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-rw-r--r--sbin/adjkerntz/adjkerntz.842
-rw-r--r--sbin/atacontrol/atacontrol.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/atm/fore_dnld/fore_dnld.83
-rw-r--r--sbin/atm/ilmid/ilmid.86
-rw-r--r--sbin/badsect/badsect.822
-rw-r--r--sbin/bsdlabel/bsdlabel.818
-rw-r--r--sbin/camcontrol/camcontrol.823
-rw-r--r--sbin/ccdconfig/ccdconfig.818
-rw-r--r--sbin/clri/clri.810
-rw-r--r--sbin/comcontrol/comcontrol.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/conscontrol/conscontrol.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/disklabel/disklabel.818
-rw-r--r--sbin/dmesg/dmesg.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/dump/dump.830
-rw-r--r--sbin/dumpfs/dumpfs.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/dumpon/dumpon.89
-rw-r--r--sbin/fdisk_pc98/fdisk.817
-rw-r--r--sbin/fsck/fsck.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/fsck_msdosfs/fsck_msdosfs.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/fsdb/fsdb.810
-rw-r--r--sbin/fsirand/fsirand.814
-rw-r--r--sbin/growfs/growfs.811
-rw-r--r--sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.817
-rw-r--r--sbin/init/init.838
-rw-r--r--sbin/ip6fw/ip6fw.83
-rw-r--r--sbin/ipfw/ipfw.83
-rw-r--r--sbin/kldconfig/kldconfig.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/kldload/kldload.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/kldstat/kldstat.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/kldunload/kldunload.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/ldconfig/ldconfig.88
-rw-r--r--sbin/mdconfig/mdconfig.86
-rw-r--r--sbin/mdmfs/mdmfs.810
-rw-r--r--sbin/mknod/mknod.84
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount/mount.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_cd9660/mount_cd9660.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_ext2fs/mount_ext2fs.84
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_hpfs/mount_hpfs.84
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_msdosfs/mount_msdosfs.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_nfs/mount_nfs.83
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_ntfs/mount_ntfs.84
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_nullfs/mount_nullfs.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_std/mount_std.822
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_umapfs/mount_umapfs.813
-rw-r--r--sbin/mount_unionfs/mount_unionfs.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/mountd/mountd.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/natd/natd.86
-rw-r--r--sbin/newfs/newfs.815
-rw-r--r--sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.82
-rw-r--r--sbin/nfsd/nfsd.820
-rw-r--r--sbin/nfsiod/nfsiod.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/nologin/nologin.87
-rw-r--r--sbin/nos-tun/nos-tun.85
-rw-r--r--sbin/ping/ping.816
-rw-r--r--sbin/ping6/ping6.813
-rw-r--r--sbin/quotacheck/quotacheck.825
-rw-r--r--usr.sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.82
-rw-r--r--usr.sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.82
-rw-r--r--usr.sbin/mountd/mountd.85
-rw-r--r--usr.sbin/nfsd/nfsd.820
-rw-r--r--usr.sbin/nologin/nologin.87
63 files changed, 366 insertions, 245 deletions
diff --git a/sbin/adjkerntz/adjkerntz.8 b/sbin/adjkerntz/adjkerntz.8
index 15f26279a03a..eec148d1a5d3 100644
--- a/sbin/adjkerntz/adjkerntz.8
+++ b/sbin/adjkerntz/adjkerntz.8
@@ -36,12 +36,14 @@
.Nm
.Fl a Op Fl s
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-maintains the proper relationship between the kernel clock, which
+The
+.Nm
+utility maintains the proper relationship between the kernel clock, which
is always set to UTC, and the CMOS clock, which may be set to local
time.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-also informs the kernel about machine timezone shifts to
+The
+.Nm
+utility also informs the kernel about machine timezone shifts to
maintain proper timestamps for local time filesystems such as the MS-DOS
filesystem.
The main purpose of this thing is not general fixing of
@@ -56,8 +58,9 @@ If the file
exists, it means that CMOS clock keeps local time (MS-DOS and MS-Windows
compatible mode).
If that file does not exist, it means that the CMOS clock keeps UTC time.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-passes this state to the
+The
+.Nm
+utility passes this state to the
.Pa machdep.wall_cmos_clock
kernel variable.
.Pp
@@ -69,18 +72,21 @@ is invoked in two ways:
.Bl -tag -width 4n
.It Fl i
This form handles system startups and shutdowns.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-is invoked with this option from
+The
+.Nm
+utility is invoked with this option from
.Pa /etc/rc
on entry to multi-user mode, before any other daemons have been started.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-puts itself into the background.
+The
+.Nm
+utility puts itself into the background.
Then, for a local time CMOS clock,
.Nm
reads the local time from it
and sets the kernel clock to the corresponding UTC time.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-also stores the local time zone offset into the
+The
+.Nm
+utility also stores the local time zone offset into the
.Pa machdep.adjkerntz
kernel variable, for use by subsequent invocations of
.Em "'adjkerntz -a'"
@@ -106,8 +112,9 @@ This form is used to update the local time CMOS clock and kernel
.Pa machdep.adjkerntz
variable when time zone changes occur,
e.g., when entering or leaving daylight savings time.
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-uses the kernel clock's UTC time,
+The
+.Nm
+utility uses the kernel clock's UTC time,
the previously stored
time zone offset, and the changed time zone rule to
calculate a new time zone offset.
@@ -136,8 +143,9 @@ command line, or multiple
instances could conflict with each other.
.El
.Pp
-.Nm Adjkerntz
-clears the kernel timezone structure and makes the kernel clock run
+The
+.Nm
+utility clears the kernel timezone structure and makes the kernel clock run
in the UTC time zone.
Super-user privileges are required for all operations.
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
@@ -183,5 +191,5 @@ and exits with a nonzero return code.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Fx 1.0 .
diff --git a/sbin/atacontrol/atacontrol.8 b/sbin/atacontrol/atacontrol.8
index 4803cf69a590..48415abd7bcc 100644
--- a/sbin/atacontrol/atacontrol.8
+++ b/sbin/atacontrol/atacontrol.8
@@ -73,13 +73,16 @@
.Nm
.Ic list
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is a control program that provides the user access and control to the
+utility is a control program that provides the user access and control to the
.Fx
.Xr ata 4
subsystem.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
+utility
can cause severe system crashes and loss of data if used improperly. Please
exercise caution when using this command!
.Pp
diff --git a/sbin/atm/fore_dnld/fore_dnld.8 b/sbin/atm/fore_dnld/fore_dnld.8
index 134537ef8cd3..4b548e9b8b00 100644
--- a/sbin/atm/fore_dnld/fore_dnld.8
+++ b/sbin/atm/fore_dnld/fore_dnld.8
@@ -37,8 +37,9 @@
.Op Fl d Ar path
.Op Fl f Ar objfile
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-downloads FORE Systems' microcode into the host ATM adapter(s).
+utility downloads FORE Systems' microcode into the host ATM adapter(s).
.Sh OPTIONS
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl i Ar intf
diff --git a/sbin/atm/ilmid/ilmid.8 b/sbin/atm/ilmid/ilmid.8
index fd09b99067fe..a3b526577e7c 100644
--- a/sbin/atm/ilmid/ilmid.8
+++ b/sbin/atm/ilmid/ilmid.8
@@ -37,8 +37,9 @@
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl r
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is a HARP ATM daemon that performs the ILMI ATM address registration
+utility is a HARP ATM daemon that performs the ILMI ATM address registration
procedures with an ATM network switch.
It is normally invoked at boot time
from the ATM startup script.
@@ -80,8 +81,9 @@ that the ATM Address table is empty.
