, var->u.info); /* compute 'ex' into proper place */
+ exp2reg(fs, ex, var->u.var.sidx); /* compute 'ex' into proper place */
return;
}
case VUPVAL: {
@@ -791,10 +1044,20 @@ void luaK_storevar (FuncState *fs, expdesc *var, expdesc *ex) {
luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SETUPVAL, e, var->u.info, 0);
break;
}
+ case VINDEXUP: {
+ codeABRK(fs, OP_SETTABUP, var->u.ind.t, var->u.ind.idx, ex);
+ break;
+ }
+ case VINDEXI: {
+ codeABRK(fs, OP_SETI, var->u.ind.t, var->u.ind.idx, ex);
+ break;
+ }
+ case VINDEXSTR: {
+ codeABRK(fs, OP_SETFIELD, var->u.ind.t, var->u.ind.idx, ex);
+ break;
+ }
case VINDEXED: {
- OpCode op = (var->u.ind.vt == VLOCAL) ? OP_SETTABLE : OP_SETTABUP;
- int e = luaK_exp2RK(fs, ex);
- luaK_codeABC(fs, op, var->u.ind.t, var->u.ind.idx, e);
+ codeABRK(fs, OP_SETTABLE, var->u.ind.t, var->u.ind.idx, ex);
break;
}
default: lua_assert(0); /* invalid var kind to store */
@@ -814,7 +1077,7 @@ void luaK_self (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, expdesc *key) {
e->u.info = fs->freereg; /* base register for op_self */
e->k = VNONRELOC; /* self expression has a fixed register */
luaK_reserveregs(fs, 2); /* function and 'self' produced by op_self */
- luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SELF, e->u.info, ereg, luaK_exp2RK(fs, key));
+ codeABRK(fs, OP_SELF, e->u.info, ereg, key);
freeexp(fs, key);
}
@@ -826,7 +1089,7 @@ static void negatecondition (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
Instruction *pc = getjumpcontrol(fs, e->u.info);
lua_assert(testTMode(GET_OPCODE(*pc)) && GET_OPCODE(*pc) != OP_TESTSET &&
GET_OPCODE(*pc) != OP_TEST);
- SETARG_A(*pc, !(GETARG_A(*pc)));
+ SETARG_k(*pc, (GETARG_k(*pc) ^ 1));
}
@@ -837,17 +1100,17 @@ static void negatecondition (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
** and removing the 'not'.
*/
static int jumponcond (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e, int cond) {
- if (e->k == VRELOCABLE) {
+ if (e->k == VRELOC) {
Instruction ie = getinstruction(fs, e);
if (GET_OPCODE(ie) == OP_NOT) {
- fs->pc--; /* remove previous OP_NOT */
- return condjump(fs, OP_TEST, GETARG_B(ie), 0, !cond);
+ removelastinstruction(fs); /* remove previous OP_NOT */
+ return condjump(fs, OP_TEST, GETARG_B(ie), 0, 0, !cond);
}
/* else go through */
}
discharge2anyreg(fs, e);
freeexp(fs, e);
- return condjump(fs, OP_TESTSET, NO_REG, e->u.info, cond);
+ return condjump(fs, OP_TESTSET, NO_REG, e->u.info, 0, cond);
}
@@ -863,7 +1126,7 @@ void luaK_goiftrue (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
pc = e->u.info; /* save jump position */
break;
}
- case VK: case VKFLT: case VKINT: case VTRUE: {
+ case VK: case VKFLT: case VKINT: case VKSTR: case VTRUE: {
pc = NO_JUMP; /* always true; do nothing */
break;
}
@@ -908,13 +1171,12 @@ void luaK_goiffalse (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
** Code 'not e', doing constant folding.
*/
static void codenot (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
- luaK_dischargevars(fs, e);
switch (e->k) {
case VNIL: case VFALSE: {
e->k = VTRUE; /* true == not nil == not false */
break;
}
- case VK: case VKFLT: case VKINT: case VTRUE: {
+ case VK: case VKFLT: case VKINT: case VKSTR: case VTRUE: {
e->k = VFALSE; /* false == not "x" == not 0.5 == not 1 == not true */
break;
}
@@ -922,12 +1184,12 @@ static void codenot (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
negatecondition(fs, e);
break;
}
- case VRELOCABLE:
+ case VRELOC:
case VNONRELOC: {
discharge2anyreg(fs, e);
freeexp(fs, e);
e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_NOT, 0, e->u.info, 0);
- e->k = VRELOCABLE;
+ e->k = VRELOC;
break;
}
default: lua_assert(0); /* cannot happen */
@@ -940,15 +1202,94 @@ static void codenot (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
/*
+** Check whether expression 'e' is a small literal string
+*/
+static int isKstr (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e) {
+ return (e->k == VK && !hasjumps(e) && e->u.info <= MAXARG_B &&
+ ttisshrstring(&fs->f->k[e->u.info]));
+}
+
+/*
+** Check whether expression 'e' is a literal integer.
+*/
+int luaK_isKint (expdesc *e) {
+ return (e->k == VKINT && !hasjumps(e));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Check whether expression 'e' is a literal integer in
+** proper range to fit in register C
+*/
+static int isCint (expdesc *e) {
+ return luaK_isKint(e) && (l_castS2U(e->u.ival) <= l_castS2U(MAXARG_C));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Check whether expression 'e' is a literal integer in
+** proper range to fit in register sC
+*/
+static int isSCint (expdesc *e) {
+ return luaK_isKint(e) && fitsC(e->u.ival);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Check whether expression 'e' is a literal integer or float in
+** proper range to fit in a register (sB or sC).
+*/
+static int isSCnumber (expdesc *e, int *pi, int *isfloat) {
+ lua_Integer i;
+ if (e->k == VKINT)
+ i = e->u.ival;
+ else if (e->k == VKFLT && luaV_flttointeger(e->u.nval, &i, F2Ieq))
+ *isfloat = 1;
+ else
+ return 0; /* not a number */
+ if (!hasjumps(e) && fitsC(i)) {
+ *pi = int2sC(cast_int(i));
+ return 1;
+ }
+ else
+ return 0;
+}
+
+
+/*
** Create expression 't[k]'. 't' must have its final result already in a
-** register or upvalue.
+** register or upvalue. Upvalues can only be indexed by literal strings.
+** Keys can be literal strings in the constant table or arbitrary
+** values in registers.
*/
void luaK_indexed (FuncState *fs, expdesc *t, expdesc *k) {
- lua_assert(!hasjumps(t) && (vkisinreg(t->k) || t->k == VUPVAL));
- t->u.ind.t = t->u.info; /* register or upvalue index */
- t->u.ind.idx = luaK_exp2RK(fs, k); /* R/K index for key */
- t->u.ind.vt = (t->k == VUPVAL) ? VUPVAL : VLOCAL;
- t->k = VINDEXED;
+ if (k->k == VKSTR)
+ str2K(fs, k);
+ lua_assert(!hasjumps(t) &&
+ (t->k == VLOCAL || t->k == VNONRELOC || t->k == VUPVAL));
+ if (t->k == VUPVAL && !isKstr(fs, k)) /* upvalue indexed by non 'Kstr'? */
+ luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, t); /* put it in a register */
+ if (t->k == VUPVAL) {
+ t->u.ind.t = t->u.info; /* upvalue index */
+ t->u.ind.idx = k->u.info; /* literal string */
+ t->k = VINDEXUP;
+ }
+ else {
+ /* register index of the table */
+ t->u.ind.t = (t->k == VLOCAL) ? t->u.var.sidx: t->u.info;
+ if (isKstr(fs, k)) {
+ t->u.ind.idx = k->u.info; /* literal string */
+ t->k = VINDEXSTR;
+ }
+ else if (isCint(k)) {
+ t->u.ind.idx = cast_int(k->u.ival); /* int. constant in proper range */
+ t->k = VINDEXI;
+ }
+ else {
+ t->u.ind.idx = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, k); /* register */
+ t->k = VINDEXED;
+ }
+ }
}
@@ -962,7 +1303,7 @@ static int validop (int op, TValue *v1, TValue *v2) {
case LUA_OPBAND: case LUA_OPBOR: case LUA_OPBXOR:
case LUA_OPSHL: case LUA_OPSHR: case LUA_OPBNOT: { /* conversion errors */
lua_Integer i;
- return (tointeger(v1, &i) && tointeger(v2, &i));
+ return (tointegerns(v1, &i) && tointegerns(v2, &i));
}
case LUA_OPDIV: case LUA_OPIDIV: case LUA_OPMOD: /* division by 0 */
return (nvalue(v2) != 0);
@@ -976,11 +1317,11 @@ static int validop (int op, TValue *v1, TValue *v2) {
** (In this case, 'e1' has the final result.)
*/
static int constfolding (FuncState *fs, int op, expdesc *e1,
- const expdesc *e2) {
+ const expdesc *e2) {
TValue v1, v2, res;
if (!tonumeral(e1, &v1) || !tonumeral(e2, &v2) || !validop(op, &v1, &v2))
return 0; /* non-numeric operands or not safe to fold */
- luaO_arith(fs->ls->L, op, &v1, &v2, &res); /* does operation */
+ luaO_rawarith(fs->ls->L, op, &v1, &v2, &res); /* does operation */
if (ttisinteger(&res)) {
e1->k = VKINT;
e1->u.ival = ivalue(&res);
@@ -1005,7 +1346,7 @@ static void codeunexpval (FuncState *fs, OpCode op, expdesc *e, int line) {
int r = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e); /* opcodes operate only on registers */
freeexp(fs, e);
e->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, op, 0, r, 0); /* generate opcode */
- e->k = VRELOCABLE; /* all those operations are relocatable */
+ e->k = VRELOC; /* all those operations are relocatable */
luaK_fixline(fs, line);
}
@@ -1015,47 +1356,197 @@ static void codeunexpval (FuncState *fs, OpCode op, expdesc *e, int line) {
** (everything but logical operators 'and'/'or' and comparison
** operators).
** Expression to produce final result will be encoded in 'e1'.
-** Because 'luaK_exp2RK' can free registers, its calls must be
-** in "stack order" (that is, first on 'e2', which may have more
-** recent registers to be released).
*/
-static void codebinexpval (FuncState *fs, OpCode op,
- expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
- int rk2 = luaK_exp2RK(fs, e2); /* both operands are "RK" */
- int rk1 = luaK_exp2RK(fs, e1);
+static void finishbinexpval (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2,
+ OpCode op, int v2, int flip, int line,
+ OpCode mmop, TMS event) {
+ int v1 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e1);
+ int pc = luaK_codeABCk(fs, op, 0, v1, v2, 0);
freeexps(fs, e1, e2);
- e1->u.info = luaK_codeABC(fs, op, 0, rk1, rk2); /* generate opcode */
- e1->k = VRELOCABLE; /* all those operations are relocatable */
+ e1->u.info = pc;
+ e1->k = VRELOC; /* all those operations are relocatable */
+ luaK_fixline(fs, line);
+ luaK_codeABCk(fs, mmop, v1, v2, event, flip); /* to call metamethod */
luaK_fixline(fs, line);
}
/*
-** Emit code for comparisons.
-** 'e1' was already put in R/K form by 'luaK_infix'.
+** Emit code for binary expressions that "produce values" over
+** two registers.
*/
-static void codecomp (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
- int rk1 = (e1->k == VK) ? RKASK(e1->u.info)
- : check_exp(e1->k == VNONRELOC, e1->u.info);
- int rk2 = luaK_exp2RK(fs, e2);
- freeexps(fs, e1, e2);
- switch (opr) {
- case OPR_NE: { /* '(a ~= b)' ==> 'not (a == b)' */
- e1->u.info = condjump(fs, OP_EQ, 0, rk1, rk2);
- break;
- }
- case OPR_GT: case OPR_GE: {
- /* '(a > b)' ==> '(b < a)'; '(a >= b)' ==> '(b <= a)' */
- OpCode op = cast(OpCode, (opr - OPR_NE) + OP_EQ);
- e1->u.info = condjump(fs, op, 1, rk2, rk1); /* invert operands */
- break;
- }
- default: { /* '==', '<', '<=' use their own opcodes */
- OpCode op = cast(OpCode, (opr - OPR_EQ) + OP_EQ);
- e1->u.info = condjump(fs, op, 1, rk1, rk2);
- break;
+static void codebinexpval (FuncState *fs, OpCode op,
+ expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
+ int v2 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e2); /* both operands are in registers */
+ lua_assert(OP_ADD <= op && op <= OP_SHR);
+ finishbinexpval(fs, e1, e2, op, v2, 0, line, OP_MMBIN,
+ cast(TMS, (op - OP_ADD) + TM_ADD));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Code binary operators with immediate operands.
+*/
+static void codebini (FuncState *fs, OpCode op,
+ expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int flip, int line,
+ TMS event) {
+ int v2 = int2sC(cast_int(e2->u.ival)); /* immediate operand */
+ lua_assert(e2->k == VKINT);
+ finishbinexpval(fs, e1, e2, op, v2, flip, line, OP_MMBINI, event);
+}
+
+
+/* Try to code a binary operator negating its second operand.
+** For the metamethod, 2nd operand must keep its original value.
+*/
+static int finishbinexpneg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2,
+ OpCode op, int line, TMS event) {
+ if (!luaK_isKint(e2))
+ return 0; /* not an integer constant */
+ else {
+ lua_Integer i2 = e2->u.ival;
+ if (!(fitsC(i2) && fitsC(-i2)))
+ return 0; /* not in the proper range */
+ else { /* operating a small integer constant */
+ int v2 = cast_int(i2);
+ finishbinexpval(fs, e1, e2, op, int2sC(-v2), 0, line, OP_MMBINI, event);
+ /* correct metamethod argument */
+ SETARG_B(fs->f->code[fs->pc - 1], int2sC(v2));
+ return 1; /* successfully coded */
}
}
+}
+
+
+static void swapexps (expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
+ expdesc temp = *e1; *e1 = *e2; *e2 = temp; /* swap 'e1' and 'e2' */
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Code arithmetic operators ('+', '-', ...). If second operand is a
+** constant in the proper range, use variant opcodes with K operands.
+*/
+static void codearith (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr,
+ expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int flip, int line) {
+ TMS event = cast(TMS, opr + TM_ADD);
+ if (tonumeral(e2, NULL) && luaK_exp2K(fs, e2)) { /* K operand? */
+ int v2 = e2->u.info; /* K index */
+ OpCode op = cast(OpCode, opr + OP_ADDK);
+ finishbinexpval(fs, e1, e2, op, v2, flip, line, OP_MMBINK, event);
+ }
+ else { /* 'e2' is neither an immediate nor a K operand */
+ OpCode op = cast(OpCode, opr + OP_ADD);
+ if (flip)
+ swapexps(e1, e2); /* back to original order */
+ codebinexpval(fs, op, e1, e2, line); /* use standard operators */
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Code commutative operators ('+', '*'). If first operand is a
+** numeric constant, change order of operands to try to use an
+** immediate or K operator.
+*/
+static void codecommutative (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op,
+ expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
+ int flip = 0;
+ if (tonumeral(e1, NULL)) { /* is first operand a numeric constant? */
+ swapexps(e1, e2); /* change order */
+ flip = 1;
+ }
+ if (op == OPR_ADD && isSCint(e2)) /* immediate operand? */
+ codebini(fs, cast(OpCode, OP_ADDI), e1, e2, flip, line, TM_ADD);
+ else
+ codearith(fs, op, e1, e2, flip, line);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Code bitwise operations; they are all associative, so the function
+** tries to put an integer constant as the 2nd operand (a K operand).
+*/
+static void codebitwise (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr,
+ expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
+ int flip = 0;
+ int v2;
+ OpCode op;
+ if (e1->k == VKINT && luaK_exp2RK(fs, e1)) {
+ swapexps(e1, e2); /* 'e2' will be the constant operand */
+ flip = 1;
+ }
+ else if (!(e2->k == VKINT && luaK_exp2RK(fs, e2))) { /* no constants? */
+ op = cast(OpCode, opr + OP_ADD);
+ codebinexpval(fs, op, e1, e2, line); /* all-register opcodes */
+ return;
+ }
+ v2 = e2->u.info; /* index in K array */
+ op = cast(OpCode, opr + OP_ADDK);
+ lua_assert(ttisinteger(&fs->f->k[v2]));
+ finishbinexpval(fs, e1, e2, op, v2, flip, line, OP_MMBINK,
+ cast(TMS, opr + TM_ADD));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Emit code for order comparisons. When using an immediate operand,
+** 'isfloat' tells whether the original value was a float.
+*/
+static void codeorder (FuncState *fs, OpCode op, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
+ int r1, r2;
+ int im;
+ int isfloat = 0;
+ if (isSCnumber(e2, &im, &isfloat)) {
+ /* use immediate operand */
+ r1 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e1);
+ r2 = im;
+ op = cast(OpCode, (op - OP_LT) + OP_LTI);
+ }
+ else if (isSCnumber(e1, &im, &isfloat)) {
+ /* transform (A < B) to (B > A) and (A <= B) to (B >= A) */
+ r1 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e2);
+ r2 = im;
+ op = (op == OP_LT) ? OP_GTI : OP_GEI;
+ }
+ else { /* regular case, compare two registers */
+ r1 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e1);
+ r2 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e2);
+ }
+ freeexps(fs, e1, e2);
+ e1->u.info = condjump(fs, op, r1, r2, isfloat, 1);
+ e1->k = VJMP;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Emit code for equality comparisons ('==', '~=').
+** 'e1' was already put as RK by 'luaK_infix'.
+*/
+static void codeeq (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
+ int r1, r2;
+ int im;
+ int isfloat = 0; /* not needed here, but kept for symmetry */
+ OpCode op;
+ if (e1->k != VNONRELOC) {
+ lua_assert(e1->k == VK || e1->k == VKINT || e1->k == VKFLT);
+ swapexps(e1, e2);
+ }
+ r1 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e1); /* 1st expression must be in register */
+ if (isSCnumber(e2, &im, &isfloat)) {
+ op = OP_EQI;
+ r2 = im; /* immediate operand */
+ }
+ else if (luaK_exp2RK(fs, e2)) { /* 1st expression is constant? */
+ op = OP_EQK;
+ r2 = e2->u.info; /* constant index */
+ }
+ else {
+ op = OP_EQ; /* will compare two registers */
+ r2 = luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, e2);
+ }
+ freeexps(fs, e1, e2);
+ e1->u.info = condjump(fs, op, r1, r2, isfloat, (opr == OPR_EQ));
e1->k = VJMP;
}
@@ -1065,11 +1556,12 @@ static void codecomp (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2) {
*/
void luaK_prefix (FuncState *fs, UnOpr op, expdesc *e, int line) {
static const expdesc ef = {VKINT, {0}, NO_JUMP, NO_JUMP};
+ luaK_dischargevars(fs, e);
switch (op) {
case OPR_MINUS: case OPR_BNOT: /* use 'ef' as fake 2nd operand */
if (constfolding(fs, op + LUA_OPUNM, e, &ef))
break;
- /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ /* else */ /* FALLTHROUGH */
case OPR_LEN:
codeunexpval(fs, cast(OpCode, op + OP_UNM), e, line);
break;
@@ -1084,6 +1576,7 @@ void luaK_prefix (FuncState *fs, UnOpr op, expdesc *e, int line) {
** 2nd operand.
*/
void luaK_infix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op, expdesc *v) {
+ luaK_dischargevars(fs, v);
switch (op) {
case OPR_AND: {
luaK_goiftrue(fs, v); /* go ahead only if 'v' is true */
@@ -1094,7 +1587,7 @@ void luaK_infix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op, expdesc *v) {
break;
}
case OPR_CONCAT: {
- luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, v); /* operand must be on the 'stack' */
+ luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, v); /* operand must be on the stack */
break;
}
case OPR_ADD: case OPR_SUB:
@@ -1103,67 +1596,126 @@ void luaK_infix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op, expdesc *v) {
case OPR_BAND: case OPR_BOR: case OPR_BXOR:
case OPR_SHL: case OPR_SHR: {
if (!tonumeral(v, NULL))
- luaK_exp2RK(fs, v);
+ luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, v);
/* else keep numeral, which may be folded with 2nd operand */
break;
}
- default: {
- luaK_exp2RK(fs, v);
+ case OPR_EQ: case OPR_NE: {
+ if (!tonumeral(v, NULL))
+ luaK_exp2RK(fs, v);
+ /* else keep numeral, which may be an immediate operand */
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_LT: case OPR_LE:
+ case OPR_GT: case OPR_GE: {
+ int dummy, dummy2;
+ if (!isSCnumber(v, &dummy, &dummy2))
+ luaK_exp2anyreg(fs, v);
+ /* else keep numeral, which may be an immediate operand */
break;
}
+ default: lua_assert(0);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+** Create code for '(e1 .. e2)'.
+** For '(e1 .. e2.1 .. e2.2)' (which is '(e1 .. (e2.1 .. e2.2))',
+** because concatenation is right associative), merge both CONCATs.
+*/
+static void codeconcat (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
+ Instruction *ie2 = previousinstruction(fs);
+ if (GET_OPCODE(*ie2) == OP_CONCAT) { /* is 'e2' a concatenation? */
+ int n = GETARG_B(*ie2); /* # of elements concatenated in 'e2' */
+ lua_assert(e1->u.info + 1 == GETARG_A(*ie2));
+ freeexp(fs, e2);
+ SETARG_A(*ie2, e1->u.info); /* correct first element ('e1') */
+ SETARG_B(*ie2, n + 1); /* will concatenate one more element */
+ }
+ else { /* 'e2' is not a concatenation */
+ luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_CONCAT, e1->u.info, 2, 0); /* new concat opcode */
+ freeexp(fs, e2);
+ luaK_fixline(fs, line);
}
}
/*
** Finalize code for binary operation, after reading 2nd operand.
-** For '(a .. b .. c)' (which is '(a .. (b .. c))', because
-** concatenation is right associative), merge second CONCAT into first
-** one.
