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-rw-r--r--bin/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/Makefile.inc3
-rw-r--r--bin/cat/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/cat/cat.1121
-rw-r--r--bin/cat/cat.c251
-rw-r--r--bin/chmod/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/chmod/chmod.1294
-rw-r--r--bin/chmod/chmod.c201
-rw-r--r--bin/cp/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/cp/cp.1211
-rw-r--r--bin/cp/cp.c441
-rw-r--r--bin/cp/extern.h55
-rw-r--r--bin/cp/utils.c285
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/Makefile44
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.11012
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.21305
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.3650
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.4178
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.a95
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.g1721
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/USD.doc/tabs34
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/alloc.c124
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/char.c311
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/char.h96
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/const.c160
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/csh.12175
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/csh.c1352
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/csh.h552
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/dir.c930
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/dir.h45
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/dol.c985
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/err.c407
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/exec.c736
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/exp.c711
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/extern.h338
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/file.c684
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/func.c1498
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/glob.c939
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/hist.c184
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/init.c135
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/lex.c1639
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/misc.c420
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/parse.c698
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/pathnames.h41
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/proc.c1356
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/proc.h101
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/sem.c645
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/set.c844
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/str.c467
-rw-r--r--bin/csh/time.c316
-rw-r--r--bin/date/Makefile8
-rw-r--r--bin/date/date.1230
-rw-r--r--bin/date/date.c237
-rw-r--r--bin/date/extern.h36
-rw-r--r--bin/date/netdate.c182
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/args.c386
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/conv.c260
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/conv_tab.c357
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/dd.1348
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/dd.c395
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/dd.h96
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/extern.h65
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/misc.c100
-rw-r--r--bin/dd/position.c166
-rw-r--r--bin/df/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--bin/df/df.1116
-rw-r--r--bin/df/df.c420
-rw-r--r--bin/echo/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/echo/echo.170
-rw-r--r--bin/echo/echo.c71
-rw-r--r--bin/hostname/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/hostname/hostname.165
-rw-r--r--bin/hostname/hostname.c87
-rw-r--r--bin/kill/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/kill/kill.1120
-rw-r--r--bin/kill/kill.c144
-rw-r--r--bin/ln/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--bin/ln/ln.1131
-rw-r--r--bin/ln/ln.c164
-rw-r--r--bin/ln/symlink.7432
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/cmp.c104
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/extern.h50
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/ls.1333
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/ls.c506
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/ls.h72
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/print.c293
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/stat_flags.c148
-rw-r--r--bin/ls/util.c71
-rw-r--r--bin/mkdir/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/mkdir/mkdir.192
-rw-r--r--bin/mkdir/mkdir.c169
-rw-r--r--bin/mv/Makefile8
-rw-r--r--bin/mv/mv.1129
-rw-r--r--bin/mv/mv.c300
-rw-r--r--bin/mv/pathnames.h37
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/Makefile32
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/ar_io.c1288
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/ar_subs.c1238
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/buf_subs.c1083
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/cache.c479
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/cache.h74
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/cpio.c1278
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/cpio.h151
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/extern.h285
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/file_subs.c1055
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/ftree.c543
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/ftree.h50
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/gen_subs.c487
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/options.c1140
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/options.h113
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/pat_rep.c1196
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/pat_rep.h54
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/pax.11169
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/pax.c405
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/pax.h238
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/sel_subs.c657
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/sel_subs.h73
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/tables.c1426
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/tables.h172
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/tar.c1192
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/tar.h148
-rw-r--r--bin/pax/tty_subs.c245
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/Makefile11
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/devname.c80
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/extern.h85
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/fmt.c115
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/keyword.c354
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/nlist.c136
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/print.c741
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/ps.1502
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/ps.c504
-rw-r--r--bin/ps/ps.h88
-rw-r--r--bin/pwd/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/pwd/pwd.168
-rw-r--r--bin/pwd/pwd.c92
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/Makefile13
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/extern.h50
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/pathnames.h39
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/rcp.1159
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/rcp.c924
-rw-r--r--bin/rcp/util.c167
-rw-r--r--bin/rm/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/rm/rm.1150
-rw-r--r--bin/rm/rm.c378
-rw-r--r--bin/rmail/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/rmail/rmail.871
-rw-r--r--bin/rmail/rmail.c359
-rw-r--r--bin/rmdir/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/rmdir/rmdir.192
-rw-r--r--bin/rmdir/rmdir.c86
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/Makefile49
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/TOUR356
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/alias.c251
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/alias.h48
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/arith.y169
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/arith_lex.l86
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/bltin/bltin.h74
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/bltin/echo.1111
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/bltin/echo.c104
-rwxr-xr-xbin/sh/builtins90
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/cd.c372
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/errmsg.c127
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/errmsg.h47
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/error.c249
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/error.h113
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/eval.c933
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/eval.h65
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/exec.c828
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/exec.h75
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/expand.c1160
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/expand.h73
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/cmv49
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/dirs73
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/kill49
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/login38
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/newgrp37
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/popd73
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/pushd73
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/funcs/suspend41
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/histedit.c442
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/init.h47
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/input.c474
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/input.h78
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/jobs.c1046
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/jobs.h99
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/machdep.h51
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mail.c114
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mail.h43
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/main.c304
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/main.h48
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/memalloc.c292
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/memalloc.h95
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/miscbltin.c166
-rwxr-xr-xbin/sh/mkbuiltins87
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mkinit.c547
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mknodes.c431
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mksignames.c197
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mksyntax.c373
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mktokens94
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/myhistedit.h40
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mystring.c136
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/mystring.h54
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/nodes.c.pat177
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/nodetypes143
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/options.c433
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/options.h114
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/output.c554
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/output.h94
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/parser.c1363
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/parser.h80
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/redir.c343
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/redir.h56
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/sh.11307
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/shell.h84
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/show.c378
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/trap.c348
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/trap.h55
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/var.c670
-rw-r--r--bin/sh/var.h127
-rw-r--r--bin/sleep/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--bin/sleep/sleep.1116
-rw-r--r--bin/sleep/sleep.c80
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/cchar.c145
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/extern.h48
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/gfmt.c129
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/key.c299
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/modes.c230
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/print.c266
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/stty.1580
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/stty.c161
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/stty.h58
-rw-r--r--bin/stty/util.c64
-rw-r--r--bin/sync/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--bin/sync/sync.873
-rw-r--r--bin/sync/sync.c48
-rw-r--r--bin/test/Makefile8
-rw-r--r--bin/test/TEST.csh137
-rw-r--r--bin/test/operators.c148
-rw-r--r--bin/test/operators.h77
-rw-r--r--bin/test/test.1255
-rw-r--r--bin/test/test.c560
245 files changed, 75315 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/bin/Makefile b/bin/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..3ae43c418438
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,6 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+SUBDIR= cat chmod cp csh date dd df echo ed expr hostname kill ln ls \
+ mkdir mv pax ps pwd rcp rm rmail rmdir sh sleep stty sync test
+
+.include <bsd.subdir.mk>
diff --git a/bin/Makefile.inc b/bin/Makefile.inc
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b569b70540d9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/Makefile.inc
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
+# @(#)Makefile.inc 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+BINDIR?= /bin
diff --git a/bin/cat/Makefile b/bin/cat/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c2d7cb576655
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cat/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+PROG= cat
+
+.include <bsd.prog.mk>
diff --git a/bin/cat/cat.1 b/bin/cat/cat.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..102b22ec4c47
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cat/cat.1
@@ -0,0 +1,121 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)cat.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/29/93
+.\"
+.Dd June 29, 1993
+.Dt CAT 1
+.Os BSD 3
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm cat
+.Nd concatenate and print files
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm cat
+.Op Fl benstuv
+.Op Fl
+.Op Ar
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm cat
+utility reads files sequentially, writing them to the standard output.
+The
+.Ar file
+operands are processed in command line order.
+A single dash represents the standard input.
+.Pp
+The options are as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl b
+Implies the
+.Fl n
+option but doesn't number blank lines.
+.It Fl e
+Implies the
+.Fl v
+option, and displays a dollar sign
+.Pq Ql \&$
+at the end of each line
+as well.
+.It Fl n
+Number the
+.Ar output
+lines, starting at 1.
+.It Fl s
+Squeeze multiple adjacent empty lines, causing the output to be
+single spaced.
+.It Fl t
+Implies the
+.Fl v
+option, and displays tab characters as
+.Pq Ql ^I
+as well.
+.It Fl u
+The
+.Fl u
+option guarantees that the output is unbuffered.
+.It Fl v
+Displays non-printing characters so they are visible.
+Control characters print as
+.Ql ^X
+for control-X; the delete
+character (octal 0177) prints as
+.Ql ^?
+Non-ascii characters (with the high bit set) are printed as
+.Ql M-
+(for meta) followed by the character for the low 7 bits.
+.El
+.Pp
+The
+.Nm cat
+utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
+.Sh BUGS
+Because of the shell language mechanism used to perform output
+redirection, the command
+.Dq Li cat file1 file 2 > file1
+will cause the original data in file1 to be destroyed!
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr head 1 ,
+.Xr more 1 ,
+.Xr pr 1 ,
+.Xr tail 1
+.Rs
+.%A Rob Pike
+.%T "UNIX Style, or cat -v Considered Harmful"
+.%J "USENIX Summer Conference Proceedings"
+.%D 1983
+.Re
+.Sh HISTORY
+A
+.Nm
+command appeared in Version 6 AT&T UNIX.
diff --git a/bin/cat/cat.c b/bin/cat/cat.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..30e5bfce7779
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cat/cat.c
@@ -0,0 +1,251 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1989, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * Kevin Fall.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char copyright[] =
+"@(#) Copyright (c) 1989, 1993\n\
+ The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.\n";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)cat.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 7/19/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+#include <err.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+int bflag, eflag, nflag, sflag, tflag, vflag;
+int rval;
+char *filename;
+
+void cook_args __P((char *argv[]));
+void cook_buf __P((FILE *));
+void raw_args __P((char *argv[]));
+void raw_cat __P((int));
+
+int
+main(argc, argv)
+ int argc;
+ char *argv[];
+{
+ extern int optind;
+ int ch;
+
+ while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "benstuv")) != EOF)
+ switch (ch) {
+ case 'b':
+ bflag = nflag = 1; /* -b implies -n */
+ break;
+ case 'e':
+ eflag = vflag = 1; /* -e implies -v */
+ break;
+ case 'n':
+ nflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 's':
+ sflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 't':
+ tflag = vflag = 1; /* -t implies -v */
+ break;
+ case 'u':
+ setbuf(stdout, (char *)NULL);
+ break;
+ case 'v':
+ vflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case '?':
+ (void)fprintf(stderr,
+ "usage: cat [-benstuv] [-] [file ...]\n");
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ argv += optind;
+
+ if (bflag || eflag || nflag || sflag || tflag || vflag)
+ cook_args(argv);
+ else
+ raw_args(argv);
+ if (fclose(stdout))
+ err(1, "stdout");
+ exit(rval);
+}
+
+void
+cook_args(argv)
+ char **argv;
+{
+ register FILE *fp;
+
+ fp = stdin;
+ filename = "stdin";
+ do {
+ if (*argv) {
+ if (!strcmp(*argv, "-"))
+ fp = stdin;
+ else if ((fp = fopen(*argv, "r")) == NULL) {
+ warn("%s", *argv);
+ ++argv;
+ continue;
+ }
+ filename = *argv++;
+ }
+ cook_buf(fp);
+ if (fp != stdin)
+ (void)fclose(fp);
+ } while (*argv);
+}
+
+void
+cook_buf(fp)
+ register FILE *fp;
+{
+ register int ch, gobble, line, prev;
+
+ line = gobble = 0;
+ for (prev = '\n'; (ch = getc(fp)) != EOF; prev = ch) {
+ if (prev == '\n') {
+ if (ch == '\n') {
+ if (sflag) {
+ if (!gobble && putchar(ch) == EOF)
+ break;
+ gobble = 1;
+ continue;
+ }
+ if (nflag && !bflag) {
+ (void)fprintf(stdout, "%6d\t", ++line);
+ if (ferror(stdout))
+ break;
+ }
+ } else if (nflag) {
+ (void)fprintf(stdout, "%6d\t", ++line);
+ if (ferror(stdout))
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ gobble = 0;
+ if (ch == '\n') {
+ if (eflag)
+ if (putchar('$') == EOF)
+ break;
+ } else if (ch == '\t') {
+ if (tflag) {
+ if (putchar('^') == EOF || putchar('I') == EOF)
+ break;
+ continue;
+ }
+ } else if (vflag) {
+ if (!isascii(ch)) {
+ if (putchar('M') == EOF || putchar('-') == EOF)
+ break;
+ ch = toascii(ch);
+ }
+ if (iscntrl(ch)) {
+ if (putchar('^') == EOF ||
+ putchar(ch == '\177' ? '?' :
+ ch | 0100) == EOF)
+ break;
+ continue;
+ }
+ }
+ if (putchar(ch) == EOF)
+ break;
+ }
+ if (ferror(fp)) {
+ warn("%s", filename);
+ clearerr(fp);
+ }
+ if (ferror(stdout))
+ err(1, "stdout");
+}
+
+void
+raw_args(argv)
+ char **argv;
+{
+ register int fd;
+
+ fd = fileno(stdin);
+ filename = "stdin";
+ do {
+ if (*argv) {
+ if (!strcmp(*argv, "-"))
+ fd = fileno(stdin);
+ else if ((fd = open(*argv, O_RDONLY, 0)) < 0) {
+ warn("%s", *argv);
+ ++argv;
+ continue;
+ }
+ filename = *argv++;
+ }
+ raw_cat(fd);
+ if (fd != fileno(stdin))
+ (void)close(fd);
+ } while (*argv);
+}
+
+void
+raw_cat(rfd)
+ register int rfd;
+{
+ register int nr, nw, off, wfd;
+ static int bsize;
+ static char *buf;
+ struct stat sbuf;
+
+ wfd = fileno(stdout);
+ if (buf == NULL) {
+ if (fstat(wfd, &sbuf))
+ err(1, "%s", filename);
+ bsize = MAX(sbuf.st_blksize, 1024);
+ if ((buf = malloc((u_int)bsize)) == NULL)
+ err(1, "");
+ }
+ while ((nr = read(rfd, buf, bsize)) > 0)
+ for (off = 0; nr; nr -= nw, off += nw)
+ if ((nw = write(wfd, buf + off, nr)) < 0)
+ err(1, "stdout");
+ if (nr < 0)
+ warn("%s", filename);
+}
diff --git a/bin/chmod/Makefile b/bin/chmod/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f28bcfeda971
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/chmod/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+PROG= chmod
+
+.include <bsd.prog.mk>
diff --git a/bin/chmod/chmod.1 b/bin/chmod/chmod.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ce92124b05c3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/chmod/chmod.1
@@ -0,0 +1,294 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)chmod.1 8.4 (Berkeley) 3/31/94
+.\"
+.Dd March 31, 1994
+.Dt CHMOD 1
+.Os
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm chmod
+.Nd change file modes
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm chmod
+.Oo
+.Fl R
+.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
+.Oc
+.Ar mode
+.Ar file ...
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility modifies the file mode bits of the listed files
+as specified by the
+.Ar mode
+operand.
+.Pp
+The options are as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width Ds
+.It Fl H
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed.
+(Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
+.It Fl L
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl P
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl R
+Change the modes of the file hierarchies rooted in the files
+instead of just the files themselves.
+.El
+.Pp
+Symbolic links do not have modes, so unless the
+.Fl H
+or
+.Fl L
+option is set,
+.Nm chmod
+on a symbolic link always succeeds and has no effect.
+The
+.Fl H ,
+.Fl L
+and
+.Fl P
+options are ignored unless the
+.Fl R
+option is specified.
+In addition, these options override each other and the
+command's actions are determined by the last one specified.
+.Pp
+Only the owner of a file or the super-user is permitted to change
+the mode of a file.
+.Pp
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.
+.Sh MODES
+Modes may be absolute or symbolic.
+An absolute mode is an octal number constructed by
+.Ar or-ing
+the following values:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width 6n -compact -offset indent
+.It Li 4000
+set-user-ID-on-execution
+.It Li 2000
+set-group-ID-on-execution
+.It Li 1000
+sticky bit, see chmod(2)
+.It Li 0400
+read by owner
+.It Li 0200
+write by owner
+.It Li 0100
+execute (or search for directories) by owner
+.It Li 0070
+read, write, execute/search by group
+.It Li 0007
+read, write, execute/search by others
+.El
+.Pp
+The read, write, and execute/search values for group and others
+are encoded as described for owner.
+.Pp
+The symbolic mode is described by the following grammar:
+.Bd -literal -offset indent
+mode ::= clause [, clause ...]
+clause ::= [who ...] [action ...] last_action
+action ::= op [perm ...]
+last_action ::= op [perm ...]
+who ::= a | u | g | o
+op ::= + | \- | =
+perm ::= r | s | t | w | x | X | u | g | o
+.Ed
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar who
+symbols ``u'', ``g'', and ``o'' specify the user, group, and other parts
+of the mode bits, respectively.
+The
+.Ar who
+symbol ``a'' is equivalent to ``ugo''.
+.Pp
+.ne 1i
+The
+.Ar perm
+symbols represent the portions of the mode bits as follows:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It r
+The read bits.
+.It s
+The set-user-ID-on-execution and set-group-ID-on-execution bits.
+.It t
+The sticky bit.
+.It w
+The write bits.
+.It x
+The execute/search bits.
+.It X
+The execute/search bits if the file is a directory or any of the
+execute/search bits are set in the original (unmodified) mode.
+Operations with the
+.Ar perm
+symbol ``X'' are only meaningful in conjunction with the
+.Ar op
+symbol ``+'', and are ignored in all other cases.
+.It u
+The user permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.It g
+The group permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.It o
+The other permission bits in the mode of the original file.
+.El
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar op
+symbols represent the operation performed, as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width 4n
+.It +
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar perm ,
+the ``+'' operation has no effect.
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is set.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are set.
+.It \&\-
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar perm ,
+the ``\-'' operation has no effect.
+If no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is cleared.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are cleared.