It also does not implement any
of the ATM Forum MIB that is specified as part of ILMI.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
-will increment the debug level when it receives a
+utility will increment the debug level when it receives a
.Dv SIGUSR1
signal and will
decrement the debug level when it receives a
diff --git a/sbin/badsect/badsect.8 b/sbin/badsect/badsect.8
index e5d4e9e35bcd..89abe88af08e 100644
--- a/sbin/badsect/badsect.8
+++ b/sbin/badsect/badsect.8
@@ -42,8 +42,9 @@
.Nm
.Ar bbdir sector ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Badsect
-makes a file to contain a bad sector. Normally, bad sectors
+The
+.Nm
+utility makes a file to contain a bad sector. Normally, bad sectors
are made inaccessible by the standard formatter, which provides
a forwarding table for bad sectors to the driver.
If a driver supports the bad blocking standard it is much preferable to
@@ -67,8 +68,9 @@ do not support the bad-blocking standard
.Nm
may be used to good effect.
.Pp
-.Nm Badsect
-is used on a quiet filesystem in the following way:
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used on a quiet filesystem in the following way:
First mount the filesystem, and change to its root directory.
Make a directory
.Li BAD
@@ -97,8 +99,9 @@ This will leave the bad sectors in only the
.Li BAD
files.
.Pp
-.Nm Badsect
-works by giving the specified sector numbers in a
+The
+.Nm
+utility works by giving the specified sector numbers in a
.Xr mknod 2
system call,
creating an illegal file whose first block address is the block containing
@@ -113,8 +116,9 @@ to convert the inode to a regular file containing the bad block.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr fsck 8
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
-.Nm Badsect
-refuses to attach a block that
+The
+.Nm
+utility refuses to attach a block that
resides in a critical area or is out of range of the filesystem.
A warning is issued if the block is already in use.
.Sh BUGS
@@ -126,5 +130,5 @@ filesystem fragment.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.1 .
diff --git a/sbin/bsdlabel/bsdlabel.8 b/sbin/bsdlabel/bsdlabel.8
index 4c674b531da2..faae77725c5f 100644
--- a/sbin/bsdlabel/bsdlabel.8
+++ b/sbin/bsdlabel/bsdlabel.8
@@ -94,7 +94,9 @@
.Ar disk Ar protofile
.Oo Ar disktype/auto Oc
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Disklabel
+The
+.Nm
+utility
installs, examines or modifies the label on a disk drive or pack. When writing
the label, it can be used to change the drive identification, the disk
partitions on the drive, or to replace a damaged label. There are several forms
@@ -137,8 +139,9 @@ partition be specified. For example
You do not have to include the
.Pa /dev/
path prefix when specifying the device.
+The
.Nm
-will automatically prepend it.
+utility will automatically prepend it.
.Ss Reading the disk label
.Pp
To examine the label on a disk drive, use
@@ -510,7 +513,9 @@ auto
.It Pa /boot/boot<n>
.El
.Sh SAVED FILE FORMAT
+The
.Nm
+utility
uses an ASCII version of the label when examining, editing or restoring a disk
label. The format is:
.Bd -literal -offset 4n
@@ -643,7 +648,9 @@ represents the entire slice and should be of type
though
.Nm
does not enforce this convention.
+The
.Nm
+utility
also knows about a number of other partition types, none of which are in current
use.
See the definitions starting with
@@ -870,8 +877,9 @@ For the i386 architecture, the primary bootstrap sector contains
an embedded
.Em fdisk
table.
-.Nm Disklabel
-takes care to not clobber it when installing a bootstrap only
+The
+.Nm
+utility takes care to not clobber it when installing a bootstrap only
.Pq Fl B ,
or when editing an existing label
.Pq Fl e ,
@@ -888,7 +896,9 @@ concern if the disk is fully dedicated, so that the
disklabel
starts at absolute block 0 on the disk.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
+utility
does not perform all possible error checking. Warning *is* given if partitions
overlap; if an absolute offset does not match the expected offset; if the
.Dq c
diff --git a/sbin/camcontrol/camcontrol.8 b/sbin/camcontrol/camcontrol.8
index 060c1b7ce466..5d1c9b10827f 100644
--- a/sbin/camcontrol/camcontrol.8
+++ b/sbin/camcontrol/camcontrol.8
@@ -137,18 +137,22 @@
.Nm
.Ic help
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is a utility designed to provide a way for users to access and control the
+utility is designed to provide a way for users to access and control the
.Fx
CAM subsystem.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
+utility
can cause a loss of data and/or system crashes if used improperly. Even
expert users are encouraged to exercise caution when using this command.
Novice users should stay away from this utility.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
-has a number of primary functions, many of which support an optional
+utility has a number of primary functions, many of which support an optional
device identifier. A device identifier can take one of three forms:
.Bl -tag -width 14n
.It deviceUNIT
@@ -222,8 +226,9 @@ List all peripheral drivers attached to a given physical device (logical
unit).
.It Ic tur
Send the SCSI test unit ready (0x00) command to the given device.
+The
.Nm
-will report whether the device is ready or not.
+utility will report whether the device is ready or not.
.It Ic inquiry
Send a SCSI inquiry command (0x12) to a device. By default,
.Nm
@@ -283,7 +288,9 @@ required. Most drives support the physical sector format. Some drives
support the logical block format. Many drives, if they don't support the
requested format, return the data in an alternate format, along with sense
information indicating that the requested data format isn't supported.
+The
.Nm
+utility
attempts to detect this, and print out whatever format the drive returns.
If the drive uses a non-standard sense code to report that it doesn't
support the requested format,
@@ -480,7 +487,9 @@ Show or negotiate various communication parameters. Some controllers may
not support setting or changing some of these values. For instance, the
Adaptec 174x controllers do not support changing a device's sync rate or
offset.
+The
.Nm
+utility
will not attempt to set the parameter if the controller indicates that it
does not support setting the parameter. To find out what the controller
supports, use the
@@ -632,8 +641,9 @@ fails.
.Dl camcontrol tur da0
.Pp
Send the SCSI test unit ready command to da0.
+The
.Nm
-will report whether the disk is ready, but will not display sense
+utility will report whether the disk is ready, but will not display sense
information if the command fails since the
.Fl v
switch was not specified.
@@ -648,8 +658,9 @@ printing (with the
.Fl v
flag) if the command fails. Since error recovery is turned on, the
disk will be spun up if it is not currently spinning.
+The
.Nm
-will report whether the disk is ready.
+utility will report whether the disk is ready.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol cmd -n cd -u 1 -v -c "3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0e 00" \e
-i 0xe "s1 i3 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1"
@@ -716,7 +727,7 @@ Test Unit Ready command to make the settings take effect.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
.Pp
The mode page editing code and arbitrary SCSI command code are based upon
diff --git a/sbin/ccdconfig/ccdconfig.8 b/sbin/ccdconfig/ccdconfig.8
index c2f76c302013..fc662f9c4a04 100644
--- a/sbin/ccdconfig/ccdconfig.8
+++ b/sbin/ccdconfig/ccdconfig.8
@@ -63,8 +63,9 @@
.Fl g
.Op Ar ccd Op Ar ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Ccdconfig
-is used to dynamically configure and unconfigure concatenated disk
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to dynamically configure and unconfigure concatenated disk
devices, or ccds. For more information about the ccd, see
.Xr ccd 4 .
.Pp
@@ -130,8 +131,12 @@ The component devices need to name partitions of type
as shown by
.Xr disklabel 8 ) .
.Sh EXAMPLES
-A number of ccdconfig examples are shown below. The arguments passed
-to ccdconfig are exactly the same as you might place in the
+A number of
+.Nm
+examples are shown below. The arguments passed
+to
+.Nm
+are exactly the same as you might place in the
.Pa /etc/ccd.conf
configuration file. The first example creates a 4-disk stripe out of
four scsi disk partitions. The stripe uses a 64 sector interleave.