*/
-void luaK_posfix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op,
+void luaK_posfix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr opr,
expdesc *e1, expdesc *e2, int line) {
- switch (op) {
+ luaK_dischargevars(fs, e2);
+ if (foldbinop(opr) && constfolding(fs, opr + LUA_OPADD, e1, e2))
+ return; /* done by folding */
+ switch (opr) {
case OPR_AND: {
- lua_assert(e1->t == NO_JUMP); /* list closed by 'luK_infix' */
- luaK_dischargevars(fs, e2);
+ lua_assert(e1->t == NO_JUMP); /* list closed by 'luaK_infix' */
luaK_concat(fs, &e2->f, e1->f);
*e1 = *e2;
break;
}
case OPR_OR: {
- lua_assert(e1->f == NO_JUMP); /* list closed by 'luK_infix' */
- luaK_dischargevars(fs, e2);
+ lua_assert(e1->f == NO_JUMP); /* list closed by 'luaK_infix' */
luaK_concat(fs, &e2->t, e1->t);
*e1 = *e2;
break;
}
- case OPR_CONCAT: {
- luaK_exp2val(fs, e2);
- if (e2->k == VRELOCABLE &&
- GET_OPCODE(getinstruction(fs, e2)) == OP_CONCAT) {
- lua_assert(e1->u.info == GETARG_B(getinstruction(fs, e2))-1);
- freeexp(fs, e1);
- SETARG_B(getinstruction(fs, e2), e1->u.info);
- e1->k = VRELOCABLE; e1->u.info = e2->u.info;
+ case OPR_CONCAT: { /* e1 .. e2 */
+ luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, e2);
+ codeconcat(fs, e1, e2, line);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_ADD: case OPR_MUL: {
+ codecommutative(fs, opr, e1, e2, line);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_SUB: {
+ if (finishbinexpneg(fs, e1, e2, OP_ADDI, line, TM_SUB))
+ break; /* coded as (r1 + -I) */
+ /* ELSE */
+ } /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ case OPR_DIV: case OPR_IDIV: case OPR_MOD: case OPR_POW: {
+ codearith(fs, opr, e1, e2, 0, line);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_BAND: case OPR_BOR: case OPR_BXOR: {
+ codebitwise(fs, opr, e1, e2, line);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_SHL: {
+ if (isSCint(e1)) {
+ swapexps(e1, e2);
+ codebini(fs, OP_SHLI, e1, e2, 1, line, TM_SHL); /* I << r2 */
}
- else {
- luaK_exp2nextreg(fs, e2); /* operand must be on the 'stack' */
- codebinexpval(fs, OP_CONCAT, e1, e2, line);
+ else if (finishbinexpneg(fs, e1, e2, OP_SHRI, line, TM_SHL)) {
+ /* coded as (r1 >> -I) */;
}
+ else /* regular case (two registers) */
+ codebinexpval(fs, OP_SHL, e1, e2, line);
break;
}
- case OPR_ADD: case OPR_SUB: case OPR_MUL: case OPR_DIV:
- case OPR_IDIV: case OPR_MOD: case OPR_POW:
- case OPR_BAND: case OPR_BOR: case OPR_BXOR:
- case OPR_SHL: case OPR_SHR: {
- if (!constfolding(fs, op + LUA_OPADD, e1, e2))
- codebinexpval(fs, cast(OpCode, op + OP_ADD), e1, e2, line);
+ case OPR_SHR: {
+ if (isSCint(e2))
+ codebini(fs, OP_SHRI, e1, e2, 0, line, TM_SHR); /* r1 >> I */
+ else /* regular case (two registers) */
+ codebinexpval(fs, OP_SHR, e1, e2, line);
break;
}
- case OPR_EQ: case OPR_LT: case OPR_LE:
- case OPR_NE: case OPR_GT: case OPR_GE: {
- codecomp(fs, op, e1, e2);
+ case OPR_EQ: case OPR_NE: {
+ codeeq(fs, opr, e1, e2);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_LT: case OPR_LE: {
+ OpCode op = cast(OpCode, (opr - OPR_EQ) + OP_EQ);
+ codeorder(fs, op, e1, e2);
+ break;
+ }
+ case OPR_GT: case OPR_GE: {
+ /* '(a > b)' <=> '(b < a)'; '(a >= b)' <=> '(b <= a)' */
+ OpCode op = cast(OpCode, (opr - OPR_NE) + OP_EQ);
+ swapexps(e1, e2);
+ codeorder(fs, op, e1, e2);
break;
}
default: lua_assert(0);
@@ -1172,10 +1724,23 @@ void luaK_posfix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op,
/*
-** Change line information associated with current position.
+** Change line information associated with current position, by removing
+** previous info and adding it again with new line.
*/
void luaK_fixline (FuncState *fs, int line) {
- fs->f->lineinfo[fs->pc - 1] = line;
+ removelastlineinfo(fs);
+ savelineinfo(fs, fs->f, line);
+}
+
+
+void luaK_settablesize (FuncState *fs, int pc, int ra, int asize, int hsize) {
+ Instruction *inst = &fs->f->code[pc];
+ int rb = (hsize != 0) ? luaO_ceillog2(hsize) + 1 : 0; /* hash size */
+ int extra = asize / (MAXARG_C + 1); /* higher bits of array size */
+ int rc = asize % (MAXARG_C + 1); /* lower bits of array size */
+ int k = (extra > 0); /* true iff needs extra argument */
+ *inst = CREATE_ABCk(OP_NEWTABLE, ra, rb, rc, k);
+ *(inst + 1) = CREATE_Ax(OP_EXTRAARG, extra);
}
@@ -1187,17 +1752,67 @@ void luaK_fixline (FuncState *fs, int line) {
** table (or LUA_MULTRET to add up to stack top).
*/
void luaK_setlist (FuncState *fs, int base, int nelems, int tostore) {
- int c = (nelems - 1)/LFIELDS_PER_FLUSH + 1;
- int b = (tostore == LUA_MULTRET) ? 0 : tostore;
lua_assert(tostore != 0 && tostore <= LFIELDS_PER_FLUSH);
- if (c <= MAXARG_C)
- luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SETLIST, base, b, c);
- else if (c <= MAXARG_Ax) {
- luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SETLIST, base, b, 0);
- codeextraarg(fs, c);
+ if (tostore == LUA_MULTRET)
+ tostore = 0;
+ if (nelems <= MAXARG_C)
+ luaK_codeABC(fs, OP_SETLIST, base, tostore, nelems);
+ else {
+ int extra = nelems / (MAXARG_C + 1);
+ nelems %= (MAXARG_C + 1);
+ luaK_codeABCk(fs, OP_SETLIST, base, tostore, nelems, 1);
+ codeextraarg(fs, extra);
}
- else
- luaX_syntaxerror(fs->ls, "constructor too long");
fs->freereg = base + 1; /* free registers with list values */
}
+
+/*
+** return the final target of a jump (skipping jumps to jumps)
+*/
+static int finaltarget (Instruction *code, int i) {
+ int count;
+ for (count = 0; count < 100; count++) { /* avoid infinite loops */
+ Instruction pc = code[i];
+ if (GET_OPCODE(pc) != OP_JMP)
+ break;
+ else
+ i += GETARG_sJ(pc) + 1;
+ }
+ return i;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Do a final pass over the code of a function, doing small peephole
+** optimizations and adjustments.
+*/
+void luaK_finish (FuncState *fs) {
+ int i;
+ Proto *p = fs->f;
+ for (i = 0; i < fs->pc; i++) {
+ Instruction *pc = &p->code[i];
+ lua_assert(i == 0 || isOT(*(pc - 1)) == isIT(*pc));
+ switch (GET_OPCODE(*pc)) {
+ case OP_RETURN0: case OP_RETURN1: {
+ if (!(fs->needclose || p->is_vararg))
+ break; /* no extra work */
+ /* else use OP_RETURN to do the extra work */
+ SET_OPCODE(*pc, OP_RETURN);
+ } /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ case OP_RETURN: case OP_TAILCALL: {
+ if (fs->needclose)
+ SETARG_k(*pc, 1); /* signal that it needs to close */
+ if (p->is_vararg)
+ SETARG_C(*pc, p->numparams + 1); /* signal that it is vararg */
+ break;
+ }
+ case OP_JMP: {
+ int target = finaltarget(p->code, i);
+ fixjump(fs, i, target);
+ break;
+ }
+ default: break;
+ }
+ }
+}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lcode.h b/contrib/lua/src/lcode.h
index 882dc9c156ef..326582445263 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lcode.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lcode.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lcode.h,v 1.64.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lcode.h $
** Code generator for Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -24,40 +24,53 @@
** grep "ORDER OPR" if you change these enums (ORDER OP)
*/
typedef enum BinOpr {
+ /* arithmetic operators */
OPR_ADD, OPR_SUB, OPR_MUL, OPR_MOD, OPR_POW,
- OPR_DIV,
- OPR_IDIV,
+ OPR_DIV, OPR_IDIV,
+ /* bitwise operators */
OPR_BAND, OPR_BOR, OPR_BXOR,
OPR_SHL, OPR_SHR,
+ /* string operator */
OPR_CONCAT,
+ /* comparison operators */
OPR_EQ, OPR_LT, OPR_LE,
OPR_NE, OPR_GT, OPR_GE,
+ /* logical operators */
OPR_AND, OPR_OR,
OPR_NOBINOPR
} BinOpr;
+/* true if operation is foldable (that is, it is arithmetic or bitwise) */
+#define foldbinop(op) ((op) <= OPR_SHR)
+
+
+#define luaK_codeABC(fs,o,a,b,c) luaK_codeABCk(fs,o,a,b,c,0)
+
+
typedef enum UnOpr { OPR_MINUS, OPR_BNOT, OPR_NOT, OPR_LEN, OPR_NOUNOPR } UnOpr;
/* get (pointer to) instruction of given 'expdesc' */
#define getinstruction(fs,e) ((fs)->f->code[(e)->u.info])
-#define luaK_codeAsBx(fs,o,A,sBx) luaK_codeABx(fs,o,A,(sBx)+MAXARG_sBx)
#define luaK_setmultret(fs,e) luaK_setreturns(fs, e, LUA_MULTRET)
#define luaK_jumpto(fs,t) luaK_patchlist(fs, luaK_jump(fs), t)
+LUAI_FUNC int luaK_code (FuncState *fs, Instruction i);
LUAI_FUNC int luaK_codeABx (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int A, unsigned int Bx);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaK_codeABC (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int A, int B, int C);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaK_codek (FuncState *fs, int reg, int k);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaK_codeAsBx (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int A, int Bx);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaK_codeABCk (FuncState *fs, OpCode o, int A,
+ int B, int C, int k);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaK_isKint (expdesc *e);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaK_exp2const (FuncState *fs, const expdesc *e, TValue *v);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_fixline (FuncState *fs, int line);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_nil (FuncState *fs, int from, int n);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_reserveregs (FuncState *fs, int n);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_checkstack (FuncState *fs, int n);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaK_stringK (FuncState *fs, TString *s);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaK_intK (FuncState *fs, lua_Integer n);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaK_int (FuncState *fs, int reg, lua_Integer n);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_dischargevars (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e);
LUAI_FUNC int luaK_exp2anyreg (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_exp2anyregup (FuncState *fs, expdesc *e);
@@ -75,14 +88,17 @@ LUAI_FUNC int luaK_jump (FuncState *fs);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_ret (FuncState *fs, int first, int nret);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_patchlist (FuncState *fs, int list, int target);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_patchtohere (FuncState *fs, int list);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaK_patchclose (FuncState *fs, int list, int level);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_concat (FuncState *fs, int *l1, int l2);
LUAI_FUNC int luaK_getlabel (FuncState *fs);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_prefix (FuncState *fs, UnOpr op, expdesc *v, int line);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_infix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op, expdesc *v);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_posfix (FuncState *fs, BinOpr op, expdesc *v1,
expdesc *v2, int line);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaK_settablesize (FuncState *fs, int pc,
+ int ra, int asize, int hsize);
LUAI_FUNC void luaK_setlist (FuncState *fs, int base, int nelems, int tostore);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaK_finish (FuncState *fs);
+LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaK_semerror (LexState *ls, const char *msg);
#endif
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lcorolib.c b/contrib/lua/src/lcorolib.c
index 0b17af9e343a..c165031d280a 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lcorolib.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lcorolib.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lcorolib.c,v 1.10.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lcorolib.c $
** Coroutine Library
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -20,25 +20,24 @@
static lua_State *getco (lua_State *L) {
lua_State *co = lua_tothread(L, 1);
- luaL_argcheck(L, co, 1, "thread expected");
+ luaL_argexpected(L, co, 1, "thread");
return co;
}
+/*
+** Resumes a coroutine. Returns the number of results for non-error
+** cases or -1 for errors.
+*/
static int auxresume (lua_State *L, lua_State *co, int narg) {
- int status;
+ int status, nres;
if (!lua_checkstack(co, narg)) {
lua_pushliteral(L, "too many arguments to resume");
return -1; /* error flag */
}
- if (lua_status(co) == LUA_OK && lua_gettop(co) == 0) {
- lua_pushliteral(L, "cannot resume dead coroutine");
- return -1; /* error flag */
- }
lua_xmove(L, co, narg);
- status = lua_resume(co, L, narg);
+ status = lua_resume(co, L, narg, &nres);
if (status == LUA_OK || status == LUA_YIELD) {
- int nres = lua_gettop(co);
if (!lua_checkstack(L, nres + 1)) {
lua_pop(co, nres); /* remove results anyway */
lua_pushliteral(L, "too many results to resume");
@@ -74,9 +73,13 @@ static int luaB_coresume (lua_State *L) {
static int luaB_auxwrap (lua_State *L) {
lua_State *co = lua_tothread(L, lua_upvalueindex(1));
int r = auxresume(L, co, lua_gettop(L));
- if (r < 0) {
- if (lua_type(L, -1) == LUA_TSTRING) { /* error object is a string? */
- luaL_where(L, 1); /* add extra info */
+ if (r < 0) { /* error? */
+ int stat = lua_status(co);
+ if (stat != LUA_OK && stat != LUA_YIELD) /* error in the coroutine? */
+ lua_resetthread(co); /* close its tbc variables */
+ if (stat != LUA_ERRMEM && /* not a memory error and ... */
+ lua_type(L, -1) == LUA_TSTRING) { /* ... error object is a string? */
+ luaL_where(L, 1); /* add extra info, if available */
lua_insert(L, -2);
lua_concat(L, 2);
}
@@ -108,35 +111,48 @@ static int luaB_yield (lua_State *L) {
}
-static int luaB_costatus (lua_State *L) {
- lua_State *co = getco(L);
- if (L == co) lua_pushliteral(L, "running");
+#define COS_RUN 0
+#define COS_DEAD 1
+#define COS_YIELD 2
+#define COS_NORM 3
+
+
+static const char *const statname[] =
+ {"running", "dead", "suspended", "normal"};
+
+
+static int auxstatus (lua_State *L, lua_State *co) {
+ if (L == co) return COS_RUN;
else {
switch (lua_status(co)) {
case LUA_YIELD:
- lua_pushliteral(L, "suspended");
- break;
+ return COS_YIELD;
case LUA_OK: {
lua_Debug ar;
- if (lua_getstack(co, 0, &ar) > 0) /* does it have frames? */
- lua_pushliteral(L, "normal"); /* it is running */
+ if (lua_getstack(co, 0, &ar)) /* does it have frames? */
+ return COS_NORM; /* it is running */
else if (lua_gettop(co) == 0)
- lua_pushliteral(L, "dead");
+ return COS_DEAD;
else
- lua_pushliteral(L, "suspended"); /* initial state */
- break;
+ return COS_YIELD; /* initial state */
}
default: /* some error occurred */
- lua_pushliteral(L, "dead");
- break;
+ return COS_DEAD;
}
}
+}
+
+
+static int luaB_costatus (lua_State *L) {
+ lua_State *co = getco(L);
+ lua_pushstring(L, statname[auxstatus(L, co)]);
return 1;
}
static int luaB_yieldable (lua_State *L) {
- lua_pushboolean(L, lua_isyieldable(L));
+ lua_State *co = lua_isnone(L, 1) ? L : getco(L);
+ lua_pushboolean(L, lua_isyieldable(co));
return 1;
}
@@ -148,6 +164,28 @@ static int luaB_corunning (lua_State *L) {
}
+static int luaB_close (lua_State *L) {
+ lua_State *co = getco(L);
+ int status = auxstatus(L, co);
+ switch (status) {
+ case COS_DEAD: case COS_YIELD: {
+ status = lua_resetthread(co);
+ if (status == LUA_OK) {
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
+ return 1;
+ }
+ else {
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 0);
+ lua_xmove(co, L, 1); /* copy error message */
+ return 2;
+ }
+ }
+ default: /* normal or running coroutine */
+ return luaL_error(L, "cannot close a %s coroutine", statname[status]);
+ }
+}
+
+
static const luaL_Reg co_funcs[] = {
{"create", luaB_cocreate},
{"resume", luaB_coresume},
@@ -156,6 +194,7 @@ static const luaL_Reg co_funcs[] = {
{"wrap", luaB_cowrap},
{"yield", luaB_yield},
{"isyieldable", luaB_yieldable},
+ {"close", luaB_close},
{NULL, NULL}
};
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lctype.c b/contrib/lua/src/lctype.c
index f8ad7a2edf6e..95422809423a 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lctype.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lctype.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lctype.c,v 1.12.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lctype.c $
** 'ctype' functions for Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -16,6 +16,15 @@
#include <limits.h>
+
+#if defined (LUA_UCID) /* accept UniCode IDentifiers? */
+/* consider all non-ascii codepoints to be alphabetic */
+#define NONA 0x01
+#else
+#define NONA 0x00 /* default */
+#endif
+
+
LUAI_DDEF const lu_byte luai_ctype_[UCHAR_MAX + 2] = {
0x00, /* EOZ */
0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* 0. */
@@ -34,22 +43,22 @@ LUAI_DDEF const lu_byte luai_ctype_[UCHAR_MAX + 2] = {
0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05,
0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x05, /* 7. */
0x05, 0x05, 0x05, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x04, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* 8. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* 9. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* a. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* b. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* c. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* d. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* e. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* f. */
- 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* 8. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* 9. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* a. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* b. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ 0x00, 0x00, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* c. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* d. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, /* e. */
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA,
+ NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, NONA, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, /* f. */
+ 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00
};
#endif /* } */
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lctype.h b/contrib/lua/src/lctype.h
index b09b21a337c5..864e1901885d 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lctype.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lctype.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lctype.h,v 1.12.1.1 2013/04/12 18:48:47 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lctype.h $
** 'ctype' functions for Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
/*
** WARNING: the functions defined here do not necessarily correspond
** to the similar functions in the standard C ctype.h. They are
-** optimized for the specific needs of Lua
+** optimized for the specific needs of Lua.
*/
#if !defined(LUA_USE_CTYPE)
@@ -61,14 +61,20 @@
#define lisprint(c) testprop(c, MASK(PRINTBIT))
#define lisxdigit(c) testprop(c, MASK(XDIGITBIT))
+
/*
-** this 'ltolower' only works for alphabetic characters
+** In ASCII, this 'ltolower' is correct for alphabetic characters and
+** for '.'. That is enough for Lua needs. ('check_exp' ensures that
+** the character either is an upper-case letter or is unchanged by
+** the transformation, which holds for lower-case letters and '.'.)
*/
-#define ltolower(c) ((c) | ('A' ^ 'a'))
+#define ltolower(c) \
+ check_exp(('A' <= (c) && (c) <= 'Z') || (c) == ((c) | ('A' ^ 'a')), \
+ (c) | ('A' ^ 'a'))
-/* two more entries for 0 and -1 (EOZ) */
-LUAI_DDEC const lu_byte luai_ctype_[UCHAR_MAX + 2];
+/* one entry for each character and for -1 (EOZ) */
+LUAI_DDEC(const lu_byte luai_ctype_[UCHAR_MAX + 2];)
#else /* }{ */
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldblib.c b/contrib/lua/src/ldblib.c
index 9d29afb0a898..5a326adedb02 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldblib.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldblib.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldblib.c,v 1.151.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldblib.c $
** Interface from Lua to its debug API
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -21,10 +21,10 @@
/*
-** The hook table at registry[&HOOKKEY] maps threads to their current
-** hook function. (We only need the unique address of 'HOOKKEY'.)
+** The hook table at registry[HOOKKEY] maps threads to their current
+** hook function.