+.It =
+The mode bits specified by the
+.Ar who
+value are cleared, or, if no who value is specified, the owner, group
+and other mode bits are cleared.
+Then, if no value is supplied for
+.Ar who ,
+each permission bit specified in
+.Ar perm ,
+for which the corresponding bit in the file mode creation mask
+is clear, is set.
+Otherwise, the mode bits represented by the specified
+.Ar who
+and
+.Ar perm
+values are set.
+.El
+.Pp
+Each
+.Ar clause
+specifies one or more operations to be performed on the mode
+bits, and each operation is applied to the mode bits in the
+order specified.
+.Pp
+Operations upon the other permissions only (specified by the symbol
+``o'' by itself), in combination with the
+.Ar perm
+symbols ``s'' or ``t'', are ignored.
+.Sh EXAMPLES
+.Bl -tag -width "u=rwx,go=u-w" -compact
+.It Li 644
+make a file readable by anyone and writable by the owner only.
+.Pp
+.It Li go-w
+deny write permission to group and others.
+.Pp
+.It Li =rw,+X
+set the read and write permissions to the usual defaults, but
+retain any execute permissions that are currently set.
+.Pp
+.It Li +X
+make a directory or file searchable/executable by everyone if it is
+already searchable/executable by anyone.
+.Pp
+.It Li 755
+.It Li u=rwx,go=rx
+.It Li u=rwx,go=u-w
+make a file readable/executable by everyone and writable by the owner only.
+.Pp
+.It Li go=
+clear all mode bits for group and others.
+.Pp
+.It Li g=u-w
+set the group bits equal to the user bits, but clear the group write bit.
+.El
+.Sh BUGS
+There's no
+.Ar perm
+option for the naughty bits.
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr install 1 ,
+.Xr chmod 2 ,
+.Xr stat 2 ,
+.Xr umask 2 ,
+.Xr fts 3 ,
+.Xr setmode 3 ,
+.Xr symlink 7 ,
+.Xr chown 8
+.Sh STANDARDS
+The
+.Nm chmod
+utility is expected to be POSIX 1003.2
+compatible with the exception of the
+.Ar perm
+symbols
+.Dq t
+and
+.Dq X
+which are not included in that standard.
diff --git a/bin/chmod/chmod.c b/bin/chmod/chmod.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f6251a35c222
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/chmod/chmod.c
@@ -0,0 +1,201 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1989, 1993, 1994
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char copyright[] =
+"@(#) Copyright (c) 1989, 1993, 1994\n\
+ The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.\n";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)chmod.c 8.8 (Berkeley) 4/1/94";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+
+#include <err.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fts.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+void usage __P((void));
+
+int
+main(argc, argv)
+ int argc;
+ char *argv[];
+{
+ FTS *ftsp;
+ FTSENT *p;
+ mode_t *set;
+ long val;
+ int oct, omode;
+ int Hflag, Lflag, Pflag, Rflag, ch, fflag, fts_options, hflag, rval;
+ char *ep, *mode;
+
+ Hflag = Lflag = Pflag = Rflag = fflag = hflag = 0;
+ while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "HLPRXfgorstuwx")) != EOF)
+ switch (ch) {
+ case 'H':
+ Hflag = 1;
+ Lflag = Pflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'L':
+ Lflag = 1;
+ Hflag = Pflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'P':
+ Pflag = 1;
+ Hflag = Lflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'R':
+ Rflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 'f': /* XXX: undocumented. */
+ fflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 'h':
+ /*
+ * In System V (and probably POSIX.2) the -h option
+ * causes chmod to change the mode of the symbolic
+ * link. 4.4BSD's symbolic links don't have modes,
+ * so it's an undocumented noop. Do syntax checking,
+ * though.
+ */
+ hflag = 1;
+ break;
+ /*
+ * XXX
+ * "-[rwx]" are valid mode commands. If they are the entire
+ * argument, getopt has moved past them, so decrement optind.
+ * Regardless, we're done argument processing.
+ */
+ case 'g': case 'o': case 'r': case 's':
+ case 't': case 'u': case 'w': case 'X': case 'x':
+ if (argv[optind - 1][0] == '-' &&
+ argv[optind - 1][1] == ch &&
+ argv[optind - 1][2] == '\0')
+ --optind;
+ goto done;
+ case '?':
+ default:
+ usage();
+ }
+done: argv += optind;
+ argc -= optind;
+
+ if (argc < 2)
+ usage();
+
+ fts_options = FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ if (Rflag) {
+ if (hflag)
+ errx(1,
+ "the -R and -h options may not be specified together.");
+ if (Hflag)
+ fts_options |= FTS_COMFOLLOW;
+ if (Lflag) {
+ fts_options &= ~FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ fts_options |= FTS_LOGICAL;
+ }
+ }
+
+ mode = *argv;
+ if (*mode >= '0' && *mode <= '7') {
+ errno = 0;
+ val = strtol(mode, &ep, 8);
+ if (val > INT_MAX || val < 0)
+ errno = ERANGE;
+ if (errno)
+ err(1, "invalid file mode: %s", mode);
+ if (*ep)
+ errx(1, "invalid file mode: %s", mode);
+ omode = val;
+ oct = 1;
+ } else {
+ if ((set = setmode(mode)) == NULL)
+ errx(1, "invalid file mode: %s", mode);
+ oct = 0;
+ }
+
+ if ((ftsp = fts_open(++argv, fts_options, 0)) == NULL)
+ err(1, NULL);
+ for (rval = 0; (p = fts_read(ftsp)) != NULL;) {
+ switch (p->fts_info) {
+ case FTS_D:
+ if (Rflag) /* Change it at FTS_DP. */
+ continue;
+ fts_set(ftsp, p, FTS_SKIP);
+ break;
+ case FTS_DNR: /* Warn, chmod, continue. */
+ warnx("%s: %s", p->fts_path, strerror(p->fts_errno));
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ case FTS_ERR: /* Warn, continue. */
+ case FTS_NS:
+ warnx("%s: %s", p->fts_path, strerror(p->fts_errno));
+ rval = 1;
+ continue;
+ case FTS_SL: /* Ignore. */
+ case FTS_SLNONE:
+ /*
+ * The only symlinks that end up here are ones that
+ * don't point to anything and ones that we found
+ * doing a physical walk.
+ */
+ continue;
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+ if (chmod(p->fts_accpath, oct ? omode :
+ getmode(set, p->fts_statp->st_mode)) && !fflag) {
+ warn(p->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ if (errno)
+ err(1, "fts_read");
+ exit(rval);
+}
+
+void
+usage()
+{
+ (void)fprintf(stderr,
+ "usage: chmod [-R [-H | -L | -P]] mode file ...\n");
+ exit(1);
+}
diff --git a/bin/cp/Makefile b/bin/cp/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ad07b6874f07
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cp/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,6 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+
+PROG= cp
+SRCS= cp.c utils.c
+
+.include <bsd.prog.mk>
diff --git a/bin/cp/cp.1 b/bin/cp/cp.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..f04d37bbfdf5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cp/cp.1
@@ -0,0 +1,211 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)cp.1 8.3 (Berkeley) 4/18/94
+.\"
+.Dd April 18, 1994
+.Dt CP 1
+.Os BSD 4
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm cp
+.Nd copy files
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm cp
+.Oo
+.Fl R
+.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
+.Oc
+.Op Fl fip
+.Ar source_file target_file
+.Nm cp
+.Oo
+.Fl R
+.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
+.Oc
+.Op Fl fip
+.Ar source_file ... target_directory
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+In the first synopsis form, the
+.Nm cp
+utility copies the contents of the
+.Ar source_file
+to the
+.Ar target_file .
+In the second synopsis form,
+the contents of each named
+.Ar source_file
+is copied to the destination
+.Ar target_directory .
+The names of the files themselves are not changed.
+If
+.Nm cp
+detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail.
+.Pp
+The following options are available:
+.Bl -tag -width flag
+.It Fl H
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed.
+(Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
+.It Fl L
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl P
+If the
+.Fl R
+option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
+.It Fl R
+If
+.Ar source_file
+designates a directory,
+.Nm cp
+copies the directory and the entire subtree connected at that point.
+This option also causes symbolic links to be copied, rather than
+indirected through, and for
+.Nm cp
+to create special files rather than copying them as normal files.
+Created directories have the same mode as the corresponding source
+directory, unmodified by the process' umask.
+.It Fl f
+For each existing destination pathname, remove it and
+create a new file, without prompting for confirmation
+regardless of its permissions.
+(The
+.Fl i
+option is ignored if the
+.Fl f
+option is specified.)
+.It Fl i
+Causes
+.Nm cp
+to write a prompt to the standard error output before copying a file
+that would overwrite an existing file.
+If the response from the standard input begins with the character
+.Sq Li y ,
+the file copy is attempted.
+.It Fl p
+Causes
+.Nm cp
+to preserve in the copy as many of the modification time, access time,
+file flags, file mode, user ID, and group ID as allowed by permissions.
+.Pp
+If the user ID and group ID cannot be preserved, no error message
+is displayed and the exit value is not altered.
+.Pp
+If the source file has its set user ID bit on and the user ID cannot
+be preserved, the set user ID bit is not preserved
+in the copy's permissions.
+If the source file has its set group ID bit on and the group ID cannot
+be preserved, the set group ID bit is not preserved
+in the copy's permissions.
+If the source file has both its set user ID and set group ID bits on,
+and either the user ID or group ID cannot be preserved, neither
+the set user ID or set group ID bits are preserved in the copy's
+permissions.
+.El
+.Pp
+For each destination file that already exists, its contents are
+overwritten if permissions allow, but its mode, user ID, and group
+ID are unchanged.
+.Pp
+In the second synopsis form,
+.Ar target_directory
+must exist unless there is only one named
+.Ar source_file
+which is a directory and the
+.Fl R
+flag is specified.
+.Pp
+If the destination file does not exist, the mode of the source file is
+used as modified by the file mode creation mask
+.Pf ( Ic umask ,
+see
+.Xr csh 1 ) .
+If the source file has its set user ID bit on, that bit is removed
+unless both the source file and the destination file are owned by the
+same user.
+If the source file has its set group ID bit on, that bit is removed
+unless both the source file and the destination file are in the same
+group and the user is a member of that group.
+If both the set user ID and set group ID bits are set, all of the above
+conditions must be fulfilled or both bits are removed.
+.Pp
+Appropriate permissions are required for file creation or overwriting.
+.Pp
+Symbolic links are always followed unless the
+.Fl R
+flag is set, in which case symbolic links are not followed, by default.
+The
+.Fl H
+or
+.Fl L
+flags (in conjunction with the
+.Fl R
+flag) cause symbolic links to be followed as described above.
+The
+.Fl H ,
+.Fl L
+and
+.Fl P
+options are ignored unless the
+.Fl R
+option is specified.
+In addition, these options override each other and the
+command's actions are determined by the last one specified.
+.Pp
+.Nm Cp
+exits 0 on success, >0 if an error occurred.
+.Sh COMPATIBILITY
+Historic versions of the
+.Nm cp
+utility had a
+.Fl r
+option.
+This implementation supports that option, however, its use is strongly
+discouraged, as it does not correctly copy special files, symbolic links
+or fifo's.
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr mv 1 ,
+.Xr rcp 1 ,
+.Xr umask 2 ,
+.Xr fts 3 ,
+.Xr symlink 7
+.Sh HISTORY
+The
+.Nm cp
+command is expected to be
+.St -p1003.2
+compatible.
diff --git a/bin/cp/cp.c b/bin/cp/cp.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..b58bb99c02cd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cp/cp.c
@@ -0,0 +1,441 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) 1988, 1993, 1994
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
+ * David Hitz of Auspex Systems Inc.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char copyright[] =
+"@(#) Copyright (c) 1988, 1993, 1994\n\
+ The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.\n";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)cp.c 8.2 (Berkeley) 4/1/94";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+/*
+ * Cp copies source files to target files.
+ *
+ * The global PATH_T structure "to" always contains the path to the
+ * current target file. Since fts(3) does not change directories,
+ * this path can be either absolute or dot-realative.
+ *
+ * The basic algorithm is to initialize "to" and use fts(3) to traverse
+ * the file hierarchy rooted in the argument list. A trivial case is the
+ * case of 'cp file1 file2'. The more interesting case is the case of
+ * 'cp file1 file2 ... fileN dir' where the hierarchy is traversed and the
+ * path (relative to the root of the traversal) is appended to dir (stored
+ * in "to") to form the final target path.
+ */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <err.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <fts.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+#include "extern.h"
+
+#define STRIP_TRAILING_SLASH(p) { \
+ while ((p).p_end > (p).p_path && (p).p_end[-1] == '/') \
+ *--(p).p_end = 0; \
+}
+
+PATH_T to = { to.p_path, "" };
+
+uid_t myuid;
+int Rflag, iflag, pflag, rflag;
+int myumask;
+
+enum op { FILE_TO_FILE, FILE_TO_DIR, DIR_TO_DNE };
+
+int copy __P((char *[], enum op, int));
+int mastercmp __P((const FTSENT **, const FTSENT **));
+
+int
+main(argc, argv)
+ int argc;
+ char *argv[];
+{
+ struct stat to_stat, tmp_stat;
+ enum op type;
+ int Hflag, Lflag, Pflag, ch, fts_options, r;
+ char *target;
+
+ Hflag = Lflag = Pflag = Rflag = 0;
+ while ((ch = getopt(argc, argv, "HLPRfipr")) != EOF)
+ switch (ch) {
+ case 'H':
+ Hflag = 1;
+ Lflag = Pflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'L':
+ Lflag = 1;
+ Hflag = Pflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'P':
+ Pflag = 1;
+ Hflag = Lflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'R':
+ Rflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 'f':
+ iflag = 0;
+ break;
+ case 'i':
+ iflag = isatty(fileno(stdin));
+ break;
+ case 'p':
+ pflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case 'r':
+ rflag = 1;
+ break;
+ case '?':
+ default:
+ usage();
+ break;
+ }
+ argc -= optind;
+ argv += optind;
+
+ if (argc < 2)
+ usage();
+
+ fts_options = FTS_NOCHDIR | FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ if (rflag) {
+ if (Rflag)
+ errx(1,
+ "the -R and -r options may not be specified together.");
+ if (Hflag || Lflag || Pflag)
+ errx(1,
+ "the -H, -L, and -P options may not be specified with the -r option.");
+ fts_options &= ~FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ fts_options |= FTS_LOGICAL;
+ }
+ if (Rflag) {
+ if (Hflag)
+ fts_options |= FTS_COMFOLLOW;
+ if (Lflag) {
+ fts_options &= ~FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ fts_options |= FTS_LOGICAL;
+ }
+ } else {
+ fts_options &= ~FTS_PHYSICAL;
+ fts_options |= FTS_LOGICAL;
+ }
+
+ myuid = getuid();
+
+ /* Copy the umask for explicit mode setting. */
+ myumask = umask(0);
+ (void)umask(myumask);
+
+ /* Save the target base in "to". */
+ target = argv[--argc];
+ if (strlen(target) > MAXPATHLEN)
+ errx(1, "%s: name too long", target);
+ (void)strcpy(to.p_path, target);
+ to.p_end = to.p_path + strlen(to.p_path);
+ if (to.p_path == to.p_end) {
+ *to.p_end++ = '.';
+ *to.p_end = 0;
+ }
+ STRIP_TRAILING_SLASH(to);
+ to.target_end = to.p_end;
+
+ /* Set end of argument list for fts(3). */
+ argv[argc] = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * Cp has two distinct cases:
+ *
+ * cp [-R] source target
+ * cp [-R] source1 ... sourceN directory
+ *
+ * In both cases, source can be either a file or a directory.
+ *
+ * In (1), the target becomes a copy of the source. That is, if the
+ * source is a file, the target will be a file, and likewise for
+ * directories.
+ *
+ * In (2), the real target is not directory, but "directory/source".
+ */
+ r = stat(to.p_path, &to_stat);
+ if (r == -1 && errno != ENOENT)
+ err(1, "%s", to.p_path);
+ if (r == -1 || !S_ISDIR(to_stat.st_mode)) {
+ /*
+ * Case (1). Target is not a directory.
+ */
+ if (argc > 1) {
+ usage();
+ exit(1);
+ }
+ /*
+ * Need to detect the case:
+ * cp -R dir foo
+ * Where dir is a directory and foo does not exist, where
+ * we want pathname concatenations turned on but not for
+ * the initial mkdir().
+ */
+ if (r == -1) {
+ if (rflag || (Rflag && (Lflag || Hflag)))
+ stat(*argv, &tmp_stat);
+ else
+ lstat(*argv, &tmp_stat);
+
+ if (S_ISDIR(tmp_stat.st_mode) && (Rflag || rflag))
+ type = DIR_TO_DNE;
+ else
+ type = FILE_TO_FILE;
+ } else
+ type = FILE_TO_FILE;
+ } else
+ /*
+ * Case (2). Target is a directory.
+ */
+ type = FILE_TO_DIR;
+
+ exit (copy(argv, type, fts_options));
+}
+
+int
+copy(argv, type, fts_options)
+ char *argv[];
+ enum op type;
+ int fts_options;
+{
+ struct stat to_stat;
+ FTS *ftsp;
+ FTSENT *curr;
+ int base, dne, nlen, rval;
+ char *p;
+
+ if ((ftsp = fts_open(argv, fts_options, mastercmp)) == NULL)
+ err(1, NULL);
+ for (rval = 0; (curr = fts_read(ftsp)) != NULL;) {
+ switch (curr->fts_info) {
+ case FTS_NS:
+ case FTS_ERR:
+ warnx("%s: %s",
+ curr->fts_path, strerror(curr->fts_errno));
+ rval = 1;
+ continue;
+ case FTS_DC: /* Warn, continue. */
+ warnx("%s: directory causes a cycle", curr->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ continue;
+ case FTS_DP: /* Ignore, continue. */
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If we are in case (2) or (3) above, we need to append the
+ * source name to the target name.
+ */
+ if (type != FILE_TO_FILE) {
+ if ((curr->fts_namelen +
+ to.target_end - to.p_path + 1) > MAXPATHLEN) {
+ warnx("%s/%s: name too long (not copied)",
+ to.p_path, curr->fts_name);
+ rval = 1;
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Need to remember the roots of traversals to create
+ * correct pathnames. If there's a directory being
+ * copied to a non-existent directory, e.g.