@@ -178,8 +183,7 @@ An error on a ccd disk is usually unrecoverable unless you are using the
mirroring option. But mirroring has its own perils: It assumes that
both copies of the data at any given sector are the same. This holds true
until a write error occurs or until you replace either side of the mirror.
-.Nm Ccd
-uses a poor-man's mirroring implementation. It works well enough that if
+This is a poor-man's mirroring implementation. It works well enough that if
you begin to get disk errors you should be able to backup the ccd disk,
replace the broken hardware, and then regenerate the ccd disk. If you need
more than this you should look into external hardware RAID SCSI boxes,
@@ -199,5 +203,5 @@ default ccd configuration file
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Nx 1.0a .
diff --git a/sbin/clri/clri.8 b/sbin/clri/clri.8
index beb005a4dd84..41c137fbc61a 100644
--- a/sbin/clri/clri.8
+++ b/sbin/clri/clri.8
@@ -43,13 +43,15 @@
.Ar special_device inode_number ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Bf -symbolic
-.Nm Clri
-is obsoleted for normal filesystem repair work by
+The
+.Nm
+utility is obsoleted for normal filesystem repair work by
.Xr fsck 8 .
.Ef
.Pp
-.Nm Clri
-zeros out the inodes with the specified inode number(s)
+The
+.Nm
+utility zeros out the inodes with the specified inode number(s)
on the filesystem residing on the given
.Ar special_device .
The
diff --git a/sbin/comcontrol/comcontrol.8 b/sbin/comcontrol/comcontrol.8
index eee6542ac442..2d34eb104248 100644
--- a/sbin/comcontrol/comcontrol.8
+++ b/sbin/comcontrol/comcontrol.8
@@ -11,8 +11,9 @@
.Op dtrwait Ar number
.Op drainwait Ar number
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Comcontrol
-is used to examine and modify some of the special characteristics
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to examine and modify some of the special characteristics
of the specified tty device.
If no arguments other than the device (or "-" for stdin)
are specified,
diff --git a/sbin/conscontrol/conscontrol.8 b/sbin/conscontrol/conscontrol.8
index c9e36bb5226b..6a8010dc29db 100644
--- a/sbin/conscontrol/conscontrol.8
+++ b/sbin/conscontrol/conscontrol.8
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ All console output is suppressed when console muting is
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 5.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Jonathan Lemon
diff --git a/sbin/disklabel/disklabel.8 b/sbin/disklabel/disklabel.8
index 4c674b531da2..faae77725c5f 100644
--- a/sbin/disklabel/disklabel.8
+++ b/sbin/disklabel/disklabel.8
@@ -94,7 +94,9 @@
.Ar disk Ar protofile
.Oo Ar disktype/auto Oc
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Disklabel
+The
+.Nm
+utility
installs, examines or modifies the label on a disk drive or pack. When writing
the label, it can be used to change the drive identification, the disk
partitions on the drive, or to replace a damaged label. There are several forms
@@ -137,8 +139,9 @@ partition be specified. For example
You do not have to include the
.Pa /dev/
path prefix when specifying the device.
+The
.Nm
-will automatically prepend it.
+utility will automatically prepend it.
.Ss Reading the disk label
.Pp
To examine the label on a disk drive, use
@@ -510,7 +513,9 @@ auto
.It Pa /boot/boot<n>
.El
.Sh SAVED FILE FORMAT
+The
.Nm
+utility
uses an ASCII version of the label when examining, editing or restoring a disk
label. The format is:
.Bd -literal -offset 4n
@@ -643,7 +648,9 @@ represents the entire slice and should be of type
though
.Nm
does not enforce this convention.
+The
.Nm
+utility
also knows about a number of other partition types, none of which are in current
use.
See the definitions starting with
@@ -870,8 +877,9 @@ For the i386 architecture, the primary bootstrap sector contains
an embedded
.Em fdisk
table.
-.Nm Disklabel
-takes care to not clobber it when installing a bootstrap only
+The
+.Nm
+utility takes care to not clobber it when installing a bootstrap only
.Pq Fl B ,
or when editing an existing label
.Pq Fl e ,
@@ -888,7 +896,9 @@ concern if the disk is fully dedicated, so that the
disklabel
starts at absolute block 0 on the disk.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
+utility
does not perform all possible error checking. Warning *is* given if partitions
overlap; if an absolute offset does not match the expected offset; if the
.Dq c
diff --git a/sbin/dmesg/dmesg.8 b/sbin/dmesg/dmesg.8
index 5551bada884d..07c3a4b91167 100644
--- a/sbin/dmesg/dmesg.8
+++ b/sbin/dmesg/dmesg.8
@@ -44,8 +44,9 @@
.Op Fl M Ar core
.Op Fl N Ar system
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Dmesg
-displays the contents of the system message buffer.
+The
+.Nm
+utility displays the contents of the system message buffer.
If neither the
.Fl N
nor the
@@ -86,5 +87,5 @@ at startup time
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.0 .
diff --git a/sbin/dump/dump.8 b/sbin/dump/dump.8
index 539ed12c55b5..f51abca26236 100644
--- a/sbin/dump/dump.8
+++ b/sbin/dump/dump.8
@@ -65,8 +65,9 @@ is an alternate name for
option syntax is implemented for backward compatibility, but
is not documented here.)
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Dump
-examines files
+The
+.Nm
+utility examines files
on a filesystem
and determines which files
need to be backed up.
@@ -257,8 +258,7 @@ but the
.Fl D
option may be used to change it.
.It Fl W
-.Nm Dump
-tells the operator what filesystems need to be dumped.
+Tell the operator what filesystems need to be dumped.
This information is gleaned from the files
.Pa dumpdates
and
@@ -291,8 +291,9 @@ subject to the
.Fl h
option.
.Pp
-.Nm Dump
-requires operator intervention on these conditions:
+The
+.Nm
+utility requires operator intervention on these conditions:
end of tape,
end of dump,
tape write error,
@@ -329,8 +330,9 @@ restart itself from the checkpoint
after the old tape has been rewound and removed,
and a new tape has been mounted.
.Pp
-.Nm Dump
-tells the operator what is going on at periodic intervals
+The
+.Nm
+utility tells the operator what is going on at periodic intervals
(every 5 minutes, or promptly after receiving
.Dv SIGINFO ) ,
including usually low estimates of the number of blocks to write,
@@ -422,8 +424,9 @@ impossible to use a larger output block size, so
.Nm
will prevent this from happening.
.Pp
-.Nm Dump
-with the
+The
+.Nm
+utility with the
.Fl W
or
.Fl w
@@ -443,8 +446,9 @@ and provided more assistance
for the operator running
.Xr restore .
.Pp
-.Nm Dump
-cannot do remote backups without being run as root, due to its
+The
+.Nm
+utility cannot do remote backups without being run as root, due to its
security history. This will be fixed in a later version of
.Fx .
Presently, it works if you set it setuid (like it used to be), but this
@@ -452,5 +456,5 @@ might constitute a security risk.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v6 .
diff --git a/sbin/dumpfs/dumpfs.8 b/sbin/dumpfs/dumpfs.8
index 3ba37bc4f0da..3e260718632b 100644
--- a/sbin/dumpfs/dumpfs.8
+++ b/sbin/dumpfs/dumpfs.8
@@ -42,8 +42,9 @@
.Nm
.Op Ar filesys No \&| Ar device
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Dumpfs
-prints out the super block and cylinder group information
+The
+.Nm
+utility prints out the super block and cylinder group information
for the filesystem or special device specified.
The listing is very long and detailed. This
command is useful mostly for finding out certain filesystem
@@ -59,5 +60,5 @@ free space percentage.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/dumpon/dumpon.8 b/sbin/dumpon/dumpon.8
index 55a1ea0128b0..53f435cf948c 100644
--- a/sbin/dumpon/dumpon.8
+++ b/sbin/dumpon/dumpon.8
@@ -46,8 +46,9 @@
.Op Fl v
.Ar off
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Dumpon
-is used to specify a device where the kernel can save a crash dump in
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to specify a device where the kernel can save a crash dump in
the case of a panic.