*/
-static const int HOOKKEY = 0;
+static const char *const HOOKKEY = "_HOOKKEY";
/*
@@ -55,8 +55,7 @@ static int db_getmetatable (lua_State *L) {
static int db_setmetatable (lua_State *L) {
int t = lua_type(L, 2);
- luaL_argcheck(L, t == LUA_TNIL || t == LUA_TTABLE, 2,
- "nil or table expected");
+ luaL_argexpected(L, t == LUA_TNIL || t == LUA_TTABLE, 2, "nil or table");
lua_settop(L, 2);
lua_setmetatable(L, 1);
return 1; /* return 1st argument */
@@ -64,19 +63,24 @@ static int db_setmetatable (lua_State *L) {
static int db_getuservalue (lua_State *L) {
+ int n = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 2, 1);
if (lua_type(L, 1) != LUA_TUSERDATA)
- lua_pushnil(L);
- else
- lua_getuservalue(L, 1);
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
+ else if (lua_getiuservalue(L, 1, n) != LUA_TNONE) {
+ lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
+ return 2;
+ }
return 1;
}
static int db_setuservalue (lua_State *L) {
+ int n = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, 3, 1);
luaL_checktype(L, 1, LUA_TUSERDATA);
luaL_checkany(L, 2);
lua_settop(L, 2);
- lua_setuservalue(L, 1);
+ if (!lua_setiuservalue(L, 1, n))
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
return 1;
}
@@ -146,7 +150,7 @@ static int db_getinfo (lua_State *L) {
lua_Debug ar;
int arg;
lua_State *L1 = getthread(L, &arg);
- const char *options = luaL_optstring(L, arg+2, "flnStu");
+ const char *options = luaL_optstring(L, arg+2, "flnSrtu");
checkstack(L, L1, 3);
if (lua_isfunction(L, arg + 1)) { /* info about a function? */
options = lua_pushfstring(L, ">%s", options); /* add '>' to 'options' */
@@ -155,7 +159,7 @@ static int db_getinfo (lua_State *L) {
}
else { /* stack level */
if (!lua_getstack(L1, (int)luaL_checkinteger(L, arg + 1), &ar)) {
- lua_pushnil(L); /* level out of range */
+ luaL_pushfail(L); /* level out of range */
return 1;
}
}
@@ -163,7 +167,8 @@ static int db_getinfo (lua_State *L) {
return luaL_argerror(L, arg+2, "invalid option");
lua_newtable(L); /* table to collect results */
if (strchr(options, 'S')) {
- settabss(L, "source", ar.source);
+ lua_pushlstring(L, ar.source, ar.srclen);
+ lua_setfield(L, -2, "source");
settabss(L, "short_src", ar.short_src);
settabsi(L, "linedefined", ar.linedefined);
settabsi(L, "lastlinedefined", ar.lastlinedefined);
@@ -180,6 +185,10 @@ static int db_getinfo (lua_State *L) {
settabss(L, "name", ar.name);
settabss(L, "namewhat", ar.namewhat);
}
+ if (strchr(options, 'r')) {
+ settabsi(L, "ftransfer", ar.ftransfer);
+ settabsi(L, "ntransfer", ar.ntransfer);
+ }
if (strchr(options, 't'))
settabsb(L, "istailcall", ar.istailcall);
if (strchr(options, 'L'))
@@ -193,8 +202,6 @@ static int db_getinfo (lua_State *L) {
static int db_getlocal (lua_State *L) {
int arg;
lua_State *L1 = getthread(L, &arg);
- lua_Debug ar;
- const char *name;
int nvar = (int)luaL_checkinteger(L, arg + 2); /* local-variable index */
if (lua_isfunction(L, arg + 1)) { /* function argument? */
lua_pushvalue(L, arg + 1); /* push function */
@@ -202,6 +209,8 @@ static int db_getlocal (lua_State *L) {
return 1; /* return only name (there is no value) */
}
else { /* stack-level argument */
+ lua_Debug ar;
+ const char *name;
int level = (int)luaL_checkinteger(L, arg + 1);
if (!lua_getstack(L1, level, &ar)) /* out of range? */
return luaL_argerror(L, arg+1, "level out of range");
@@ -214,7 +223,7 @@ static int db_getlocal (lua_State *L) {
return 2;
}
else {
- lua_pushnil(L); /* no name (nor value) */
+ luaL_pushfail(L); /* no name (nor value) */
return 1;
}
}
@@ -272,25 +281,33 @@ static int db_setupvalue (lua_State *L) {
** Check whether a given upvalue from a given closure exists and
** returns its index
*/
-static int checkupval (lua_State *L, int argf, int argnup) {
+static void *checkupval (lua_State *L, int argf, int argnup, int *pnup) {
+ void *id;
int nup = (int)luaL_checkinteger(L, argnup); /* upvalue index */
luaL_checktype(L, argf, LUA_TFUNCTION); /* closure */
- luaL_argcheck(L, (lua_getupvalue(L, argf, nup) != NULL), argnup,
- "invalid upvalue index");
- return nup;
+ id = lua_upvalueid(L, argf, nup);
+ if (pnup) {
+ luaL_argcheck(L, id != NULL, argnup, "invalid upvalue index");
+ *pnup = nup;
+ }
+ return id;
}
static int db_upvalueid (lua_State *L) {
- int n = checkupval(L, 1, 2);
- lua_pushlightuserdata(L, lua_upvalueid(L, 1, n));
+ void *id = checkupval(L, 1, 2, NULL);
+ if (id != NULL)
+ lua_pushlightuserdata(L, id);
+ else
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
return 1;
}
static int db_upvaluejoin (lua_State *L) {
- int n1 = checkupval(L, 1, 2);
- int n2 = checkupval(L, 3, 4);
+ int n1, n2;
+ checkupval(L, 1, 2, &n1);
+ checkupval(L, 3, 4, &n2);
luaL_argcheck(L, !lua_iscfunction(L, 1), 1, "Lua function expected");
luaL_argcheck(L, !lua_iscfunction(L, 3), 3, "Lua function expected");
lua_upvaluejoin(L, 1, n1, 3, n2);
@@ -305,7 +322,7 @@ static int db_upvaluejoin (lua_State *L) {
static void hookf (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
static const char *const hooknames[] =
{"call", "return", "line", "count", "tail call"};
- lua_rawgetp(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, &HOOKKEY);
+ lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, HOOKKEY);
lua_pushthread(L);
if (lua_rawget(L, -2) == LUA_TFUNCTION) { /* is there a hook function? */
lua_pushstring(L, hooknames[(int)ar->event]); /* push event name */
@@ -358,14 +375,12 @@ static int db_sethook (lua_State *L) {
count = (int)luaL_optinteger(L, arg + 3, 0);
func = hookf; mask = makemask(smask, count);
}
- if (lua_rawgetp(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, &HOOKKEY) == LUA_TNIL) {
- lua_createtable(L, 0, 2); /* create a hook table */
- lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_rawsetp(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, &HOOKKEY); /* set it in position */
+ if (!luaL_getsubtable(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, HOOKKEY)) {
+ /* table just created; initialize it */
lua_pushstring(L, "k");
lua_setfield(L, -2, "__mode"); /** hooktable.__mode = "k" */
lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
- lua_setmetatable(L, -2); /* setmetatable(hooktable) = hooktable */
+ lua_setmetatable(L, -2); /* metatable(hooktable) = hooktable */
}
checkstack(L, L1, 1);
lua_pushthread(L1); lua_xmove(L1, L, 1); /* key (thread) */
@@ -382,12 +397,14 @@ static int db_gethook (lua_State *L) {
char buff[5];
int mask = lua_gethookmask(L1);
lua_Hook hook = lua_gethook(L1);
- if (hook == NULL) /* no hook? */
- lua_pushnil(L);
+ if (hook == NULL) { /* no hook? */
+ luaL_pushfail(L);
+ return 1;
+ }
else if (hook != hookf) /* external hook? */
lua_pushliteral(L, "external hook");
else { /* hook table must exist */
- lua_rawgetp(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, &HOOKKEY);
+ lua_getfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, HOOKKEY);
checkstack(L, L1, 1);
lua_pushthread(L1); lua_xmove(L1, L, 1);
lua_rawget(L, -2); /* 1st result = hooktable[L1] */
@@ -408,7 +425,7 @@ static int db_debug (lua_State *L) {
return 0;
if (luaL_loadbuffer(L, buffer, strlen(buffer), "=(debug command)") ||
lua_pcall(L, 0, 0, 0))
- lua_writestringerror("%s\n", lua_tostring(L, -1));
+ lua_writestringerror("%s\n", luaL_tolstring(L, -1, NULL));
lua_settop(L, 0); /* remove eventual returns */
}
}
@@ -428,6 +445,14 @@ static int db_traceback (lua_State *L) {
}
+static int db_setcstacklimit (lua_State *L) {
+ int limit = (int)luaL_checkinteger(L, 1);
+ int res = lua_setcstacklimit(L, limit);
+ lua_pushinteger(L, res);
+ return 1;
+}
+
+
static const luaL_Reg dblib[] = {
{"debug", db_debug},
{"getuservalue", db_getuservalue},
@@ -445,6 +470,7 @@ static const luaL_Reg dblib[] = {
{"setmetatable", db_setmetatable},
{"setupvalue", db_setupvalue},
{"traceback", db_traceback},
+ {"setcstacklimit", db_setcstacklimit},
{NULL, NULL}
};
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.c b/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.c
index bb0e1d4aceda..8cb00e51a100 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldebug.c,v 2.121.1.2 2017/07/10 17:21:50 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldebug.c $
** Debug Interface
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -31,12 +31,10 @@
-#define noLuaClosure(f) ((f) == NULL || (f)->c.tt == LUA_TCCL)
-
-
-/* Active Lua function (given call info) */
-#define ci_func(ci) (clLvalue((ci)->func))
+#define noLuaClosure(f) ((f) == NULL || (f)->c.tt == LUA_VCCL)
+/* inverse of 'pcRel' */
+#define invpcRel(pc, p) ((p)->code + (pc) + 1)
static const char *funcnamefromcode (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci,
const char **name);
@@ -48,47 +46,103 @@ static int currentpc (CallInfo *ci) {
}
-static int currentline (CallInfo *ci) {
- return getfuncline(ci_func(ci)->p, currentpc(ci));
+/*
+** Get a "base line" to find the line corresponding to an instruction.
+** For that, search the array of absolute line info for the largest saved
+** instruction smaller or equal to the wanted instruction. A special
+** case is when there is no absolute info or the instruction is before
+** the first absolute one.
+*/
+static int getbaseline (const Proto *f, int pc, int *basepc) {
+ if (f->sizeabslineinfo == 0 || pc < f->abslineinfo[0].pc) {
+ *basepc = -1; /* start from the beginning */
+ return f->linedefined;
+ }
+ else {
+ unsigned int i;
+ if (pc >= f->abslineinfo[f->sizeabslineinfo - 1].pc)
+ i = f->sizeabslineinfo - 1; /* instruction is after last saved one */
+ else { /* binary search */
+ unsigned int j = f->sizeabslineinfo - 1; /* pc < anchorlines[j] */
+ i = 0; /* abslineinfo[i] <= pc */
+ while (i < j - 1) {
+ unsigned int m = (j + i) / 2;
+ if (pc >= f->abslineinfo[m].pc)
+ i = m;
+ else
+ j = m;
+ }
+ }
+ *basepc = f->abslineinfo[i].pc;
+ return f->abslineinfo[i].line;
+ }
}
/*
-** If function yielded, its 'func' can be in the 'extra' field. The
-** next function restores 'func' to its correct value for debugging
-** purposes. (It exchanges 'func' and 'extra'; so, when called again,
-** after debugging, it also "re-restores" ** 'func' to its altered value.
+** Get the line corresponding to instruction 'pc' in function 'f';
+** first gets a base line and from there does the increments until
+** the desired instruction.
*/
-static void swapextra (lua_State *L) {
- if (L->status == LUA_YIELD) {
- CallInfo *ci = L->ci; /* get function that yielded */
- StkId temp = ci->func; /* exchange its 'func' and 'extra' values */
- ci->func = restorestack(L, ci->extra);
- ci->extra = savestack(L, temp);
+int luaG_getfuncline (const Proto *f, int pc) {
+ if (f->lineinfo == NULL) /* no debug information? */
+ return -1;
+ else {
+ int basepc;
+ int baseline = getbaseline(f, pc, &basepc);
+ while (basepc++ < pc) { /* walk until given instruction */
+ lua_assert(f->lineinfo[basepc] != ABSLINEINFO);
+ baseline += f->lineinfo[basepc]; /* correct line */
+ }
+ return baseline;
}
}
+static int getcurrentline (CallInfo *ci) {
+ return luaG_getfuncline(ci_func(ci)->p, currentpc(ci));
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Set 'trap' for all active Lua frames.
+** This function can be called during a signal, under "reasonable"
+** assumptions. A new 'ci' is completely linked in the list before it
+** becomes part of the "active" list, and we assume that pointers are
+** atomic; see comment in next function.
+** (A compiler doing interprocedural optimizations could, theoretically,
+** reorder memory writes in such a way that the list could be
+** temporarily broken while inserting a new element. We simply assume it
+** has no good reasons to do that.)
+*/
+static void settraps (CallInfo *ci) {
+ for (; ci != NULL; ci = ci->previous)
+ if (isLua(ci))
+ ci->u.l.trap = 1;
+}
+
+
/*
-** This function can be called asynchronously (e.g. during a signal).
-** Fields 'oldpc', 'basehookcount', and 'hookcount' (set by
-** 'resethookcount') are for debug only, and it is no problem if they
-** get arbitrary values (causes at most one wrong hook call). 'hookmask'
-** is an atomic value. We assume that pointers are atomic too (e.g., gcc
-** ensures that for all platforms where it runs). Moreover, 'hook' is
-** always checked before being called (see 'luaD_hook').
+** This function can be called during a signal, under "reasonable"
+** assumptions.
+** Fields 'basehookcount' and 'hookcount' (set by 'resethookcount')
+** are for debug only, and it is no problem if they get arbitrary
+** values (causes at most one wrong hook call). 'hookmask' is an atomic
+** value. We assume that pointers are atomic too (e.g., gcc ensures that
+** for all platforms where it runs). Moreover, 'hook' is always checked
+** before being called (see 'luaD_hook').
*/
LUA_API void lua_sethook (lua_State *L, lua_Hook func, int mask, int count) {
if (func == NULL || mask == 0) { /* turn off hooks? */
mask = 0;
func = NULL;
}
- if (isLua(L->ci))
- L->oldpc = L->ci->u.l.savedpc;
L->hook = func;
L->basehookcount = count;
resethookcount(L);
L->hookmask = cast_byte(mask);
+ if (mask)
+ settraps(L->ci); /* to trace inside 'luaV_execute' */
}
@@ -124,7 +178,7 @@ LUA_API int lua_getstack (lua_State *L, int level, lua_Debug *ar) {
}
-static const char *upvalname (Proto *p, int uv) {
+static const char *upvalname (const Proto *p, int uv) {
TString *s = check_exp(uv < p->sizeupvalues, p->upvalues[uv].name);
if (s == NULL) return "?";
else return getstr(s);
@@ -132,39 +186,37 @@ static const char *upvalname (Proto *p, int uv) {
static const char *findvararg (CallInfo *ci, int n, StkId *pos) {
- int nparams = clLvalue(ci->func)->p->numparams;
- int nvararg = cast_int(ci->u.l.base - ci->func) - nparams;
- if (n <= -nvararg)
- return NULL; /* no such vararg */
- else {
- *pos = ci->func + nparams - n;
- return "(*vararg)"; /* generic name for any vararg */
+ if (clLvalue(s2v(ci->func))->p->is_vararg) {
+ int nextra = ci->u.l.nextraargs;
+ if (n >= -nextra) { /* 'n' is negative */
+ *pos = ci->func - nextra - (n + 1);
+ return "(vararg)"; /* generic name for any vararg */
+ }
}
+ return NULL; /* no such vararg */
}
-static const char *findlocal (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int n,
- StkId *pos) {
+const char *luaG_findlocal (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int n, StkId *pos) {
+ StkId base = ci->func + 1;
const char *name = NULL;
- StkId base;
if (isLua(ci)) {
if (n < 0) /* access to vararg values? */
return findvararg(ci, n, pos);
- else {
- base = ci->u.l.base;
+ else
name = luaF_getlocalname(ci_func(ci)->p, n, currentpc(ci));
- }
}
- else
- base = ci->func + 1;
if (name == NULL) { /* no 'standard' name? */
StkId limit = (ci == L->ci) ? L->top : ci->next->func;
- if (limit - base >= n && n > 0) /* is 'n' inside 'ci' stack? */
- name = "(*temporary)"; /* generic name for any valid slot */
+ if (limit - base >= n && n > 0) { /* is 'n' inside 'ci' stack? */
+ /* generic name for any valid slot */
+ name = isLua(ci) ? "(temporary)" : "(C temporary)";
+ }
else
return NULL; /* no name */
}
- *pos = base + (n - 1);
+ if (pos)
+ *pos = base + (n - 1);
return name;
}
@@ -172,22 +224,20 @@ static const char *findlocal (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int n,
LUA_API const char *lua_getlocal (lua_State *L, const lua_Debug *ar, int n) {
const char *name;
lua_lock(L);
- swapextra(L);
if (ar == NULL) { /* information about non-active function? */
- if (!isLfunction(L->top - 1)) /* not a Lua function? */
+ if (!isLfunction(s2v(L->top - 1))) /* not a Lua function? */
name = NULL;
else /* consider live variables at function start (parameters) */
- name = luaF_getlocalname(clLvalue(L->top - 1)->p, n, 0);
+ name = luaF_getlocalname(clLvalue(s2v(L->top - 1))->p, n, 0);
}
else { /* active function; get information through 'ar' */
StkId pos = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
- name = findlocal(L, ar->i_ci, n, &pos);
+ name = luaG_findlocal(L, ar->i_ci, n, &pos);
if (name) {
- setobj2s(L, L->top, pos);
+ setobjs2s(L, L->top, pos);
api_incr_top(L);
}
}
- swapextra(L);
lua_unlock(L);
return name;
}
@@ -197,13 +247,11 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_setlocal (lua_State *L, const lua_Debug *ar, int n) {
StkId pos = NULL; /* to avoid warnings */
const char *name;
lua_lock(L);
- swapextra(L);
- name = findlocal(L, ar->i_ci, n, &pos);
+ name = luaG_findlocal(L, ar->i_ci, n, &pos);
if (name) {
setobjs2s(L, pos, L->top - 1);
L->top--; /* pop value */
}
- swapextra(L);
lua_unlock(L);
return name;
}
@@ -212,36 +260,55 @@ LUA_API const char *lua_setlocal (lua_State *L, const lua_Debug *ar, int n) {
static void funcinfo (lua_Debug *ar, Closure *cl) {
if (noLuaClosure(cl)) {
ar->source = "=[C]";
+ ar->srclen = LL("=[C]");
ar->linedefined = -1;
ar->lastlinedefined = -1;
ar->what = "C";
}
else {
- Proto *p = cl->l.p;
- ar->source = p->source ? getstr(p->source) : "=?";
+ const Proto *p = cl->l.p;
+ if (p->source) {
+ ar->source = getstr(p->source);
+ ar->srclen = tsslen(p->source);
+ }
+ else {
+ ar->source = "=?";
+ ar->srclen = LL("=?");
+ }
ar->linedefined = p->linedefined;
ar->lastlinedefined = p->lastlinedefined;
ar->what = (ar->linedefined == 0) ? "main" : "Lua";
}
- luaO_chunkid(ar->short_src, ar->source, LUA_IDSIZE);
+ luaO_chunkid(ar->short_src, ar->source, ar->srclen);
+}
+
+
+static int nextline (const Proto *p, int currentline, int pc) {
+ if (p->lineinfo[pc] != ABSLINEINFO)
+ return currentline + p->lineinfo[pc];
+ else
+ return luaG_getfuncline(p, pc);
}
static void collectvalidlines (lua_State *L, Closure *f) {
if (noLuaClosure(f)) {
- setnilvalue(L->top);
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top));
api_incr_top(L);
}
else {
int i;
TValue v;
- int *lineinfo = f->l.p->lineinfo;
+ const Proto *p = f->l.p;
+ int currentline = p->linedefined;
Table *t = luaH_new(L); /* new table to store active lines */
- sethvalue(L, L->top, t); /* push it on stack */
+ sethvalue2s(L, L->top, t); /* push it on stack */
api_incr_top(L);
- setbvalue(&v, 1); /* boolean 'true' to be the value of all indices */
- for (i = 0; i < f->l.p->sizelineinfo; i++) /* for all lines with code */
- luaH_setint(L, t, lineinfo[i], &v); /* table[line] = true */
+ setbtvalue(&v); /* boolean 'true' to be the value of all indices */
+ for (i = 0; i < p->sizelineinfo; i++) { /* for all lines with code */
+ currentline = nextline(p, currentline, i);
+ luaH_setint(L, t, currentline, &v); /* table[line] = true */
+ }
}
}
@@ -270,7 +337,7 @@ static int auxgetinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar,
break;
}
case 'l': {
- ar->currentline = (ci && isLua(ci)) ? currentline(ci) : -1;
+ ar->currentline = (ci && isLua(ci)) ? getcurrentline(ci) : -1;
break;
}
case 'u': {
@@ -297,6 +364,15 @@ static int auxgetinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar,
}
break;
}
+ case 'r': {
+ if (ci == NULL || !(ci->callstatus & CIST_TRAN))
+ ar->ftransfer = ar->ntransfer = 0;
+ else {
+ ar->ftransfer = ci->u2.transferinfo.ftransfer;
+ ar->ntransfer = ci->u2.transferinfo.ntransfer;
+ }
+ break;
+ }
case 'L':
case 'f': /* handled by lua_getinfo */
break;
@@ -311,28 +387,26 @@ LUA_API int lua_getinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar) {
int status;
Closure *cl;
CallInfo *ci;
- StkId func;
+ TValue *func;
lua_lock(L);
- swapextra(L);
if (*what == '>') {
ci = NULL;
- func = L->top - 1;
+ func = s2v(L->top - 1);
api_check(L, ttisfunction(func), "function expected");
what++; /* skip the '>' */
L->top--; /* pop function */
}
else {
ci = ar->i_ci;
- func = ci->func;
- lua_assert(ttisfunction(ci->func));
+ func = s2v(ci->func);
+ lua_assert(ttisfunction(func));
}
cl = ttisclosure(func) ? clvalue(func) : NULL;
status = auxgetinfo(L, what, ar, cl, ci);
if (strchr(what, 'f')) {
- setobjs2s(L, L->top, func);
+ setobj2s(L, L->top, func);
api_incr_top(L);
}
- swapextra(L); /* correct before option 'L', which can raise a mem. error */
if (strchr(what, 'L'))
collectvalidlines(L, cl);
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -346,30 +420,38 @@ LUA_API int lua_getinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar) {
** =======================================================
*/
-static const char *getobjname (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
+static const char *getobjname (const Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
const char **name);
/*
-** find a "name" for the RK value 'c'
+** Find a "name" for the constant 'c'.
*/
-static void kname (Proto *p, int pc, int c, const char **name) {
- if (ISK(c)) { /* is 'c' a constant? */
- TValue *kvalue = &p->k[INDEXK(c)];
- if (ttisstring(kvalue)) { /* literal constant? */
- *name = svalue(kvalue); /* it is its own name */
- return;
- }
- /* else no reasonable name found */
- }
- else { /* 'c' is a register */
- const char *what = getobjname(p, pc, c, name); /* search for 'c' */
- if (what && *what == 'c') { /* found a constant name? */
- return; /* 'name' already filled */
- }
- /* else no reasonable name found */
- }
- *name = "?"; /* no reasonable name found */
+static void kname (const Proto *p, int c, const char **name) {
+ TValue *kvalue = &p->k[c];
+ *name = (ttisstring(kvalue)) ? svalue(kvalue) : "?";
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Find a "name" for the register 'c'.
+*/
+static void rname (const Proto *p, int pc, int c, const char **name) {
+ const char *what = getobjname(p, pc, c, name); /* search for 'c' */
+ if (!(what && *what == 'c')) /* did not find a constant name? */
+ *name = "?";
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Find a "name" for a 'C' value in an RK instruction.
+*/
+static void rkname (const Proto *p, int pc, Instruction i, const char **name) {
+ int c = GETARG_C(i); /* key index */
+ if (GETARG_k(i)) /* is 'c' a constant? */
+ kname(p, c, name);
+ else /* 'c' is a register */
+ rname(p, pc, c, name);
}
@@ -381,55 +463,70 @@ static int filterpc (int pc, int jmptarget) {
/*
-** try to find last instruction before 'lastpc' that modified register 'reg'
+** Try to find last instruction before 'lastpc' that modified register 'reg'.