+ * cp -R a/dir noexist
+ * the resulting path name should be noexist/foo, not
+ * noexist/dir/foo (where foo is a file in dir), which
+ * is the case where the target exists.
+ *
+ * Also, check for "..". This is for correct path
+ * concatentation for paths ending in "..", e.g.
+ * cp -R .. /tmp
+ * Paths ending in ".." are changed to ".". This is
+ * tricky, but seems the easiest way to fix the problem.
+ *
+ * XXX
+ * Since the first level MUST be FTS_ROOTLEVEL, base
+ * is always initialized.
+ */
+ if (curr->fts_level == FTS_ROOTLEVEL)
+ if (type != DIR_TO_DNE) {
+ p = strrchr(curr->fts_path, '/');
+ base = (p == NULL) ? 0 :
+ (int)(p - curr->fts_path + 1);
+
+ if (!strcmp(&curr->fts_path[base],
+ ".."))
+ base += 1;
+ } else
+ base = curr->fts_pathlen;
+
+ if (to.target_end[-1] != '/') {
+ *to.target_end = '/';
+ *(to.target_end + 1) = 0;
+ }
+ p = &curr->fts_path[base];
+ nlen = curr->fts_pathlen - base;
+
+ (void)strncat(to.target_end + 1, p, nlen);
+ to.p_end = to.target_end + nlen + 1;
+ *to.p_end = 0;
+ STRIP_TRAILING_SLASH(to);
+ }
+
+ /* Not an error but need to remember it happened */
+ if (stat(to.p_path, &to_stat) == -1)
+ dne = 1;
+ else {
+ if (to_stat.st_dev == curr->fts_statp->st_dev &&
+ to_stat.st_ino == curr->fts_statp->st_ino) {
+ warnx("%s and %s are identical (not copied).",
+ to.p_path, curr->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ if (S_ISDIR(curr->fts_statp->st_mode))
+ (void)fts_set(ftsp, curr, FTS_SKIP);
+ continue;
+ }
+ dne = 0;
+ }
+
+ switch (curr->fts_statp->st_mode & S_IFMT) {
+ case S_IFLNK:
+ if (copy_link(curr, !dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ case S_IFDIR:
+ if (!Rflag && !rflag) {
+ warnx("%s is a directory (not copied).",
+ curr->fts_path);
+ (void)fts_set(ftsp, curr, FTS_SKIP);
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ /*
+ * If the directory doesn't exist, create the new
+ * one with the from file mode plus owner RWX bits,
+ * modified by the umask. Trade-off between being
+ * able to write the directory (if from directory is
+ * 555) and not causing a permissions race. If the
+ * umask blocks owner writes, we fail..
+ */
+ if (dne) {
+ if (mkdir(to.p_path,
+ curr->fts_statp->st_mode | S_IRWXU) < 0)
+ err(1, "%s", to.p_path);
+ } else if (!S_ISDIR(to_stat.st_mode)) {
+ errno = ENOTDIR;
+ err(1, "%s: %s", to.p_path);
+ }
+ /*
+ * If not -p and directory didn't exist, set it to be
+ * the same as the from directory, umodified by the
+ * umask; arguably wrong, but it's been that way
+ * forever.
+ */
+ if (pflag && setfile(curr->fts_statp, 0))
+ rval = 1;
+ else if (dne)
+ (void)chmod(to.p_path,
+ curr->fts_statp->st_mode);
+ break;
+ case S_IFBLK:
+ case S_IFCHR:
+ if (Rflag) {
+ if (copy_special(curr->fts_statp, !dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ } else
+ if (copy_file(curr, dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ case S_IFIFO:
+ if (Rflag)
+ if (copy_fifo(curr->fts_statp, !dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ else
+ if (copy_file(curr, dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ default:
+ if (copy_file(curr, dne))
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ if (errno)
+ err(1, "fts_read");
+ return (rval);
+}
+
+/*
+ * mastercmp --
+ * The comparison function for the copy order. The order is to copy
+ * non-directory files before directory files. The reason for this
+ * is because files tend to be in the same cylinder group as their
+ * parent directory, whereas directories tend not to be. Copying the
+ * files first reduces seeking.
+ */
+int
+mastercmp(a, b)
+ const FTSENT **a, **b;
+{
+ int a_info, b_info;
+
+ a_info = (*a)->fts_info;
+ if (a_info == FTS_ERR || a_info == FTS_NS || a_info == FTS_DNR)
+ return (0);
+ b_info = (*b)->fts_info;
+ if (b_info == FTS_ERR || b_info == FTS_NS || b_info == FTS_DNR)
+ return (0);
+ if (a_info == FTS_D)
+ return (-1);
+ if (b_info == FTS_D)
+ return (1);
+ return (0);
+}
diff --git a/bin/cp/extern.h b/bin/cp/extern.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6c7c6e2db50f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cp/extern.h
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993, 1994
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * @(#)extern.h 8.2 (Berkeley) 4/1/94
+ */
+
+typedef struct {
+ char *p_end; /* pointer to NULL at end of path */
+ char *target_end; /* pointer to end of target base */
+ char p_path[MAXPATHLEN + 1]; /* pointer to the start of a path */
+} PATH_T;
+
+extern PATH_T to;
+extern uid_t myuid;
+extern int iflag, pflag, myumask;
+
+#include <sys/cdefs.h>
+
+__BEGIN_DECLS
+int copy_fifo __P((struct stat *, int));
+int copy_file __P((FTSENT *, int));
+int copy_link __P((FTSENT *, int));
+int copy_special __P((struct stat *, int));
+int setfile __P((struct stat *, int));
+void usage __P((void));
+__END_DECLS
diff --git a/bin/cp/utils.c b/bin/cp/utils.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..5a5edcbfb03f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/cp/utils.c
@@ -0,0 +1,285 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993, 1994
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)utils.c 8.3 (Berkeley) 4/1/94";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <sys/mman.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+
+#include <err.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <fts.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+
+#include "extern.h"
+
+int
+copy_file(entp, dne)
+ FTSENT *entp;
+ int dne;
+{
+ static char buf[MAXBSIZE];
+ struct stat to_stat, *fs;
+ int ch, checkch, from_fd, rcount, rval, to_fd, wcount;
+#ifdef VM_AND_BUFFER_CACHE_SYNCHRONIZED
+ char *p;
+#endif
+
+ if ((from_fd = open(entp->fts_path, O_RDONLY, 0)) == -1) {
+ warn("%s", entp->fts_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+
+ fs = entp->fts_statp;
+
+ /*
+ * If the file exists and we're interactive, verify with the user.
+ * If the file DNE, set the mode to be the from file, minus setuid
+ * bits, modified by the umask; arguably wrong, but it makes copying
+ * executables work right and it's been that way forever. (The
+ * other choice is 666 or'ed with the execute bits on the from file
+ * modified by the umask.)
+ */
+ if (!dne) {
+ if (iflag) {
+ (void)fprintf(stderr, "overwrite %s? ", to.p_path);
+ checkch = ch = getchar();
+ while (ch != '\n' && ch != EOF)
+ ch = getchar();
+ if (checkch != 'y') {
+ (void)close(from_fd);
+ return (0);
+ }
+ }
+ to_fd = open(to.p_path, O_WRONLY | O_TRUNC, 0);
+ } else
+ to_fd = open(to.p_path, O_WRONLY | O_TRUNC | O_CREAT,
+ fs->st_mode & ~(S_ISUID | S_ISGID));
+
+ if (to_fd == -1) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ (void)close(from_fd);
+ return (1);;
+ }
+
+ rval = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * Mmap and write if less than 8M (the limit is so we don't totally
+ * trash memory on big files. This is really a minor hack, but it
+ * wins some CPU back.
+ */
+#ifdef VM_AND_BUFFER_CACHE_SYNCHRONIZED
+ if (fs->st_size <= 8 * 1048576) {
+ if ((p = mmap(NULL, (size_t)fs->st_size, PROT_READ,
+ 0, from_fd, (off_t)0)) == (char *)-1) {
+ warn("%s", entp->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ } else {
+ if (write(to_fd, p, fs->st_size) != fs->st_size) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ /* Some systems don't unmap on close(2). */
+ if (munmap(p, fs->st_size) < 0) {
+ warn("%s", entp->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ } else
+#endif
+ {
+ while ((rcount = read(from_fd, buf, MAXBSIZE)) > 0) {
+ wcount = write(to_fd, buf, rcount);
+ if (rcount != wcount || wcount == -1) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ if (rcount < 0) {
+ warn("%s", entp->fts_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /* If the copy went bad, lose the file. */
+ if (rval == 1) {
+ (void)unlink(to.p_path);
+ (void)close(from_fd);
+ (void)close(to_fd);
+ return (1);
+ }
+
+ if (pflag && setfile(fs, to_fd))
+ rval = 1;
+ /*
+ * If the source was setuid or setgid, lose the bits unless the
+ * copy is owned by the same user and group.
+ */
+#define RETAINBITS \
+ (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISVTX | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO)
+ else if (fs->st_mode & (S_ISUID | S_ISGID) && fs->st_uid == myuid)
+ if (fstat(to_fd, &to_stat)) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ } else if (fs->st_gid == to_stat.st_gid &&
+ fchmod(to_fd, fs->st_mode & RETAINBITS & ~myumask)) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ (void)close(from_fd);
+ if (close(to_fd)) {
+ warn("%s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ return (rval);
+}
+
+int
+copy_link(p, exists)
+ FTSENT *p;
+ int exists;
+{
+ int len;
+ char link[MAXPATHLEN];
+
+ if ((len = readlink(p->fts_path, link, sizeof(link))) == -1) {
+ warn("readlink: %s", p->fts_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ link[len] = '\0';
+ if (exists && unlink(to.p_path)) {
+ warn("unlink: %s", to.p_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ if (symlink(link, to.p_path)) {
+ warn("symlink: %s", link);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+int
+copy_fifo(from_stat, exists)
+ struct stat *from_stat;
+ int exists;
+{
+ if (exists && unlink(to.p_path)) {
+ warn("unlink: %s", to.p_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ if (mkfifo(to.p_path, from_stat->st_mode)) {
+ warn("mkfifo: %s", to.p_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ return (pflag ? setfile(from_stat, 0) : 0);
+}
+
+int
+copy_special(from_stat, exists)
+ struct stat *from_stat;
+ int exists;
+{
+ if (exists && unlink(to.p_path)) {
+ warn("unlink: %s", to.p_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ if (mknod(to.p_path, from_stat->st_mode, from_stat->st_rdev)) {
+ warn("mknod: %s", to.p_path);
+ return (1);
+ }
+ return (pflag ? setfile(from_stat, 0) : 0);
+}
+
+
+int
+setfile(fs, fd)
+ register struct stat *fs;
+ int fd;
+{
+ static struct timeval tv[2];
+ int rval;
+
+ rval = 0;
+ fs->st_mode &= S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG | S_IRWXO;
+
+ TIMESPEC_TO_TIMEVAL(&tv[0], &fs->st_atimespec);
+ TIMESPEC_TO_TIMEVAL(&tv[1], &fs->st_mtimespec);
+ if (utimes(to.p_path, tv)) {
+ warn("utimes: %s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ /*
+ * Changing the ownership probably won't succeed, unless we're root
+ * or POSIX_CHOWN_RESTRICTED is not set. Set uid/gid before setting
+ * the mode; current BSD behavior is to remove all setuid bits on
+ * chown. If chown fails, lose setuid/setgid bits.
+ */
+ if (fd ? fchown(fd, fs->st_uid, fs->st_gid) :
+ chown(to.p_path, fs->st_uid, fs->st_gid)) {
+ if (errno != EPERM) {
+ warn("chown: %s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ fs->st_mode &= ~(S_ISUID | S_ISGID);
+ }
+ if (fd ? fchmod(fd, fs->st_mode) : chmod(to.p_path, fs->st_mode)) {
+ warn("chown: %s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+
+ if (fd ?
+ fchflags(fd, fs->st_flags) : chflags(to.p_path, fs->st_flags)) {
+ warn("chflags: %s", to.p_path);
+ rval = 1;
+ }
+ return (rval);
+}
+
+void
+usage()
+{
+ (void)fprintf(stderr, "%s\n%s\n",
+"usage: cp [-R [-H | -L | -P] [-fip] src target",
+" cp [-R [-H | -L | -P] [-fip] src1 ... srcN directory");
+ exit(1);
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/Makefile b/bin/csh/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e29f5492bd49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+#
+# C Shell with process control; VM/UNIX VAX Makefile
+# Bill Joy UC Berkeley; Jim Kulp IIASA, Austria
+#
+# To profile, put -DPROF in DEFS and -pg in CFLAGS, and recompile.
+
+PROG= csh
+DFLAGS=-DBUILTIN -DFILEC -DNLS -DSHORT_STRINGS
+#CFLAGS+=-g
+#CFLAGS+=-Wall -ansi -pedantic
+CFLAGS+=-I${.CURDIR} -I. ${DFLAGS}
+SRCS= alloc.c char.c const.c csh.c dir.c dol.c err.c exec.c exp.c file.c \
+ func.c glob.c hist.c init.c lex.c misc.c parse.c printf.c proc.c \
+ sem.c set.c str.c time.c
+.PATH: ${.CURDIR}/../../usr.bin/printf
+
+MAN1= csh.0
+MLINKS= csh.1 limit.1 csh.1 alias.1 csh.1 bg.1 csh.1 dirs.1 csh.1 fg.1 \
+ csh.1 foreach.1 csh.1 history.1 csh.1 jobs.1 csh.1 popd.1 \
+ csh.1 pushd.1 csh.1 rehash.1 csh.1 repeat.1 csh.1 suspend.1 \
+ csh.1 stop.1 csh.1 source.1
+CLEANFILES+=err.h const.h
+
+const.h: err.h
+
+err.h: err.c
+ @rm -f $@
+ @echo '/* Do not edit this file, make creates it. */' > $@
+ @echo '#ifndef _h_sh_err' >> $@
+ @echo '#define _h_sh_err' >> $@
+ egrep 'ERR_' ${.CURDIR}/$*.c | egrep '^#define' >> $@
+ @echo '#endif /* _h_sh_err */' >> $@
+
+const.h: const.c
+ @rm -f $@
+ @echo '/* Do not edit this file, make creates it. */' > $@
+ ${CC} -E ${CFLAGS} ${.CURDIR}/$*.c | egrep 'Char STR' | \
+ sed -e 's/Char \([a-zA-Z0-9_]*\)\(.*\)/extern Char \1[];/' | \
+ sort >> $@
+
+.depend: const.h err.h
+
+.include <bsd.prog.mk>
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/Makefile b/bin/csh/USD.doc/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..e73be633d116
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+# @(#)Makefile 8.1 (Berkeley) 8/14/93
+
+DIR= usd/04.csh
+SRCS= tabs csh.1 csh.2 csh.3 csh.4 csh.a csh.g
+MACROS= -ms
+
+.include <bsd.doc.mk>
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.1 b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9b8e39491e21
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.1
@@ -0,0 +1,1012 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.1 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.EH 'USD:4-%''An Introduction to the C shell'
+.OH 'An Introduction to the C shell''USD:4-%'
+.\".RP
+.TL
+An Introduction to the C shell
+.AU
+William Joy
+(revised for 4.3BSD by Mark Seiden)
+.AI
+Computer Science Division
+.br
+Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
+.br
+University of California, Berkeley
+.br
+Berkeley, California 94720
+.AB
+.I Csh
+is a new command language interpreter for
+.UX
+systems.
+It incorporates good features of other shells and a
+.I history
+mechanism similar to the
+.I redo
+of \s-2INTERLISP\s0.
+While incorporating many features of other shells which make
+writing shell programs (shell scripts) easier,
+most of the features unique to
+.I csh
+are designed more for the interactive \s-2UNIX\s0 user.
+.PP
+\s-2UNIX\s0
+users who have read a general introduction to the system
+will find a valuable basic explanation of the shell here.
+Simple terminal interaction with
+.I csh
+is possible after reading just the first section of this document.
+The second section describes the shell's capabilities which you can
+explore after you have begun to become acquainted with the shell.
+Later sections introduce features which are useful, but not necessary
+for all users of the shell.
+.PP
+Additional information includes an appendix listing special characters of the shell
+and a glossary of terms and commands introduced in this manual.
+.AE
+.SH
+.if n .ND
+Introduction
+.PP
+A
+.I shell
+is a command language interpreter.
+.I Csh
+is the name of one particular command interpreter on
+\s-2UNIX\s0.
+The primary purpose of
+.I csh
+is to translate command lines typed at a terminal into
+system actions, such as invocation of other programs.
+.I Csh
+is a user program just like any you might write.
+Hopefully,
+.I csh
+will be a very useful program for you
+in interacting with the \s-2UNIX\s0 system.
+.PP
+In addition to this document, you will want to refer to a copy
+of the \s-2UNIX\s0 User Reference Manual.
+The
+.I csh
+documentation in section 1 of the manual provides a full description of all
+features of the shell and is the definitive reference for questions
+about the shell.
+.PP
+Many words in this document are shown in
+.I italics.
+These are important words;
+names of commands, and words which have special meaning in discussing
+the shell and \s-2UNIX\s0.
+Many of the words are defined in a glossary at the end of this document.
+If you don't know what is meant by a word, you should look
+for it in the glossary.
+.SH
+Acknowledgements
+.PP
+Numerous people have provided good input about previous versions
+of
+.I csh
+and aided in its debugging and in the debugging of its documentation.
+I would especially like to thank Michael Ubell
+who made the crucial observation that history commands could be
+done well over the word structure of input text, and implemented
+a prototype history mechanism in an older version of the shell.
+Eric Allman has also provided a large number of useful comments on the
+shell, helping to unify those concepts which are present and to identify
+and eliminate useless and marginally useful features.
+Mike O'Brien suggested the pathname hashing
+mechanism which speeds command execution.
+Jim Kulp added the job control and directory stack primitives and
+added their documentation to this introduction.
+.br
+.bp
+.NH
+Terminal usage of the shell
+.NH 2
+The basic notion of commands
+.PP
+A
+.I shell
+in
+\s-2UNIX\s0
+acts mostly as a medium through which other
+.I programs
+are invoked.