.Pp
Calls to
@@ -81,7 +82,7 @@ should be used as the dump device.
.Pp
The
.Nm
-program operates by setting the
+utility operates by setting the
.Xr sysctl 3
MIB variable
.Dq kern.dumpdev
@@ -126,5 +127,5 @@ is taken, it is not possible to send crash dumps directly to a file.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Fx 2.1 .
diff --git a/sbin/fdisk_pc98/fdisk.8 b/sbin/fdisk_pc98/fdisk.8
index f1a1856aec18..3a525eeb11aa 100644
--- a/sbin/fdisk_pc98/fdisk.8
+++ b/sbin/fdisk_pc98/fdisk.8
@@ -37,14 +37,13 @@ you can have one or more partitions with one
.Em active .
The DOS
.Nm
-program can be used to divide space on the disk into partitions and set one
+utility can be used to divide space on the disk into partitions and set one
.Em active .
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Fx
-program
.Nm
-serves a similar purpose to the DOS program. The first form is used to
+utility serves a similar purpose to the DOS program. The first form is used to
display partition information or to interactively edit the partition
table. The second is used to write a partition table using a
.Ar configfile
@@ -224,10 +223,11 @@ option is used. If the
.Fl f
option is not used, the
.Nm
-program will enter a conversational mode.
+utility will enter a conversational mode.
This mode is designed not to change any data unless you explicitly tell it to.
-.Nm Fdisk
-selects defaults for its questions to guarantee the above behavior.
+The
+.Nm
+utility selects defaults for its questions to guarantee the above behavior.
.Pp
It displays each partition
and ask if you want to edit it.
@@ -237,8 +237,9 @@ and asking for a new one.
When you are done with a partition,
.Nm
will display it and ask if it is correct.
-.Nm Fdisk
-will then proceed to the next entry.
+The
+.Nm
+utility will then proceed to the next entry.
.Pp
Getting the
.Em cyl , sector ,
diff --git a/sbin/fsck/fsck.8 b/sbin/fsck/fsck.8
index 57fbaf0d808f..1d20f4f58059 100644
--- a/sbin/fsck/fsck.8
+++ b/sbin/fsck/fsck.8
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command invokes filesystem-specific programs to check
+utility invokes filesystem-specific programs to check
the special devices listed in the
.Xr fstab 5
file or in the command line for consistency.
diff --git a/sbin/fsck_msdosfs/fsck_msdosfs.8 b/sbin/fsck_msdosfs/fsck_msdosfs.8
index 5d28f405af73..61f314625a49 100644
--- a/sbin/fsck_msdosfs/fsck_msdosfs.8
+++ b/sbin/fsck_msdosfs/fsck_msdosfs.8
@@ -115,10 +115,11 @@ as the answer to all operator questions.
.Xr fsck_ffs 8 ,
.Xr mount_msdos 8
.Sh BUGS
+The
.Nm
-is still under construction.
+utility is still under construction.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 4.4 .
diff --git a/sbin/fsdb/fsdb.8 b/sbin/fsdb/fsdb.8
index 4622a8bfab5f..27f118d166ab 100644
--- a/sbin/fsdb/fsdb.8
+++ b/sbin/fsdb/fsdb.8
@@ -41,8 +41,9 @@
.Op Fl r
.Ar fsname
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Fsdb
-opens
+The
+.Nm
+utility opens
.Ar fsname
(usually a raw disk partition) and runs a command loop
allowing manipulation of the filesystem's inode data. You are prompted
@@ -226,8 +227,9 @@ There are a bunch of other things that you might want to do which
.Nm
doesn't implement.
.Sh HISTORY
-.Nm Fsdb
-uses the source code for
+The
+.Nm
+utility uses the source code for
.Xr fsck 8
to implement most of the filesystem manipulation code. The remainder of
.Nm
diff --git a/sbin/fsirand/fsirand.8 b/sbin/fsirand/fsirand.8
index 4bef0b3b77b3..b644a7931c93 100644
--- a/sbin/fsirand/fsirand.8
+++ b/sbin/fsirand/fsirand.8
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command installs random generation numbers on all the inodes for
+utility installs random generation numbers on all the inodes for
each filesystem specified on the command line by
.Ar special .
This increases the security of NFS-exported filesystems by making
@@ -61,13 +61,15 @@ run
by hand on a new filesystem. It is only used to
re-randomize or report on an existing filesystem.
.Pp
-.Nm Fsirand
-should only be used on an unmounted filesystem that
+The
+.Nm
+utility should only be used on an unmounted filesystem that
has been checked with
.Xr fsck 8
or a filesystem that is mounted read-only.
-.Nm Fsirand
-may be used on the root filesystem in single-user mode
+The
+.Nm
+utility may be used on the root filesystem in single-user mode
but the system should be rebooted via ``reboot -n'' afterwards.
.Sh OPTIONS
.Bl -tag -width indent
@@ -98,7 +100,7 @@ of memory for large disks with few cylinder groups.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in SunOS 3.x.
+utility appeared in SunOS 3.x.
.Pp
This version of
.Nm
diff --git a/sbin/growfs/growfs.8 b/sbin/growfs/growfs.8
index 691f7946eb6c..1b629430876e 100644
--- a/sbin/growfs/growfs.8
+++ b/sbin/growfs/growfs.8
@@ -49,8 +49,9 @@
.Op Fl s Ar size
.Ar special
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-extends the
+utility extends the
.Xr newfs 8
program.
Before starting
@@ -59,8 +60,9 @@ the disk must be labeled to a bigger size using
.Xr disklabel 8 .
If you are using volumes you must enlarge them by using
.Xr vinum 8 .
+The
.Nm
-extends the size of the filesystem on the specified special file.
+utility extends the size of the filesystem on the specified special file.
Currently
.Nm
can only enlarge unmounted filesystems.
@@ -110,8 +112,9 @@ will enlarge
up to 2GB if there is enough space in
.Pa /dev/vinum/testvol .
.Sh BUGS
+The
.Nm
-works starting with
+utility works starting with
.Fx
3.x.
There may be cases on
@@ -182,5 +185,5 @@ mode.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 4.4 .
diff --git a/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8 b/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8
index 9fee24e11e4d..3c40e1c2c7b1 100644
--- a/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8
+++ b/sbin/ifconfig/ifconfig.8
@@ -72,12 +72,14 @@
.Op Fl u
.Op Fl C
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Ifconfig
-is used to assign an address
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to assign an address
to a network interface and/or configure
network interface parameters.
-.Nm Ifconfig
-must be used at boot time to define the network address
+The
+.Nm
+utility must be used at boot time to define the network address
of each interface present on a machine; it may also be used at
a later time to redefine an interface's address
or other operating parameters.
@@ -643,8 +645,9 @@ Included for
compatibility.
.El
.Pp
-.Nm Ifconfig
-displays the current configuration for a network interface
+The
+.Nm
+utility displays the current configuration for a network interface
when no optional parameters are supplied.
If a protocol family is specified,
.Nm
@@ -721,5 +724,5 @@ So, such manual deletions are strongly discouraged.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/init/init.8 b/sbin/init/init.8
index b12b3e21f059..1b31f11d6376 100644
--- a/sbin/init/init.8
+++ b/sbin/init/init.8
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-program
+utility
is the last stage of the boot process.
It normally runs the automatic reboot sequence as described in
.Xr rc 8 ,
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ commences single-user operation by giving
the super-user a shell on the console.
The
.Nm
-program may be passed parameters
+utility may be passed parameters
from the boot program to
prevent the system from going multi-user and to instead execute
a single-user shell without starting the normal daemons.