*/
-static int findsetreg (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg) {
+static int findsetreg (const Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg) {
int pc;
int setreg = -1; /* keep last instruction that changed 'reg' */
int jmptarget = 0; /* any code before this address is conditional */
+ if (testMMMode(GET_OPCODE(p->code[lastpc])))
+ lastpc--; /* previous instruction was not actually executed */
for (pc = 0; pc < lastpc; pc++) {
Instruction i = p->code[pc];
OpCode op = GET_OPCODE(i);
int a = GETARG_A(i);
+ int change; /* true if current instruction changed 'reg' */
switch (op) {
- case OP_LOADNIL: {
+ case OP_LOADNIL: { /* set registers from 'a' to 'a+b' */
int b = GETARG_B(i);
- if (a <= reg && reg <= a + b) /* set registers from 'a' to 'a+b' */
- setreg = filterpc(pc, jmptarget);
+ change = (a <= reg && reg <= a + b);
break;
}
- case OP_TFORCALL: {
- if (reg >= a + 2) /* affect all regs above its base */
- setreg = filterpc(pc, jmptarget);
+ case OP_TFORCALL: { /* affect all regs above its base */
+ change = (reg >= a + 2);
break;
}
case OP_CALL:
- case OP_TAILCALL: {
- if (reg >= a) /* affect all registers above base */
- setreg = filterpc(pc, jmptarget);
+ case OP_TAILCALL: { /* affect all registers above base */
+ change = (reg >= a);
break;
}
- case OP_JMP: {
- int b = GETARG_sBx(i);
+ case OP_JMP: { /* doesn't change registers, but changes 'jmptarget' */
+ int b = GETARG_sJ(i);
int dest = pc + 1 + b;
- /* jump is forward and do not skip 'lastpc'? */
- if (pc < dest && dest <= lastpc) {
- if (dest > jmptarget)
- jmptarget = dest; /* update 'jmptarget' */
- }
+ /* jump does not skip 'lastpc' and is larger than current one? */
+ if (dest <= lastpc && dest > jmptarget)
+ jmptarget = dest; /* update 'jmptarget' */
+ change = 0;
break;
}
- default:
- if (testAMode(op) && reg == a) /* any instruction that set A */
- setreg = filterpc(pc, jmptarget);
+ default: /* any instruction that sets A */
+ change = (testAMode(op) && reg == a);
break;
}
+ if (change)
+ setreg = filterpc(pc, jmptarget);
}
return setreg;
}
-static const char *getobjname (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
+/*
+** Check whether table being indexed by instruction 'i' is the
+** environment '_ENV'
+*/
+static const char *gxf (const Proto *p, int pc, Instruction i, int isup) {
+ int t = GETARG_B(i); /* table index */
+ const char *name; /* name of indexed variable */
+ if (isup) /* is an upvalue? */
+ name = upvalname(p, t);
+ else
+ getobjname(p, pc, t, &name);
+ return (name && strcmp(name, LUA_ENV) == 0) ? "global" : "field";
+}
+
+
+static const char *getobjname (const Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
const char **name) {
int pc;
*name = luaF_getlocalname(p, reg + 1, lastpc);
@@ -447,15 +544,24 @@ static const char *getobjname (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
return getobjname(p, pc, b, name); /* get name for 'b' */
break;
}
- case OP_GETTABUP:
+ case OP_GETTABUP: {
+ int k = GETARG_C(i); /* key index */
+ kname(p, k, name);
+ return gxf(p, pc, i, 1);
+ }
case OP_GETTABLE: {
int k = GETARG_C(i); /* key index */
- int t = GETARG_B(i); /* table index */
- const char *vn = (op == OP_GETTABLE) /* name of indexed variable */
- ? luaF_getlocalname(p, t + 1, pc)
- : upvalname(p, t);
- kname(p, pc, k, name);
- return (vn && strcmp(vn, LUA_ENV) == 0) ? "global" : "field";
+ rname(p, pc, k, name);
+ return gxf(p, pc, i, 0);
+ }
+ case OP_GETI: {
+ *name = "integer index";
+ return "field";
+ }
+ case OP_GETFIELD: {
+ int k = GETARG_C(i); /* key index */
+ kname(p, k, name);
+ return gxf(p, pc, i, 0);
}
case OP_GETUPVAL: {
*name = upvalname(p, GETARG_B(i));
@@ -472,8 +578,7 @@ static const char *getobjname (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
break;
}
case OP_SELF: {
- int k = GETARG_C(i); /* key index */
- kname(p, pc, k, name);
+ rkname(p, pc, i, name);
return "method";
}
default: break; /* go through to return NULL */
@@ -492,7 +597,7 @@ static const char *getobjname (Proto *p, int lastpc, int reg,
static const char *funcnamefromcode (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci,
const char **name) {
TMS tm = (TMS)0; /* (initial value avoids warnings) */
- Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p; /* calling function */
+ const Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p; /* calling function */
int pc = currentpc(ci); /* calling instruction index */
Instruction i = p->code[pc]; /* calling instruction */
if (ci->callstatus & CIST_HOOKED) { /* was it called inside a hook? */
@@ -509,16 +614,14 @@ static const char *funcnamefromcode (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci,
}
/* other instructions can do calls through metamethods */
case OP_SELF: case OP_GETTABUP: case OP_GETTABLE:
+ case OP_GETI: case OP_GETFIELD:
tm = TM_INDEX;
break;
- case OP_SETTABUP: case OP_SETTABLE:
+ case OP_SETTABUP: case OP_SETTABLE: case OP_SETI: case OP_SETFIELD:
tm = TM_NEWINDEX;
break;
- case OP_ADD: case OP_SUB: case OP_MUL: case OP_MOD:
- case OP_POW: case OP_DIV: case OP_IDIV: case OP_BAND:
- case OP_BOR: case OP_BXOR: case OP_SHL: case OP_SHR: {
- int offset = cast_int(GET_OPCODE(i)) - cast_int(OP_ADD); /* ORDER OP */
- tm = cast(TMS, offset + cast_int(TM_ADD)); /* ORDER TM */
+ case OP_MMBIN: case OP_MMBINI: case OP_MMBINK: {
+ tm = cast(TMS, GETARG_C(i));
break;
}
case OP_UNM: tm = TM_UNM; break;
@@ -526,12 +629,16 @@ static const char *funcnamefromcode (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci,
case OP_LEN: tm = TM_LEN; break;
case OP_CONCAT: tm = TM_CONCAT; break;
case OP_EQ: tm = TM_EQ; break;
- case OP_LT: tm = TM_LT; break;
- case OP_LE: tm = TM_LE; break;
+ case OP_LT: case OP_LE: case OP_LTI: case OP_LEI:
+ *name = "order"; /* '<=' can call '__lt', etc. */
+ return "metamethod";
+ case OP_CLOSE: case OP_RETURN:
+ *name = "close";
+ return "metamethod";
default:
return NULL; /* cannot find a reasonable name */
}
- *name = getstr(G(L)->tmname[tm]);
+ *name = getstr(G(L)->tmname[tm]) + 2;
return "metamethod";
}
@@ -545,8 +652,9 @@ static const char *funcnamefromcode (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci,
** checks are ISO C and ensure a correct result.
*/
static int isinstack (CallInfo *ci, const TValue *o) {
- ptrdiff_t i = o - ci->u.l.base;
- return (0 <= i && i < (ci->top - ci->u.l.base) && ci->u.l.base + i == o);
+ StkId base = ci->func + 1;
+ ptrdiff_t i = cast(StkId, o) - base;
+ return (0 <= i && i < (ci->top - base) && s2v(base + i) == o);
}
@@ -577,7 +685,7 @@ static const char *varinfo (lua_State *L, const TValue *o) {
kind = getupvalname(ci, o, &name); /* check whether 'o' is an upvalue */
if (!kind && isinstack(ci, o)) /* no? try a register */
kind = getobjname(ci_func(ci)->p, currentpc(ci),
- cast_int(o - ci->u.l.base), &name);
+ cast_int(cast(StkId, o) - (ci->func + 1)), &name);
}
return (kind) ? luaO_pushfstring(L, " (%s '%s')", kind, name) : "";
}
@@ -589,6 +697,12 @@ l_noret luaG_typeerror (lua_State *L, const TValue *o, const char *op) {
}
+l_noret luaG_forerror (lua_State *L, const TValue *o, const char *what) {
+ luaG_runerror(L, "bad 'for' %s (number expected, got %s)",
+ what, luaT_objtypename(L, o));
+}
+
+
l_noret luaG_concaterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1, const TValue *p2) {
if (ttisstring(p1) || cvt2str(p1)) p1 = p2;
luaG_typeerror(L, p1, "concatenate");
@@ -597,8 +711,7 @@ l_noret luaG_concaterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1, const TValue *p2) {
l_noret luaG_opinterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1,
const TValue *p2, const char *msg) {
- lua_Number temp;
- if (!tonumber(p1, &temp)) /* first operand is wrong? */
+ if (!ttisnumber(p1)) /* first operand is wrong? */
p2 = p1; /* now second is wrong */
luaG_typeerror(L, p2, msg);
}
@@ -609,7 +722,7 @@ l_noret luaG_opinterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1,
*/
l_noret luaG_tointerror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1, const TValue *p2) {
lua_Integer temp;
- if (!tointeger(p1, &temp))
+ if (!tointegerns(p1, &temp))
p2 = p1;
luaG_runerror(L, "number%s has no integer representation", varinfo(L, p2));
}
@@ -630,7 +743,7 @@ const char *luaG_addinfo (lua_State *L, const char *msg, TString *src,
int line) {
char buff[LUA_IDSIZE];
if (src)
- luaO_chunkid(buff, getstr(src), LUA_IDSIZE);
+ luaO_chunkid(buff, getstr(src), tsslen(src));
else { /* no source available; use "?" instead */
buff[0] = '?'; buff[1] = '\0';
}
@@ -641,6 +754,7 @@ const char *luaG_addinfo (lua_State *L, const char *msg, TString *src,
l_noret luaG_errormsg (lua_State *L) {
if (L->errfunc != 0) { /* is there an error handling function? */
StkId errfunc = restorestack(L, L->errfunc);
+ lua_assert(ttisfunction(s2v(errfunc)));
setobjs2s(L, L->top, L->top - 1); /* move argument */
setobjs2s(L, L->top - 1, errfunc); /* push function */
L->top++; /* assume EXTRA_STACK */
@@ -659,42 +773,80 @@ l_noret luaG_runerror (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...) {
msg = luaO_pushvfstring(L, fmt, argp); /* format message */
va_end(argp);
if (isLua(ci)) /* if Lua function, add source:line information */
- luaG_addinfo(L, msg, ci_func(ci)->p->source, currentline(ci));
+ luaG_addinfo(L, msg, ci_func(ci)->p->source, getcurrentline(ci));
luaG_errormsg(L);
}
-void luaG_traceexec (lua_State *L) {
+/*
+** Check whether new instruction 'newpc' is in a different line from
+** previous instruction 'oldpc'.
+*/
+static int changedline (const Proto *p, int oldpc, int newpc) {
+ if (p->lineinfo == NULL) /* no debug information? */
+ return 0;
+ while (oldpc++ < newpc) {
+ if (p->lineinfo[oldpc] != 0)
+ return (luaG_getfuncline(p, oldpc - 1) != luaG_getfuncline(p, newpc));
+ }
+ return 0; /* no line changes between positions */
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Traces the execution of a Lua function. Called before the execution
+** of each opcode, when debug is on. 'L->oldpc' stores the last
+** instruction traced, to detect line changes. When entering a new
+** function, 'npci' will be zero and will test as a new line without
+** the need for 'oldpc'; so, 'oldpc' does not need to be initialized
+** before. Some exceptional conditions may return to a function without
+** updating 'oldpc'. In that case, 'oldpc' may be invalid; if so, it is
+** reset to zero. (A wrong but valid 'oldpc' at most causes an extra
+** call to a line hook.)
+*/
+int luaG_traceexec (lua_State *L, const Instruction *pc) {
CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
lu_byte mask = L->hookmask;
- int counthook = (--L->hookcount == 0 && (mask & LUA_MASKCOUNT));
+ const Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p;
+ int counthook;
+ /* 'L->oldpc' may be invalid; reset it in this case */
+ int oldpc = (L->oldpc < p->sizecode) ? L->oldpc : 0;
+ if (!(mask & (LUA_MASKLINE | LUA_MASKCOUNT))) { /* no hooks? */
+ ci->u.l.trap = 0; /* don't need to stop again */
+ return 0; /* turn off 'trap' */
+ }
+ pc++; /* reference is always next instruction */
+ ci->u.l.savedpc = pc; /* save 'pc' */
+ counthook = (--L->hookcount == 0 && (mask & LUA_MASKCOUNT));
if (counthook)
resethookcount(L); /* reset count */
else if (!(mask & LUA_MASKLINE))
- return; /* no line hook and count != 0; nothing to be done */
+ return 1; /* no line hook and count != 0; nothing to be done now */
if (ci->callstatus & CIST_HOOKYIELD) { /* called hook last time? */
ci->callstatus &= ~CIST_HOOKYIELD; /* erase mark */
- return; /* do not call hook again (VM yielded, so it did not move) */
+ return 1; /* do not call hook again (VM yielded, so it did not move) */
}
+ if (!isIT(*(ci->u.l.savedpc - 1)))
+ L->top = ci->top; /* prepare top */
if (counthook)
- luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKCOUNT, -1); /* call count hook */
+ luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKCOUNT, -1, 0, 0); /* call count hook */
if (mask & LUA_MASKLINE) {
- Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p;
- int npc = pcRel(ci->u.l.savedpc, p);
- int newline = getfuncline(p, npc);
- if (npc == 0 || /* call linehook when enter a new function, */
- ci->u.l.savedpc <= L->oldpc || /* when jump back (loop), or when */
- newline != getfuncline(p, pcRel(L->oldpc, p))) /* enter a new line */
- luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKLINE, newline); /* call line hook */
- }
- L->oldpc = ci->u.l.savedpc;
+ int npci = pcRel(pc, p);
+ if (npci == 0 || /* call linehook when enter a new function, */
+ pc <= invpcRel(oldpc, p) || /* when jump back (loop), or when */
+ changedline(p, oldpc, npci)) { /* enter new line */
+ int newline = luaG_getfuncline(p, npci);
+ luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKLINE, newline, 0, 0); /* call line hook */
+ }
+ L->oldpc = npci; /* 'pc' of last call to line hook */
+ }
if (L->status == LUA_YIELD) { /* did hook yield? */
if (counthook)
L->hookcount = 1; /* undo decrement to zero */
ci->u.l.savedpc--; /* undo increment (resume will increment it again) */
ci->callstatus |= CIST_HOOKYIELD; /* mark that it yielded */
- ci->func = L->top - 1; /* protect stack below results */
luaD_throw(L, LUA_YIELD);
}
+ return 1; /* keep 'trap' on */
}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.h b/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.h
index 8cea0ee0a72c..a0a584862e96 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldebug.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldebug.h,v 2.14.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldebug.h $
** Auxiliary functions from Debug Interface module
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -11,15 +11,28 @@
#include "lstate.h"
-#define pcRel(pc, p) (cast(int, (pc) - (p)->code) - 1)
+#define pcRel(pc, p) (cast_int((pc) - (p)->code) - 1)
+
+
+/* Active Lua function (given call info) */
+#define ci_func(ci) (clLvalue(s2v((ci)->func)))
-#define getfuncline(f,pc) (((f)->lineinfo) ? (f)->lineinfo[pc] : -1)
#define resethookcount(L) (L->hookcount = L->basehookcount)
+/*
+** mark for entries in 'lineinfo' array that has absolute information in
+** 'abslineinfo' array
+*/
+#define ABSLINEINFO (-0x80)
+LUAI_FUNC int luaG_getfuncline (const Proto *f, int pc);
+LUAI_FUNC const char *luaG_findlocal (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int n,
+ StkId *pos);
LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_typeerror (lua_State *L, const TValue *o,
const char *opname);
+LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_forerror (lua_State *L, const TValue *o,
+ const char *what);
LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_concaterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1,
const TValue *p2);
LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_opinterror (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1,
@@ -33,7 +46,7 @@ LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_runerror (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...);
LUAI_FUNC const char *luaG_addinfo (lua_State *L, const char *msg,
TString *src, int line);
LUAI_FUNC l_noret luaG_errormsg (lua_State *L);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaG_traceexec (lua_State *L);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaG_traceexec (lua_State *L, const Instruction *pc);
#endif
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldo.c b/contrib/lua/src/ldo.c
index 316e45c8fec5..4b55c31c2d8c 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldo.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldo.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldo.c,v 2.157.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldo.c $
** Stack and Call structure of Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ struct lua_longjmp {
};
-static void seterrorobj (lua_State *L, int errcode, StkId oldtop) {
+void luaD_seterrorobj (lua_State *L, int errcode, StkId oldtop) {
switch (errcode) {
case LUA_ERRMEM: { /* memory error? */
setsvalue2s(L, oldtop, G(L)->memerrmsg); /* reuse preregistered msg. */
@@ -98,6 +98,10 @@ static void seterrorobj (lua_State *L, int errcode, StkId oldtop) {
setsvalue2s(L, oldtop, luaS_newliteral(L, "error in error handling"));
break;
}
+ case CLOSEPROTECT: {
+ setnilvalue(s2v(oldtop)); /* no error message */
+ break;
+ }
default: {
setobjs2s(L, oldtop, L->top - 1); /* error message on current top */
break;
@@ -114,6 +118,7 @@ l_noret luaD_throw (lua_State *L, int errcode) {
}
else { /* thread has no error handler */
global_State *g = G(L);
+ errcode = luaF_close(L, L->stack, errcode); /* close all upvalues */
L->status = cast_byte(errcode); /* mark it as dead */
if (g->mainthread->errorJmp) { /* main thread has a handler? */
setobjs2s(L, g->mainthread->top++, L->top - 1); /* copy error obj. */
@@ -121,7 +126,7 @@ l_noret luaD_throw (lua_State *L, int errcode) {
}
else { /* no handler at all; abort */
if (g->panic) { /* panic function? */
- seterrorobj(L, errcode, L->top); /* assume EXTRA_STACK */
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, errcode, L->top); /* assume EXTRA_STACK */
if (L->ci->top < L->top)
L->ci->top = L->top; /* pushing msg. can break this invariant */
lua_unlock(L);
@@ -134,7 +139,7 @@ l_noret luaD_throw (lua_State *L, int errcode) {
int luaD_rawrunprotected (lua_State *L, Pfunc f, void *ud) {
- unsigned short oldnCcalls = L->nCcalls;
+ l_uint32 oldnCcalls = L->nCcalls;
struct lua_longjmp lj;
lj.status = LUA_OK;
lj.previous = L->errorJmp; /* chain new error handler */
@@ -155,17 +160,19 @@ int luaD_rawrunprotected (lua_State *L, Pfunc f, void *ud) {
** Stack reallocation
** ===================================================================
*/
-static void correctstack (lua_State *L, TValue *oldstack) {
+static void correctstack (lua_State *L, StkId oldstack, StkId newstack) {
CallInfo *ci;
UpVal *up;
- L->top = (L->top - oldstack) + L->stack;
+ if (oldstack == newstack)
+ return; /* stack address did not change */
+ L->top = (L->top - oldstack) + newstack;
for (up = L->openupval; up != NULL; up = up->u.open.next)
- up->v = (up->v - oldstack) + L->stack;
+ up->v = s2v((uplevel(up) - oldstack) + newstack);
for (ci = L->ci; ci != NULL; ci = ci->previous) {
- ci->top = (ci->top - oldstack) + L->stack;
- ci->func = (ci->func - oldstack) + L->stack;
+ ci->top = (ci->top - oldstack) + newstack;
+ ci->func = (ci->func - oldstack) + newstack;
if (isLua(ci))
- ci->u.l.base = (ci->u.l.base - oldstack) + L->stack;
+ ci->u.l.trap = 1; /* signal to update 'trap' in 'luaV_execute' */
}
}
@@ -174,66 +181,100 @@ static void correctstack (lua_State *L, TValue *oldstack) {
#define ERRORSTACKSIZE (LUAI_MAXSTACK + 200)
-void luaD_reallocstack (lua_State *L, int newsize) {
- TValue *oldstack = L->stack;
- int lim = L->stacksize;
+int luaD_reallocstack (lua_State *L, int newsize, int raiseerror) {
+ int lim = stacksize(L);
+ StkId newstack = luaM_reallocvector(L, L->stack,
+ lim + EXTRA_STACK, newsize + EXTRA_STACK, StackValue);
lua_assert(newsize <= LUAI_MAXSTACK || newsize == ERRORSTACKSIZE);
- lua_assert(L->stack_last - L->stack == L->stacksize - EXTRA_STACK);
- luaM_reallocvector(L, L->stack, L->stacksize, newsize, TValue);
+ if (unlikely(newstack == NULL)) { /* reallocation failed? */
+ if (raiseerror)
+ luaM_error(L);
+ else return 0; /* do not raise an error */
+ }
for (; lim < newsize; lim++)
- setnilvalue(L->stack + lim); /* erase new segment */
- L->stacksize = newsize;
- L->stack_last = L->stack + newsize - EXTRA_STACK;
- correctstack(L, oldstack);
+ setnilvalue(s2v(newstack + lim + EXTRA_STACK)); /* erase new segment */
+ correctstack(L, L->stack, newstack);
+ L->stack = newstack;
+ L->stack_last = L->stack + newsize;
+ return 1;
}
-void luaD_growstack (lua_State *L, int n) {
- int size = L->stacksize;
- if (size > LUAI_MAXSTACK) /* error after extra size? */
- luaD_throw(L, LUA_ERRERR);
+/*
+** Try to grow the stack by at least 'n' elements. when 'raiseerror'
+** is true, raises any error; otherwise, return 0 in case of errors.
+*/
+int luaD_growstack (lua_State *L, int n, int raiseerror) {
+ int size = stacksize(L);
+ if (unlikely(size > LUAI_MAXSTACK)) {
+ /* if stack is larger than maximum, thread is already using the
+ extra space reserved for errors, that is, thread is handling
+ a stack error; cannot grow further than that. */
+ lua_assert(stacksize(L) == ERRORSTACKSIZE);
+ if (raiseerror)
+ luaD_throw(L, LUA_ERRERR); /* error inside message handler */
+ return 0; /* if not 'raiseerror', just signal it */
+ }
else {
- int needed = cast_int(L->top - L->stack) + n + EXTRA_STACK;
- int newsize = 2 * size;
- if (newsize > LUAI_MAXSTACK) newsize = LUAI_MAXSTACK;
- if (newsize < needed) newsize = needed;
- if (newsize > LUAI_MAXSTACK) { /* stack overflow? */
- luaD_reallocstack(L, ERRORSTACKSIZE);
- luaG_runerror(L, "stack overflow");
+ int newsize = 2 * size; /* tentative new size */
+ int needed = cast_int(L->top - L->stack) + n;
+ if (newsize > LUAI_MAXSTACK) /* cannot cross the limit */
+ newsize = LUAI_MAXSTACK;
+ if (newsize < needed) /* but must respect what was asked for */
+ newsize = needed;
+ if (likely(newsize <= LUAI_MAXSTACK))
+ return luaD_reallocstack(L, newsize, raiseerror);
+ else { /* stack overflow */
+ /* add extra size to be able to handle the error message */
+ luaD_reallocstack(L, ERRORSTACKSIZE, raiseerror);
+ if (raiseerror)
+ luaG_runerror(L, "stack overflow");
+ return 0;
}
- else
- luaD_reallocstack(L, newsize);
}
}
static int stackinuse (lua_State *L) {
CallInfo *ci;
+ int res;
StkId lim = L->top;
for (ci = L->ci; ci != NULL; ci = ci->previous) {
if (lim < ci->top) lim = ci->top;
}
lua_assert(lim <= L->stack_last);
- return cast_int(lim - L->stack) + 1; /* part of stack in use */
+ res = cast_int(lim - L->stack) + 1; /* part of stack in use */
+ if (res < LUA_MINSTACK)
+ res = LUA_MINSTACK; /* ensure a minimum size */
+ return res;
}
+/*
+** If stack size is more than 3 times the current use, reduce that size
+** to twice the current use. (So, the final stack size is at most 2/3 the
+** previous size, and half of its entries are empty.)
+** As a particular case, if stack was handling a stack overflow and now
+** it is not, 'max' (limited by LUAI_MAXSTACK) will be smaller than
+** stacksize (equal to ERRORSTACKSIZE in this case), and so the stack
+** will be reduced to a "regular" size.
