aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/bin/chmod/chmod.1
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
Diffstat (limited to 'bin/chmod/chmod.1')
-rw-r--r--bin/chmod/chmod.1294
1 files changed, 294 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/bin/chmod/chmod.1 b/bin/chmod/chmod.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ce92124b05c3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/chmod/chmod.1
@@ -0,0 +1,294 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)chmod.1 8.4 (Berkeley) 3/31/94
+.\"
+.Dd March 31, 1994
+.Dt CHMOD 1
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm chmod
+.Nd change file modes
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm chmod
+.Oo
+.Fl R
+.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
+.Oc
+.Ar mode
+.Ar file ...
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility modifies the file mode bits of the listed files
+as specified by the
+.Ar mode
+operand.
+.Pp
+The options are as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl H
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed.
+(Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
+.It Fl L
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl P
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl R
+Change the modes of the file hierarchies rooted in the files
+instead of just the files themselves.
+.El
+.Pp
+Symbolic links do not have modes, so unless the
+.Fl H
+or
+.Fl L
+option is set,
+.Nm chmod
+on a symbolic link always succeeds and has no effect.
+The
+.Fl H ,
+.Fl L
+and
+.Fl P
+options are ignored unless the
+.Fl R
+option is specified.
+In addition, these options override each other and the
+command's actions are determined by the last one specified.
+.Pp
+Only the owner of a file or the super-user is permitted to change
+the mode of a file.
+.Pp
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
+.Sh MODES
+Modes may be absolute or symbolic.
+An absolute mode is an octal number constructed by
+.Ar or-ing
+the following values:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width 6n -compact -offset indent
+.It Li 4000
+set-user-ID-on-execution
+.It Li 2000
+set-group-ID-on-execution
+.It Li 1000
+sticky bit, see chmod(2)
+.It Li 0400
+read by owner
+.It Li 0200
+write by owner
+.It Li 0100
+execute (or search for directories) by owner
+.It Li 0070
+read, write, execute/search by group
+.It Li 0007
+read, write, execute/search by others
+.El
+.Pp
+The read, write, and execute/search values for group and others
+are encoded as described for owner.
+.Pp
+The symbolic mode is described by the following grammar:
+.Bd -literal -offset indent
+mode ::= clause [, clause ...]
+clause ::= [who ...] [action ...] last_action
+action ::= op [perm ...]
+last_action ::= op [perm ...]
+who ::= a | u | g | o
+op ::= + | \- | =
+perm ::= r | s | t | w | x | X | u | g | o
+.Ed
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar who
+symbols ``u'', ``g'', and ``o'' specify the user, group, and other parts
+of the mode bits, respectively.
+The
+.Ar who
+symbol ``a'' is equivalent to ``ugo''.
+.Pp
+.ne 1i
+The
+.Ar perm
+symbols represent the portions of the mode bits as follows:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It r
+The read bits.
+.It s
+The set-user-ID-on-execution and set-group-ID-on-execution bits.
+.It t
+The sticky bit.
+.It w
+The write bits.
+.It x
+The execute/search bits.
+.It X
+The execute/search bits if the file is a directory or any of the
+execute/search bits are set in the original (unmodified) mode.
+Operations with the
+.Ar perm
+symbol ``X'' are only meaningful in conjunction with the
+.Ar op
+symbol ``+'', and are ignored in all other cases.
+.It u
+The user permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.It g
+The group permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.It o
+The other permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.El
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar op
+symbols represent the operation performed, as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width 4n
+.It +
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar perm ,
+the ``+'' operation has no effect.
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is set.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are set.
+.It \&\-
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar perm ,
+the ``\-'' operation has no effect.
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is cleared.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are cleared.
+.It =
+The mode bits specified by the
+.Ar who
+value are cleared, or, if no who value is specified, the owner, group
+and other mode bits are cleared.
+Then, if no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is set.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are set.
+.El
+.Pp
+Each
+.Ar clause
+specifies one or more operations to be performed on the mode
+bits, and each operation is applied to the mode bits in the
+order specified.
+.Pp
+Operations upon the other permissions only (specified by the symbol
+``o'' by itself), in combination with the
+.Ar perm
+symbols ``s'' or ``t'', are ignored.
+.Sh EXAMPLES
+.Bl -tag -width "u=rwx,go=u-w" -compact
+.It Li 644
+make a file readable by anyone and writable by the owner only.
+.Pp
+.It Li go-w
+deny write permission to group and others.
+.Pp
+.It Li =rw,+X
+set the read and write permissions to the usual defaults, but
+retain any execute permissions that are currently set.
+.Pp
+.It Li +X
+make a directory or file searchable/executable by everyone if it is
+already searchable/executable by anyone.
+.Pp
+.It Li 755
+.It Li u=rwx,go=rx
+.It Li u=rwx,go=u-w
+make a file readable/executable by everyone and writable by the owner only.
+.Pp
+.It Li go=
+clear all mode bits for group and others.
+.Pp
+.It Li g=u-w
+set the group bits equal to the user bits, but clear the group write bit.
+.El
+.Sh BUGS
+There's no
+.Ar perm
+option for the naughty bits.
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr install 1 ,
+.Xr chmod 2 ,
+.Xr stat 2 ,
+.Xr umask 2 ,
+.Xr fts 3 ,
+.Xr setmode 3 ,
+.Xr symlink 7 ,
+.Xr chown 8
+.Sh STANDARDS
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility is expected to be POSIX 1003.2
+compatible with the exception of the
+.Ar perm
+symbols
+.Dq t
+and
+.Dq X
+which are not included in that standard.