@@ -159,8 +159,9 @@ In multi-user operation,
maintains
processes for the terminal ports found in the file
.Xr ttys 5 .
-.Nm Init
-reads this file and executes the command found in the second field,
+The
+.Nm
+utility reads this file and executes the command found in the second field,
unless the first field refers to a device in
.Pa /dev
which is not configured.
@@ -181,7 +182,7 @@ dies, either because the user logged out
or an abnormal termination occurred (a signal),
the
.Nm
-program wakes up, deletes the user
+utility wakes up, deletes the user
from the
.Xr utmp 5
file of current users and records the logout in the
@@ -194,8 +195,9 @@ executing a new
.Nm getty
for the line.
.Pp
-.Nm Init
-can also be used to keep arbitrary daemons running,
+The
+.Nm
+utility can also be used to keep arbitrary daemons running,
automatically restarting them if they die.
In this case, the first field in the
.Xr ttys 5
@@ -247,8 +249,9 @@ file and records in the
file is out of sync,
so this practice is not recommended.
.Pp
-.Nm Init
-will terminate multi-user operations and resume single-user mode
+The
+.Nm
+utility will terminate multi-user operations and resume single-user mode
if sent a terminate
.Pq Dv TERM
signal, for example,
@@ -259,8 +262,9 @@ hardware or software failure),
will not wait for them all to die (which might take forever), but
will time out after 30 seconds and print a warning message.
.Pp
-.Nm Init
-will cease creating new processes
+The
+.Nm
+utility will cease creating new processes
and allow the system to slowly die away, if it is sent a terminal stop
.Pq Dv TSTP
signal, i.e.\&
@@ -272,8 +276,9 @@ This hook is used by
and
.Xr halt 8 .
.Pp
-.Nm Init
-will terminate all possible processes (again, it will not wait
+The
+.Nm
+utility will terminate all possible processes (again, it will not wait
for deadlocked processes) and reboot the machine if sent the interrupt
.Pq Dv INT
signal, i.e.\&
@@ -281,8 +286,9 @@ signal, i.e.\&
This is useful for shutting the machine down cleanly from inside the kernel
or from X when the machine appears to be hung.
.Pp
-.Nm Init
-will do the same, except it will halt the machine if sent
+The
+.Nm
+utility will do the same, except it will halt the machine if sent
the user defined signal 1
.Pq Dv USR1 ,
or will halt and turn the power off (if hardware permits) if sent
@@ -382,7 +388,7 @@ system shutdown commands
.Sh HISTORY
An
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v6 .
.Sh CAVEATS
Systems without
diff --git a/sbin/ip6fw/ip6fw.8 b/sbin/ip6fw/ip6fw.8
index 62bb45589a74..b8943117936b 100644
--- a/sbin/ip6fw/ip6fw.8
+++ b/sbin/ip6fw/ip6fw.8
@@ -564,6 +564,7 @@ API based upon code written by
.An Daniel Boulet
for BSDI.
.Sh HISTORY
+A
.Nm
-first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 4.0 .
diff --git a/sbin/ipfw/ipfw.8 b/sbin/ipfw/ipfw.8
index aaaf9dcdfdfb..edfa62a52d31 100644
--- a/sbin/ipfw/ipfw.8
+++ b/sbin/ipfw/ipfw.8
@@ -54,8 +54,9 @@
.Brq Cm delete | list | show
.Op Ar number ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is the user interface for controlling the
+utility is the user interface for controlling the
.Xr ipfirewall 4
and the
.Xr dummynet 4
diff --git a/sbin/kldconfig/kldconfig.8 b/sbin/kldconfig/kldconfig.8
index 03d77daf1514..f8b9f7969b0f 100644
--- a/sbin/kldconfig/kldconfig.8
+++ b/sbin/kldconfig/kldconfig.8
@@ -39,7 +39,9 @@
.Nm
.Fl r
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
+utility
displays or modifies the search path used by the kernel when loading modules
using the
.Xr kldload 8
diff --git a/sbin/kldload/kldload.8 b/sbin/kldload/kldload.8
index 1a144a262339..14e2a95a7ad3 100644
--- a/sbin/kldload/kldload.8
+++ b/sbin/kldload/kldload.8
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ Modules may also be auto-loaded through their addition to
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 ,
replacing the
.Xr lkm 4
diff --git a/sbin/kldstat/kldstat.8 b/sbin/kldstat/kldstat.8
index bb47b785d311..bbabb73ee3ae 100644
--- a/sbin/kldstat/kldstat.8
+++ b/sbin/kldstat/kldstat.8
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ and with a nonzero status if an error occurs.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 ,
replacing the
.Xr lkm 4
diff --git a/sbin/kldunload/kldunload.8 b/sbin/kldunload/kldunload.8
index 2ad72fdd3690..f74965613500 100644
--- a/sbin/kldunload/kldunload.8
+++ b/sbin/kldunload/kldunload.8
@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ and with a nonzero status if an error occurs.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 ,
replacing the
.Xr lkm 4
diff --git a/sbin/ldconfig/ldconfig.8 b/sbin/ldconfig/ldconfig.8
index 6334aa3d8696..b4d5bab7811d 100644
--- a/sbin/ldconfig/ldconfig.8
+++ b/sbin/ldconfig/ldconfig.8
@@ -42,8 +42,9 @@
.Op Fl f Ar hints_file
.Op Ar directory | Ar
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-is used to prepare a set of
+utility is used to prepare a set of
.Dq hints
for use by the dynamic linker
to facilitate quick lookup of shared libraries available in multiple
@@ -89,8 +90,9 @@ equivalent of the
switch of
.Xr ld 1 .
.Pp
-.Nm Ldconfig
-is typically run as part of the boot sequence.
+The
+.Nm
+utility is typically run as part of the boot sequence.
.Pp
The following options are recognized by
.Nm :
diff --git a/sbin/mdconfig/mdconfig.8 b/sbin/mdconfig/mdconfig.8
index a95a0fba6bc3..d0e1e799f578 100644
--- a/sbin/mdconfig/mdconfig.8
+++ b/sbin/mdconfig/mdconfig.8
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command configures and enables
+utility configures and enables
.Xr md 4
devices.
.Pp
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@ chmod 1777 /tmp
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 5.0
as a cleaner replacement for the
.Xr vn 4
@@ -181,6 +181,6 @@ combo.
.Sh AUTHORS
The
.Nm
-program was written by
+utility was written by
.An Poul-Henning Kamp
.Aq phk@FreeBSD.org .
diff --git a/sbin/mdmfs/mdmfs.8 b/sbin/mdmfs/mdmfs.8
index bb233a412b3b..eb978978b6d5 100644
--- a/sbin/mdmfs/mdmfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mdmfs/mdmfs.8
@@ -74,12 +74,13 @@ driver
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-program is designed to be a work-alike and look-alike of the deprecated
+utility is designed to be a work-alike and look-alike of the deprecated
.Xr mount_mfs 8 .
The end result is essentially the same,
but is accomplished in a completely different way.
+The
.Nm
-configures an
+utility configures an
.Xr md 4
disk using
.Xr mdconfig 8 ,
@@ -289,8 +290,9 @@ do not use soft-updates on it and mount it
.Pp
.Dl "mdmfs -M -S -o async -s 16m md1 /tmp"
.Sh COMPATIBILITY
-.Nm ,
-while designed to be fully compatible with
+The
+.Nm
+utility, while designed to be fully compatible with
.Xr mount_mfs 8 ,
can be useful by itself.
Since
diff --git a/sbin/mknod/mknod.8 b/sbin/mknod/mknod.8
index 9f36c52d3774..541df7d37639 100644
--- a/sbin/mknod/mknod.8
+++ b/sbin/mknod/mknod.8
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command creates device special files.
+utility creates device special files.