+*/
void luaD_shrinkstack (lua_State *L) {
int inuse = stackinuse(L);
- int goodsize = inuse + (inuse / 8) + 2*EXTRA_STACK;
- if (goodsize > LUAI_MAXSTACK)
- goodsize = LUAI_MAXSTACK; /* respect stack limit */
- if (L->stacksize > LUAI_MAXSTACK) /* had been handling stack overflow? */
- luaE_freeCI(L); /* free all CIs (list grew because of an error) */
- else
- luaE_shrinkCI(L); /* shrink list */
+ int nsize = inuse * 2; /* proposed new size */
+ int max = inuse * 3; /* maximum "reasonable" size */
+ if (max > LUAI_MAXSTACK) {
+ max = LUAI_MAXSTACK; /* respect stack limit */
+ if (nsize > LUAI_MAXSTACK)
+ nsize = LUAI_MAXSTACK;
+ }
/* if thread is currently not handling a stack overflow and its
- good size is smaller than current size, shrink its stack */
- if (inuse <= (LUAI_MAXSTACK - EXTRA_STACK) &&
- goodsize < L->stacksize)
- luaD_reallocstack(L, goodsize);
+ size is larger than maximum "reasonable" size, shrink it */
+ if (inuse <= LUAI_MAXSTACK && stacksize(L) > max)
+ luaD_reallocstack(L, nsize, 0); /* ok if that fails */
else /* don't change stack */
condmovestack(L,{},{}); /* (change only for debugging) */
+ luaE_shrinkCI(L); /* shrink CI list */
}
@@ -247,12 +288,14 @@ void luaD_inctop (lua_State *L) {
/*
** Call a hook for the given event. Make sure there is a hook to be
-** called. (Both 'L->hook' and 'L->hookmask', which triggers this
+** called. (Both 'L->hook' and 'L->hookmask', which trigger this
** function, can be changed asynchronously by signals.)
*/
-void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line) {
+void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line,
+ int ftransfer, int ntransfer) {
lua_Hook hook = L->hook;
if (hook && L->allowhook) { /* make sure there is a hook */
+ int mask = CIST_HOOKED;
CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
ptrdiff_t top = savestack(L, L->top);
ptrdiff_t ci_top = savestack(L, ci->top);
@@ -260,11 +303,16 @@ void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line) {
ar.event = event;
ar.currentline = line;
ar.i_ci = ci;
+ if (ntransfer != 0) {
+ mask |= CIST_TRAN; /* 'ci' has transfer information */
+ ci->u2.transferinfo.ftransfer = ftransfer;
+ ci->u2.transferinfo.ntransfer = ntransfer;
+ }
luaD_checkstack(L, LUA_MINSTACK); /* ensure minimum stack size */
- ci->top = L->top + LUA_MINSTACK;
- lua_assert(ci->top <= L->stack_last);
+ if (L->top + LUA_MINSTACK > ci->top)
+ ci->top = L->top + LUA_MINSTACK;
L->allowhook = 0; /* cannot call hooks inside a hook */
- ci->callstatus |= CIST_HOOKED;
+ ci->callstatus |= mask;
lua_unlock(L);
(*hook)(L, &ar);
lua_lock(L);
@@ -272,56 +320,66 @@ void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line) {
L->allowhook = 1;
ci->top = restorestack(L, ci_top);
L->top = restorestack(L, top);
- ci->callstatus &= ~CIST_HOOKED;
+ ci->callstatus &= ~mask;
}
}
-static void callhook (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci) {
- int hook = LUA_HOOKCALL;
+/*
+** Executes a call hook for Lua functions. This function is called
+** whenever 'hookmask' is not zero, so it checks whether call hooks are
+** active.
+*/
+void luaD_hookcall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci) {
+ int hook = (ci->callstatus & CIST_TAIL) ? LUA_HOOKTAILCALL : LUA_HOOKCALL;
+ Proto *p;
+ if (!(L->hookmask & LUA_MASKCALL)) /* some other hook? */
+ return; /* don't call hook */
+ p = clLvalue(s2v(ci->func))->p;
+ L->top = ci->top; /* prepare top */
ci->u.l.savedpc++; /* hooks assume 'pc' is already incremented */
- if (isLua(ci->previous) &&
- GET_OPCODE(*(ci->previous->u.l.savedpc - 1)) == OP_TAILCALL) {
- ci->callstatus |= CIST_TAIL;
- hook = LUA_HOOKTAILCALL;
- }
- luaD_hook(L, hook, -1);
+ luaD_hook(L, hook, -1, 1, p->numparams);
ci->u.l.savedpc--; /* correct 'pc' */
}
-static StkId adjust_varargs (lua_State *L, Proto *p, int actual) {
- int i;
- int nfixargs = p->numparams;
- StkId base, fixed;
- /* move fixed parameters to final position */
- fixed = L->top - actual; /* first fixed argument */
- base = L->top; /* final position of first argument */
- for (i = 0; i < nfixargs && i < actual; i++) {
- setobjs2s(L, L->top++, fixed + i);
- setnilvalue(fixed + i); /* erase original copy (for GC) */
+static StkId rethook (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, StkId firstres, int nres) {
+ ptrdiff_t oldtop = savestack(L, L->top); /* hook may change top */
+ int delta = 0;
+ if (isLuacode(ci)) {
+ Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p;
+ if (p->is_vararg)
+ delta = ci->u.l.nextraargs + p->numparams + 1;
+ if (L->top < ci->top)
+ L->top = ci->top; /* correct top to run hook */
}
- for (; i < nfixargs; i++)
- setnilvalue(L->top++); /* complete missing arguments */
- return base;
+ if (L->hookmask & LUA_MASKRET) { /* is return hook on? */
+ int ftransfer;
+ ci->func += delta; /* if vararg, back to virtual 'func' */
+ ftransfer = cast(unsigned short, firstres - ci->func);
+ luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKRET, -1, ftransfer, nres); /* call it */
+ ci->func -= delta;
+ }
+ if (isLua(ci = ci->previous))
+ L->oldpc = pcRel(ci->u.l.savedpc, ci_func(ci)->p); /* update 'oldpc' */
+ return restorestack(L, oldtop);
}
/*
-** Check whether __call metafield of 'func' is a function. If so, put
-** it in stack below original 'func' so that 'luaD_precall' can call
-** it. Raise an error if __call metafield is not a function.
+** Check whether 'func' has a '__call' metafield. If so, put it in the
+** stack, below original 'func', so that 'luaD_precall' can call it. Raise
+** an error if there is no '__call' metafield.
*/
-static void tryfuncTM (lua_State *L, StkId func) {
- const TValue *tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, func, TM_CALL);
+void luaD_tryfuncTM (lua_State *L, StkId func) {
+ const TValue *tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, s2v(func), TM_CALL);
StkId p;
- if (!ttisfunction(tm))
- luaG_typeerror(L, func, "call");
- /* Open a hole inside the stack at 'func' */
- for (p = L->top; p > func; p--)
+ if (unlikely(ttisnil(tm)))
+ luaG_typeerror(L, s2v(func), "call"); /* nothing to call */
+ for (p = L->top; p > func; p--) /* open space for metamethod */
setobjs2s(L, p, p-1);
- L->top++; /* slot ensured by caller */
- setobj2s(L, func, tm); /* tag method is the new function to be called */
+ L->top++; /* stack space pre-allocated by the caller */
+ setobj2s(L, func, tm); /* metamethod is the new function to be called */
}
@@ -331,183 +389,181 @@ static void tryfuncTM (lua_State *L, StkId func) {
** expressions, multiple results for tail calls/single parameters)
** separated.
*/
-static int moveresults (lua_State *L, const TValue *firstResult, StkId res,
- int nres, int wanted) {
+static void moveresults (lua_State *L, StkId res, int nres, int wanted) {
+ StkId firstresult;
+ int i;
switch (wanted) { /* handle typical cases separately */
- case 0: break; /* nothing to move */
- case 1: { /* one result needed */
+ case 0: /* no values needed */
+ L->top = res;
+ return;
+ case 1: /* one value needed */
if (nres == 0) /* no results? */
- firstResult = luaO_nilobject; /* adjust with nil */
- setobjs2s(L, res, firstResult); /* move it to proper place */
+ setnilvalue(s2v(res)); /* adjust with nil */
+ else
+ setobjs2s(L, res, L->top - nres); /* move it to proper place */
+ L->top = res + 1;
+ return;
+ case LUA_MULTRET:
+ wanted = nres; /* we want all results */
break;
- }
- case LUA_MULTRET: {
- int i;
- for (i = 0; i < nres; i++) /* move all results to correct place */
- setobjs2s(L, res + i, firstResult + i);
- L->top = res + nres;
- return 0; /* wanted == LUA_MULTRET */
- }
- default: {
- int i;
- if (wanted <= nres) { /* enough results? */
- for (i = 0; i < wanted; i++) /* move wanted results to correct place */
- setobjs2s(L, res + i, firstResult + i);
- }
- else { /* not enough results; use all of them plus nils */
- for (i = 0; i < nres; i++) /* move all results to correct place */
- setobjs2s(L, res + i, firstResult + i);
- for (; i < wanted; i++) /* complete wanted number of results */
- setnilvalue(res + i);
+ default: /* multiple results (or to-be-closed variables) */
+ if (hastocloseCfunc(wanted)) { /* to-be-closed variables? */
+ ptrdiff_t savedres = savestack(L, res);
+ luaF_close(L, res, LUA_OK); /* may change the stack */
+ res = restorestack(L, savedres);
+ wanted = codeNresults(wanted); /* correct value */
+ if (wanted == LUA_MULTRET)
+ wanted = nres;
}
break;
- }
}
+ firstresult = L->top - nres; /* index of first result */
+ /* move all results to correct place */
+ for (i = 0; i < nres && i < wanted; i++)
+ setobjs2s(L, res + i, firstresult + i);
+ for (; i < wanted; i++) /* complete wanted number of results */
+ setnilvalue(s2v(res + i));
L->top = res + wanted; /* top points after the last result */
- return 1;
}
/*
** Finishes a function call: calls hook if necessary, removes CallInfo,
-** moves current number of results to proper place; returns 0 iff call
-** wanted multiple (variable number of) results.
+** moves current number of results to proper place.
*/
-int luaD_poscall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, StkId firstResult, int nres) {
- StkId res;
- int wanted = ci->nresults;
- if (L->hookmask & (LUA_MASKRET | LUA_MASKLINE)) {
- if (L->hookmask & LUA_MASKRET) {
- ptrdiff_t fr = savestack(L, firstResult); /* hook may change stack */
- luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKRET, -1);
- firstResult = restorestack(L, fr);
- }
- L->oldpc = ci->previous->u.l.savedpc; /* 'oldpc' for caller function */
- }
- res = ci->func; /* res == final position of 1st result */
+void luaD_poscall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int nres) {
+ if (L->hookmask)
+ L->top = rethook(L, ci, L->top - nres, nres);
L->ci = ci->previous; /* back to caller */
/* move results to proper place */
- return moveresults(L, firstResult, res, nres, wanted);
+ moveresults(L, ci->func, nres, ci->nresults);
}
-#define next_ci(L) (L->ci = (L->ci->next ? L->ci->next : luaE_extendCI(L)))
+#define next_ci(L) (L->ci->next ? L->ci->next : luaE_extendCI(L))
-/* macro to check stack size, preserving 'p' */
-#define checkstackp(L,n,p) \
- luaD_checkstackaux(L, n, \
- ptrdiff_t t__ = savestack(L, p); /* save 'p' */ \
- luaC_checkGC(L), /* stack grow uses memory */ \
- p = restorestack(L, t__)) /* 'pos' part: restore 'p' */
+/*
+** Prepare a function for a tail call, building its call info on top
+** of the current call info. 'narg1' is the number of arguments plus 1
+** (so that it includes the function itself).
+*/
+void luaD_pretailcall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, StkId func, int narg1) {
+ Proto *p = clLvalue(s2v(func))->p;
+ int fsize = p->maxstacksize; /* frame size */
+ int nfixparams = p->numparams;
+ int i;
+ for (i = 0; i < narg1; i++) /* move down function and arguments */
+ setobjs2s(L, ci->func + i, func + i);
+ checkstackGC(L, fsize);
+ func = ci->func; /* moved-down function */
+ for (; narg1 <= nfixparams; narg1++)
+ setnilvalue(s2v(func + narg1)); /* complete missing arguments */
+ ci->top = func + 1 + fsize; /* top for new function */
+ lua_assert(ci->top <= L->stack_last);
+ ci->u.l.savedpc = p->code; /* starting point */
+ ci->callstatus |= CIST_TAIL;
+ L->top = func + narg1; /* set top */
+}
/*
-** Prepares a function call: checks the stack, creates a new CallInfo
-** entry, fills in the relevant information, calls hook if needed.
-** If function is a C function, does the call, too. (Otherwise, leave
-** the execution ('luaV_execute') to the caller, to allow stackless
-** calls.) Returns true iff function has been executed (C function).
+** Prepares the call to a function (C or Lua). For C functions, also do
+** the call. The function to be called is at '*func'. The arguments
+** are on the stack, right after the function. Returns the CallInfo
+** to be executed, if it was a Lua function. Otherwise (a C function)
+** returns NULL, with all the results on the stack, starting at the
+** original function position.
*/
-int luaD_precall (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nresults) {
+CallInfo *luaD_precall (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nresults) {
lua_CFunction f;
- CallInfo *ci;
- switch (ttype(func)) {
- case LUA_TCCL: /* C closure */
- f = clCvalue(func)->f;
+ retry:
+ switch (ttypetag(s2v(func))) {
+ case LUA_VCCL: /* C closure */
+ f = clCvalue(s2v(func))->f;
goto Cfunc;
- case LUA_TLCF: /* light C function */
- f = fvalue(func);
+ case LUA_VLCF: /* light C function */
+ f = fvalue(s2v(func));
Cfunc: {
int n; /* number of returns */
- checkstackp(L, LUA_MINSTACK, func); /* ensure minimum stack size */
- ci = next_ci(L); /* now 'enter' new function */
+ CallInfo *ci;
+ checkstackGCp(L, LUA_MINSTACK, func); /* ensure minimum stack size */
+ L->ci = ci = next_ci(L);
ci->nresults = nresults;
- ci->func = func;
+ ci->callstatus = CIST_C;
ci->top = L->top + LUA_MINSTACK;
+ ci->func = func;
lua_assert(ci->top <= L->stack_last);
- ci->callstatus = 0;
- if (L->hookmask & LUA_MASKCALL)
- luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKCALL, -1);
+ if (L->hookmask & LUA_MASKCALL) {
+ int narg = cast_int(L->top - func) - 1;
+ luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKCALL, -1, 1, narg);
+ }
lua_unlock(L);
n = (*f)(L); /* do the actual call */
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, n);
- luaD_poscall(L, ci, L->top - n, n);
- return 1;
+ luaD_poscall(L, ci, n);
+ return NULL;
}
- case LUA_TLCL: { /* Lua function: prepare its call */
- StkId base;
- Proto *p = clLvalue(func)->p;
- int n = cast_int(L->top - func) - 1; /* number of real arguments */
+ case LUA_VLCL: { /* Lua function */
+ CallInfo *ci;
+ Proto *p = clLvalue(s2v(func))->p;
+ int narg = cast_int(L->top - func) - 1; /* number of real arguments */
+ int nfixparams = p->numparams;
int fsize = p->maxstacksize; /* frame size */
- checkstackp(L, fsize, func);
- if (p->is_vararg)
- base = adjust_varargs(L, p, n);
- else { /* non vararg function */
- for (; n < p->numparams; n++)
- setnilvalue(L->top++); /* complete missing arguments */
- base = func + 1;
- }
- ci = next_ci(L); /* now 'enter' new function */
+ checkstackGCp(L, fsize, func);
+ L->ci = ci = next_ci(L);
ci->nresults = nresults;
+ ci->u.l.savedpc = p->code; /* starting point */
+ ci->top = func + 1 + fsize;
ci->func = func;
- ci->u.l.base = base;
- L->top = ci->top = base + fsize;
+ L->ci = ci;
+ for (; narg < nfixparams; narg++)
+ setnilvalue(s2v(L->top++)); /* complete missing arguments */
lua_assert(ci->top <= L->stack_last);
- ci->u.l.savedpc = p->code; /* starting point */
- ci->callstatus = CIST_LUA;
- if (L->hookmask & LUA_MASKCALL)
- callhook(L, ci);
- return 0;
+ return ci;
}
default: { /* not a function */
- checkstackp(L, 1, func); /* ensure space for metamethod */
- tryfuncTM(L, func); /* try to get '__call' metamethod */
- return luaD_precall(L, func, nresults); /* now it must be a function */
+ checkstackGCp(L, 1, func); /* space for metamethod */
+ luaD_tryfuncTM(L, func); /* try to get '__call' metamethod */
+ goto retry; /* try again with metamethod */
}
}
}
/*
-** Check appropriate error for stack overflow ("regular" overflow or
-** overflow while handling stack overflow). If 'nCalls' is larger than
-** LUAI_MAXCCALLS (which means it is handling a "regular" overflow) but
-** smaller than 9/8 of LUAI_MAXCCALLS, does not report an error (to
-** allow overflow handling to work)
+** Call a function (C or Lua) through C. 'inc' can be 1 (increment
+** number of recursive invocations in the C stack) or nyci (the same
+** plus increment number of non-yieldable calls).
*/
-static void stackerror (lua_State *L) {
- if (L->nCcalls == LUAI_MAXCCALLS)
- luaG_runerror(L, "C stack overflow");
- else if (L->nCcalls >= (LUAI_MAXCCALLS + (LUAI_MAXCCALLS>>3)))
- luaD_throw(L, LUA_ERRERR); /* error while handing stack error */
+static void ccall (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults, int inc) {
+ CallInfo *ci;
+ L->nCcalls += inc;
+ if (unlikely(getCcalls(L) >= LUAI_MAXCCALLS))
+ luaE_checkcstack(L);
+ if ((ci = luaD_precall(L, func, nResults)) != NULL) { /* Lua function? */
+ ci->callstatus = CIST_FRESH; /* mark that it is a "fresh" execute */
+ luaV_execute(L, ci); /* call it */
+ }
+ L->nCcalls -= inc;
}
/*
-** Call a function (C or Lua). The function to be called is at *func.
-** The arguments are on the stack, right after the function.
-** When returns, all the results are on the stack, starting at the original
-** function position.
+** External interface for 'ccall'
*/
void luaD_call (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults) {
- if (++L->nCcalls >= LUAI_MAXCCALLS)
- stackerror(L);
- if (!luaD_precall(L, func, nResults)) /* is a Lua function? */
- luaV_execute(L); /* call it */
- L->nCcalls--;
+ ccall(L, func, nResults, 1);
}
/*
-** Similar to 'luaD_call', but does not allow yields during the call
+** Similar to 'luaD_call', but does not allow yields during the call.
*/
void luaD_callnoyield (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults) {
- L->nny++;
- luaD_call(L, func, nResults);
- L->nny--;
+ ccall(L, func, nResults, nyci);
}
@@ -519,7 +575,7 @@ static void finishCcall (lua_State *L, int status) {
CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
int n;
/* must have a continuation and must be able to call it */
- lua_assert(ci->u.c.k != NULL && L->nny == 0);
+ lua_assert(ci->u.c.k != NULL && yieldable(L));
/* error status can only happen in a protected call */
lua_assert((ci->callstatus & CIST_YPCALL) || status == LUA_YIELD);
if (ci->callstatus & CIST_YPCALL) { /* was inside a pcall? */
@@ -533,7 +589,7 @@ static void finishCcall (lua_State *L, int status) {
n = (*ci->u.c.k)(L, status, ci->u.c.ctx); /* call continuation function */
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, n);
- luaD_poscall(L, ci, L->top - n, n); /* finish 'luaD_precall' */
+ luaD_poscall(L, ci, n); /* finish 'luaD_call' */
}
@@ -546,14 +602,15 @@ static void finishCcall (lua_State *L, int status) {
** status is LUA_YIELD).
*/
static void unroll (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
+ CallInfo *ci;
if (ud != NULL) /* error status? */
finishCcall(L, *(int *)ud); /* finish 'lua_pcallk' callee */
- while (L->ci != &L->base_ci) { /* something in the stack */
- if (!isLua(L->ci)) /* C function? */
+ while ((ci = L->ci) != &L->base_ci) { /* something in the stack */
+ if (!isLua(ci)) /* C function? */
finishCcall(L, LUA_YIELD); /* complete its execution */
else { /* Lua function */
luaV_finishOp(L); /* finish interrupted instruction */
- luaV_execute(L); /* execute down to higher C 'boundary' */
+ luaV_execute(L, ci); /* execute down to higher C 'boundary' */
}
}
}
@@ -583,13 +640,13 @@ static int recover (lua_State *L, int status) {
CallInfo *ci = findpcall(L);
if (ci == NULL) return 0; /* no recovery point */
/* "finish" luaD_pcall */
- oldtop = restorestack(L, ci->extra);
- luaF_close(L, oldtop);
- seterrorobj(L, status, oldtop);
+ oldtop = restorestack(L, ci->u2.funcidx);
L->ci = ci;
L->allowhook = getoah(ci->callstatus); /* restore original 'allowhook' */
- L->nny = 0; /* should be zero to be yieldable */
- luaD_shrinkstack(L);
+ status = luaF_close(L, oldtop, status); /* may change the stack */
+ oldtop = restorestack(L, ci->u2.funcidx);
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, status, oldtop);
+ luaD_shrinkstack(L); /* restore stack size in case of overflow */
L->errfunc = ci->u.c.old_errfunc;
return 1; /* continue running the coroutine */
}
@@ -620,96 +677,90 @@ static void resume (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
int n = *(cast(int*, ud)); /* number of arguments */
StkId firstArg = L->top - n; /* first argument */
CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
- if (L->status == LUA_OK) { /* starting a coroutine? */
- if (!luaD_precall(L, firstArg - 1, LUA_MULTRET)) /* Lua function? */
- luaV_execute(L); /* call it */
- }
+ if (L->status == LUA_OK) /* starting a coroutine? */
+ ccall(L, firstArg - 1, LUA_MULTRET, 1); /* just call its body */
else { /* resuming from previous yield */
lua_assert(L->status == LUA_YIELD);
L->status = LUA_OK; /* mark that it is running (again) */
- ci->func = restorestack(L, ci->extra);
+ luaE_incCstack(L); /* control the C stack */
if (isLua(ci)) /* yielded inside a hook? */
- luaV_execute(L); /* just continue running Lua code */
+ luaV_execute(L, ci); /* just continue running Lua code */
else { /* 'common' yield */
if (ci->u.c.k != NULL) { /* does it have a continuation function? */
lua_unlock(L);
n = (*ci->u.c.k)(L, LUA_YIELD, ci->u.c.ctx); /* call continuation */
lua_lock(L);
api_checknelems(L, n);
- firstArg = L->top - n; /* yield results come from continuation */
}
- luaD_poscall(L, ci, firstArg, n); /* finish 'luaD_precall' */
+ luaD_poscall(L, ci, n); /* finish 'luaD_call' */
}
unroll(L, NULL); /* run continuation */
}
}
-
-LUA_API int lua_resume (lua_State *L, lua_State *from, int nargs) {
+LUA_API int lua_resume (lua_State *L, lua_State *from, int nargs,
+ int *nresults) {
int status;
- unsigned short oldnny = L->nny; /* save "number of non-yieldable" calls */
lua_lock(L);
if (L->status == LUA_OK) { /* may be starting a coroutine */
if (L->ci != &L->base_ci) /* not in base level? */
return resume_error(L, "cannot resume non-suspended coroutine", nargs);
+ else if (L->top - (L->ci->func + 1) == nargs) /* no function? */
+ return resume_error(L, "cannot resume dead coroutine", nargs);
}
- else if (L->status != LUA_YIELD)
+ else if (L->status != LUA_YIELD) /* ended with errors? */
return resume_error(L, "cannot resume dead coroutine", nargs);
- L->nCcalls = (from) ? from->nCcalls + 1 : 1;
- if (L->nCcalls >= LUAI_MAXCCALLS)
- return resume_error(L, "C stack overflow", nargs);
+ L->nCcalls = (from) ? getCcalls(from) : 0;
luai_userstateresume(L, nargs);
- L->nny = 0; /* allow yields */
api_checknelems(L, (L->status == LUA_OK) ? nargs + 1 : nargs);
status = luaD_rawrunprotected(L, resume, &nargs);
- if (status == -1) /* error calling 'lua_resume'? */
- status = LUA_ERRRUN;
- else { /* continue running after recoverable errors */
- while (errorstatus(status) && recover(L, status)) {
- /* unroll continuation */
- status = luaD_rawrunprotected(L, unroll, &status);
- }
- if (errorstatus(status)) { /* unrecoverable error? */
- L->status = cast_byte(status); /* mark thread as 'dead' */
- seterrorobj(L, status, L->top); /* push error message */
- L->ci->top = L->top;
- }
- else lua_assert(status == L->status); /* normal end or yield */
+ /* continue running after recoverable errors */
+ while (errorstatus(status) && recover(L, status)) {
+ /* unroll continuation */
+ status = luaD_rawrunprotected(L, unroll, &status);
+ }
+ if (likely(!errorstatus(status)))
+ lua_assert(status == L->status); /* normal end or yield */
+ else { /* unrecoverable error */
+ L->status = cast_byte(status); /* mark thread as 'dead' */
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, status, L->top); /* push error message */
+ L->ci->top = L->top;
}
- L->nny = oldnny; /* restore 'nny' */
- L->nCcalls--;
- lua_assert(L->nCcalls == ((from) ? from->nCcalls : 0));
+ *nresults = (status == LUA_YIELD) ? L->ci->u2.nyield
+ : cast_int(L->top - (L->ci->func + 1));
lua_unlock(L);
return status;
}
LUA_API int lua_isyieldable (lua_State *L) {
- return (L->nny == 0);
+ return yieldable(L);
}
LUA_API int lua_yieldk (lua_State *L, int nresults, lua_KContext ctx,
lua_KFunction k) {
- CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
+ CallInfo *ci;
luai_userstateyield(L, nresults);
lua_lock(L);
+ ci = L->ci;
api_checknelems(L, nresults);
- if (L->nny > 0) {
+ if (unlikely(!yieldable(L))) {
if (L != G(L)->mainthread)
luaG_runerror(L, "attempt to yield across a C-call boundary");
else
luaG_runerror(L, "attempt to yield from outside a coroutine");
}
L->status = LUA_YIELD;
- ci->extra = savestack(L, ci->func); /* save current 'func' */
if (isLua(ci)) { /* inside a hook? */
+ lua_assert(!isLuacode(ci));
api_check(L, k == NULL, "hooks cannot continue after yielding");
+ ci->u2.nyield = 0; /* no results */
}
else {
if ((ci->u.c.k = k) != NULL) /* is there a continuation? */
ci->u.c.ctx = ctx; /* save context */
- ci->func = L->top - nresults - 1; /* protect stack below results */
+ ci->u2.nyield = nresults; /* save number of results */
luaD_throw(L, LUA_YIELD);
}
lua_assert(ci->callstatus & CIST_HOOKED); /* must be inside a hook */
@@ -718,23 +769,27 @@ LUA_API int lua_yieldk (lua_State *L, int nresults, lua_KContext ctx,
}
+/*
+** Call the C function 'func' in protected mode, restoring basic
+** thread information ('allowhook', etc.) and in particular
+** its stack level in case of errors.