+While it has a set of
+.I builtin
+functions which it performs directly,
+most commands cause execution of programs that are, in fact,
+external to the shell.
+The shell is thus distinguished from the command interpreters of other
+systems both by the fact that it is just a user program, and by the fact
+that it is used almost exclusively as a mechanism for invoking other programs.
+.PP
+.I Commands
+in the \s-2UNIX\s0 system consist of a list of strings or
+.I words
+interpreted as a
+.I "command name"
+followed by
+.I arguments.
+Thus the command
+.DS
+mail bill
+.DE
+consists of two words.
+The first word
+.I mail
+names the command to be executed, in this case the
+mail program which sends messages to other users.
+The shell uses the name of the command in attempting to execute it for you.
+It will look in a number of
+.I directories
+for a file with the name
+.I mail
+which is expected to contain the mail program.
+.PP
+The rest of the words of the command are given as
+.I arguments
+to the command itself when it is executed.
+In this case we specified also the argument
+.I bill
+which is interpreted by the
+.I mail
+program to be the name of a user to whom mail is to be sent.
+In normal terminal usage we might use the
+.I mail
+command as follows.
+.DS
+% mail bill
+I have a question about the csh documentation.
+My document seems to be missing page 5.
+Does a page five exist?
+ Bill
+EOT
+%
+.DE
+.PP
+Here we typed a message to send to
+.I bill
+and ended this message with a ^D which sent an end-of-file to
+the mail program.
+(Here and throughout this document, the notation ``^\fIx\fR''
+is to be read ``control-\fIx\fR'' and represents the striking of the \fIx\fR
+key while the control key is held down.)
+The mail program
+then echoed the characters `EOT' and transmitted our message.
+The characters `% ' were printed before and after the mail command
+by the shell to indicate that input was needed.
+.PP
+After typing the `% ' prompt the shell was reading command input from
+our terminal.
+We typed a complete command `mail bill'.
+The shell then executed the
+.I mail
+program with argument
+.I bill
+and went dormant waiting for it to complete.
+The mail program then read input from our terminal until we signalled
+an end-of-file via typing a ^D after which the shell noticed
+that mail had completed
+and signaled us that it was ready to read from the terminal again by
+printing another `% ' prompt.
+.PP
+This is the essential pattern of all interaction with \s-2UNIX\s0
+through the shell.
+A complete command is typed at the terminal, the shell executes
+the command and when this execution completes, it prompts for a new command.
+If you run the editor for an hour, the shell will patiently wait for
+you to finish editing and obediently prompt you again whenever you finish
+editing.
+.PP
+An example of a useful command you can execute now is the
+.I tset
+command, which sets the default
+.I erase
+and
+.I kill
+characters on your terminal \- the erase character erases the last
+character you typed and the kill character erases the entire line you
+have entered so far.
+By default, the erase character is the delete key (equivalent to `^?')
+and the kill character is `^U'. Some people prefer to make the erase character
+the backspace key (equivalent to `^H').
+You can make this be true by typing
+.DS
+tset \-e
+.DE
+which tells the program
+.I tset
+to set the erase character to tset's default setting for this character
+(a backspace).
+.NH 2
+Flag arguments
+.PP
+A useful notion in \s-2UNIX\s0 is that of a
+.I flag
+argument.
+While many arguments to commands specify file names or user names,
+some arguments rather specify an optional capability of the command
+which you wish to invoke.
+By convention, such arguments begin with the character `\-' (hyphen).
+Thus the command
+.DS
+ls
+.DE
+will produce a list of the files in the current
+.I "working directory" .
+The option
+.I \-s
+is the size option, and
+.DS
+ls \-s
+.DE
+causes
+.I ls
+to also give, for each file the size of the file in blocks of 512
+characters.
+The manual section for each command in the \s-2UNIX\s0 reference manual
+gives the available options for each command.
+The
+.I ls
+command has a large number of useful and interesting options.
+Most other commands have either no options or only one or two options.
+It is hard to remember options of commands which are not used very
+frequently, so most \s-2UNIX\s0 utilities perform only one or two functions
+rather than having a large number of hard to remember options.
+.NH 2
+Output to files
+.PP
+Commands that normally read input or write output on the terminal
+can also be executed with this input and/or output done to
+a file.
+.PP
+Thus suppose we wish to save the current date in a file called `now'.
+The command
+.DS
+date
+.DE
+will print the current date on our terminal.
+This is because our terminal is the default
+.I "standard output"
+for the date command and the date command prints the date on its
+standard output.
+The shell lets us
+.I redirect
+the
+.I "standard output"
+of a command through a
+notation using the
+.I metacharacter
+`>' and the name of the file where output is to be placed.
+Thus the command
+.DS
+date > now
+.DE
+runs the
+.I date
+command such that its standard output is
+the file `now' rather than the terminal.
+Thus this command places the current date and time into the file `now'.
+It is important to know that the
+.I date
+command was unaware that its output was going to a file rather than
+to the terminal.
+The shell performed this
+.I redirection
+before the command began executing.
+.PP
+One other thing to note here is that the file `now'
+need not have existed before the
+.I date
+command was executed; the shell would have created the file if it did
+not exist.
+And if the file did exist?
+If it had existed previously these previous contents would have been discarded!
+A shell option
+.I noclobber
+exists to prevent this from happening accidentally;
+it is discussed in section 2.2.
+.PP
+The system normally keeps files which you create with `>' and all other files.
+Thus the default is for files to be permanent. If you wish to create a file
+which will be removed automatically, you can begin its name with a `#'
+character, this `scratch' character denotes the fact that the file will
+be a scratch file.*
+.FS
+*Note that if your erase character is a `#', you will have to precede the
+`#' with a `\e'. The fact that the `#' character is the old (pre-\s-2CRT\s0)
+standard erase character means that it seldom appears in a file name, and
+allows this convention to be used for scratch files. If you are using a
+\s-2CRT\s0, your erase character should be a ^H, as we demonstrated
+in section 1.1 how this could be set up.
+.FE
+The system will remove such files after a couple of days,
+or sooner if file space becomes very tight.
+Thus, in running the
+.I date
+command above, we don't really want to save the output forever, so we
+would more likely do
+.DS
+date > #now
+.DE
+.NH 2
+Metacharacters in the shell
+.PP
+The shell has a large number of
+special characters (like `>')
+which indicate special functions.
+We say that these notations have
+.I syntactic
+and
+.I semantic
+meaning to the shell.
+In general, most characters which are neither letters nor digits
+have special meaning to the shell.
+We shall shortly learn a means of
+.I quotation
+which allows us to use
+.I metacharacters
+without the shell treating them in any special way.
+.PP
+Metacharacters normally have effect only when the shell is reading
+our input.
+We need not worry about placing shell metacharacters in a letter
+we are sending via
+.I mail,
+or when we are typing in text or data to some other program.
+Note that the shell is only reading input when it has prompted with
+`% ' (although we can type our input even before it prompts).
+.NH 2
+Input from files; pipelines
+.PP
+We learned above how to
+.I redirect
+the
+.I "standard output"
+of a command
+to a file.
+It is also possible to redirect the
+.I "standard input"
+of a command from a file.
+This is not often necessary since most commands will read from
+a file whose name is given as an argument.
+We can give the command
+.DS
+sort < data
+.DE
+to run the
+.I sort
+command with standard input, where the command normally
+reads its input, from the file
+`data'.
+We would more likely say
+.DS
+sort data
+.DE
+letting the
+.I sort
+command open the file
+`data'
+for input itself since this is less to type.
+.PP
+We should note that if we just typed
+.DS
+sort
+.DE
+then the sort program would sort lines from its
+.I "standard input."
+Since we did not
+.I redirect
+the standard input, it would sort lines as we typed them on the terminal
+until we typed a ^D to indicate an end-of-file.
+.PP
+A most useful capability is the ability to combine the standard output
+of one command with the standard input of another, i.e. to run the
+commands in a sequence known as a
+.I pipeline.
+For instance the command
+.DS
+ls \-s
+.DE
+normally produces a list of the files in our directory with the size
+of each in blocks of 512 characters.
+If we are interested in learning which of our files is largest we
+may wish to have this sorted by size rather than by name, which is
+the default way in which
+.I ls
+sorts.
+We could look at the many options of
+.I ls
+to see if there was an option to do this but would eventually discover
+that there is not.
+Instead we can use a couple of simple options of the
+.I sort
+command, combining it with
+.I ls
+to get what we want.
+.PP
+The
+.I \-n
+option of sort specifies a numeric sort rather than an alphabetic sort.
+Thus
+.DS
+ls \-s | sort \-n
+.DE
+specifies that the output of the
+.I ls
+command run with the option
+.I \-s
+is to be
+.I piped
+to the command
+.I sort
+run with the numeric sort option.
+This would give us a sorted list of our files by size, but with the
+smallest first.
+We could then use the
+.I \-r
+reverse sort option and the
+.I head
+command in combination with the previous command doing
+.DS
+ls \-s | sort \-n \-r | head \-5
+.DE
+Here we have taken a list of our files sorted alphabetically,
+each with the size in blocks.
+We have run this to the standard input of the
+.I sort
+command asking it to sort numerically in reverse order (largest first).
+This output has then been run into the command
+.I head
+which gives us the first few lines.
+In this case we have asked
+.I head
+for the first 5 lines.
+Thus this command gives us the names and sizes of our 5 largest files.
+.PP
+The notation introduced above is called the
+.I pipe
+mechanism.
+Commands separated by `\||\|' characters are connected together by the
+shell and the standard output of each is run into the standard input of the
+next.
+The leftmost command in a pipeline will normally take its standard
+input from the terminal and the rightmost will place its standard
+output on the terminal.
+Other examples of pipelines will be given later when we discuss the
+history mechanism;
+one important use of pipes which is illustrated there is in the
+routing of information to the line printer.
+.NH 2
+Filenames
+.PP
+Many commands to be executed will need the names of files as arguments.
+\s-2UNIX\s0
+.I pathnames
+consist of a number of
+.I components
+separated by `/'.
+Each component except the last names a directory in which the next
+component resides, in effect specifying the
+.I path
+of directories to follow to reach the file.
+Thus the pathname
+.DS
+/etc/motd
+.DE
+specifies a file in the directory
+`etc'
+which is a subdirectory of the
+.I root
+directory `/'.
+Within this directory the file named is `motd' which stands
+for `message of the day'.
+A
+.I pathname
+that begins with a slash is said to be an
+.I absolute
+pathname since it is specified from the absolute top of the entire
+directory hierarchy of the system (the
+.I root ).
+.I Pathnames
+which do not begin with `/' are interpreted as starting in the current
+.I "working directory" ,
+which is, by default, your
+.I home
+directory and can be changed dynamically by the
+.I cd
+change directory command.
+Such pathnames are said to be
+.I relative
+to the working directory since they are found by starting
+in the working directory and descending to lower levels of directories
+for each
+.I component
+of the pathname. If the pathname contains no slashes at all then the
+file is contained in the working directory itself and the pathname is merely
+the name of the file in this directory.
+Absolute pathnames have no relation
+to the working directory.
+.PP
+Most filenames consist of a number of alphanumeric characters and
+`.'s (periods).
+In fact, all printing characters except `/' (slash) may appear in filenames.
+It is inconvenient to have most non-alphabetic characters in filenames
+because many of these have special meaning to the shell.
+The character `.' (period) is not a shell-metacharacter and is often used
+to separate the
+.I extension
+of a file name from the base of the name.
+Thus
+.DS
+prog.c prog.o prog.errs prog.output
+.DE
+are four related files.
+They share a
+.I base
+portion of a name
+(a base portion being that part of the name that is left when a trailing
+`.' and following characters which are not `.' are stripped off).
+The file
+`prog.c'
+might be the source for a C program,
+the file `prog.o' the corresponding object file,
+the file
+`prog.errs' the errors resulting from a compilation of the program
+and the file
+`prog.output' the output of a run of the program.
+.PP
+If we wished to refer to all four of these files in a command, we could
+use the notation
+.DS
+prog.*
+.DE
+This expression is expanded by the shell, before the command to which it is
+an argument is executed, into a list of names which begin with `prog.'.
+The character `*' here matches any sequence (including the empty sequence)
+of characters in a file name.
+The names which match are alphabetically sorted and placed in the
+.I "argument list"
+of the command.
+Thus the command
+.DS
+echo prog.*
+.DE
+will echo the names
+.DS
+prog.c prog.errs prog.o prog.output
+.DE
+Note that the names are in sorted order here, and a different
+order than we listed them above.
+The
+.I echo
+command receives four words as arguments, even though we only typed
+one word as as argument directly.
+The four words were generated by
+.I "filename expansion"
+of the one input word.
+.PP
+Other notations for
+.I "filename expansion"
+are also available.
+The character `?' matches any single character in a filename.
+Thus
+.DS
+echo ? \|?? \|???
+.DE
+will echo a line of filenames; first those with one character names,
+then those with two character names, and finally those with three
+character names.
+The names of each length will be independently sorted.
+.PP
+Another mechanism consists of a sequence of characters between `[' and `]'.
+This metasequence matches any single character from the enclosed set.
+Thus
+.DS
+prog.[co]
+.DE
+will match
+.DS
+prog.c prog.o
+.DE
+in the example above.
+We can also place two characters around a `\-' in this notation to denote
+a range.
+Thus
+.DS
+chap.[1\-5]
+.DE
+might match files
+.DS
+chap.1 chap.2 chap.3 chap.4 chap.5
+.DE
+if they existed.
+This is shorthand for
+.DS
+chap.[12345]
+.DE
+and otherwise equivalent.
+.PP
+An important point to note is that if a list of argument words to
+a command (an
+.I "argument list)"
+contains filename expansion syntax, and if this filename expansion syntax
+fails to match any existing file names, then the shell considers this
+to be an error and prints a diagnostic
+.DS
+No match.
+.DE
+and does not execute the command.
+.PP
+Another very important point is that files with the character `.' at the
+beginning are treated specially.
+Neither `*' or `?' or the `[' `]' mechanism will match it.
+This prevents accidental matching of the filenames `.' and `..'
+in the working directory which have special meaning to the system,
+as well as other files such as
+.I \&.cshrc
+which are not normally
+visible.
+We will discuss the special role of the file
+.I \&.cshrc
+later.
+.PP
+Another filename expansion mechanism gives access to the pathname of
+the
+.I home
+directory of other users.
+This notation consists of the character `~' (tilde) followed by another user's
+login name.
+For instance the word `~bill' would map to the pathname `/usr/bill'
+if the home directory for `bill' was `/usr/bill'.
+Since, on large systems, users may have login directories scattered over
+many different disk volumes with different prefix directory names,
+this notation provides a convenient way of accessing the files
+of other users.
+.PP
+A special case of this notation consists of a `~' alone, e.g. `~/mbox'.
+This notation is expanded by the shell into the file `mbox' in your
+.I home
+directory, i.e. into `/usr/bill/mbox' for me on Ernie Co-vax, the UCB
+Computer Science Department VAX machine, where this document was prepared.
+This can be very useful if you have used
+.I cd
+to change to another directory and have found a file you wish to
+copy using
+.I cp.
+If I give the command
+.DS
+cp thatfile ~
+.DE
+the shell will expand this command to
+.DS
+cp thatfile /usr/bill
+.DE
+since my home directory is /usr/bill.
+.PP
+There also exists a mechanism using the characters `{' and `}' for
+abbreviating a set of words which have common parts but cannot
+be abbreviated by the above mechanisms because they are not files,
+are the names of files which do not yet exist,
+are not thus conveniently described.
+This mechanism will be described much later,
+in section 4.2,
+as it is used less frequently.
+.NH 2
+Quotation
+.PP
+We have already seen a number of metacharacters used by the shell.
+These metacharacters pose a problem in that we cannot use them directly
+as parts of words.
+Thus the command
+.DS
+echo *
+.DE
+will not echo the character `*'.
+It will either echo an sorted list of filenames in the
+current
+.I "working directory,"
+or print the message `No match' if there are
+no files in the working directory.
+.PP
+The recommended mechanism for placing characters which are neither numbers,
+digits, `/', `.' or `\-' in an argument word to a command is to enclose
+it with single quotation characters `\'', i.e.
+.DS
+echo \'*\'
+.DE
+There is one special character `!' which is used by the
+.I history
+mechanism of the shell and which cannot be
+.I escaped
+by placing it within `\'' characters.
+It and the character `\'' itself can be preceded by a single `\e'
+to prevent their special meaning.
+Thus
+.DS
+echo \e\'\e!
+.DE
+prints
+.DS
+\'!
+.DE
+These two mechanisms suffice to place any printing character into a word
+which is an argument to a shell command. They can be combined, as in
+.DS
+echo \e\'\'*\'
+.DE
+which prints
+.DS
+\'*
+.DE
+since the first `\e' escaped the first `\'' and the `*' was enclosed
+between `\'' characters.
+.NH 2
+Terminating commands
+.PP
+When you are executing a command and the shell is
+waiting for it to complete there are several ways
+to force it to stop.
+For instance if you type the command
+.DS
+cat /etc/passwd
+.DE
+the system will print a copy of a list of all users of the system
+on your terminal.
+This is likely to continue for several minutes unless you stop it.
+You can send an
+\s-2INTERRUPT\s0
+.I signal
+to the
+.I cat
+command by typing ^C on your terminal.*
+.FS
+*On some older Unix systems the \s-2DEL\s0 or \s-2RUBOUT\s0 key
+has the same effect. "stty all" will tell you the INTR key value.
+.FE
+Since
+.I cat
+does not take any precautions to avoid or otherwise handle this signal
+the
+\s-2INTERRUPT\s0
+will cause it to terminate.
+The shell notices that
+.I cat
+has terminated and prompts you again with `% '.
+If you hit \s-2INTERRUPT\s0 again, the shell will just
+repeat its prompt since it handles \s-2INTERRUPT\s0 signals
+and chooses to continue to execute commands rather than terminating
+like
+.I cat
+did, which would have the effect of logging you out.
+.PP
+Another way in which many programs terminate is when they get an end-of-file
+from their standard input.