Normally the shell script
.Pa /dev/MAKEDEV
is used to create special files for commonly known devices; it executes
@@ -130,5 +130,5 @@ being mounted.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v6 .
diff --git a/sbin/mount/mount.8 b/sbin/mount/mount.8
index 6f2188e7caf9..f6012b3604a6 100644
--- a/sbin/mount/mount.8
+++ b/sbin/mount/mount.8
@@ -53,8 +53,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command
-calls the
+utility calls the
.Xr mount 2
system call to prepare and graft a
.Ar "special device"
@@ -401,5 +400,5 @@ directions to be possible for all users is 0111 (execute for all).
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.At v1 .
diff --git a/sbin/mount_cd9660/mount_cd9660.8 b/sbin/mount_cd9660/mount_cd9660.8
index 118e2dec0fa5..644afda14383 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_cd9660/mount_cd9660.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_cd9660/mount_cd9660.8
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches the ISO-9660 filesystem residing on the device
+utility attaches the ISO-9660 filesystem residing on the device
.Pa special
to the global filesystem namespace at the location indicated by
.Pa node .
diff --git a/sbin/mount_ext2fs/mount_ext2fs.8 b/sbin/mount_ext2fs/mount_ext2fs.8
index 8c2dbcd29576..7bedb829b5b7 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_ext2fs/mount_ext2fs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_ext2fs/mount_ext2fs.8
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches a ext2fs filesystem
+utility attaches a ext2fs filesystem
.Ar special
device on to the filesystem tree at the point
.Ar node .
@@ -72,5 +72,5 @@ man page for possible options and their meanings.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-function first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 2.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/mount_hpfs/mount_hpfs.8 b/sbin/mount_hpfs/mount_hpfs.8
index 3b62e40709b0..e32874821360 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_hpfs/mount_hpfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_hpfs/mount_hpfs.8
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches the HPFS filesystem residing on the device
+utility attaches the HPFS filesystem residing on the device
.Pa special
to the global filesystem namespace at the location
indicated by
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@ It is strongly recomended to mount readonly!
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-first appered in
+utility first appered in
.Fx 3.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
HPFS kernel implementation,
diff --git a/sbin/mount_msdosfs/mount_msdosfs.8 b/sbin/mount_msdosfs/mount_msdosfs.8
index 184a9adef919..c2c263d2b587 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_msdosfs/mount_msdosfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_msdosfs/mount_msdosfs.8
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches the MS-DOS filesystem residing on
+utility attaches the MS-DOS filesystem residing on
the device
.Pa special
to the global filesystem namespace at the location
diff --git a/sbin/mount_nfs/mount_nfs.8 b/sbin/mount_nfs/mount_nfs.8
index 7867c825f2d0..06e8c8f627e6 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_nfs/mount_nfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_nfs/mount_nfs.8
@@ -56,8 +56,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command
-calls the
+utility calls the
.Xr mount 2
system call to prepare and graft a remote nfs filesystem
.Pq Ar rhost : Ns Ar path
diff --git a/sbin/mount_ntfs/mount_ntfs.8 b/sbin/mount_ntfs/mount_ntfs.8
index e29aeb95c8a8..f00ec1218713 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_ntfs/mount_ntfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_ntfs/mount_ntfs.8
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches the NTFS filesystem residing on the device
+utility attaches the NTFS filesystem residing on the device
.Pa special
to the global filesystem namespace at the location
indicated by
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@ section for details about writing to an NTFS volume.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
The NTFS kernel implementation,
diff --git a/sbin/mount_nullfs/mount_nullfs.8 b/sbin/mount_nullfs/mount_nullfs.8
index eb6ae8517cb1..a6f8312626a7 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_nullfs/mount_nullfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_nullfs/mount_nullfs.8
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command creates a
+utility creates a
null layer, duplicating a sub-tree of the filesystem
name space under another part of the global filesystem namespace.
This allows existing files and directories to be accessed
@@ -103,8 +103,9 @@ for constructing new layers.
.Sh INSTANTIATING NEW NULL LAYERS
New null layers are created with
.Nm .
-.Nm Mount_nullfs
-takes two arguments, the pathname
+The
+.Nm
+utility takes two arguments, the pathname
of the lower vfs (target-pn) and the pathname where the null
layer will appear in the namespace (mount-point-pn). After
the null layer is put into place, the contents
diff --git a/sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8 b/sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
index 964c4536f03c..341ec784cbb2 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command allows to mount volume from a NetWare server.
+utility allows to mount volume from a NetWare server.
It may use either
existing connection or create new: if no usable connection was found
it will try to establish a new one.
diff --git a/sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8 b/sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
index 8d0bd22402e2..daaed1578758 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches an instance of the portal daemon
+utility attaches an instance of the portal daemon
to the global filesystem namespace.
The conventional mount point is
.Pa /p .
diff --git a/sbin/mount_std/mount_std.8 b/sbin/mount_std/mount_std.8
index d0039c3c1fa2..d699838016ea 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_std/mount_std.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_std/mount_std.8
@@ -56,10 +56,10 @@ filesystems
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command is a generic mechanism for attaching ``standard'' filesystems to
+utility is a generic mechanism for attaching ``standard'' filesystems to
the filesystem. The
.Nm
-command currently supports the following filesystems:
+utility currently supports the following filesystems:
.Nm devfs ,
.Nm fdescfs ,
.Nm linprocfs
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ has a kernel filesystem module name the same as its user-visible name.
.It
requires no other special processing on the part of the
.Nm
-command.
+utility.
.El
.Pp
The options are as follows:
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ man page for possible options and their meanings.
.Pp
The
.Nm
-command examines its zeroth command-line argument (the name by which
+utility examines its zeroth command-line argument (the name by which
it was called) to determine the type of filesystem to be mounted. If
it is called by a name which does not end in
.Dq Li _ Ns Ar fsname ,
@@ -111,12 +111,12 @@ with
that the zeroth argument contains only the name of the filesystem type.
The
.Nm
-command is normally installed with appropriate links to commands for
+utility is normally installed with appropriate links to commands for
the distributed filesystems which can be mounted in this way;
for information on the function of each filesystem, see the manual page
for that specific
.Nm mount_ Ns Ar fsname
-command.
+utility.
.Pp
Refer to the following manual pages for detailed information
on these filesystem:
@@ -128,12 +128,14 @@ and
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
.Bl -diag
.It argv[0] must end in _fsname
-.Nm Mount_std
-was called with a zeroth argument of
+The
+.Nm
+utility was called with a zeroth argument of
.Dq Li mount_std .
.It vfsload(%s)
-.Nm Mount_std
-was unable to load a kernel module implementing the %s filesystem
+The
+.Nm
+utility was unable to load a kernel module implementing the %s filesystem
type.
.It %s filesystem not available
The specified filesystem type was not present in the kernel and no
diff --git a/sbin/mount_umapfs/mount_umapfs.8 b/sbin/mount_umapfs/mount_umapfs.8
index 8b50352c0fc2..133c80a2ecaf 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_umapfs/mount_umapfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_umapfs/mount_umapfs.8
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command is used to mount a sub-tree of an existing filesystem
+utility is used to mount a sub-tree of an existing filesystem
that uses a different set of uids and gids than the local system.
Such a filesystem could be mounted from a remote site via NFS or
it could be a filesystem on removable media brought from some
@@ -60,13 +60,13 @@ foreign location that uses a different password file.
.Pp
The
.Nm
-command uses a set of files provided by the user to make correspondences
+utility uses a set of files provided by the user to make correspondences
between uids and gids in the sub-tree's original environment and
some other set of ids in the local environment. For instance, user
smith might have uid 1000 in the original environment, while having
uid 2000 in the local environment. The
.Nm
-command allows the subtree from smith's original environment to be
+utility allows the subtree from smith's original environment to be
mapped in such a way that all files with owning uid 1000 look like
they are actually owned by uid 2000.