+*/
int luaD_pcall (lua_State *L, Pfunc func, void *u,
ptrdiff_t old_top, ptrdiff_t ef) {
int status;
CallInfo *old_ci = L->ci;
lu_byte old_allowhooks = L->allowhook;
- unsigned short old_nny = L->nny;
ptrdiff_t old_errfunc = L->errfunc;
L->errfunc = ef;
status = luaD_rawrunprotected(L, func, u);
- if (status != LUA_OK) { /* an error occurred? */
+ if (unlikely(status != LUA_OK)) { /* an error occurred? */
StkId oldtop = restorestack(L, old_top);
- luaF_close(L, oldtop); /* close possible pending closures */
- seterrorobj(L, status, oldtop);
L->ci = old_ci;
L->allowhook = old_allowhooks;
- L->nny = old_nny;
- luaD_shrinkstack(L);
+ status = luaF_close(L, oldtop, status);
+ oldtop = restorestack(L, old_top); /* previous call may change stack */
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, status, oldtop);
+ luaD_shrinkstack(L); /* restore stack size in case of overflow */
}
L->errfunc = old_errfunc;
return status;
@@ -784,7 +839,7 @@ int luaD_protectedparser (lua_State *L, ZIO *z, const char *name,
const char *mode) {
struct SParser p;
int status;
- L->nny++; /* cannot yield during parsing */
+ incnny(L); /* cannot yield during parsing */
p.z = z; p.name = name; p.mode = mode;
p.dyd.actvar.arr = NULL; p.dyd.actvar.size = 0;
p.dyd.gt.arr = NULL; p.dyd.gt.size = 0;
@@ -795,7 +850,7 @@ int luaD_protectedparser (lua_State *L, ZIO *z, const char *name,
luaM_freearray(L, p.dyd.actvar.arr, p.dyd.actvar.size);
luaM_freearray(L, p.dyd.gt.arr, p.dyd.gt.size);
luaM_freearray(L, p.dyd.label.arr, p.dyd.label.size);
- L->nny--;
+ decnny(L);
return status;
}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldo.h b/contrib/lua/src/ldo.h
index 3b2983a38645..4d30d072ede3 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldo.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldo.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldo.h,v 2.29.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldo.h $
** Stack and Call structure of Lua
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -17,12 +17,15 @@
** Macro to check stack size and grow stack if needed. Parameters
** 'pre'/'pos' allow the macro to preserve a pointer into the
** stack across reallocations, doing the work only when needed.
+** It also allows the running of one GC step when the stack is
+** reallocated.
** 'condmovestack' is used in heavy tests to force a stack reallocation
** at every check.
*/
#define luaD_checkstackaux(L,n,pre,pos) \
if (L->stack_last - L->top <= (n)) \
- { pre; luaD_growstack(L, n); pos; } else { condmovestack(L,pre,pos); }
+ { pre; luaD_growstack(L, n, 1); pos; } \
+ else { condmovestack(L,pre,pos); }
/* In general, 'pre'/'pos' are empty (nothing to save) */
#define luaD_checkstack(L,n) luaD_checkstackaux(L,n,(void)0,(void)0)
@@ -30,24 +33,41 @@
#define savestack(L,p) ((char *)(p) - (char *)L->stack)
-#define restorestack(L,n) ((TValue *)((char *)L->stack + (n)))
+#define restorestack(L,n) ((StkId)((char *)L->stack + (n)))
+
+
+/* macro to check stack size, preserving 'p' */
+#define checkstackGCp(L,n,p) \
+ luaD_checkstackaux(L, n, \
+ ptrdiff_t t__ = savestack(L, p); /* save 'p' */ \
+ luaC_checkGC(L), /* stack grow uses memory */ \
+ p = restorestack(L, t__)) /* 'pos' part: restore 'p' */
+
+
+/* macro to check stack size and GC */
+#define checkstackGC(L,fsize) \
+ luaD_checkstackaux(L, (fsize), luaC_checkGC(L), (void)0)
/* type of protected functions, to be ran by 'runprotected' */
typedef void (*Pfunc) (lua_State *L, void *ud);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_seterrorobj (lua_State *L, int errcode, StkId oldtop);
LUAI_FUNC int luaD_protectedparser (lua_State *L, ZIO *z, const char *name,
const char *mode);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaD_precall (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nresults);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_hook (lua_State *L, int event, int line,
+ int fTransfer, int nTransfer);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_hookcall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_pretailcall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, StkId func, int n);
+LUAI_FUNC CallInfo *luaD_precall (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults);
LUAI_FUNC void luaD_call (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults);
LUAI_FUNC void luaD_callnoyield (lua_State *L, StkId func, int nResults);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_tryfuncTM (lua_State *L, StkId func);
LUAI_FUNC int luaD_pcall (lua_State *L, Pfunc func, void *u,
ptrdiff_t oldtop, ptrdiff_t ef);
-LUAI_FUNC int luaD_poscall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, StkId firstResult,
- int nres);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaD_reallocstack (lua_State *L, int newsize);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaD_growstack (lua_State *L, int n);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaD_poscall (lua_State *L, CallInfo *ci, int nres);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaD_reallocstack (lua_State *L, int newsize, int raiseerror);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaD_growstack (lua_State *L, int n, int raiseerror);
LUAI_FUNC void luaD_shrinkstack (lua_State *L);
LUAI_FUNC void luaD_inctop (lua_State *L);
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/ldump.c b/contrib/lua/src/ldump.c
index f025acac3c23..f848b669cbdd 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/ldump.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/ldump.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: ldump.c,v 2.37.1.1 2017/04/19 17:20:42 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: ldump.c $
** save precompiled Lua chunks
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -29,15 +29,15 @@ typedef struct {
/*
-** All high-level dumps go through DumpVector; you can change it to
+** All high-level dumps go through dumpVector; you can change it to
** change the endianness of the result
*/
-#define DumpVector(v,n,D) DumpBlock(v,(n)*sizeof((v)[0]),D)
+#define dumpVector(D,v,n) dumpBlock(D,v,(n)*sizeof((v)[0]))
-#define DumpLiteral(s,D) DumpBlock(s, sizeof(s) - sizeof(char), D)
+#define dumpLiteral(D, s) dumpBlock(D,s,sizeof(s) - sizeof(char))
-static void DumpBlock (const void *b, size_t size, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpBlock (DumpState *D, const void *b, size_t size) {
if (D->status == 0 && size > 0) {
lua_unlock(D->L);
D->status = (*D->writer)(D->L, b, size, D->data);
@@ -46,153 +46,164 @@ static void DumpBlock (const void *b, size_t size, DumpState *D) {
}
-#define DumpVar(x,D) DumpVector(&x,1,D)
+#define dumpVar(D,x) dumpVector(D,&x,1)
-static void DumpByte (int y, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpByte (DumpState *D, int y) {
lu_byte x = (lu_byte)y;
- DumpVar(x, D);
+ dumpVar(D, x);
}
-static void DumpInt (int x, DumpState *D) {
- DumpVar(x, D);
+/* dumpInt Buff Size */
+#define DIBS ((sizeof(size_t) * 8 / 7) + 1)
+
+static void dumpSize (DumpState *D, size_t x) {
+ lu_byte buff[DIBS];
+ int n = 0;
+ do {
+ buff[DIBS - (++n)] = x & 0x7f; /* fill buffer in reverse order */
+ x >>= 7;
+ } while (x != 0);
+ buff[DIBS - 1] |= 0x80; /* mark last byte */
+ dumpVector(D, buff + DIBS - n, n);
+}
+
+
+static void dumpInt (DumpState *D, int x) {
+ dumpSize(D, x);
}
-static void DumpNumber (lua_Number x, DumpState *D) {
- DumpVar(x, D);
+static void dumpNumber (DumpState *D, lua_Number x) {
+ dumpVar(D, x);
}
-static void DumpInteger (lua_Integer x, DumpState *D) {
- DumpVar(x, D);
+static void dumpInteger (DumpState *D, lua_Integer x) {
+ dumpVar(D, x);
}
-static void DumpString (const TString *s, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpString (DumpState *D, const TString *s) {
if (s == NULL)
- DumpByte(0, D);
+ dumpSize(D, 0);
else {
- size_t size = tsslen(s) + 1; /* include trailing '\0' */
+ size_t size = tsslen(s);
const char *str = getstr(s);
- if (size < 0xFF)
- DumpByte(cast_int(size), D);
- else {
- DumpByte(0xFF, D);
- DumpVar(size, D);
- }
- DumpVector(str, size - 1, D); /* no need to save '\0' */
+ dumpSize(D, size + 1);
+ dumpVector(D, str, size);
}
}
-static void DumpCode (const Proto *f, DumpState *D) {
- DumpInt(f->sizecode, D);
- DumpVector(f->code, f->sizecode, D);
+static void dumpCode (DumpState *D, const Proto *f) {
+ dumpInt(D, f->sizecode);
+ dumpVector(D, f->code, f->sizecode);
}
-static void DumpFunction(const Proto *f, TString *psource, DumpState *D);
+static void dumpFunction(DumpState *D, const Proto *f, TString *psource);
-static void DumpConstants (const Proto *f, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpConstants (DumpState *D, const Proto *f) {
int i;
int n = f->sizek;
- DumpInt(n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
const TValue *o = &f->k[i];
- DumpByte(ttype(o), D);
- switch (ttype(o)) {
- case LUA_TNIL:
- break;
- case LUA_TBOOLEAN:
- DumpByte(bvalue(o), D);
- break;
- case LUA_TNUMFLT:
- DumpNumber(fltvalue(o), D);
- break;
- case LUA_TNUMINT:
- DumpInteger(ivalue(o), D);
- break;
- case LUA_TSHRSTR:
- case LUA_TLNGSTR:
- DumpString(tsvalue(o), D);
- break;
- default:
- lua_assert(0);
+ int tt = ttypetag(o);
+ dumpByte(D, tt);
+ switch (tt) {
+ case LUA_VNUMFLT:
+ dumpNumber(D, fltvalue(o));
+ break;
+ case LUA_VNUMINT:
+ dumpInteger(D, ivalue(o));
+ break;
+ case LUA_VSHRSTR:
+ case LUA_VLNGSTR:
+ dumpString(D, tsvalue(o));
+ break;
+ default:
+ lua_assert(tt == LUA_VNIL || tt == LUA_VFALSE || tt == LUA_VTRUE);
}
}
}
-static void DumpProtos (const Proto *f, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpProtos (DumpState *D, const Proto *f) {
int i;
int n = f->sizep;
- DumpInt(n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
- DumpFunction(f->p[i], f->source, D);
+ dumpFunction(D, f->p[i], f->source);
}
-static void DumpUpvalues (const Proto *f, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpUpvalues (DumpState *D, const Proto *f) {
int i, n = f->sizeupvalues;
- DumpInt(n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
- DumpByte(f->upvalues[i].instack, D);
- DumpByte(f->upvalues[i].idx, D);
+ dumpByte(D, f->upvalues[i].instack);
+ dumpByte(D, f->upvalues[i].idx);
+ dumpByte(D, f->upvalues[i].kind);
}
}
-static void DumpDebug (const Proto *f, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpDebug (DumpState *D, const Proto *f) {
int i, n;
n = (D->strip) ? 0 : f->sizelineinfo;
- DumpInt(n, D);
- DumpVector(f->lineinfo, n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
+ dumpVector(D, f->lineinfo, n);
+ n = (D->strip) ? 0 : f->sizeabslineinfo;
+ dumpInt(D, n);
+ for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
+ dumpInt(D, f->abslineinfo[i].pc);
+ dumpInt(D, f->abslineinfo[i].line);
+ }
n = (D->strip) ? 0 : f->sizelocvars;
- DumpInt(n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
- DumpString(f->locvars[i].varname, D);
- DumpInt(f->locvars[i].startpc, D);
- DumpInt(f->locvars[i].endpc, D);
+ dumpString(D, f->locvars[i].varname);
+ dumpInt(D, f->locvars[i].startpc);
+ dumpInt(D, f->locvars[i].endpc);
}
n = (D->strip) ? 0 : f->sizeupvalues;
- DumpInt(n, D);
+ dumpInt(D, n);
for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
- DumpString(f->upvalues[i].name, D);
+ dumpString(D, f->upvalues[i].name);
}
-static void DumpFunction (const Proto *f, TString *psource, DumpState *D) {
+static void dumpFunction (DumpState *D, const Proto *f, TString *psource) {
if (D->strip || f->source == psource)
- DumpString(NULL, D); /* no debug info or same source as its parent */
+ dumpString(D, NULL); /* no debug info or same source as its parent */
else
- DumpString(f->source, D);
- DumpInt(f->linedefined, D);
- DumpInt(f->lastlinedefined, D);
- DumpByte(f->numparams, D);
- DumpByte(f->is_vararg, D);
- DumpByte(f->maxstacksize, D);
- DumpCode(f, D);
- DumpConstants(f, D);
- DumpUpvalues(f, D);
- DumpProtos(f, D);
- DumpDebug(f, D);
+ dumpString(D, f->source);
+ dumpInt(D, f->linedefined);
+ dumpInt(D, f->lastlinedefined);
+ dumpByte(D, f->numparams);
+ dumpByte(D, f->is_vararg);
+ dumpByte(D, f->maxstacksize);
+ dumpCode(D, f);
+ dumpConstants(D, f);
+ dumpUpvalues(D, f);
+ dumpProtos(D, f);
+ dumpDebug(D, f);
}
-static void DumpHeader (DumpState *D) {
- DumpLiteral(LUA_SIGNATURE, D);
- DumpByte(LUAC_VERSION, D);
- DumpByte(LUAC_FORMAT, D);
- DumpLiteral(LUAC_DATA, D);
- DumpByte(sizeof(int), D);
- DumpByte(sizeof(size_t), D);
- DumpByte(sizeof(Instruction), D);
- DumpByte(sizeof(lua_Integer), D);
- DumpByte(sizeof(lua_Number), D);
- DumpInteger(LUAC_INT, D);
- DumpNumber(LUAC_NUM, D);
+static void dumpHeader (DumpState *D) {
+ dumpLiteral(D, LUA_SIGNATURE);
+ dumpByte(D, LUAC_VERSION);
+ dumpByte(D, LUAC_FORMAT);
+ dumpLiteral(D, LUAC_DATA);
+ dumpByte(D, sizeof(Instruction));
+ dumpByte(D, sizeof(lua_Integer));
+ dumpByte(D, sizeof(lua_Number));
+ dumpInteger(D, LUAC_INT);
+ dumpNumber(D, LUAC_NUM);
}
@@ -207,9 +218,9 @@ int luaU_dump(lua_State *L, const Proto *f, lua_Writer w, void *data,
D.data = data;
D.strip = strip;
D.status = 0;
- DumpHeader(&D);
- DumpByte(f->sizeupvalues, &D);
- DumpFunction(f, NULL, &D);
+ dumpHeader(&D);
+ dumpByte(&D, f->sizeupvalues);
+ dumpFunction(&D, f, NULL);
return D.status;
}
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.c b/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.c
index ccafbb8ab3c7..c4360f0950a7 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lfunc.c,v 2.45.1.1 2017/04/19 17:39:34 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lfunc.c $
** Auxiliary functions to manipulate prototypes and closures
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -14,6 +14,8 @@
#include "lua.h"
+#include "ldebug.h"
+#include "ldo.h"
#include "lfunc.h"
#include "lgc.h"
#include "lmem.h"
@@ -22,92 +24,238 @@
-CClosure *luaF_newCclosure (lua_State *L, int n) {
- GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_TCCL, sizeCclosure(n));
+CClosure *luaF_newCclosure (lua_State *L, int nupvals) {
+ GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_VCCL, sizeCclosure(nupvals));
CClosure *c = gco2ccl(o);
- c->nupvalues = cast_byte(n);
+ c->nupvalues = cast_byte(nupvals);
return c;
}
-LClosure *luaF_newLclosure (lua_State *L, int n) {
- GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_TLCL, sizeLclosure(n));
+LClosure *luaF_newLclosure (lua_State *L, int nupvals) {
+ GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_VLCL, sizeLclosure(nupvals));
LClosure *c = gco2lcl(o);
c->p = NULL;
- c->nupvalues = cast_byte(n);
- while (n--) c->upvals[n] = NULL;
+ c->nupvalues = cast_byte(nupvals);
+ while (nupvals--) c->upvals[nupvals] = NULL;
return c;
}
+
/*
** fill a closure with new closed upvalues
*/
void luaF_initupvals (lua_State *L, LClosure *cl) {
int i;
for (i = 0; i < cl->nupvalues; i++) {
- UpVal *uv = luaM_new(L, UpVal);
- uv->refcount = 1;
+ GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_VUPVAL, sizeof(UpVal));
+ UpVal *uv = gco2upv(o);
uv->v = &uv->u.value; /* make it closed */
setnilvalue(uv->v);
cl->upvals[i] = uv;
+ luaC_objbarrier(L, cl, uv);
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Create a new upvalue at the given level, and link it to the list of
+** open upvalues of 'L' after entry 'prev'.
+**/
+static UpVal *newupval (lua_State *L, int tbc, StkId level, UpVal **prev) {
+ GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_VUPVAL, sizeof(UpVal));
+ UpVal *uv = gco2upv(o);
+ UpVal *next = *prev;
+ uv->v = s2v(level); /* current value lives in the stack */
+ uv->tbc = tbc;
+ uv->u.open.next = next; /* link it to list of open upvalues */
+ uv->u.open.previous = prev;
+ if (next)
+ next->u.open.previous = &uv->u.open.next;
+ *prev = uv;
+ if (!isintwups(L)) { /* thread not in list of threads with upvalues? */
+ L->twups = G(L)->twups; /* link it to the list */
+ G(L)->twups = L;
}
+ return uv;
}
+/*
+** Find and reuse, or create if it does not exist, an upvalue
+** at the given level.
+*/
UpVal *luaF_findupval (lua_State *L, StkId level) {
UpVal **pp = &L->openupval;
UpVal *p;
- UpVal *uv;
lua_assert(isintwups(L) || L->openupval == NULL);
- while (*pp != NULL && (p = *pp)->v >= level) {
- lua_assert(upisopen(p));
- if (p->v == level) /* found a corresponding upvalue? */
+ while ((p = *pp) != NULL && uplevel(p) >= level) { /* search for it */
+ lua_assert(!isdead(G(L), p));
+ if (uplevel(p) == level) /* corresponding upvalue? */
return p; /* return it */
pp = &p->u.open.next;
}
- /* not found: create a new upvalue */
- uv = luaM_new(L, UpVal);
- uv->refcount = 0;
- uv->u.open.next = *pp; /* link it to list of open upvalues */
- uv->u.open.touched = 1;
- *pp = uv;
- uv->v = level; /* current value lives in the stack */
- if (!isintwups(L)) { /* thread not in list of threads with upvalues? */
- L->twups = G(L)->twups; /* link it to the list */
- G(L)->twups = L;
+ /* not found: create a new upvalue after 'pp' */
+ return newupval(L, 0, level, pp);
+}
+
+
+static void callclose (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
+ UNUSED(ud);
+ luaD_callnoyield(L, L->top - 3, 0);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Prepare closing method plus its arguments for object 'obj' with
+** error message 'err'. (This function assumes EXTRA_STACK.)
+*/
+static int prepclosingmethod (lua_State *L, TValue *obj, TValue *err) {
+ StkId top = L->top;
+ const TValue *tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, obj, TM_CLOSE);
+ if (ttisnil(tm)) /* no metamethod? */
+ return 0; /* nothing to call */
+ setobj2s(L, top, tm); /* will call metamethod... */
+ setobj2s(L, top + 1, obj); /* with 'self' as the 1st argument */
+ setobj2s(L, top + 2, err); /* and error msg. as 2nd argument */
+ L->top = top + 3; /* add function and arguments */
+ return 1;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Raise an error with message 'msg', inserting the name of the
+** local variable at position 'level' in the stack.
+*/
+static void varerror (lua_State *L, StkId level, const char *msg) {
+ int idx = cast_int(level - L->ci->func);
+ const char *vname = luaG_findlocal(L, L->ci, idx, NULL);
+ if (vname == NULL) vname = "?";
+ luaG_runerror(L, msg, vname);
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Prepare and call a closing method. If status is OK, code is still
+** inside the original protected call, and so any error will be handled
+** there. Otherwise, a previous error already activated the original
+** protected call, and so the call to the closing method must be
+** protected here. (A status == CLOSEPROTECT behaves like a previous
+** error, to also run the closing method in protected mode).
+** If status is OK, the call to the closing method will be pushed
+** at the top of the stack. Otherwise, values are pushed after
+** the 'level' of the upvalue being closed, as everything after
+** that won't be used again.