+Thus the
+.I mail
+program in the first example above was terminated when we typed a ^D
+which generates an end-of-file from the standard input.
+The shell also terminates when it gets an end-of-file printing `logout';
+\s-2UNIX\s0 then logs you off the system.
+Since this means that typing too many ^D's can accidentally log us off,
+the shell has a mechanism for preventing this.
+This
+.I ignoreeof
+option will be discussed in section 2.2.
+.PP
+If a command has its standard input redirected from a file, then it will
+normally terminate when it reaches the end of this file.
+Thus if we execute
+.DS
+mail bill < prepared.text
+.DE
+the mail command will terminate without our typing a ^D.
+This is because it read to the end-of-file of our file
+`prepared.text' in which we placed a message for `bill' with an editor program.
+We could also have done
+.DS
+cat prepared.text \||\| mail bill
+.DE
+since the
+.I cat
+command would then have written the text through the pipe to the
+standard input of the mail command.
+When the
+.I cat
+command completed it would have terminated,
+closing down the pipeline
+and the
+.I mail
+command would have received an end-of-file from it and terminated.
+Using a pipe here is more complicated than redirecting input
+so we would more likely use the first form.
+These commands could also have been stopped by sending an \s-2INTERRUPT\s0.
+.PP
+Another possibility for stopping a command is to suspend its execution
+temporarily, with the possibility of continuing execution later. This is
+done by sending a \s-2STOP\s0 signal via typing a ^Z.
+This signal causes all commands running on the terminal
+(usually one but more if a pipeline is executing) to become suspended.
+The shell notices that the command(s) have been suspended, types
+`Stopped' and then prompts for a new command.
+The previously executing command has been suspended, but otherwise
+unaffected by the \s-2STOP\s0 signal. Any other commands can be executed
+while the original command remains suspended. The suspended command can
+be continued using the
+.I fg
+command with no arguments. The shell will then retype the command
+to remind you which command is being continued, and cause the command
+to resume execution. Unless any input files in use by the suspended
+command have been changed in the meantime, the suspension has no effect
+whatsoever on the execution of the command. This feature can be very useful
+during editing, when you need to look at another file before continuing. An
+example of command suspension follows.
+.DS
+% mail harold
+Someone just copied a big file into my directory and its name is
+^Z
+Stopped
+% ls
+funnyfile
+prog.c
+prog.o
+% jobs
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] + Stopped mail harold
+% fg
+mail harold
+funnyfile. Do you know who did it?
+EOT
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+In this example someone was sending a message to Harold and forgot the
+name of the file he wanted to mention. The mail command was suspended
+by typing ^Z. When the shell noticed that the mail program was
+suspended, it typed `Stopped' and prompted for a new command. Then the
+.I ls
+command was typed to find out the name of the file. The
+.I jobs
+command was run to find out which command was suspended. At this time the
+.I fg
+command was typed to continue execution of the mail program. Input
+to the mail program was then continued and ended with a ^D
+which indicated the end of the message at which time the mail
+program typed EOT. The
+.I jobs
+command will show which commands are suspended.
+The ^Z should only be typed at the beginning of a line since
+everything typed on the current line is discarded when a signal is sent
+from the keyboard. This also happens on \s-2INTERRUPT\s0, and \s-2QUIT\s0
+signals. More information on
+suspending jobs and controlling them is given in
+section 2.6.
+.PP
+If you write or run programs which are not fully debugged then it may
+be necessary to stop them somewhat ungracefully.
+This can be done by sending them a \s-2QUIT\s0
+signal, sent by typing a ^\e.
+This will usually provoke the shell to produce a message like:
+.DS
+Quit (Core dumped)
+.DE
+indicating that a file
+`core' has been created containing information about the running program's
+state when it terminated due to the \s-2QUIT\s0 signal.
+You can examine this file yourself, or forward information to the
+maintainer of the program telling him/her where the
+.I "core file"
+is.
+.PP
+If you run background commands (as explained in section 2.6) then these
+commands will ignore \s-2INTERRUPT\s0 and \s-2QUIT\s0 signals at the
+terminal. To stop them you must use the
+.I kill
+command. See section 2.6 for an example.
+.PP
+If you want to examine the output of a command without having it move
+off the screen as the output of the
+.DS
+cat /etc/passwd
+.DE
+command will, you can use the command
+.DS
+more /etc/passwd
+.DE
+The
+.I more
+program pauses after each complete screenful and types `\-\-More\-\-'
+at which point you can hit a space to get another screenful, a return
+to get another line, a `?' to get some help on other commands, or a `q' to end the
+.I more
+program. You can also use more as a filter, i.e.
+.DS
+cat /etc/passwd | more
+.DE
+works just like the more simple more command above.
+.PP
+For stopping output of commands not involving
+.I more
+you can use the
+^S key to stop the typeout. The typeout will resume when you
+hit ^Q or any other key, but ^Q is normally used because
+it only restarts the output and does not become input to the program
+which is running. This works well on low-speed terminals, but at 9600
+baud it is hard to type ^S and ^Q fast enough to paginate
+the output nicely, and a program like
+.I more
+is usually used.
+.PP
+An additional possibility is to use the ^O flush output
+character; when this character is typed, all output from the current
+command is thrown away (quickly) until the next input read occurs
+or until the next shell prompt. This can be used to allow a command
+to complete without having to suffer through the output on a slow
+terminal; ^O is a toggle, so flushing can be turned off by
+typing ^O again while output is being flushed.
+.NH 2
+What now?
+.PP
+We have so far seen a number of mechanisms of the shell and learned a lot
+about the way in which it operates.
+The remaining sections will go yet further into the internals of the
+shell, but you will surely want to try using the
+shell before you go any further.
+To try it you can log in to \s-2UNIX\s0 and type the following
+command to the system:
+.DS
+chsh myname /bin/csh
+.DE
+Here `myname' should be replaced by the name you typed to
+the system prompt of `login:' to get onto the system.
+Thus I would use `chsh bill /bin/csh'.
+.B
+You only have to do this once; it takes effect at next login.
+.R
+You are now ready to try using
+.I csh.
+.PP
+Before you do the `chsh' command, the shell you are using when
+you log into the system is `/bin/sh'.
+In fact, much of the above discussion is applicable to `/bin/sh'.
+The next section will introduce many features particular to
+.I csh
+so you should change your shell to
+.I csh
+before you begin reading it.
+.bp
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.2 b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.2
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..610105c829fa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.2
@@ -0,0 +1,1305 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.2 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.nr H1 1
+.NH
+Details on the shell for terminal users
+.NH 2
+Shell startup and termination
+.PP
+When you login, the shell is started by the system in your
+.I home
+directory and begins by reading commands from a file
+.I \&.cshrc
+in this directory.
+All shells which you may start during your terminal session will
+read from this file.
+We will later see what kinds of commands are usefully placed there.
+For now we need not have this file and the shell does not complain about
+its absence.
+.PP
+A
+.I "login shell" ,
+executed after you login to the system,
+will, after it reads commands from
+.I \&.cshrc,
+read commands from a file
+.I \&.login
+also in your home directory.
+This file contains commands which you wish to do each time you login
+to the \s-2UNIX\s0 system.
+My
+.I \&.login
+file looks something like:
+.DS
+set ignoreeof
+set mail=(/usr/spool/mail/bill)
+echo "${prompt}users" ; users
+alias ts \e
+ \'set noglob ; eval \`tset \-s \-m dialup:c100rv4pna \-m plugboard:?hp2621nl \!*\`\';
+ts; stty intr ^C kill ^U crt
+set time=15 history=10
+msgs \-f
+if (\-e $mail) then
+ echo "${prompt}mail"
+ mail
+endif
+.DE
+.PP
+This file contains several commands to be executed by \s-2UNIX\s0
+each time I login.
+The first is a
+.I set
+command which is interpreted directly by the shell. It sets the shell
+variable
+.I ignoreeof
+which causes the shell to not log me off if I hit ^D. Rather,
+I use the
+.I logout
+command to log off of the system.
+By setting the
+.I mail
+variable, I ask the shell to watch for incoming mail to me. Every 5 minutes
+the shell looks for this file and tells me if more mail has arrived there.
+An alternative to this is to put the command
+.DS
+biff y
+.DE
+in place of this
+.I set;
+this will cause me to be notified immediately when mail arrives, and to
+be shown the first few lines of the new message.
+.PP
+Next I set the shell variable `time' to `15' causing the shell to automatically
+print out statistics lines for commands which execute for at least 15 seconds
+of \s-2CPU\s+2 time. The variable `history' is set to 10 indicating that
+I want the shell to remember the last 10 commands I type in its
+.I "history list" ,
+(described later).
+.PP
+I create an
+.I alias
+``ts'' which executes a
+\fItset\fR\|(1) command setting up the modes of the terminal.
+The parameters to
+.I tset
+indicate the kinds of terminal which I usually use when not on a hardwired
+port. I then execute ``ts'' and also use the
+.I stty
+command to change the interrupt character to ^C and the line kill
+character to ^U.
+.PP
+I then run the `msgs' program, which provides me with any
+system messages which I have not seen before; the `\-f' option here prevents
+it from telling me anything if there are no new messages.
+Finally, if my mailbox file exists, then I run the `mail' program to
+process my mail.
+.PP
+When the `mail' and `msgs' programs finish, the shell will finish
+processing my
+.I \&.login
+file and begin reading commands from the terminal, prompting for each with
+`% '.
+When I log off (by giving the
+.I logout
+command) the shell
+will print `logout' and execute commands from the file `.logout'
+if it exists in my home directory.
+After that the shell will terminate and \s-2UNIX\s0 will log
+me off the system.
+If the system is not going down, I will receive a new login message.
+In any case, after the `logout' message the shell is committed to terminating
+and will take no further input from my terminal.
+.NH 2
+Shell variables
+.PP
+The shell maintains a set of
+.I variables.
+We saw above the variables
+.I history
+and
+.I time
+which had values `10' and `15'.
+In fact, each shell variable has as value an array of
+zero or more
+.I strings.
+Shell variables may be assigned values by the set command. It has
+several forms, the most useful of which was given above and is
+.DS
+set name=value
+.DE
+.PP
+Shell variables may be used to store values which are to
+be used in commands later through a substitution mechanism.
+The shell variables most commonly referenced are, however, those which the
+shell itself refers to.
+By changing the values of these variables one can directly affect the
+behavior of the shell.
+.PP
+One of the most important variables is the variable
+.I path.
+This variable contains a sequence of directory names where the shell
+searches for commands.
+The
+.I set
+command with no arguments
+shows the value of all variables currently defined (we usually say
+.I set)
+in the shell.
+The default value for path will be shown by
+.I set
+to be
+.DS
+% set
+.ta .75i
+argv ()
+cwd /usr/bill
+home /usr/bill
+path (. /usr/ucb /bin /usr/bin)
+prompt %
+shell /bin/csh
+status 0
+term c100rv4pna
+user bill
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+This output indicates that the variable path points to the current
+directory `.' and then `/usr/ucb', `/bin' and `/usr/bin'.
+Commands which you may write might be in `.' (usually one of
+your directories).
+Commands developed at Berkeley, live in `/usr/ucb'
+while commands developed at Bell Laboratories live in `/bin' and `/usr/bin'.
+.PP
+A number of locally developed programs on the system live in the directory
+`/usr/local'.
+If we wish that all shells which we invoke to have
+access to these new programs we can place the command
+.DS
+set path=(. /usr/ucb /bin /usr/bin /usr/local)
+.DE
+in our file
+.I \&.cshrc
+in our home directory.
+Try doing this and then logging out and back in and do
+.DS
+set
+.DE
+again to see that the value assigned to
+.I path
+has changed.
+.FS \(dg
+Another directory that might interest you is /usr/new, which contains
+many useful user-contributed programs provided with Berkeley Unix.
+.FE
+.PP
+One thing you should be aware of is that the shell examines each directory
+which you insert into your path and determines which commands are contained
+there. Except for the current directory `.', which the shell treats specially,
+this means that if commands are added to a directory in your search path after
+you have started the shell, they will not necessarily be found by the shell.
+If you wish to use a command which has been added in this way, you should
+give the command
+.DS
+rehash
+.DE
+to the shell, which will cause it to recompute its internal table of command
+locations, so that it will find the newly added command.
+Since the shell has to look in the current directory `.' on each command,
+placing it at the end of the path specification usually works equivalently
+and reduces overhead.
+.PP
+Other useful built in variables are the variable
+.I home
+which shows your home directory,
+.I cwd
+which contains your current working directory,
+the variable
+.I ignoreeof
+which can be set in your
+.I \&.login
+file to tell the shell not to exit when it receives an end-of-file from
+a terminal (as described above).
+The variable `ignoreeof'
+is one of several variables which the shell does not care about the
+value of, only whether they are
+.I set
+or
+.I unset.
+Thus to set this variable you simply do
+.DS
+set ignoreeof
+.DE
+and to unset it do
+.DS
+unset ignoreeof
+.DE
+These give the variable `ignoreeof' no value, but none is desired or required.
+.PP
+Finally, some other built-in shell variables of use are the
+variables
+.I noclobber
+and
+.I mail.
+The metasyntax
+.DS
+> filename
+.DE
+which redirects the standard output of a command
+will overwrite and destroy the previous contents of the named file.
+In this way you may accidentally overwrite a file which is valuable.
+If you would prefer that the shell not overwrite files in this
+way you can
+.DS
+set noclobber
+.DE
+in your
+.I \&.login
+file.
+Then trying to do
+.DS
+date > now
+.DE
+would cause a diagnostic if `now' existed already.
+You could type
+.DS
+date >! now
+.DE
+if you really wanted to overwrite the contents of `now'.
+The `>!' is a special metasyntax indicating that clobbering the
+file is ok.\(dg
+.FS
+\(dgThe space between the `!' and the word `now' is critical here, as `!now'
+would be an invocation of the
+.I history
+mechanism, and have a totally different effect.
+.FE
+.NH 2
+The shell's history list
+.PP
+The shell can maintain a
+.I "history list"
+into which it places the words
+of previous commands.
+It is possible to use a notation to reuse commands or words
+from commands in forming new commands.
+This mechanism can be used to repeat previous commands or to
+correct minor typing mistakes in commands.
+.PP
+The following figure gives a sample session involving typical usage of the
+history mechanism of the shell.
+.KF
+.DS
+% cat bug.c
+main()
+
+{
+ printf("hello);
+}
+% cc !$
+cc bug.c
+"bug.c", line 4: newline in string or char constant
+"bug.c", line 5: syntax error
+% ed !$
+ed bug.c
+29
+4s/);/"&/p
+ printf("hello");
+w
+30
+q
+% !c
+cc bug.c
+% a.out
+hello% !e
+ed bug.c
+30
+4s/lo/lo\e\en/p
+ printf("hello\en");
+w
+32
+q
+% !c \-o bug
+cc bug.c \-o bug
+% size a.out bug
+a.out: 2784+364+1028 = 4176b = 0x1050b
+bug: 2784+364+1028 = 4176b = 0x1050b
+% ls \-l !*
+ls \-l a.out bug
+\(mirwxr\(mixr\(mix 1 bill 3932 Dec 19 09:41 a.out
+\(mirwxr\(mixr\(mix 1 bill 3932 Dec 19 09:42 bug
+% bug
+hello
+% num bug.c | spp
+spp: Command not found.
+% ^spp^ssp
+num bug.c | ssp
+ 1 main()
+ 3 {
+ 4 printf("hello\en");
+ 5 }
+% !! | lpr
+num bug.c | ssp | lpr
+%
+.DE
+.KE
+In this example we have a very simple C program which has a bug (or two)
+in it in the file `bug.c', which we `cat' out on our terminal. We then
+try to run the C compiler on it, referring to the file again as `!$',
+meaning the last argument to the previous command. Here the `!' is the
+history mechanism invocation metacharacter, and the `$' stands for the last
+argument, by analogy to `$' in the editor which stands for the end of the line.
+The shell echoed the command, as it would have been typed without use of
+the history mechanism, and then executed it.
+The compilation yielded error diagnostics so we now run the editor on the
+file we were trying to compile, fix the bug, and run the C compiler again,
+this time referring to this command simply as `!c', which repeats the last
+command which started with the letter `c'. If there were other
+commands starting with `c' done recently we could have said `!cc' or even
+`!cc:p' which would have printed the last command starting with `cc'
+without executing it.
+.PP
+After this recompilation, we ran the resulting `a.out' file, and then
+noting that there still was a bug, ran the editor again. After fixing
+the program we ran the C compiler again, but tacked onto the command
+an extra `\-o bug' telling the compiler to place the resultant binary in
+the file `bug' rather than `a.out'. In general, the history mechanisms
+may be used anywhere in the formation of new commands and other characters
+may be placed before and after the substituted commands.
+.PP
+We then ran the `size' command to see how large the binary program images
+we have created were, and then an `ls \-l' command with the same argument
+list, denoting the argument list `\!*'.
+Finally we ran the program `bug' to see that its output is indeed correct.
+.PP
+To make a numbered listing of the program we ran the `num' command on the file `bug.c'.
+In order to compress out blank lines in the output of `num' we ran the
+output through the filter `ssp', but misspelled it as spp. To correct this
+we used a shell substitute, placing the old text and new text between `^'
+characters. This is similar to the substitute command in the editor.
+Finally, we repeated the same command with `!!', but sent its output to the
+line printer.
+.PP
+There are other mechanisms available for repeating commands. The
+.I history
+command prints out a number of previous commands with numbers by which
+they can be referenced. There is a way to refer to a previous command
+by searching for a string which appeared in it, and there are other,
+less useful, ways to select arguments to include in a new command.
+A complete description of all these mechanisms
+is given in the C shell manual pages in the \s-2UNIX\s0 Programmer's Manual.
+.NH 2
+Aliases
+.PP
+The shell has an
+.I alias
+mechanism which can be used to make transformations on input commands.
+This mechanism can be used to simplify the commands you type,
+to supply default arguments to commands,
+or to perform transformations on commands and their arguments.
+The alias facility is similar to a macro facility.
+Some of the features obtained by aliasing can be obtained also
+using shell command files, but these take place in another instance
+of the shell and cannot directly affect the current shells environment
+or involve commands such as
+.I cd
+which must be done in the current shell.