.Pp
@@ -110,14 +110,15 @@ at most 16 groups can be mapped by a given subtree.
.Pp
The mapfiles can be located anywhere in the file hierarchy, but they
must be owned by root, and they must be writable only by root.
-.Nm Mount_umapfs
-will refuse to map the sub-tree if the ownership or permissions on
+The
+.Nm
+utility will refuse to map the sub-tree if the ownership or permissions on
these files are improper. It will also balk if the count of mappings
in the first line of the map files is not correct.
.Pp
The layer created by the
.Nm
-command is meant to serve as a simple example of filesystem layering.
+utility is meant to serve as a simple example of filesystem layering.
It is not meant for production use. The implementation is not very
sophisticated.
.Sh SEE ALSO
diff --git a/sbin/mount_unionfs/mount_unionfs.8 b/sbin/mount_unionfs/mount_unionfs.8
index 2bd06ad1859a..90d652325afa 100644
--- a/sbin/mount_unionfs/mount_unionfs.8
+++ b/sbin/mount_unionfs/mount_unionfs.8
@@ -50,8 +50,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command
-attaches
+utility attaches
.Ar directory
above
.Ar uniondir
@@ -208,7 +207,7 @@ a tree of shadow directories in the upper layer.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Bx 4.4 .
It first worked in
.Fx Ns -(fill this in) .
diff --git a/sbin/mountd/mountd.8 b/sbin/mountd/mountd.8
index 7df37618afd6..0be0e7304179 100644
--- a/sbin/mountd/mountd.8
+++ b/sbin/mountd/mountd.8
@@ -45,8 +45,9 @@ mount requests
.Op Fl 2dlnr
.Op Ar exportsfile
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Mountd
-is the server for
+The
+.Nm
+utility is the server for
.Tn NFS
mount requests from other client machines.
It listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
diff --git a/sbin/natd/natd.8 b/sbin/natd/natd.8
index 0a3739234701..f9ce898f8d81 100644
--- a/sbin/natd/natd.8
+++ b/sbin/natd/natd.8
@@ -34,7 +34,9 @@
.Op Fl log_ipfw_denied
.Ek
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-This program provides a Network Address Translation facility for use
+The
+.Nm
+utility provides a Network Address Translation facility for use
with
.Xr divert 4
sockets under
@@ -47,7 +49,7 @@ switch to
.Pp
The
.Nm
-normally runs in the background as a daemon.
+utility normally runs in the background as a daemon.
It is passed raw IP packets as they travel into and out of the machine,
and will possibly change these before re-injecting them back into the
IP packet stream.
diff --git a/sbin/newfs/newfs.8 b/sbin/newfs/newfs.8
index c20fe1526aa6..7bd4205e8cb3 100644
--- a/sbin/newfs/newfs.8
+++ b/sbin/newfs/newfs.8
@@ -58,14 +58,16 @@
.Op Fl s Ar size
.Ar special
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Newfs
-is used to initialize and clear filesystems before first use.
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to initialize and clear filesystems before first use.
Before running
.Nm
the disk must be labeled using
.Xr disklabel 8 .
-.Nm Newfs
-builds a filesystem on the specified special file.
+The
+.Nm
+utility builds a filesystem on the specified special file.
(We often refer to the
.Dq special file
as the
@@ -194,8 +196,9 @@ The size of a sector in bytes (almost never anything but 512).
.Pp
Creates a new ufs filesystem on
.Pa ad3s1a .
+The
.Nm
-will use a block size of 16384 bytes, a fragment size of 2048 bytes
+utility will use a block size of 16384 bytes, a fragment size of 2048 bytes
and the largest possible number of blocks per cylinders group.
These values tend to produce better performance for most applications
than the historical defaults
@@ -229,5 +232,5 @@ on filesystems that contain many small files.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.8 b/sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.8
index 8c4a60843aa2..8771a7c3e452 100644
--- a/sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.8
+++ b/sbin/newfs_msdos/newfs_msdos.8
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@ Exit status is 0 on success and 1 on error.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command first appeared in
+utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Robert Nordier Aq rnordier@FreeBSD.org .
diff --git a/sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8 b/sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
index 666a863723a8..76d4247e5eef 100644
--- a/sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
+++ b/sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
@@ -46,8 +46,9 @@ server
.Op Fl n Ar num_servers
.Op Fl h Ar bindip
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nfsd
-runs on a server machine to service
+The
+.Nm
+utility runs on a server machine to service
.Tn NFS
requests from client machines.
At least one
@@ -115,8 +116,9 @@ A server should run enough daemons to handle
the maximum level of concurrency from its clients,
typically four to six.
.Pp
-.Nm Nfsd
-listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
+The
+.Nm
+utility listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
.Tn NFS
server specification; see
.%T "Network File System Protocol Specification" ,
@@ -149,19 +151,23 @@ option is recommended. If you do not use the option NFS may not respond to
UDP packets from the same IP address they were sent to. Use of this option
is also recommended when securing NFS exports on a firewalling machine such
that the NFS sockets can only be accessed by the inside interface.
-.Nm Ipfw
+The
+.Nm ipfw
+utility
would then be used to block nfs-related packets that come in on the outside
interface.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
-has to be terminated with
+utility has to be terminated with
.Dv SIGUSR1
and cannot be killed with
.Dv SIGTERM
or
.Dv SIGQUIT .
+The
.Nm
-needs to ignore these signals in order to stay alive as long
+utility needs to ignore these signals in order to stay alive as long
as possible during a shutdown, otherwise loopback mounts will
not be able to unmount.
If you have to kill
diff --git a/sbin/nfsiod/nfsiod.8 b/sbin/nfsiod/nfsiod.8
index 189e54e2c7dd..281c6752ff5a 100644
--- a/sbin/nfsiod/nfsiod.8
+++ b/sbin/nfsiod/nfsiod.8
@@ -44,8 +44,9 @@ asynchronous I/O server
.Nm
.Op Fl n Ar num_servers
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nfsiod
-kernel processes run on an
+The
+.Nm
+utility is a kernel process which run on an
.Tn NFS
client machine to service asynchronous I/O requests to its server.
It improves performance but is not required for correct operation.
diff --git a/sbin/nologin/nologin.8 b/sbin/nologin/nologin.8
index 8903fa0e3a70..7f8f9fff2877 100644
--- a/sbin/nologin/nologin.8
+++ b/sbin/nologin/nologin.8
@@ -41,8 +41,9 @@
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nologin
-displays a message that an account is not available and
+The
+.Nm
+utility displays a message that an account is not available and
exits non-zero.
It is intended as a replacement shell field for accounts that
have been disabled.
@@ -56,5 +57,5 @@ investigate
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.4 .
diff --git a/sbin/nos-tun/nos-tun.8 b/sbin/nos-tun/nos-tun.8
index 1499c714d309..0cfdeb132df1 100644
--- a/sbin/nos-tun/nos-tun.8
+++ b/sbin/nos-tun/nos-tun.8
@@ -26,8 +26,9 @@
.Ar protocol_number
.Ar target
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nos-tun
-is used to establish an
+The
+.Nm
+utility is used to establish an
.Em nos
style tunnel, (also known as
.Em ka9q
diff --git a/sbin/ping/ping.8 b/sbin/ping/ping.8
index cb3b42e22ef3..9f05cffa8312 100644
--- a/sbin/ping/ping.8
+++ b/sbin/ping/ping.8
@@ -60,8 +60,9 @@ packets to network hosts
.Ar mcast-group
.Bc
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Ping
-uses the
+The
+.Nm
+utility uses the
.Tn ICMP
.No protocol Ap s mandatory
.Tn ECHO_REQUEST
@@ -313,8 +314,9 @@ it uses in the computation of round trip times.
If less than eight bytes of pad are specified, no round trip times are
given.
.Sh DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS
-.Nm Ping
-will report duplicate and damaged packets.