+*/
+static int callclosemth (lua_State *L, StkId level, int status) {
+ TValue *uv = s2v(level); /* value being closed */
+ if (likely(status == LUA_OK)) {
+ if (prepclosingmethod(L, uv, &G(L)->nilvalue)) /* something to call? */
+ callclose(L, NULL); /* call closing method */
+ else if (!l_isfalse(uv)) /* non-closable non-false value? */
+ varerror(L, level, "attempt to close non-closable variable '%s'");
}
- return uv;
+ else { /* must close the object in protected mode */
+ ptrdiff_t oldtop;
+ level++; /* space for error message */
+ oldtop = savestack(L, level + 1); /* top will be after that */
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, status, level); /* set error message */
+ if (prepclosingmethod(L, uv, s2v(level))) { /* something to call? */
+ int newstatus = luaD_pcall(L, callclose, NULL, oldtop, 0);
+ if (newstatus != LUA_OK && status == CLOSEPROTECT) /* first error? */
+ status = newstatus; /* this will be the new error */
+ else {
+ if (newstatus != LUA_OK) /* suppressed error? */
+ luaE_warnerror(L, "__close metamethod");
+ /* leave original error (or nil) on top */
+ L->top = restorestack(L, oldtop);
+ }
+ }
+ /* else no metamethod; ignore this case and keep original error */
+ }
+ return status;
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Try to create a to-be-closed upvalue
+** (can raise a memory-allocation error)
+*/
+static void trynewtbcupval (lua_State *L, void *ud) {
+ newupval(L, 1, cast(StkId, ud), &L->openupval);
}
-void luaF_close (lua_State *L, StkId level) {
+/*
+** Create a to-be-closed upvalue. If there is a memory error
+** when creating the upvalue, the closing method must be called here,
+** as there is no upvalue to call it later.
+*/
+void luaF_newtbcupval (lua_State *L, StkId level) {
+ TValue *obj = s2v(level);
+ lua_assert(L->openupval == NULL || uplevel(L->openupval) < level);
+ if (!l_isfalse(obj)) { /* false doesn't need to be closed */
+ int status;
+ const TValue *tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, obj, TM_CLOSE);
+ if (ttisnil(tm)) /* no metamethod? */
+ varerror(L, level, "variable '%s' got a non-closable value");
+ status = luaD_rawrunprotected(L, trynewtbcupval, level);
+ if (unlikely(status != LUA_OK)) { /* memory error creating upvalue? */
+ lua_assert(status == LUA_ERRMEM);
+ luaD_seterrorobj(L, LUA_ERRMEM, level + 1); /* save error message */
+ /* next call must succeed, as object is closable */
+ prepclosingmethod(L, s2v(level), s2v(level + 1));
+ callclose(L, NULL); /* call closing method */
+ luaD_throw(L, LUA_ERRMEM); /* throw memory error */
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+
+void luaF_unlinkupval (UpVal *uv) {
+ lua_assert(upisopen(uv));
+ *uv->u.open.previous = uv->u.open.next;
+ if (uv->u.open.next)
+ uv->u.open.next->u.open.previous = uv->u.open.previous;
+}
+
+
+int luaF_close (lua_State *L, StkId level, int status) {
UpVal *uv;
- while (L->openupval != NULL && (uv = L->openupval)->v >= level) {
- lua_assert(upisopen(uv));
- L->openupval = uv->u.open.next; /* remove from 'open' list */
- if (uv->refcount == 0) /* no references? */
- luaM_free(L, uv); /* free upvalue */
- else {
- setobj(L, &uv->u.value, uv->v); /* move value to upvalue slot */
- uv->v = &uv->u.value; /* now current value lives here */
- luaC_upvalbarrier(L, uv);
+ while ((uv = L->openupval) != NULL && uplevel(uv) >= level) {
+ TValue *slot = &uv->u.value; /* new position for value */
+ lua_assert(uplevel(uv) < L->top);
+ if (uv->tbc && status != NOCLOSINGMETH) {
+ /* must run closing method, which may change the stack */
+ ptrdiff_t levelrel = savestack(L, level);
+ status = callclosemth(L, uplevel(uv), status);
+ level = restorestack(L, levelrel);
+ }
+ luaF_unlinkupval(uv);
+ setobj(L, slot, uv->v); /* move value to upvalue slot */
+ uv->v = slot; /* now current value lives here */
+ if (!iswhite(uv)) { /* neither white nor dead? */
+ nw2black(uv); /* closed upvalues cannot be gray */
+ luaC_barrier(L, uv, slot);
}
}
+ return status;
}
Proto *luaF_newproto (lua_State *L) {
- GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_TPROTO, sizeof(Proto));
+ GCObject *o = luaC_newobj(L, LUA_VPROTO, sizeof(Proto));
Proto *f = gco2p(o);
f->k = NULL;
f->sizek = 0;
f->p = NULL;
f->sizep = 0;
f->code = NULL;
- f->cache = NULL;
f->sizecode = 0;
f->lineinfo = NULL;
f->sizelineinfo = 0;
+ f->abslineinfo = NULL;
+ f->sizeabslineinfo = 0;
f->upvalues = NULL;
f->sizeupvalues = 0;
f->numparams = 0;
@@ -127,6 +275,7 @@ void luaF_freeproto (lua_State *L, Proto *f) {
luaM_freearray(L, f->p, f->sizep);
luaM_freearray(L, f->k, f->sizek);
luaM_freearray(L, f->lineinfo, f->sizelineinfo);
+ luaM_freearray(L, f->abslineinfo, f->sizeabslineinfo);
luaM_freearray(L, f->locvars, f->sizelocvars);
luaM_freearray(L, f->upvalues, f->sizeupvalues);
luaM_free(L, f);
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.h b/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.h
index c916e9878ade..8d6f965cfca9 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.h
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lfunc.h
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lfunc.h,v 2.15.1.1 2017/04/19 17:39:34 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lfunc.h $
** Auxiliary functions to manipulate prototypes and closures
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -11,11 +11,11 @@
#include "lobject.h"
-#define sizeCclosure(n) (cast(int, sizeof(CClosure)) + \
- cast(int, sizeof(TValue)*((n)-1)))
+#define sizeCclosure(n) (cast_int(offsetof(CClosure, upvalue)) + \
+ cast_int(sizeof(TValue)) * (n))
-#define sizeLclosure(n) (cast(int, sizeof(LClosure)) + \
- cast(int, sizeof(TValue *)*((n)-1)))
+#define sizeLclosure(n) (cast_int(offsetof(LClosure, upvals)) + \
+ cast_int(sizeof(TValue *)) * (n))
/* test whether thread is in 'twups' list */
@@ -29,30 +29,38 @@
#define MAXUPVAL 255
+#define upisopen(up) ((up)->v != &(up)->u.value)
+
+
+#define uplevel(up) check_exp(upisopen(up), cast(StkId, (up)->v))
+
+
/*
-** Upvalues for Lua closures
+** maximum number of misses before giving up the cache of closures
+** in prototypes
*/
-struct UpVal {
- TValue *v; /* points to stack or to its own value */
- lu_mem refcount; /* reference counter */
- union {
- struct { /* (when open) */
- UpVal *next; /* linked list */
- int touched; /* mark to avoid cycles with dead threads */
- } open;
- TValue value; /* the value (when closed) */
- } u;
-};
+#define MAXMISS 10
-#define upisopen(up) ((up)->v != &(up)->u.value)
+
+/*
+** Special "status" for 'luaF_close'
+*/
+
+/* close upvalues without running their closing methods */
+#define NOCLOSINGMETH (-1)
+
+/* close upvalues running all closing methods in protected mode */
+#define CLOSEPROTECT (-2)
LUAI_FUNC Proto *luaF_newproto (lua_State *L);
-LUAI_FUNC CClosure *luaF_newCclosure (lua_State *L, int nelems);
-LUAI_FUNC LClosure *luaF_newLclosure (lua_State *L, int nelems);
+LUAI_FUNC CClosure *luaF_newCclosure (lua_State *L, int nupvals);
+LUAI_FUNC LClosure *luaF_newLclosure (lua_State *L, int nupvals);
LUAI_FUNC void luaF_initupvals (lua_State *L, LClosure *cl);
LUAI_FUNC UpVal *luaF_findupval (lua_State *L, StkId level);
-LUAI_FUNC void luaF_close (lua_State *L, StkId level);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaF_newtbcupval (lua_State *L, StkId level);
+LUAI_FUNC int luaF_close (lua_State *L, StkId level, int status);
+LUAI_FUNC void luaF_unlinkupval (UpVal *uv);
LUAI_FUNC void luaF_freeproto (lua_State *L, Proto *f);
LUAI_FUNC const char *luaF_getlocalname (const Proto *func, int local_number,
int pc);
diff --git a/contrib/lua/src/lgc.c b/contrib/lua/src/lgc.c
index db4df82922e0..bab9beb12b00 100644
--- a/contrib/lua/src/lgc.c
+++ b/contrib/lua/src/lgc.c
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
/*
-** $Id: lgc.c,v 2.215.1.2 2017/08/31 16:15:27 roberto Exp $
+** $Id: lgc.c $
** Garbage Collector
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/
@@ -9,9 +9,10 @@
#include "lprefix.h"
-
+#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
+
#include "lua.h"
#include "ldebug.h"
@@ -27,29 +28,29 @@
/*
-** internal state for collector while inside the atomic phase. The
-** collector should never be in this state while running regular code.
+** Maximum number of elements to sweep in each single step.
+** (Large enough to dissipate fixed overheads but small enough
+** to allow small steps for the collector.)
*/
-#define GCSinsideatomic (GCSpause + 1)
+#define GCSWEEPMAX 100
/*
-** cost of sweeping one element (the size of a small object divided
-** by some adjust for the sweep speed)
+** Maximum number of finalizers to call in each single step.
*/
-#define GCSWEEPCOST ((sizeof(TString) + 4) / 4)
+#define GCFINMAX 10
-/* maximum number of elements to sweep in each single step */
-#define GCSWEEPMAX (cast_int((GCSTEPSIZE / GCSWEEPCOST) / 4))
-/* cost of calling one finalizer */
-#define GCFINALIZECOST GCSWEEPCOST
+/*
+** Cost of calling one finalizer.
+*/
+#define GCFINALIZECOST 50
/*
-** macro to adjust 'stepmul': 'stepmul' is actually used like
-** 'stepmul / STEPMULADJ' (value chosen by tests)
+** The equivalent, in bytes, of one unit of "work" (visiting a slot,
+** sweeping an object, etc.)
*/
-#define STEPMULADJ 200
+#define WORK2MEM sizeof(TValue)
/*
@@ -59,30 +60,42 @@
#define PAUSEADJ 100
-/*
-** 'makewhite' erases all color bits then sets only the current white
-** bit
-*/
-#define maskcolors (~(bitmask(BLACKBIT) | WHITEBITS))
+/* mask with all color bits */
+#define maskcolors (bitmask(BLACKBIT) | WHITEBITS)
+
+/* mask with all GC bits */
+#define maskgcbits (maskcolors | AGEBITS)
+
+
+/* macro to erase all color bits then set only the current white bit */
#define makewhite(g,x) \
- (x->marked = cast_byte((x->marked & maskcolors) | luaC_white(g)))
+ (x->marked = cast_byte((x->marked & ~maskcolors) | luaC_white(g)))
+
+/* make an object gray (neither white nor black) */
+#define set2gray(x) resetbits(x->marked, maskcolors)
-#define white2gray(x) resetbits(x->marked, WHITEBITS)
-#define black2gray(x) resetbit(x->marked, BLACKBIT)
+
+/* make an object black (coming from any color) */
+#define set2black(x) \
+ (x->marked = cast_byte((x->marked & ~WHITEBITS) | bitmask(BLACKBIT)))
#define valiswhite(x) (iscollectable(x) && iswhite(gcvalue(x)))
-#define checkdeadkey(n) lua_assert(!ttisdeadkey(gkey(n)) || ttisnil(gval(n)))
+#define keyiswhite(n) (keyiscollectable(n) && iswhite(gckey(n)))
-#define checkconsistency(obj) \
- lua_longassert(!iscollectable(obj) || righttt(obj))
+/*
+** Protected access to objects in values
+*/
+#define gcvalueN(o) (iscollectable(o) ? gcvalue(o) : NULL)
-#define markvalue(g,o) { checkconsistency(o); \
+#define markvalue(g,o) { checkliveness(g->mainthread,o); \
if (valiswhite(o)) reallymarkobject(g,gcvalue(o)); }
+#define markkey(g, n) { if keyiswhite(n) reallymarkobject(g,gckey(n)); }
+
#define markobject(g,t) { if (iswhite(t)) reallymarkobject(g, obj2gco(t)); }
/*
@@ -92,6 +105,8 @@
#define markobjectN(g,t) { if (t) markobject(g,t); }
static void reallymarkobject (global_State *g, GCObject *o);
+static lu_mem atomic (lua_State *L);
+static void entersweep (lua_State *L);
/*
@@ -104,28 +119,59 @@ static void reallymarkobject (global_State *g, GCObject *o);
/*
** one after last element in a hash array
*/
-#define gnodelast(h) gnode(h, cast(size_t, sizenode(h)))
+#define gnodelast(h) gnode(h, cast_sizet(sizenode(h)))
+
+
+static GCObject **getgclist (GCObject *o) {
+ switch (o->tt) {
+ case LUA_VTABLE: return &gco2t(o)->gclist;
+ case LUA_VLCL: return &gco2lcl(o)->gclist;
+ case LUA_VCCL: return &gco2ccl(o)->gclist;
+ case LUA_VTHREAD: return &gco2th(o)->gclist;
+ case LUA_VPROTO: return &gco2p(o)->gclist;
+ case LUA_VUSERDATA: {
+ Udata *u = gco2u(o);
+ lua_assert(u->nuvalue > 0);
+ return &u->gclist;
+ }
+ default: lua_assert(0); return 0;
+ }
+}
+
+
+/*
+** Link a collectable object 'o' with a known type into the list 'p'.
+** (Must be a macro to access the 'gclist' field in different types.)
+*/
+#define linkgclist(o,p) linkgclist_(obj2gco(o), &(o)->gclist, &(p))
+
+static void linkgclist_ (GCObject *o, GCObject **pnext, GCObject **list) {
+ lua_assert(!isgray(o)); /* cannot be in a gray list */
+ *pnext = *list;
+ *list = o;
+ set2gray(o); /* now it is */
+}
/*
-** link collectable object 'o' into list pointed by 'p'
+** Link a generic collectable object 'o' into the list 'p'.
*/
-#define linkgclist(o,p) ((o)->gclist = (p), (p) = obj2gco(o))
+#define linkobjgclist(o,p) linkgclist_(obj2gco(o), getgclist(o), &(p))
+
/*
-** If key is not marked, mark its entry as dead. This allows key to be
-** collected, but keeps its entry in the table. A dead node is needed
-** when Lua looks up for a key (it may be part of a chain) and when
-** traversing a weak table (key might be removed from the table during
-** traversal). Other places never manipulate dead keys, because its
-** associated nil value is enough to signal that the entry is logically
-** empty.
+** Clear keys for empty entries in tables. If entry is empty, mark its
+** entry as dead. This allows the collection of the key, but keeps its
+** entry in the table: its removal could break a chain and could break
+** a table traversal. Other places never manipulate dead keys, because
+** its associated empty value is enough to signal that the entry is
+** logically empty.
*/
-static void removeentry (Node *n) {
- lua_assert(ttisnil(gval(n)));
- if (valiswhite(gkey(n)))
- setdeadvalue(wgkey(n)); /* unused and unmarked key; remove it */
+static void clearkey (Node *n) {
+ lua_assert(isempty(gval(n)));
+ if (keyiscollectable(n))
+ setdeadkey(n); /* unused key; remove it */
}
@@ -136,30 +182,43 @@ static void removeentry (Node *n) {
** other objects: if really collected, cannot keep them; for objects
** being finalized, keep them in keys, but not in values
*/
-static int iscleared (global_State *g, const TValue *o) {
- if (!iscollectable(o)) return 0;
- else if (ttisstring(o)) {
- markobject(g, tsvalue(o)); /* strings are 'values', so are never weak */
+static int iscleared (global_State *g, const GCObject *o) {
+ if (o == NULL) return 0; /* non-collectable value */
+ else if (novariant(o->tt) == LUA_TSTRING) {
+ markobject(g, o); /* strings are 'values', so are never weak */
return 0;
}
- else return iswhite(gcvalue(o));
+ else return iswhite(o);
}
/*
-** barrier that moves collector forward, that is, mark the white object
-** being pointed by a black object. (If in sweep phase, clear the black
-** object to white [sweep it] to avoid other barrier calls for this
-** same object.)
+** Barrier that moves collector forward, that is, marks the white object
+** 'v' being pointed by the black object 'o'. In the generational
+** mode, 'v' must also become old, if 'o' is old; however, it cannot
+** be changed directly to OLD, because it may still point to non-old
+** objects. So, it is marked as OLD0. In the next cycle it will become
+** OLD1, and in the next it will finally become OLD (regular old). By
+** then, any object it points to will also be old. If called in the
+** incremental sweep phase, it clears the black object to white (sweep
+** it) to avoid other barrier calls for this same object. (That cannot
+** be done is generational mode, as its sweep does not distinguish
+** whites from deads.)
*/
void luaC_barrier_ (lua_State *L, GCObject *o, GCObject *v) {
global_State *g = G(L);
lua_assert(isblack(o) && iswhite(v) && !isdead(g, v) && !isdead(g, o));
- if (keepinvariant(g)) /* must keep invariant? */
+ if (keepinvariant(g)) { /* must keep invariant? */
reallymarkobject(g, v); /* restore invariant */
+ if (isold(o)) {
+ lua_assert(!isold(v)); /* white object could not be old */
+ setage(v, G_OLD0); /* restore generational invariant */
+ }
+ }
else { /* sweep phase */
lua_assert(issweepphase(g));
- makewhite(g, o); /* mark main obj. as white to avoid other barriers */
+ if (g->gckind == KGC_INC) /* incremental mode? */
+ makewhite(g, o); /* mark 'o' as white to avoid other barriers */
}
}
@@ -168,33 +227,24 @@ void luaC_barrier_ (lua_State *L, GCObject *o, GCObject *v) {
** barrier that moves collector backward, that is, mark the black object
** pointing to a white object as gray again.
*/
-void luaC_barrierback_ (lua_State *L, Table *t) {
+void luaC_barrierback_ (lua_State *L, GCObject *o) {
global_State *g = G(L);
- lua_assert(isblack(t) && !isdead(g, t));
- black2gray(t); /* make table gray (again) */
- linkgclist(t, g->grayagain);
-}
-
-
-/*
-** barrier for assignments to closed upvalues. Because upvalues are
-** shared among closures, it is impossible to know the color of all
-** closures pointing to it. So, we assume that the object being assigned
-** must be marked.
-*/
-void luaC_upvalbarrier_ (lua_State *L, UpVal *uv) {
- global_State *g = G(L);
- GCObject *o = gcvalue(uv->v);
- lua_assert(!upisopen(uv)); /* ensured by macro luaC_upvalbarrier */
- if (keepinvariant(g))
- markobject(g, o);
+ lua_assert(isblack(o) && !isdead(g, o));
+ lua_assert((g->gckind == KGC_GEN) == (isold(o) && getage(o) != G_TOUCHED1));
+ if (getage(o) == G_TOUCHED2) /* already in gray list? */
+ set2gray(o); /* make it gray to become touched1 */
+ else /* link it in 'grayagain' and paint it gray */
+ linkobjgclist(o, g->grayagain);
+ if (isold(o)) /* generational mode? */
+ setage(o, G_TOUCHED1); /* touched in current cycle */
}
void luaC_fix (lua_State *L, GCObject *o) {
global_State *g = G(L);
lua_assert(g->allgc == o); /* object must be 1st in 'allgc' list! */
- white2gray(o); /* they will be gray forever */
+ set2gray(o); /* they will be gray forever */
+ setage(o, G_OLD); /* and old forever */
g->allgc = o->next; /* remove object from 'allgc' list */
o->next = g->fixedgc; /* link it to 'fixedgc' list */
g->fixedgc = o;
@@ -227,55 +277,45 @@ GCObject *luaC_newobj (lua_State *L, int tt, size_t sz) {
/*
-** mark an object. Userdata, strings, and closed upvalues are visited
-** and turned black here. Other objects are marked gray and added
-** to appropriate list to be visited (and turned black) later. (Open
-** upvalues are already linked in 'headuv' list.)
+** Mark an object. Userdata with no user values, strings, and closed
+** upvalues are visited and turned black here. Open upvalues are
+** already indirectly linked through their respective threads in the
+** 'twups' list, so they don't go to the gray list; nevertheless, they
+** are kept gray to avoid barriers, as their values will be revisited
+** by the thread or by 'remarkupvals'. Other objects are added to the
+** gray list to be visited (and turned black) later. Both userdata and
+** upvalues can call this function recursively, but this recursion goes
+** for at most two levels: An upvalue cannot refer to another upvalue
+** (only closures can), and a userdata's metatable must be a table.
*/
static void reallymarkobject (global_State *g, GCObject *o) {
- reentry:
- white2gray(o);
switch (o->tt) {
- case LUA_TSHRSTR: {
- gray2black(o);
- g->GCmemtrav += sizelstring(gco2ts(o)->shrlen);
+ case LUA_VSHRSTR:
+ case LUA_VLNGSTR: {
+ set2black(o); /* nothing to visit */
break;
}
- case LUA_TLNGSTR: {
- gray2black(o);
- g->GCmemtrav += sizelstring(gco2ts(o)->u.lnglen);
+ case LUA_VUPVAL: {
+ UpVal *uv = gco2upv(o);
+ if (upisopen(uv))
+ set2gray(uv); /* open upvalues are kept gray */
+ else
+ set2black(uv); /* closed upvalues are visited here */
+ markvalue(g, uv->v); /* mark its content */
break;
}
- case LUA_TUSERDATA: {
- TValue uvalue;
- markobjectN(g, gco2u(o)->metatable); /* mark its metatable */
- gray2black(o);
- g->GCmemtrav += sizeudata(gco2u(o));
- getuservalue(g->mainthread, gco2u(o), &uvalue);
- if (valiswhite(&uvalue)) { /* markvalue(g, &uvalue); */
- o = gcvalue(&uvalue);
- goto reentry;
+ case LUA_VUSERDATA: {
+ Udata *u = gco2u(o);
+ if (u->nuvalue == 0) { /* no user values? */
+ markobjectN(g, u->metatable); /* mark its metatable */
+ set2black(u); /* nothing else to mark */
+ break;
}
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TLCL: {
- linkgclist(gco2lcl(o), g->gray);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TCCL: {
- linkgclist(gco2ccl(o), g->gray);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TTABLE: {
- linkgclist(gco2t(o), g->gray);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TTHREAD: {
- linkgclist(gco2th(o), g->gray);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TPROTO: {
- linkgclist(gco2p(o), g->gray);
+ /* else... */
+ } /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ case LUA_VLCL: case LUA_VCCL: case LUA_VTABLE:
+ case LUA_VTHREAD: case LUA_VPROTO: {
+ linkobjgclist(o, g->gray); /* to be visited later */
break;
}
default: lua_assert(0); break;
@@ -296,38 +336,58 @@ static void markmt (global_State *g) {
/*
** mark all objects in list of being-finalized
*/
-static void markbeingfnz (global_State *g) {
+static lu_mem markbeingfnz (global_State *g) {
GCObject *o;
- for (o = g->tobefnz; o != NULL; o = o->next)
+ lu_mem count = 0;
+ for (o = g->tobefnz; o != NULL; o = o->next) {
+ count++;
markobject(g, o);
+ }
+ return count;
}
/*
-** Mark all values stored in marked open upvalues from non-marked threads.