+.PP
+As an example, suppose that there is a new version of the mail program
+on the system called `newmail'
+you wish to use, rather than the standard mail program which is called
+`mail'.
+If you place the shell command
+.DS
+alias mail newmail
+.DE
+in your
+.I \&.cshrc
+file, the shell will transform an input line of the form
+.DS
+mail bill
+.DE
+into a call on `newmail'.
+More generally, suppose we wish the command `ls' to always show
+sizes of files, that is to always do `\-s'.
+We can do
+.DS
+alias ls ls \-s
+.DE
+or even
+.DS
+alias dir ls \-s
+.DE
+creating a new command syntax `dir'
+which does an `ls \-s'.
+If we say
+.DS
+dir ~bill
+.DE
+then the shell will translate this to
+.DS
+ls \-s /mnt/bill
+.DE
+.PP
+Thus the
+.I alias
+mechanism can be used to provide short names for commands,
+to provide default arguments,
+and to define new short commands in terms of other commands.
+It is also possible to define aliases which contain multiple
+commands or pipelines, showing where the arguments to the original
+command are to be substituted using the facilities of the
+history mechanism.
+Thus the definition
+.DS
+alias cd \'cd \e!* ; ls \'
+.DE
+would do an
+.I ls
+command after each change directory
+.I cd
+command.
+We enclosed the entire alias definition in `\'' characters to prevent
+most substitutions from occurring and the character `;' from being
+recognized as a metacharacter.
+The `!' here is escaped with a `\e' to prevent it from being interpreted
+when the alias command is typed in.
+The `\e!*' here substitutes the entire argument list to the pre-aliasing
+.I cd
+command, without giving an error if there were no arguments.
+The `;' separating commands is used here
+to indicate that one command is to be done and then the next.
+Similarly the definition
+.DS
+alias whois \'grep \e!^ /etc/passwd\'
+.DE
+defines a command which looks up its first argument in the password file.
+.PP
+.B Warning:
+The shell currently reads the
+.I \&.cshrc
+file each time it starts up. If you place a large number of commands
+there, shells will tend to start slowly. A mechanism for saving the shell
+environment after reading the \fI\&.cshrc\fR file and quickly restoring it is
+under development, but for now you should try to limit the number of
+aliases you have to a reasonable number... 10 or 15 is reasonable,
+50 or 60 will cause a noticeable delay in starting up shells, and make
+the system seem sluggish when you execute commands from within the editor
+and other programs.
+.NH 2
+More redirection; >> and >&
+.PP
+There are a few more notations useful to the terminal user
+which have not been introduced yet.
+.PP
+In addition to the standard output, commands also have a
+.I "diagnostic output"
+which is normally directed to the terminal even when the standard output
+is redirected to a file or a pipe.
+It is occasionally desirable to direct the diagnostic output along with
+the standard output.
+For instance if you want to redirect the output of a long running command
+into a file and wish to have a record of any error diagnostic it produces
+you can do
+.DS
+command >& file
+.DE
+The `>&' here tells the shell to route both the diagnostic output and the
+standard output into `file'.
+Similarly you can give the command
+.DS
+command |\|& lpr
+.DE
+to route both standard and diagnostic output through the pipe
+to the line printer daemon
+.I lpr.\(dd
+.FS
+\(dd A command of the form
+.br
+.ti +5
+command >&! file
+.br
+exists, and is used when
+.I noclobber
+is set and
+.I file
+already exists.
+.FE
+.PP
+Finally, it is possible to use the form
+.DS
+command >> file
+.DE
+to place output at the end of an existing file.\(dg
+.FS
+\(dg If
+.I noclobber
+is set, then an error will result if
+.I file
+does not exist, otherwise the shell will create
+.I file
+if it doesn't exist.
+A form
+.br
+.ti +5
+command >>! file
+.br
+makes it not be an error for file to not exist when
+.I noclobber
+is set.
+.FE
+.NH 2
+Jobs; Background, Foreground, or Suspended
+.PP
+When one or more commands
+are typed together as a pipeline or as a sequence of commands separated by
+semicolons, a single
+.I job
+is created by the shell consisting of these commands together as a unit.
+Single commands without pipes or semicolons create the simplest jobs.
+Usually, every line typed to the shell creates a job.
+Some lines that create jobs (one per line) are
+.DS
+sort < data
+ls \-s | sort \-n | head \-5
+mail harold
+.DE
+.PP
+If the metacharacter `&' is typed
+at the end of the commands, then the job is started as a
+.I background
+job. This means that the shell does not wait for it to complete but
+immediately prompts and is ready for another command. The job runs
+.I "in the background"
+at the same time that normal jobs, called
+.I foreground
+jobs, continue to be read and executed by the shell one at a time.
+Thus
+.DS
+du > usage &
+.DE
+would run the
+.I du
+program, which reports on the disk usage of your working directory (as well as
+any directories below it), put the output into the file `usage' and return
+immediately with a prompt for the next command without out waiting for
+.I du
+to finish. The
+.I du
+program would continue executing in the background
+until it finished, even though you can type and execute more commands in the
+mean time.
+When a background
+job terminates, a message is typed by the shell just before the next prompt
+telling you that the job has completed.
+In the following example the
+.I du
+job finishes sometime during the
+execution of the
+.I mail
+command and its completion is reported just before
+the prompt after the
+.I mail
+job is finished.
+.DS
+% du > usage &
+[1] 503
+% mail bill
+How do you know when a background job is finished?
+EOT
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] \- Done du > usage
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+If the job did not terminate normally the `Done' message might say
+something else like `Killed'.
+If you want the
+terminations of background jobs to be reported at the time they occur
+(possibly interrupting the output of other foreground jobs), you can set
+the
+.I notify
+variable. In the previous example this would mean that the
+`Done' message might have come right in the middle of the message to
+Bill.
+Background jobs are unaffected by any signals from the keyboard like
+the \s-2STOP\s0, \s-2INTERRUPT\s0, or \s-2QUIT\s0 signals mentioned earlier.
+.PP
+Jobs are recorded in a table inside the shell until they terminate.
+In this table, the shell remembers the command names, arguments and the
+.I "process numbers"
+of all commands in the job as well as the working directory where the job was
+started.
+Each job in the table is either running
+.I "in the foreground"
+with the shell waiting for it to terminate, running
+.I "in the background,"
+or
+.I suspended.
+Only one job can be running in the foreground at one time, but several
+jobs can be suspended or running in the background at once. As each job
+is started, it is assigned a small identifying
+number called the
+.I "job number"
+which can be used later to refer to the job in the commands described below.
+Job numbers remain
+the same until the job terminates and then are re-used.
+.PP
+When a job is started in the backgound using `&', its number, as well
+as the process numbers of all its (top level) commands, is typed by the shell
+before prompting you for another command. For example,
+.DS
+% ls \-s | sort \-n > usage &
+[2] 2034 2035
+%
+.DE
+runs the `ls' program with the `\-s' options, pipes this output into
+the `sort' program with the `\-n' option which puts its output into the
+file `usage'.
+Since the `&' was at the end of the line, these two programs were started
+together as a background job. After starting the job, the shell prints
+the job number in brackets (2 in this case) followed by the process number
+of each program started in the job. Then the shell immediates prompts for
+a new command, leaving the job running simultaneously.
+.PP
+As mentioned in section 1.8, foreground jobs become
+.I suspended
+by typing ^Z
+which sends a \s-2STOP\s0 signal to the currently running
+foreground job. A background job can become suspended by using the
+.I stop
+command described below. When jobs are suspended they merely stop
+any further progress until started again, either in the foreground
+or the backgound. The shell notices when a job becomes stopped and
+reports this fact, much like it reports the termination of background jobs.
+For foreground jobs this looks like
+.DS
+% du > usage
+^Z
+Stopped
+%
+.DE
+`Stopped' message is typed by the shell when it notices that the
+.I du
+program stopped.
+For background jobs, using the
+.I stop
+command, it is
+.DS
+% sort usage &
+[1] 2345
+% stop %1
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] + Stopped (signal) sort usage
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+Suspending foreground jobs can be very useful when you need to temporarily
+change what you are doing (execute other commands) and then return to
+the suspended job. Also, foreground jobs can be suspended and then
+continued as background jobs using the
+.I bg
+command, allowing you to continue other work and
+stop waiting for the foreground job to finish. Thus
+.DS
+% du > usage
+^Z
+Stopped
+% bg
+[1] du > usage &
+%
+.DE
+starts `du' in the foreground, stops it before it finishes, then continues
+it in the background allowing more foreground commands to be executed.
+This is especially helpful
+when a foreground job ends up taking longer than you expected and you
+wish you had started it in the backgound in the beginning.
+.PP
+All
+.I "job control"
+commands can take an argument that identifies a particular
+job.
+All job name arguments begin with the character `%', since some of the
+job control commands also accept process numbers (printed by the
+.I ps
+command.)
+The default job (when no argument is given) is called the
+.I current
+job and is identified by a `+' in the output of the
+.I jobs
+command, which shows you which jobs you have.
+When only one job is stopped or running in the background (the usual case)
+it is always the current job thus no argument is needed.
+If a job is stopped while running in the foreground it becomes the
+.I current
+job and the existing current job becomes the
+.I previous
+job \- identified by a `\-' in the output of
+.I jobs.
+When the current job terminates, the previous job becomes the current job.
+When given, the argument is either `%\-' (indicating
+the previous job); `%#', where # is the job number;
+`%pref' where pref is some unique prefix of the command name
+and arguments of one of the jobs; or `%?' followed by some string found
+in only one of the jobs.
+.PP
+The
+.I jobs
+command types the table of jobs, giving the job number,
+commands and status (`Stopped' or `Running') of each backgound or
+suspended job. With the `\-l' option the process numbers are also
+typed.
+.DS
+% du > usage &
+[1] 3398
+% ls \-s | sort \-n > myfile &
+[2] 3405
+% mail bill
+^Z
+Stopped
+% jobs
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] \(mi Running du > usage
+[2] Running ls \-s | sort \-n > myfile
+[3] \(pl Stopped mail bill
+% fg %ls
+ls \-s | sort \-n > myfile
+% more myfile
+.so tabs
+.DE
+.PP
+The
+.I fg
+command runs a suspended or background job in the foreground. It is
+used to restart a previously suspended job or change a background job
+to run in the foreground (allowing signals or input from the terminal).
+In the above example we used
+.I fg
+to change the `ls' job from the
+background to the foreground since we wanted to wait for it to
+finish before looking at its output file.
+The
+.I bg
+command runs a suspended job in the background. It is usually used
+after stopping the currently running foreground job with the
+\s-2STOP\s0 signal. The combination of the \s-2STOP\s0 signal and the
+.I bg
+command changes a foreground job into a background job.
+The
+.I stop
+command suspends a background job.
+.PP
+The
+.I kill
+command terminates a background or suspended job immediately.
+In addition to jobs, it may be given process numbers as arguments,
+as printed by
+.I ps.
+Thus, in the example above, the running
+.I du
+command could have been terminated by the command
+.DS
+% kill %1
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] Terminated du > usage
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+.PP
+The
+.I notify
+command (not the variable mentioned earlier) indicates that the termination
+of a specific job should be
+reported at the time it finishes instead of waiting for the next prompt.
+.PP
+If a job running in the background tries to read input from the terminal
+it is automatically stopped. When such a job is then run in the
+foreground, input can be given to the job. If desired, the job can
+be run in the background again until it requests input again.
+This is illustrated in the following sequence where the `s' command in the
+text editor might take a long time.
+.ID
+.nf
+% ed bigfile
+120000
+1,$s/thisword/thatword/
+^Z
+Stopped
+% bg
+[1] ed bigfile &
+%
+ . . . some foreground commands
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] Stopped (tty input) ed bigfile
+% fg
+ed bigfile
+w
+120000
+q
+%
+.so tabs
+.DE
+So after the `s' command was issued, the `ed' job was stopped with ^Z
+and then put in the background using
+.I bg.
+Some time later when the `s' command was finished,
+.I ed
+tried to read another command and was stopped because jobs
+in the backgound cannot read from the terminal. The
+.I fg
+command returned the `ed' job to the foreground where it could once again
+accept commands from the terminal.
+.PP
+The command
+.DS
+stty tostop
+.DE
+causes all background jobs run on your terminal to stop
+when they are about to
+write output to the terminal. This prevents messages from background
+jobs from interrupting foreground job output and allows you to run
+a job in the background without losing terminal output. It also
+can be used for interactive programs that sometimes have long
+periods without interaction. Thus each time it outputs a prompt for more
+input it will stop before the prompt. It can then be run in the
+foreground using
+.I fg,
+more input can be given and, if necessary stopped and returned to
+the background. This
+.I stty
+command might be a good thing to put in your
+.I \&.login
+file if you do not like output from background jobs interrupting
+your work. It also can reduce the need for redirecting the output
+of background jobs if the output is not very big:
+.DS
+% stty tostop
+% wc hugefile &
+[1] 10387
+% ed text
+\&. . . some time later
+q
+.ta 1.75i
+[1] Stopped (tty output) wc hugefile
+% fg wc
+wc hugefile
+ 13371 30123 302577
+% stty \-tostop
+.so tabs
+.DE
+Thus after some time the `wc' command, which counts the lines, words
+and characters in a file, had one line of output. When it tried to
+write this to the terminal it stopped. By restarting it in the
+foreground we allowed it to write on the terminal exactly when we were
+ready to look at its output.
+Programs which attempt to change the mode of the terminal will also
+block, whether or not
+.I tostop
+is set, when they are not in the foreground, as
+it would be very unpleasant to have a background job change the state
+of the terminal.
+.PP
+Since the
+.I jobs
+command only prints jobs started in the currently executing shell,
+it knows nothing about background jobs started in other login sessions
+or within shell files. The
+.I ps
+can be used in this case to find out about background jobs not started
+in the current shell.
+.NH 2
+Working Directories
+.PP
+As mentioned in section 1.6, the shell is always in a particular
+.I "working directory."
+The `change directory' command
+.I chdir
+(its
+short form
+.I cd
+may also be used)
+changes the working directory of the shell,
+that is, changes the directory you
+are located in.
+.PP
+It is useful to make a directory for each project you wish to work on
+and to place all files related to that project in that directory.
+The `make directory' command,
+.I mkdir,
+creates a new directory.
+The
+.I pwd
+(`print working directory') command
+reports the absolute pathname of the working directory of the shell,
+that is, the directory you are
+located in.
+Thus in the example below:
+.DS
+% pwd
+/usr/bill
+% mkdir newpaper
+% chdir newpaper
+% pwd
+/usr/bill/newpaper
+%
+.DE
+the user has created and moved to the
+directory
+.I newpaper.
+where, for example, he might
+place a group of related files.
+.PP
+No matter where you have moved to in a directory hierarchy,
+you can return to your `home' login directory by doing just
+.DS
+cd
+.DE
+with no arguments.
+The name `..' always means the directory above the current one in
+the hierarchy, thus
+.DS
+cd ..
+.DE
+changes the shell's working directory to the one directly above the
+current one.
+The name `..' can be used in any
+pathname, thus,
+.DS
+cd ../programs
+.DE
+means
+change to the directory `programs' contained in the directory
+above the current one.
+If you have several directories for different
+projects under, say, your home directory,
+this shorthand notation
+permits you to switch easily between them.
+.PP
+The shell always remembers the pathname of its current working directory in
+the variable
+.I cwd.
+The shell can also be requested to remember the previous directory when
+you change to a new working directory. If the `push directory' command
+.I pushd
+is used in place of the
+.I cd
+command, the shell saves the name of the current working directory
+on a
+.I "directory stack"
+before changing to the new one.
+You can see this list at any time by typing the `directories'
+command
+.I dirs.
+.ID
+.nf
+% pushd newpaper/references
+~/newpaper/references ~
+% pushd /usr/lib/tmac
+/usr/lib/tmac ~/newpaper/references ~
+% dirs
+/usr/lib/tmac ~/newpaper/references ~
+% popd
+~/newpaper/references ~
+% popd
+~
+%
+.DE
+The list is printed in a horizontal line, reading left to right,
+with a tilde (~) as
+shorthand for your home directory\(emin this case `/usr/bill'.
+The directory stack is printed whenever there is more than one
+entry on it and it changes.
+It is also printed by a
+.I dirs
+command.
+.I Dirs
+is usually faster and more informative than
+.I pwd
+since it shows the current working directory as well as any
+other directories remembered in the stack.
+.PP
+The
+.I pushd
+command with no argument
+alternates the current directory with the first directory in the
+list.
+The `pop directory'
+.I popd
+command without an argument returns you to the directory you were in prior to
+the current one, discarding the previous current directory from the
+stack (forgetting it).
+Typing
+.I popd
+several times in a series takes you backward through the directories
+you had been in (changed to) by
+.I pushd
+command.
+There are other options to
+.I pushd
+and
+.I popd
+to manipulate the contents of the directory stack and to change
+to directories not at the top of the stack; see the
+.I csh
+manual page for details.
+.PP
+Since the shell remembers the working directory in which each job
+was started, it warns you when you might be confused by restarting
+a job in the foreground which has a different working directory than the
+current working directory of the shell. Thus if you start a background
+job, then change the shell's working directory and then cause the
+background job to run in the foreground, the shell warns you that the
+working directory of the currently running foreground job is different
+from that of the shell.
+.DS
+% dirs \-l
+/mnt/bill
+% cd myproject
+% dirs
+~/myproject
+% ed prog.c
+1143
+^Z
+Stopped
+% cd ..
+% ls
+myproject
+textfile
+% fg
+ed prog.c (wd: ~/myproject)
+.DE
+This way the shell warns you when there
+is an implied change of working directory, even though no cd command was
+issued. In the above example the `ed' job was still in `/mnt/bill/project'
+even though the shell had changed to `/mnt/bill'.
+A similar warning is given when such a foreground job
+terminates or is suspended (using the \s-2STOP\s0 signal) since
+the return to the shell again implies a change of working directory.
+.DS
+% fg
+ed prog.c (wd: ~/myproject)
+ . . . after some editing
+q
+(wd now: ~)
+%
+.DE
+These messages are sometimes confusing if you use programs that change
+their own working directories, since the shell only remembers which
+directory a job is started in, and assumes it stays there.