+The
+.Nm
+utility will report duplicate and damaged packets.
Duplicate packets should never occur when pinging a unicast address,
and seem to be caused by
inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
@@ -440,7 +442,7 @@ Others may use completely wild values.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
The
.Nm
-command returns an exit status of zero if at least one response was
+utility returns an exit status of zero if at least one response was
heard from the specified
.Ar host ;
a status of two if the transmission was successful but no responses
@@ -456,12 +458,12 @@ if an error occurred.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.3 .
.Sh AUTHORS
The original
.Nm
-command was written by
+utility was written by
.An Mike Muuss
while at the US Army Ballistics
Research Laboratory.
diff --git a/sbin/ping6/ping6.8 b/sbin/ping6/ping6.8
index 161f329c9922..554bf2b04f9d 100644
--- a/sbin/ping6/ping6.8
+++ b/sbin/ping6/ping6.8
@@ -84,8 +84,9 @@ packets to network hosts
.Ar host
.Ek
.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
.Nm
-uses the
+utility uses the
.Tn ICMPv6
protocol's mandatory
.Tn ICMP6_ECHO_REQUEST
@@ -164,7 +165,7 @@ This can be very hard on a network and should be used with caution.
Specifies to try reverse-lookup of IPv6 addresses.
The
.Nm
-command does not try reverse-lookup unless the option is specified.
+utility does not try reverse-lookup unless the option is specified.
.It Fl h Ar hoplimit
Set the IPv6 hoplimit.
.It Fl I Ar interface
@@ -350,8 +351,9 @@ during normal operations or from automated scripts.
.\" If less than eight bytes of pad are specified, no round trip times are
.\" given.
.Sh DUPLICATE AND DAMAGED PACKETS
+The
.Nm
-will report duplicate and damaged packets.
+utility will report duplicate and damaged packets.
Duplicate packets should never occur when pinging a unicast address,
and seem to be caused by
inappropriate link-level retransmissions.
@@ -398,8 +400,9 @@ using the
option of
.Nm .
.Sh RETURN VALUES
+The
.Nm
-returns 0 on success (the host is alive),
+utility returns 0 on success (the host is alive),
and non-zero if the arguments are incorrect or the host is not responding.
.Sh EXAMPLES
Normally,
@@ -488,7 +491,7 @@ command appeared in
.Bx 4.3 .
The
.Nm
-command with IPv6 support first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
+utility with IPv6 support first appeared in WIDE Hydrangea IPv6 protocol stack
kit.
.Pp
IPv6 and IPsec support based on the KAME Project (http://www.kame.net/) stack
diff --git a/sbin/quotacheck/quotacheck.8 b/sbin/quotacheck/quotacheck.8
index ed81fe2e6956..069db3cb9f5d 100644
--- a/sbin/quotacheck/quotacheck.8
+++ b/sbin/quotacheck/quotacheck.8
@@ -54,8 +54,9 @@
.Op Fl v
.Fl a
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Quotacheck
-examines each filesystem,
+The
+.Nm
+utility examines each filesystem,
builds a table of current disk usage,
and compares this table against that recorded
in the disk quota file for the filesystem.
@@ -85,8 +86,7 @@ Only user quotas listed in
.Pa /etc/fstab
are to be checked.
.It Fl v
-.Nm Quotacheck
-reports discrepancies between the
+Report discrepancies between the
calculated and recorded disk quotas and other additional diagnostic messages.
.El
.Pp
@@ -105,8 +105,9 @@ Normally,
.Nm
operates silently.
.Pp
-.Nm Quotacheck
-expects each filesystem to be checked to have a
+The
+.Nm
+utility expects each filesystem to be checked to have a
quota files named
.Pa quota.user
and
@@ -121,8 +122,9 @@ These files should be edited with the
.Xr edquota 8
utility.
.Pp
-.Nm Quotacheck
-is normally run at boot time from the
+The
+.Nm
+utility is normally run at boot time from the
.Pa /etc/rc
file.
The rc startup procedure is controlled by the
@@ -137,8 +139,9 @@ with the variable
in
.Pa /etc/rc.conf .
.Pp
-.Nm Quotacheck
-accesses the raw device in calculating the actual
+The
+.Nm
+utility accesses the raw device in calculating the actual
disk usage for each user.
Thus, the filesystems
checked should be quiescent while
@@ -164,5 +167,5 @@ default filesystems
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
diff --git a/usr.sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8 b/usr.sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
index 964c4536f03c..341ec784cbb2 100644
--- a/usr.sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
+++ b/usr.sbin/mount_nwfs/mount_nwfs.8
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command allows to mount volume from a NetWare server.
+utility allows to mount volume from a NetWare server.
It may use either
existing connection or create new: if no usable connection was found
it will try to establish a new one.
diff --git a/usr.sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8 b/usr.sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
index 8d0bd22402e2..daaed1578758 100644
--- a/usr.sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
+++ b/usr.sbin/mount_portalfs/mount_portalfs.8
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
-command attaches an instance of the portal daemon
+utility attaches an instance of the portal daemon
to the global filesystem namespace.
The conventional mount point is
.Pa /p .
diff --git a/usr.sbin/mountd/mountd.8 b/usr.sbin/mountd/mountd.8
index 7df37618afd6..0be0e7304179 100644
--- a/usr.sbin/mountd/mountd.8
+++ b/usr.sbin/mountd/mountd.8
@@ -45,8 +45,9 @@ mount requests
.Op Fl 2dlnr
.Op Ar exportsfile
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Mountd
-is the server for
+The
+.Nm
+utility is the server for
.Tn NFS
mount requests from other client machines.
It listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
diff --git a/usr.sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8 b/usr.sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
index 666a863723a8..76d4247e5eef 100644
--- a/usr.sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
+++ b/usr.sbin/nfsd/nfsd.8
@@ -46,8 +46,9 @@ server
.Op Fl n Ar num_servers
.Op Fl h Ar bindip
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nfsd
-runs on a server machine to service
+The
+.Nm
+utility runs on a server machine to service
.Tn NFS
requests from client machines.
At least one
@@ -115,8 +116,9 @@ A server should run enough daemons to handle
the maximum level of concurrency from its clients,
typically four to six.
.Pp
-.Nm Nfsd
-listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
+The
+.Nm
+utility listens for service requests at the port indicated in the
.Tn NFS
server specification; see
.%T "Network File System Protocol Specification" ,
@@ -149,19 +151,23 @@ option is recommended. If you do not use the option NFS may not respond to
UDP packets from the same IP address they were sent to. Use of this option
is also recommended when securing NFS exports on a firewalling machine such
that the NFS sockets can only be accessed by the inside interface.
-.Nm Ipfw
+The
+.Nm ipfw
+utility
would then be used to block nfs-related packets that come in on the outside
interface.
.Pp
+The
.Nm
-has to be terminated with
+utility has to be terminated with
.Dv SIGUSR1
and cannot be killed with
.Dv SIGTERM
or
.Dv SIGQUIT .
+The
.Nm
-needs to ignore these signals in order to stay alive as long
+utility needs to ignore these signals in order to stay alive as long
as possible during a shutdown, otherwise loopback mounts will
not be able to unmount.
If you have to kill
diff --git a/usr.sbin/nologin/nologin.8 b/usr.sbin/nologin/nologin.8
index 8903fa0e3a70..7f8f9fff2877 100644
--- a/usr.sbin/nologin/nologin.8
+++ b/usr.sbin/nologin/nologin.8
@@ -41,8 +41,9 @@
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Sh DESCRIPTION
-.Nm Nologin
-displays a message that an account is not available and
+The
+.Nm
+utility displays a message that an account is not available and
exits non-zero.
It is intended as a replacement shell field for accounts that
have been disabled.
@@ -56,5 +57,5 @@ investigate
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
-command appeared in
+utility appeared in
.Bx 4.4 .