-** (Values from marked threads were already marked when traversing the
-** thread.) Remove from the list threads that no longer have upvalues and
-** not-marked threads.
+** For each non-marked thread, simulates a barrier between each open
+** upvalue and its value. (If the thread is collected, the value will be
+** assigned to the upvalue, but then it can be too late for the barrier
+** to act. The "barrier" does not need to check colors: A non-marked
+** thread must be young; upvalues cannot be older than their threads; so
+** any visited upvalue must be young too.) Also removes the thread from
+** the list, as it was already visited. Removes also threads with no
+** upvalues, as they have nothing to be checked. (If the thread gets an
+** upvalue later, it will be linked in the list again.)
*/
-static void remarkupvals (global_State *g) {
+static int remarkupvals (global_State *g) {
lua_State *thread;
lua_State **p = &g->twups;
+ int work = 0; /* estimate of how much work was done here */
while ((thread = *p) != NULL) {
- lua_assert(!isblack(thread)); /* threads are never black */
- if (isgray(thread) && thread->openupval != NULL)
+ work++;
+ if (!iswhite(thread) && thread->openupval != NULL)
p = &thread->twups; /* keep marked thread with upvalues in the list */
else { /* thread is not marked or without upvalues */
UpVal *uv;
+ lua_assert(!isold(thread) || thread->openupval == NULL);
*p = thread->twups; /* remove thread from the list */
thread->twups = thread; /* mark that it is out of list */
for (uv = thread->openupval; uv != NULL; uv = uv->u.open.next) {
- if (uv->u.open.touched) {
- markvalue(g, uv->v); /* remark upvalue's value */
- uv->u.open.touched = 0;
+ lua_assert(getage(uv) <= getage(thread));
+ work++;
+ if (!iswhite(uv)) { /* upvalue already visited? */
+ lua_assert(upisopen(uv) && isgray(uv));
+ markvalue(g, uv->v); /* mark its value */
}
}
}
}
+ return work;
+}
+
+
+static void cleargraylists (global_State *g) {
+ g->gray = g->grayagain = NULL;
+ g->weak = g->allweak = g->ephemeron = NULL;
}
@@ -335,8 +395,7 @@ static void remarkupvals (global_State *g) {
** mark root set and reset all gray lists, to start a new collection
*/
static void restartcollection (global_State *g) {
- g->gray = g->grayagain = NULL;
- g->weak = g->allweak = g->ephemeron = NULL;
+ cleargraylists(g);
markobject(g, g->mainthread);
markvalue(g, &g->l_registry);
markmt(g);
@@ -352,6 +411,26 @@ static void restartcollection (global_State *g) {
** =======================================================
*/
+
+/*
+** Check whether object 'o' should be kept in the 'grayagain' list for
+** post-processing by 'correctgraylist'. (It could put all old objects
+** in the list and leave all the work to 'correctgraylist', but it is
+** more efficient to avoid adding elements that will be removed.) Only
+** TOUCHED1 objects need to be in the list. TOUCHED2 doesn't need to go
+** back to a gray list, but then it must become OLD. (That is what
+** 'correctgraylist' does when it finds a TOUCHED2 object.)
+*/
+static void genlink (global_State *g, GCObject *o) {
+ lua_assert(isblack(o));
+ if (getage(o) == G_TOUCHED1) { /* touched in this cycle? */
+ linkobjgclist(o, g->grayagain); /* link it back in 'grayagain' */
+ } /* everything else do not need to be linked back */
+ else if (getage(o) == G_TOUCHED2)
+ changeage(o, G_TOUCHED2, G_OLD); /* advance age */
+}
+
+
/*
** Traverse a table with weak values and link it to proper list. During
** propagate phase, keep it in 'grayagain' list, to be revisited in the
@@ -362,22 +441,21 @@ static void traverseweakvalue (global_State *g, Table *h) {
Node *n, *limit = gnodelast(h);
/* if there is array part, assume it may have white values (it is not
worth traversing it now just to check) */
- int hasclears = (h->sizearray > 0);
+ int hasclears = (h->alimit > 0);
for (n = gnode(h, 0); n < limit; n++) { /* traverse hash part */
- checkdeadkey(n);
- if (ttisnil(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
- removeentry(n); /* remove it */
+ if (isempty(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
+ clearkey(n); /* clear its key */
else {
- lua_assert(!ttisnil(gkey(n)));
- markvalue(g, gkey(n)); /* mark key */
- if (!hasclears && iscleared(g, gval(n))) /* is there a white value? */
+ lua_assert(!keyisnil(n));
+ markkey(g, n);
+ if (!hasclears && iscleared(g, gcvalueN(gval(n)))) /* a white value? */
hasclears = 1; /* table will have to be cleared */
}
}
- if (g->gcstate == GCSpropagate)
- linkgclist(h, g->grayagain); /* must retraverse it in atomic phase */
- else if (hasclears)
+ if (g->gcstate == GCSatomic && hasclears)
linkgclist(h, g->weak); /* has to be cleared later */
+ else
+ linkgclist(h, g->grayagain); /* must retraverse it in atomic phase */
}
@@ -389,27 +467,31 @@ static void traverseweakvalue (global_State *g, Table *h) {
** the atomic phase, if table has any white->white entry, it has to
** be revisited during ephemeron convergence (as that key may turn
** black). Otherwise, if it has any white key, table has to be cleared
-** (in the atomic phase).
+** (in the atomic phase). In generational mode, some tables
+** must be kept in some gray list for post-processing; this is done
+** by 'genlink'.
*/
-static int traverseephemeron (global_State *g, Table *h) {
+static int traverseephemeron (global_State *g, Table *h, int inv) {
int marked = 0; /* true if an object is marked in this traversal */
int hasclears = 0; /* true if table has white keys */
int hasww = 0; /* true if table has entry "white-key -> white-value" */
- Node *n, *limit = gnodelast(h);
unsigned int i;
+ unsigned int asize = luaH_realasize(h);
+ unsigned int nsize = sizenode(h);
/* traverse array part */
- for (i = 0; i < h->sizearray; i++) {
+ for (i = 0; i < asize; i++) {
if (valiswhite(&h->array[i])) {
marked = 1;
reallymarkobject(g, gcvalue(&h->array[i]));
}
}
- /* traverse hash part */
- for (n = gnode(h, 0); n < limit; n++) {
- checkdeadkey(n);
- if (ttisnil(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
- removeentry(n); /* remove it */
- else if (iscleared(g, gkey(n))) { /* key is not marked (yet)? */
+ /* traverse hash part; if 'inv', traverse descending
+ (see 'convergeephemerons') */
+ for (i = 0; i < nsize; i++) {
+ Node *n = inv ? gnode(h, nsize - 1 - i) : gnode(h, i);
+ if (isempty(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
+ clearkey(n); /* clear its key */
+ else if (iscleared(g, gckeyN(n))) { /* key is not marked (yet)? */
hasclears = 1; /* table must be cleared */
if (valiswhite(gval(n))) /* value not marked yet? */
hasww = 1; /* white-white entry */
@@ -426,6 +508,8 @@ static int traverseephemeron (global_State *g, Table *h) {
linkgclist(h, g->ephemeron); /* have to propagate again */
else if (hasclears) /* table has white keys? */
linkgclist(h, g->allweak); /* may have to clean white keys */
+ else
+ genlink(g, obj2gco(h)); /* check whether collector still needs to see it */
return marked;
}
@@ -433,18 +517,19 @@ static int traverseephemeron (global_State *g, Table *h) {
static void traversestrongtable (global_State *g, Table *h) {
Node *n, *limit = gnodelast(h);
unsigned int i;
- for (i = 0; i < h->sizearray; i++) /* traverse array part */
+ unsigned int asize = luaH_realasize(h);
+ for (i = 0; i < asize; i++) /* traverse array part */
markvalue(g, &h->array[i]);
for (n = gnode(h, 0); n < limit; n++) { /* traverse hash part */
- checkdeadkey(n);
- if (ttisnil(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
- removeentry(n); /* remove it */
+ if (isempty(gval(n))) /* entry is empty? */
+ clearkey(n); /* clear its key */
else {
- lua_assert(!ttisnil(gkey(n)));
- markvalue(g, gkey(n)); /* mark key */
- markvalue(g, gval(n)); /* mark value */
+ lua_assert(!keyisnil(n));
+ markkey(g, n);
+ markvalue(g, gval(n));
}
}
+ genlink(g, obj2gco(h));
}
@@ -453,21 +538,29 @@ static lu_mem traversetable (global_State *g, Table *h) {
const TValue *mode = gfasttm(g, h->metatable, TM_MODE);
markobjectN(g, h->metatable);
if (mode && ttisstring(mode) && /* is there a weak mode? */
- ((weakkey = strchr(svalue(mode), 'k')),
- (weakvalue = strchr(svalue(mode), 'v')),
+ (cast_void(weakkey = strchr(svalue(mode), 'k')),
+ cast_void(weakvalue = strchr(svalue(mode), 'v')),
(weakkey || weakvalue))) { /* is really weak? */
- black2gray(h); /* keep table gray */
if (!weakkey) /* strong keys? */
traverseweakvalue(g, h);
else if (!weakvalue) /* strong values? */
- traverseephemeron(g, h);
+ traverseephemeron(g, h, 0);
else /* all weak */
linkgclist(h, g->allweak); /* nothing to traverse now */
}
else /* not weak */
traversestrongtable(g, h);
- return sizeof(Table) + sizeof(TValue) * h->sizearray +
- sizeof(Node) * cast(size_t, allocsizenode(h));
+ return 1 + h->alimit + 2 * allocsizenode(h);
+}
+
+
+static int traverseudata (global_State *g, Udata *u) {
+ int i;
+ markobjectN(g, u->metatable); /* mark its metatable */
+ for (i = 0; i < u->nuvalue; i++)
+ markvalue(g, &u->uv[i].uv);
+ genlink(g, obj2gco(u));
+ return 1 + u->nuvalue;
}
@@ -478,8 +571,6 @@ static lu_mem traversetable (global_State *g, Table *h) {
*/
static int traverseproto (global_State *g, Proto *f) {
int i;
- if (f->cache && iswhite(f->cache))
- f->cache = NULL; /* allow cache to be collected */
markobjectN(g, f->source);
for (i = 0; i < f->sizek; i++) /* mark literals */
markvalue(g, &f->k[i]);
@@ -489,137 +580,125 @@ static int traverseproto (global_State *g, Proto *f) {
markobjectN(g, f->p[i]);
for (i = 0; i < f->sizelocvars; i++) /* mark local-variable names */
markobjectN(g, f->locvars[i].varname);
- return sizeof(Proto) + sizeof(Instruction) * f->sizecode +
- sizeof(Proto *) * f->sizep +
- sizeof(TValue) * f->sizek +
- sizeof(int) * f->sizelineinfo +
- sizeof(LocVar) * f->sizelocvars +
- sizeof(Upvaldesc) * f->sizeupvalues;
+ return 1 + f->sizek + f->sizeupvalues + f->sizep + f->sizelocvars;
}
-static lu_mem traverseCclosure (global_State *g, CClosure *cl) {
+static int traverseCclosure (global_State *g, CClosure *cl) {
int i;
for (i = 0; i < cl->nupvalues; i++) /* mark its upvalues */
markvalue(g, &cl->upvalue[i]);
- return sizeCclosure(cl->nupvalues);
+ return 1 + cl->nupvalues;
}
/*
-** open upvalues point to values in a thread, so those values should
-** be marked when the thread is traversed except in the atomic phase
-** (because then the value cannot be changed by the thread and the
-** thread may not be traversed again)
+** Traverse a Lua closure, marking its prototype and its upvalues.
+** (Both can be NULL while closure is being created.)
*/
-static lu_mem traverseLclosure (global_State *g, LClosure *cl) {
+static int traverseLclosure (global_State *g, LClosure *cl) {
int i;
markobjectN(g, cl->p); /* mark its prototype */
- for (i = 0; i < cl->nupvalues; i++) { /* mark its upvalues */
+ for (i = 0; i < cl->nupvalues; i++) { /* visit its upvalues */
UpVal *uv = cl->upvals[i];
- if (uv != NULL) {
- if (upisopen(uv) && g->gcstate != GCSinsideatomic)
- uv->u.open.touched = 1; /* can be marked in 'remarkupvals' */
- else
- markvalue(g, uv->v);
- }
+ markobjectN(g, uv); /* mark upvalue */
}
- return sizeLclosure(cl->nupvalues);
+ return 1 + cl->nupvalues;
}
-static lu_mem traversethread (global_State *g, lua_State *th) {
+/*
+** Traverse a thread, marking the elements in the stack up to its top
+** and cleaning the rest of the stack in the final traversal. That
+** ensures that the entire stack have valid (non-dead) objects.
+** Threads have no barriers. In gen. mode, old threads must be visited
+** at every cycle, because they might point to young objects. In inc.
+** mode, the thread can still be modified before the end of the cycle,
+** and therefore it must be visited again in the atomic phase. To ensure
+** these visits, threads must return to a gray list if they are not new
+** (which can only happen in generational mode) or if the traverse is in
+** the propagate phase (which can only happen in incremental mode).
+*/
+static int traversethread (global_State *g, lua_State *th) {
+ UpVal *uv;
StkId o = th->stack;
+ if (isold(th) || g->gcstate == GCSpropagate)
+ linkgclist(th, g->grayagain); /* insert into 'grayagain' list */
if (o == NULL)
return 1; /* stack not completely built yet */
- lua_assert(g->gcstate == GCSinsideatomic ||
+ lua_assert(g->gcstate == GCSatomic ||
th->openupval == NULL || isintwups(th));
for (; o < th->top; o++) /* mark live elements in the stack */
- markvalue(g, o);
- if (g->gcstate == GCSinsideatomic) { /* final traversal? */
- StkId lim = th->stack + th->stacksize; /* real end of stack */
- for (; o < lim; o++) /* clear not-marked stack slice */
- setnilvalue(o);
+ markvalue(g, s2v(o));
+ for (uv = th->openupval; uv != NULL; uv = uv->u.open.next)
+ markobject(g, uv); /* open upvalues cannot be collected */
+ if (g->gcstate == GCSatomic) { /* final traversal? */
+ for (; o < th->stack_last + EXTRA_STACK; o++)
+ setnilvalue(s2v(o)); /* clear dead stack slice */
/* 'remarkupvals' may have removed thread from 'twups' list */
if (!isintwups(th) && th->openupval != NULL) {
th->twups = g->twups; /* link it back to the list */
g->twups = th;
}
}
- else if (g->gckind != KGC_EMERGENCY)
+ else if (!g->gcemergency)
luaD_shrinkstack(th); /* do not change stack in emergency cycle */
- return (sizeof(lua_State) + sizeof(TValue) * th->stacksize +
- sizeof(CallInfo) * th->nci);
+ return 1 + stacksize(th);
}
/*
-** traverse one gray object, turning it to black (except for threads,
-** which are always gray).
+** traverse one gray object, turning it to black.
*/
-static void propagatemark (global_State *g) {
- lu_mem size;
+static lu_mem propagatemark (global_State *g) {
GCObject *o = g->gray;
- lua_assert(isgray(o));
- gray2black(o);
+ nw2black(o);
+ g->gray = *getgclist(o); /* remove from 'gray' list */
switch (o->tt) {
- case LUA_TTABLE: {
- Table *h = gco2t(o);
- g->gray = h->gclist; /* remove from 'gray' list */
- size = traversetable(g, h);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TLCL: {
- LClosure *cl = gco2lcl(o);
- g->gray = cl->gclist; /* remove from 'gray' list */
- size = traverseLclosure(g, cl);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TCCL: {
- CClosure *cl = gco2ccl(o);
- g->gray = cl->gclist; /* remove from 'gray' list */
- size = traverseCclosure(g, cl);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TTHREAD: {
- lua_State *th = gco2th(o);
- g->gray = th->gclist; /* remove from 'gray' list */
- linkgclist(th, g->grayagain); /* insert into 'grayagain' list */
- black2gray(o);
- size = traversethread(g, th);
- break;
- }
- case LUA_TPROTO: {
- Proto *p = gco2p(o);
- g->gray = p->gclist; /* remove from 'gray' list */
- size = traverseproto(g, p);
- break;
- }
- default: lua_assert(0); return;
+ case LUA_VTABLE: return traversetable(g, gco2t(o));
+ case LUA_VUSERDATA: return traverseudata(g, gco2u(o));
+ case LUA_VLCL: return traverseLclosure(g, gco2lcl(o));
+ case LUA_VCCL: return traverseCclosure(g, gco2ccl(o));
+ case LUA_VPROTO: return traverseproto(g, gco2p(o));
+ case LUA_VTHREAD: return traversethread(g, gco2th(o));
+ default: lua_assert(0); return 0;
}
- g->GCmemtrav += size;
}
-static void propagateall (global_State *g) {
- while (g->gray) propagatemark(g);
+static lu_mem propagateall (global_State *g) {
+ lu_mem tot = 0;
+ while (g->gray)
+ tot += propagatemark(g);
+ return tot;
}
+/*
+** Traverse all ephemeron tables propagating marks from keys to values.
+** Repeat until it converges, that is, nothing new is marked. 'dir'
+** inverts the direction of the traversals, trying to speed up
+** convergence on chains in the same table.
+**
+*/
static void convergeephemerons (global_State *g) {
int changed;
+ int dir = 0;
do {
GCObject *w;
GCObject *next = g->ephemeron; /* get ephemeron list */
g->ephemeron = NULL; /* tables may return to this list when traversed */
changed = 0;
- while ((w = next) != NULL) {
- next = gco2t(w)->gclist;
- if (traverseephemeron(g, gco2t(w))) { /* traverse marked some value? */
+ while ((w = next) != NULL) { /* for each ephemeron table */
+ Table *h = gco2t(w);
+ next = h->gclist; /* list is rebuilt during loop */
+ nw2black(h); /* out of the list (for now) */
+ if (traverseephemeron(g, h, dir)) { /* marked some value? */
propagateall(g); /* propagate changes */
changed = 1; /* will have to revisit all ephemeron tables */
}
}
- } while (changed);
+ dir = !dir; /* invert direction next time */
+ } while (changed); /* repeat until no more changes */
}
/* }====================================================== */
@@ -633,19 +712,18 @@ static void convergeephemerons (global_State *g) {
/*
-** clear entries with unmarked keys from all weaktables in list 'l' up
-** to element 'f'
+** clear entries with unmarked keys from all weaktables in list 'l'
*/
-static void clearkeys (global_State *g, GCObject *l, GCObject *f) {
- for (; l != f; l = gco2t(l)->gclist) {
+static void clearbykeys (global_State *g, GCObject *l) {
+ for (; l; l = gco2t(l)->gclist) {
Table *h = gco2t(l);
- Node *n, *limit = gnodelast(h);
+ Node *limit = gnodelast(h);
+ Node *n;
for (n = gnode(h, 0); n < limit; n++) {
- if (!ttisnil(gval(n)) && (iscleared(g, gkey(n)))) {
- setnilvalue(gval(n)); /* remove value ... */
- }
- if (ttisnil(gval(n))) /* is entry empty? */
- removeentry(n); /* remove entry from table */
+ if (iscleared(g, gckeyN(n))) /* unmarked key? */
+ setempty(gval(n)); /* remove entry */
+ if (isempty(gval(n))) /* is entry empty? */
+ clearkey(n); /* clear its key */
}
}
}
@@ -655,65 +733,72 @@ static void clearkeys (global_State *g, GCObject *l, GCObject *f) {
** clear entries with unmarked values from all weaktables in list 'l' up
** to element 'f'
*/
-static void clearvalues (global_State *g, GCObject *l, GCObject *f) {
+static void clearbyvalues (global_State *g, GCObject *l, GCObject *f) {
for (; l != f; l = gco2t(l)->gclist) {
Table *h = gco2t(l);
Node *n, *limit = gnodelast(h);
unsigned int i;
- for (i = 0; i < h->sizearray; i++) {
+ unsigned int asize = luaH_realasize(h);
+ for (i = 0; i < asize; i++) {
TValue *o = &h->array[i];
- if (iscleared(g, o)) /* value was collected? */
- setnilvalue(o); /* remove value */
+ if (iscleared(g, gcvalueN(o))) /* value was collected? */
+ setempty(o); /* remove entry */
}
for (n = gnode(h, 0); n < limit; n++) {
- if (!ttisnil(gval(n)) && iscleared(g, gval(n))) {
- setnilvalue(gval(n)); /* remove value ... */
- removeentry(n); /* and remove entry from table */
- }
+ if (iscleared(g, gcvalueN(gval(n)))) /* unmarked value? */
+ setempty(gval(n)); /* remove entry */
+ if (isempty(gval(n))) /* is entry empty? */
+ clearkey(n); /* clear its key */
}
}
}
-void luaC_upvdeccount (lua_State *L, UpVal *uv) {
- lua_assert(uv->refcount > 0);
- uv->refcount--;
- if (uv->refcount == 0 && !upisopen(uv))
- luaM_free(L, uv);
-}
-
-
-static void freeLclosure (lua_State *L, LClosure *cl) {
- int i;
- for (i = 0; i < cl->nupvalues; i++) {
- UpVal *uv = cl->upvals[i];
- if (uv)
- luaC_upvdeccount(L, uv);
- }
- luaM_freemem(L, cl, sizeLclosure(cl->nupvalues));
+static void freeupval (lua_State *L, UpVal *uv) {
+ if (upisopen(uv))
+ luaF_unlinkupval(uv);
+ luaM_free(L, uv);
}
static void freeobj (lua_State *L, GCObject *o) {
switch (o->tt) {
- case LUA_TPROTO: luaF_freeproto(L, gco2p(o)); break;
- case LUA_TLCL: {
- freeLclosure(L, gco2lcl(o));
+ case LUA_VPROTO:
+ luaF_freeproto(L, gco2p(o));
+ break;
+ case LUA_VUPVAL:
+ freeupval(L, gco2upv(o));
+ break;
+ case LUA_VLCL: {
+ LClosure *cl = gco2lcl(o);
+ luaM_freemem(L, cl, sizeLclosure(cl->nupvalues));
break;
}
- case LUA_TCCL: {
- luaM_freemem(L, o, sizeCclosure(gco2ccl(o)->nupvalues));
+ case LUA_VCCL: {
+ CClosure *cl = gco2ccl(o);
+ luaM_freemem(L, cl, sizeCclosure(cl->nupvalues));
break;
}
- case LUA_TTABLE: luaH_free(L, gco2t(o)); break;
- case LUA_TTHREAD: luaE_freethread(L, gco2th(o)); break;
- case LUA_TUSERDATA: luaM_freemem(L, o, sizeudata(gco2u(o))); break;
- case LUA_TSHRSTR:
- luaS_remove(L, gco2ts(o)); /* remove it from hash table */
- luaM_freemem(L, o, sizelstring(gco2ts(o)->shrlen));
+ case LUA_VTABLE:
+ luaH_free(L, gco2t(o));
+ break;
+ case LUA_VTHREAD:
+ luaE_freethread(L, gco2th(o));
break;
- case LUA_TLNGSTR: {
-