+The `\-l' option of
+.I jobs
+will type the working directory
+of suspended or background jobs when it is different
+from the current working directory of the shell.
+.NH 2
+Useful built-in commands
+.PP
+We now give a few of the useful built-in commands of the shell describing
+how they are used.
+.PP
+The
+.I alias
+command described above is used to assign new aliases and to show the
+existing aliases.
+With no arguments it prints the current aliases.
+It may also be given only one argument such as
+.DS
+alias ls
+.DE
+to show the current alias for, e.g., `ls'.
+.PP
+The
+.I echo
+command prints its arguments.
+It is often used in
+.I "shell scripts"
+or as an interactive command
+to see what filename expansions will produce.
+.PP
+The
+.I history
+command will show the contents of the history list.
+The numbers given with the history events can be used to reference
+previous events which are difficult to reference using the
+contextual mechanisms introduced above.
+There is also a shell variable called
+.I prompt.
+By placing a `!' character in its value the shell will there substitute
+the number of the current command in the history list.
+You can use this number to refer to this command in a history substitution.
+Thus you could
+.DS
+set prompt=\'\e! % \'
+.DE
+Note that the `!' character had to be
+.I escaped
+here even within `\'' characters.
+.PP
+The
+.I limit
+command is used to restrict use of resources.
+With no arguments it prints the current limitations:
+.DS
+.ta 1i
+cputime unlimited
+filesize unlimited
+datasize 5616 kbytes
+stacksize 512 kbytes
+coredumpsize unlimited
+.so tabs
+.DE
+Limits can be set, e.g.:
+.DS
+limit coredumpsize 128k
+.DE
+Most reasonable units abbreviations will work; see the
+.I csh
+manual page for more details.
+.PP
+The
+.I logout
+command can be used to terminate a login shell which has
+.I ignoreeof
+set.
+.PP
+The
+.I rehash
+command causes the shell to recompute a table of where commands are
+located. This is necessary if you add a command to a directory
+in the current shell's search path and wish the shell to find it,
+since otherwise the hashing algorithm may tell the shell that the
+command wasn't in that directory when the hash table was computed.
+.PP
+The
+.I repeat
+command can be used to repeat a command several times.
+Thus to make 5 copies of the file
+.I one
+in the file
+.I five
+you could do
+.DS
+repeat 5 cat one >> five
+.DE
+.PP
+The
+.I setenv
+command can be used
+to set variables in the environment.
+Thus
+.DS
+setenv TERM adm3a
+.DE
+will set the value of the environment variable \s-2TERM\s0
+to
+`adm3a'.
+A user program
+.I printenv
+exists which will print out the environment.
+It might then show:
+.DS
+% printenv
+HOME=/usr/bill
+SHELL=/bin/csh
+PATH=:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local
+TERM=adm3a
+USER=bill
+%
+.DE
+.PP
+The
+.I source
+command can be used to force the current shell to read commands from
+a file.
+Thus
+.DS
+source .cshrc
+.DE
+can be used after editing in a change to the
+.I \&.cshrc
+file which you wish to take effect right away.
+.PP
+The
+.I time
+command can be used to cause a command to be timed no matter how much
+\s-2CPU\s0 time it takes.
+Thus
+.DS
+% time cp /etc/rc /usr/bill/rc
+0.0u 0.1s 0:01 8% 2+1k 3+2io 1pf+0w
+% time wc /etc/rc /usr/bill/rc
+ 52 178 1347 /etc/rc
+ 52 178 1347 /usr/bill/rc
+ 104 356 2694 total
+0.1u 0.1s 0:00 13% 3+3k 5+3io 7pf+0w
+%
+.DE
+indicates that the
+.I cp
+command used a negligible amount of user time (u)
+and about 1/10th of a system time (s); the elapsed time was 1 second (0:01),
+there was an average memory usage of 2k bytes of program space and 1k
+bytes of data space over the cpu time involved (2+1k); the program
+did three disk reads and two disk writes (3+2io), and took one page fault
+and was not swapped (1pf+0w).
+The word count command
+.I wc
+on the other hand used 0.1 seconds of user time and 0.1 seconds of system
+time in less than a second of elapsed time.
+The percentage `13%' indicates that over the period when it was active
+the command `wc' used an average of 13 percent of the available \s-2CPU\s0
+cycles of the machine.
+.PP
+The
+.I unalias
+and
+.I unset
+commands can be used
+to remove aliases and variable definitions from the shell, and
+.I unsetenv
+removes variables from the environment.
+.NH 2
+What else?
+.PP
+This concludes the basic discussion of the shell for terminal users.
+There are more features of the shell to be discussed here, and all
+features of the shell are discussed in its manual pages.
+One useful feature which is discussed later is the
+.I foreach
+built-in command which can be used to run the same command
+sequence with a number of different arguments.
+.PP
+If you intend to use \s-2UNIX\s0 a lot you you should look through
+the rest of this document and the csh manual pages (section1) to become familiar
+with the other facilities which are available to you.
+.bp
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.3 b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.3
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..cf8af73b0cc4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.3
@@ -0,0 +1,650 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.3 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.nr H1 2
+.NH
+Shell control structures and command scripts
+.NH 2
+Introduction
+.PP
+It is possible to place commands in files and to cause shells to be
+invoked to read and execute commands from these files,
+which are called
+.I "shell scripts."
+We here detail those features of the shell useful to the writers of such
+scripts.
+.NH 2
+Make
+.PP
+It is important to first note what shell scripts are
+.I not
+useful for.
+There is a program called
+.I make
+which is very useful for maintaining a group of related files
+or performing sets of operations on related files.
+For instance a large program consisting of one or more files
+can have its dependencies described in a
+.I makefile
+which contains definitions of the commands used to create these
+different files when changes occur.
+Definitions of the means for printing listings, cleaning up the directory
+in which the files reside, and installing the resultant programs
+are easily, and most appropriately placed in this
+.I makefile.
+This format is superior and preferable to maintaining a group of shell
+procedures to maintain these files.
+.PP
+Similarly when working on a document a
+.I makefile
+may be created which defines how different versions of the document
+are to be created and which options of
+.I nroff
+or
+.I troff
+are appropriate.
+.NH 2
+Invocation and the argv variable
+.PP
+A
+.I csh
+command script may be interpreted by saying
+.DS
+% csh script ...
+.DE
+where
+.I script
+is the name of the file containing a group of
+.I csh
+commands and
+`\&...' is replaced by a sequence of arguments.
+The shell places these arguments in the variable
+.I argv
+and then begins to read commands from the script.
+These parameters are then available through the same mechanisms
+which are used to reference any other shell variables.
+.PP
+If you make the file
+`script'
+executable by doing
+.DS
+chmod 755 script
+.DE
+and place a shell comment at the beginning of the shell script
+(i.e. begin the file with a `#' character)
+then a `/bin/csh' will automatically be invoked to execute `script' when
+you type
+.DS
+script
+.DE
+If the file does not begin with a `#' then the standard shell
+`/bin/sh' will be used to execute it.
+This allows you to convert your older shell scripts to use
+.I csh
+at your convenience.
+.NH 2
+Variable substitution
+.PP
+After each input line is broken into words and history substitutions
+are done on it, the input line is parsed into distinct commands.
+Before each command is executed a mechanism know as
+.I "variable substitution"
+is done on these words.
+Keyed by the character `$' this substitution replaces the names
+of variables by their values.
+Thus
+.DS
+echo $argv
+.DE
+when placed in a command script would cause the current value of the
+variable
+.I argv
+to be echoed to the output of the shell script.
+It is an error for
+.I argv
+to be unset at this point.
+.PP
+A number of notations are provided for accessing components and attributes
+of variables.
+The notation
+.DS
+$?name
+.DE
+expands to `1' if name is
+.I set
+or to `0'
+if name is not
+.I set.
+It is the fundamental mechanism used for checking whether particular
+variables have been assigned values.
+All other forms of reference to undefined variables cause errors.
+.PP
+The notation
+.DS
+$#name
+.DE
+expands to the number of elements in the variable
+.I name.
+Thus
+.DS
+% set argv=(a b c)
+% echo $?argv
+1
+% echo $#argv
+3
+% unset argv
+% echo $?argv
+0
+% echo $argv
+Undefined variable: argv.
+%
+.DE
+.PP
+It is also possible to access the components of a variable
+which has several values.
+Thus
+.DS
+$argv[1]
+.DE
+gives the first component of
+.I argv
+or in the example above `a'.
+Similarly
+.DS
+$argv[$#argv]
+.DE
+would give `c',
+and
+.DS
+$argv[1\-2]
+.DE
+would give `a b'. Other notations useful in shell scripts are
+.DS
+$\fIn\fR
+.DE
+where
+.I n
+is an integer as a shorthand for
+.DS
+$argv[\fIn\fR\|]
+.DE
+the
+.I n\|th
+parameter and
+.DS
+$*
+.DE
+which is a shorthand for
+.DS
+$argv
+.DE
+The form
+.DS
+$$
+.DE
+expands to the process number of the current shell.
+Since this process number is unique in the system it can
+be used in generation of unique temporary file names.
+The form
+.DS
+$<
+.DE
+is quite special and is replaced by the next line of input read from
+the shell's standard input (not the script it is reading). This is
+useful for writing shell scripts that are interactive, reading
+commands from the terminal, or even writing a shell script that
+acts as a filter, reading lines from its input file. Thus the sequence
+.DS
+echo 'yes or no?\ec'
+set a=($<)
+.DE
+would write out the prompt `yes or no?' without a newline and then
+read the answer into the variable `a'. In this case `$#a' would be
+`0' if either a blank line or end-of-file (^D) was typed.
+.PP
+One minor difference between `$\fIn\fR\|' and `$argv[\fIn\fR\|]'
+should be noted here.
+The form
+`$argv[\fIn\fR\|]'
+will yield an error if
+.I n
+is not in the range
+`1\-$#argv'
+while `$n'
+will never yield an out of range subscript error.
+This is for compatibility with the way older shells handled parameters.
+.PP
+Another important point is that it is never an error to give a subrange
+of the form `n\-'; if there are less than
+.I n
+components of the given variable then no words are substituted.
+A range of the form `m\-n' likewise returns an empty vector without giving
+an error when \fIm\fR exceeds the number of elements of the given variable,
+provided the subscript \fIn\fR is in range.
+.NH 2
+Expressions
+.PP
+In order for interesting shell scripts to be constructed it
+must be possible to evaluate expressions in the shell based on the
+values of variables.
+In fact, all the arithmetic operations of the language C are available
+in the shell
+with the same precedence that they have in C.
+In particular, the operations `==' and `!=' compare strings
+and the operators `&&' and `|\|\||' implement the boolean and/or operations.
+The special operators `=~' and `!~' are similar to `==' and `!=' except
+that the string on the right side can have pattern matching characters
+(like *, ? or []) and the test is whether the string on the left matches
+the pattern on the right.
+.PP
+The shell also allows file enquiries of the form
+.DS
+\-? filename
+.DE
+where `?' is replace by a number of single characters.
+For instance the expression primitive
+.DS
+\-e filename
+.DE
+tell whether the file
+`filename'
+exists.
+Other primitives test for read, write and execute access to the file,
+whether it is a directory, or has non-zero length.
+.PP
+It is possible to test whether a command terminates normally,
+by a primitive of the
+form `{ command }' which returns true, i.e. `1' if the command
+succeeds exiting normally with exit status 0, or `0' if the command
+terminates abnormally or with exit status non-zero.
+If more detailed information about the execution status of a command
+is required, it can be executed and the variable `$status' examined
+in the next command.
+Since `$status' is set by every command, it is very transient.
+It can be saved if it is inconvenient to use it only in the single
+immediately following command.
+.PP
+For a full list of expression components available see the manual
+section for the shell.
+.NH 2
+Sample shell script
+.PP
+A sample shell script which makes use of the expression mechanism
+of the shell and some of its control structure follows:
+.DS
+% cat copyc
+#
+# Copyc copies those C programs in the specified list
+# to the directory ~/backup if they differ from the files
+# already in ~/backup
+#
+set noglob
+foreach i ($argv)
+
+ if ($i !~ *.c) continue # not a .c file so do nothing
+
+ if (! \-r ~/backup/$i:t) then
+ echo $i:t not in backup... not cp\e\'ed
+ continue
+ endif
+
+ cmp \-s $i ~/backup/$i:t # to set $status
+
+ if ($status != 0) then
+ echo new backup of $i
+ cp $i ~/backup/$i:t
+ endif
+end
+.DE
+.PP
+This script makes use of the
+.I foreach
+command, which causes the shell to execute the commands between the
+.I foreach
+and the matching
+.I end
+for each of the values given between `(' and `)' with the named
+variable, in this case `i' set to successive values in the list.
+Within this loop we may use the command
+.I break
+to stop executing the loop
+and
+.I continue
+to prematurely terminate one iteration
+and begin the next.
+After the
+.I foreach
+loop the iteration variable
+(\fIi\fR in this case)
+has the value at the last iteration.
+.PP
+We set the variable
+.I noglob
+here to prevent filename expansion of the members of
+.I argv.
+This is a good idea, in general, if the arguments to a shell script
+are filenames which have already been expanded or if the arguments
+may contain filename expansion metacharacters.
+It is also possible to quote each use of a `$' variable expansion,
+but this is harder and less reliable.
+.PP
+The other control construct used here is a statement of the form
+.DS
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) \fBthen\fR
+ command
+ ...
+\fBendif\fR
+.DE
+The placement of the keywords here is
+.B not
+flexible due to the current implementation of the shell.\(dg
+.FS
+\(dgThe following two formats are not currently acceptable to the shell:
+.sp
+.in +5
+.nf
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) # \fBWon't work!\fR
+\fBthen\fR
+ command
+ ...
+\fBendif\fR
+.fi
+.in -5
+.sp
+and
+.sp
+.in +5
+.nf
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) \fBthen\fR command \fBendif\fR # \fBWon't work\fR
+.in -5
+.fi
+.FE
+.PP
+The shell does have another form of the if statement of the form
+.DS
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) \fBcommand\fR
+.DE
+which can be written
+.DS
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) \e
+ command
+.DE
+Here we have escaped the newline for the sake of appearance.
+The command must not involve `\||\|', `&' or `;'
+and must not be another control command.
+The second form requires the final `\e' to
+.B immediately
+precede the end-of-line.
+.PP
+The more general
+.I if
+statements above also admit a sequence of
+.I else\-if
+pairs followed by a single
+.I else
+and an
+.I endif,
+e.g.:
+.DS
+\fBif\fR ( expression ) \fBthen\fR
+ commands
+\fBelse\fR \fBif\fR (expression ) \fBthen\fR
+ commands
+\&...
+
+\fBelse\fR
+ commands
+\fBendif\fR
+.DE
+.PP
+Another important mechanism used in shell scripts is the `:' modifier.
+We can use the modifier `:r' here to extract a root of a filename or
+`:e' to extract the
+.I extension.
+Thus if the variable
+.I i
+has the value
+`/mnt/foo.bar'
+then
+.sp
+.in +5
+.nf
+% echo $i $i:r $i:e
+/mnt/foo.bar /mnt/foo bar
+%
+.sp
+.in -5
+.fi
+shows how the `:r' modifier strips off the trailing `.bar' and the
+the `:e' modifier leaves only the `bar'.
+Other modifiers will take off the last component of a pathname leaving
+the head `:h' or all but the last component of a pathname leaving the
+tail `:t'.
+These modifiers are fully described in the
+.I csh
+manual pages in the User's Reference Manual.
+It is also possible to use the
+.I "command substitution"
+mechanism described in the next major section to perform modifications
+on strings to then reenter the shell's environment.
+Since each usage of this mechanism involves the creation of a new process,
+it is much more expensive to use than the `:' modification mechanism.\(dd
+.FS
+\(dd It is also important to note that
+the current implementation of the shell limits the number of `:' modifiers
+on a `$' substitution to 1.
+Thus
+.sp
+.nf
+.in +5
+% echo $i $i:h:t
+/a/b/c /a/b:t
+%
+.in -5
+.fi
+.sp
+does not do what one would expect.
+.FE
+Finally, we note that the character `#' lexically introduces a shell
+comment in shell scripts (but not from the terminal).
+All subsequent characters on the input line after a `#' are discarded
+by the shell.
+This character can be quoted using `\'' or `\e' to place it in
+an argument word.
+.NH 2
+Other control structures
+.PP
+The shell also has control structures
+.I while
+and
+.I switch
+similar to those of C.
+These take the forms
+.DS
+\fBwhile\fR ( expression )
+ commands
+\fBend\fR
+.DE
+and
+.DS
+\fBswitch\fR ( word )
+
+\fBcase\fR str1:
+ commands
+ \fBbreaksw\fR
+
+\& ...
+
+\fBcase\fR strn:
+ commands
+ \fBbreaksw\fR
+
+\fBdefault:\fR
+ commands
+ \fBbreaksw\fR
+
+\fBendsw\fR
+.DE
+For details see the manual section for
+.I csh.
+C programmers should note that we use
+.I breaksw
+to exit from a
+.I switch
+while
+.I break
+exits a
+.I while
+or
+.I foreach
+loop.
+A common mistake to make in
+.I csh
+scripts is to use
+.I break
+rather than
+.I breaksw
+in switches.
+.PP
+Finally,
+.I csh
+allows a
+.I goto
+statement, with labels looking like they do in C, i.e.:
+.DS
+loop:
+ commands
+ \fBgoto\fR loop
+.DE
+.NH 2
+Supplying input to commands
+.PP
+Commands run from shell scripts receive by default the standard
+input of the shell which is running the script.
+This is different from previous shells running
+under \s-2UNIX\s0. It allows shell scripts to fully participate
+in pipelines, but mandates extra notation for commands which are to take
+inline data.
+.PP
+Thus we need a metanotation for supplying inline data to commands in
+shell scripts.
+As an example, consider this script which runs the editor to
+delete leading blanks from the lines in each argument file:
+.DS
+% cat deblank
+# deblank \-\- remove leading blanks
+foreach i ($argv)
+ed \- $i << \'EOF\'
+1,$s/^[ ]*//
+w
+q
+\&\'EOF\'
+end
+%
+.DE
+The notation `<< \'EOF\''
+means that the standard input for the
+.I ed
+command is to come from the text in the shell script file
+up to the next line consisting of exactly `\'EOF\''.
+The fact that the `EOF' is enclosed in `\'' characters, i.e. quoted,
+causes the shell to not perform variable substitution on the
+intervening lines.
+In general, if any part of the word following the `<<' which the
+shell uses to terminate the text to be given to the command is quoted
+then these substitutions will not be performed.
+In this case since we used the form `1,$' in our editor script
+we needed to insure that this `$' was not variable substituted.
+We could also have insured this by preceding the `$' here with a `\e',
+i.e.:
+.DS
+1,\e$s/^[ ]*//
+.DE
+but quoting the `EOF' terminator is a more reliable way of achieving the
+same thing.
+.NH 2
+Catching interrupts
+.PP
+If our shell script creates temporary files, we may wish to catch
+interruptions of the shell script so that we can clean up
+these files.
+We can then do
+.DS
+onintr label
+.DE
+where
+.I label
+is a label in our program.
+If an interrupt is received the shell will do a
+`goto label'
+and we can remove the temporary files and then do an
+.I exit
+command (which is built in to the shell)
+to exit from the shell script.
+If we wish to exit with a non-zero status we can do
+.DS
+exit(1)
+.DE
+e.g. to exit with status `1'.
+.NH 2
+What else?
+.PP
+There are other features of the shell useful to writers of shell
+procedures.
+The
+.I verbose
+and
+.I echo
+options and the related
+.I \-v
+and
+.I \-x
+command line options can be used to help trace the actions of the shell.
+The
+.I \-n
+option causes the shell only to read commands and not to execute
+them and may sometimes be of use.
+.PP
+One other thing to note is that
+.I csh
+will not execute shell scripts which do not begin with the
+character `#', that is shell scripts that do not begin with a comment.
+Similarly, the `/bin/sh' on your system may well defer to `csh'
+to interpret shell scripts which begin with `#'.
+This allows shell scripts for both shells to live in harmony.
+.PP
+There is also another quotation mechanism using `"' which allows
+only some of the expansion mechanisms we have so far discussed to occur
+on the quoted string and serves to make this string into a single word
+as `\'' does.
+.bp
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.4 b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.4
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..ee862df07b93
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.4
@@ -0,0 +1,178 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.4 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.nr H1 3
+.NH
+Other, less commonly used, shell features
+.NH 2
+Loops at the terminal; variables as vectors
+.PP
+It is occasionally useful to use the
+.I foreach
+control structure at the terminal to aid in performing a number
+of similar commands.
+For instance, there were at one point three shells in use on the Cory \s-2UNIX\s0
+system at Cory Hall,
+`/bin/sh',
+`/bin/nsh',
+and
+`/bin/csh'.
+To count the number of persons using each shell one could have issued
+the commands
+.DS
+% grep \-c csh$ /etc/passwd
+27
+% grep \-c nsh$ /etc/passwd
+128
+% grep \-c \-v sh$ /etc/passwd
+430
+%
+.DE
+Since these commands are very similar we can use
+.I foreach
+to do this more easily.
+.DS
+% foreach i (\'sh$\' \'csh$\' \'\-v sh$\')
+? grep \-c $i /etc/passwd
+? end
+27
+128
+430
+%
+.DE
+Note here that the shell prompts for
+input with `? ' when reading the body of the loop.
+.PP
+Very useful with loops are variables which contain lists of filenames
+or other words.
+You can, for example, do
+.DS
+% set a=(\`ls\`)
+% echo $a
+csh.n csh.rm
+% ls
+csh.n
+csh.rm
+% echo $#a
+2
+%
+.DE
+The
+.I set
+command here gave the variable
+.I a
+a list of all the filenames in the current directory as value.
+We can then iterate over these names to perform any chosen function.
+.PP
+The output of a command within `\`' characters is converted by
+the shell to a list of words.
+You can also place the `\`' quoted string within `"' characters
+to take each (non-empty) line as a component of the variable;
+preventing the lines from being split into words at blanks and tabs.
+A modifier `:x' exists which can be used later to expand each component
+of the variable into another variable splitting it into separate words
+at embedded blanks and tabs.
+.NH 2
+Braces { ... } in argument expansion
+.PP
+Another form of filename expansion, alluded
+to before involves the characters `{' and `}'.
+These characters specify that the contained strings, separated by `,'
+are to be consecutively substituted into the containing characters
+and the results expanded left to right.
+Thus
+.DS
+A{str1,str2,...strn}B
+.DE
+expands to
+.DS
+Astr1B Astr2B ... AstrnB
+.DE
+This expansion occurs before the other filename expansions, and may
+be applied recursively (i.e. nested).
+The results of each expanded string are sorted separately, left
+to right order being preserved.
+The resulting filenames are not required to exist if no other expansion
+mechanisms are used.
+This means that this mechanism can be used to generate arguments which are
+not filenames, but which have common parts.
+.PP
+A typical use of this would be
+.DS
+mkdir ~/{hdrs,retrofit,csh}
+.DE
+to make subdirectories `hdrs', `retrofit' and `csh'
+in your home directory.
+This mechanism is most useful when the common prefix is longer
+than in this example, i.e.
+.DS
+chown root /usr/{ucb/{ex,edit},lib/{ex?.?*,how_ex}}
+.DE
+.NH 2
+Command substitution
+.PP
+A command enclosed in `\`' characters is replaced, just before
+filenames are expanded, by the output from that command.
+Thus it is possible to do
+.DS
+set pwd=\`pwd\`
+.DE
+to save the current directory in the variable
+.I pwd
+or to do
+.DS
+ex \`grep \-l TRACE *.c\`
+.DE
+to run the editor
+.I ex
+supplying as arguments those files whose names end in `.c'
+which have the string `TRACE' in them.*
+.FS
+*Command expansion also occurs in input redirected with `<<'
+and within `"' quotations.
+Refer to the shell manual section for full details.
+.FE
+.NH 2
+Other details not covered here
+.PP
+In particular circumstances it may be necessary to know the exact
+nature and order of different substitutions performed by the shell.
+The exact meaning of certain combinations of quotations is also
+occasionally important.
+These are detailed fully in its manual section.
+.PP
+The shell has a number of command line option flags mostly of use
+in writing \s-2UNIX\s0 programs,
+and debugging shell scripts.
+See the csh(1) manual section for a list of these options.
+.bp
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.a b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.a
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..1026faf990b2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.a
@@ -0,0 +1,95 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.a 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.SH
+Appendix \- Special characters
+.LP
+The following table lists the special characters of
+.I csh
+and the \s-2UNIX\s0 system, giving for each the section(s) in which it
+is discussed.
+A number of these characters also have special meaning in expressions.
+See the
+.I csh
+manual section
+for a complete list.
+.ta .75i 1.5i 2.25i
+.LP
+Syntactic metacharacters
+.DS
+; 2.4 separates commands to be executed sequentially
+| 1.5 separates commands in a pipeline
+( ) 2.2,3.6 brackets expressions and variable values
+& 2.5 follows commands to be executed without waiting for completion
+.DE
+.LP
+Filename metacharacters
+.DS
+/ 1.6 separates components of a file's pathname
+\. 1.6 separates root parts of a file name from extensions
+? 1.6 expansion character matching any single character
+* 1.6 expansion character matching any sequence of characters
+[ ] 1.6 expansion sequence matching any single character from a set
+~ 1.6 used at the beginning of a filename to indicate home directories
+{ } 4.2 used to specify groups of arguments with common parts
+.DE
+.LP
+Quotation metacharacters
+.DS
+\e 1.7 prevents meta-meaning of following single character
+\' 1.7 prevents meta-meaning of a group of characters
+" 4.3 like \', but allows variable and command expansion
+.DE
+.LP
+Input/output metacharacters
+.DS
+< 1.5 indicates redirected input
+> 1.3 indicates redirected output
+.DE
+.LP
+Expansion/substitution metacharacters
+.DS
+$ 3.4 indicates variable substitution
+! 2.3 indicates history substitution
+: 3.6 precedes substitution modifiers
+^ 2.3 used in special forms of history substitution
+\` 4.3 indicates command substitution
+.DE
+.LP
+Other metacharacters
+.DS
+# 1.3,3.6 begins scratch file names; indicates shell comments
+\- 1.2 prefixes option (flag) arguments to commands
+% 2.6 prefixes job name specifications
+.DE
+.bp
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.g b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.g
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..0641769047a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/csh.g
@@ -0,0 +1,1721 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.g 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.SH
+Glossary
+.PP
+This glossary lists the most important terms introduced in the
+introduction to the
+shell and gives references to sections of the shell
+document for further information about them.
+References of the form
+`pr (1)'
+indicate that the command
+.I pr
+is in the \s-2UNIX\s0 User Reference manual in section 1.
+You can look at an online copy of its manual page by doing
+.DS
+man 1 pr
+.DE
+References of the form (2.5)
+indicate that more information can be found in section 2.5 of this
+manual.
+.IP \&\fB.\fR 15n
+Your current directory has the name `.' as well as the name printed
+by the command
+.I pwd;
+see also
+.I dirs.
+The current directory `.' is usually the first
+.I component
+of the search path contained in the variable
+.I path ,
+thus commands which are in `.' are found first (2.2).
+The character `.' is also used in separating
+.I components
+of filenames
+(1.6).
+The character `.' at the beginning of a
+.I component
+of a
+.I pathname
+is treated specially and not matched by the
+.I "filename expansion"
+metacharacters `?', `*', and `[' `]' pairs (1.6).
+.IP \&\fB..\fR
+Each directory has a file `..' in it which is a reference to its
+parent directory.
+After changing into the directory with
+.I chdir ,
+i.e.
+.DS
+chdir paper
+.DE
+you can return to the parent directory by doing
+.DS
+chdir ..
+.DE
+The current directory is printed by
+.I pwd
+(2.7).
+.IP a.out
+Compilers which create executable images create them, by default, in the
+file
+.I a.out.
+for historical reasons (2.3).
+.IP "absolute pathname"
+.br
+A
+.I pathname
+which begins with a `/' is
+.I absolute
+since it specifies the
+.I path
+of directories from the beginning
+of the entire directory system \- called the
+.I root
+directory.
+.I Pathname s
+which are not
+.I absolute
+are called
+.I relative
+(see definition of
+.I "relative pathname" )
+(1.6).
+.IP alias
+An
+.I alias
+specifies a shorter or different name for a \s-2UNIX\s0
+command, or a transformation on a command to be performed in
+the shell.
+The shell has a command
+.I alias
+which establishes
+.I aliases
+and can print their current values.
+The command
+.I unalias
+is used to remove
+.I aliases
+(2.4).
+.IP argument
+Commands in \s-2UNIX\s0 receive a list of
+.I argument
+words.
+Thus the command
+.DS
+echo a b c
+.DE
+consists of the
+.I "command name"
+`echo' and three
+.I argument
+words `a', `b' and `c'.
+The set of
+.I arguments
+after the
+.I "command name"
+is said to be the
+.I "argument list"
+of the command (1.1).
+.IP argv
+The list of arguments to a command written in the shell language
+(a shell script or shell procedure) is stored in a variable called
+.I argv
+within the shell.
+This name is taken from the conventional name in the
+C programming language (3.4).
+.IP background
+Commands started without waiting for them to complete are called
+.I background
+commands (2.6).
+.IP base
+A filename is sometimes thought of as consisting of a
+.I base
+part, before any `.' character, and an
+.I extension
+\- the part after
+the `.'. See
+.I filename
+and
+.I extension
+(1.6) and basename (1).
+.IP bg
+The
+.I bg
+command causes a
+.I suspended
+job to continue execution in the
+.I background
+(2.6).
+.IP bin
+A directory containing binaries of programs and shell scripts to be
+executed is typically called a
+.I bin
+directory.
+The standard system
+.I bin
+directories are `/bin' containing the most
+heavily used commands and `/usr/bin' which contains most other user
+programs.
+Programs developed at UC Berkeley live in `/usr/ucb', while locally
+written programs live in `/usr/local'. Games are kept in the directory
+`/usr/games'.
+You can place binaries in any directory.
+If you wish to execute them often, the name of the directories
+should be a
+.I component
+of the variable
+.I path .
+.IP break
+.I Break
+is a builtin command used to exit from loops within the control
+structure of the shell (3.7).
+.IP breaksw
+The
+.I breaksw
+builtin command is used to exit from a
+.I switch
+control structure, like a
+.I break
+exits from loops (3.7).
+.IP builtin
+A command executed directly by the shell is called a
+.I builtin
+command.
+Most commands in \s-2UNIX\s0 are not built into the shell,
+but rather exist as files in
+.I bin
+directories.
+These commands are accessible because the directories in which
+they reside are named in the
+.I path
+variable.
+.IP case
+A
+.I case
+command is used as a label in a
+.I switch
+statement in the shell's control structure, similar to that of the
+language C.
+Details are given in the shell documentation `csh (1)' (3.7).
+.IP cat
+The
+.I cat
+program catenates a list of specified files on the
+.I "standard output" .
+It is usually used to look at the contents of a single file on the terminal,
+to `cat a file' (1.8, 2.3).
+.IP cd
+The
+.I cd
+command is used to change the
+.I "working directory" .
+With no arguments,
+.I cd
+changes your
+.I "working directory"
+to be your
+.I home
+directory (2.4, 2.7).
+.IP chdir
+The
+.I chdir
+command is a synonym for
+.I cd .
+.I Cd
+is usually used because it is easier to type.
+.IP chsh
+The
+.I chsh
+command is used to change the shell which you use on \s-2UNIX\s0.
+By default, you use an different version of the shell
+which resides in `/bin/sh'.
+You can change your shell to `/bin/csh' by doing
+.DS
+chsh your-login-name /bin/csh
+.DE
+Thus I would do
+.DS
+chsh bill /bin/csh
+.DE
+It is only necessary to do this once.
+The next time you log in to \s-2UNIX\s0 after doing this command,
+you will be using
+.I csh
+rather than the shell in `/bin/sh' (1.9).
+.IP cmp
+.I Cmp
+is a program which compares files.
+It is usually used on binary files, or to see if two files are identical (3.6).
+For comparing text files the program
+.I diff ,
+described in `diff (1)' is used.
+.IP command
+A function performed by the system, either by the shell
+(a builtin
+.I command )
+or by a program residing in a file in
+a directory within the \s-2UNIX\s0 system, is called a
+.I command
+(1.1).
+.IP "command name"
+.br
+When a command is issued, it consists of a
+.I "command name" ,
+which is the first word of the command,
+followed by arguments.
+The convention on \s-2UNIX\s0 is that the first word of a
+command names the function to be performed (1.1).
+.IP "command substitution"
+.br
+The replacement of a command enclosed in `\`' characters
+by the text output by that command
+is called
+.I "command substitution"
+(4.3).
+.IP component
+A part of a
+.I pathname
+between `/' characters is called a
+.I component
+of that
+.I pathname .
+A variable
+which has multiple strings as value is said to have
+several
+.I component s;
+each string is a
+.I component
+of the variable.
+.IP continue
+A builtin command which causes execution of the enclosing
+.I foreach
+or
+.I while
+loop to cycle prematurely.
+Similar to the
+.I continue
+command in the programming language C (3.6).
+.IP control-
+Certain special characters, called
+.I control
+characters, are produced by holding down the \s-2CONTROL\s0 key
+on your terminal and simultaneously pressing another character, much like
+the \s-2SHIFT\s0 key is used to produce upper case characters. Thus
+.I control- c
+is produced by holding down the \s-2CONTROL\s0 key while pressing the
+`c' key. Usually \s-2UNIX\s0 prints an caret (^) followed by the
+corresponding letter when you type a
+.I control
+character (e.g. `^C' for
+.I control- c
+(1.8).
+.IP "core\ dump"
+When a program terminates abnormally, the system places an image
+of its current state in a file named `core'.
+This
+.I "core dump"
+can be examined with the system debugger `adb (1)'
+or `sdb (1)' in order to determine what went wrong with the program (1.8).
+If the shell produces a message of the form
+.DS
+Illegal instruction (core dumped)
+.DE
+(where `Illegal instruction' is only one of several possible
+messages), you should report this to the author of the program
+or a system administrator,
+saving the `core' file.
+.IP cp
+The
+.I cp
+(copy) program is used to copy the contents of one file into another
+file.
+It is one of the most commonly used \s-2UNIX\s0 commands (1.6).
+.IP csh
+The name of the shell
+program that this document describes.
+.IP \&.cshrc
+The file
+.I \&.cshrc
+in your
+.I home
+directory is read by each shell as it begins execution.
+It is usually used to change the setting of the variable
+.I path
+and to set
+.I alias
+parameters which are to take effect globally (2.1).
+.IP cwd
+The
+.I cwd
+variable in the shell holds the
+.I "absolute pathname"
+of the current
+.I "working directory" \&.
+It is changed by the shell whenever your current
+.I "working directory"
+changes and should not be changed otherwise (2.2).
+.IP date
+The
+.I date
+command prints the current date and time (1.3).
+.IP debugging
+.I Debugging
+is the process of correcting mistakes in programs and shell scripts.
+The shell has several options and variables which may be used
+to aid in shell
+.I debugging
+(4.4).
+.IP default:
+The label
+.I default:
+is used within shell
+.I switch
+statements, as it is in the C language
+to label the code to be executed if none of the
+.I case
+labels matches the value switched on (3.7).
+.IP \s-2DELETE\s0
+The
+\s-2DELETE\s0
+or
+\s-2RUBOUT\s0
+key on the terminal normally causes an interrupt to be sent to the current job.
+Many users change the interrupt character to be ^C.
+.IP detached
+A command that continues running in the
+.I background
+after you logout is said to be
+.I detached .
+.IP diagnostic
+An error message produced by a program is often referred to as a
+.I diagnostic .
+Most error messages are not written to the
+.I "standard output" ,
+since that is often directed away from the terminal (1.3, 1.5).
+Error messsages are instead written to the
+.I "diagnostic output"
+which may be directed away from the terminal, but usually is not.
+Thus
+.I diagnostics
+will usually appear on the terminal (2.5).
+.IP directory
+A structure which contains files.
+At any time you are in one particular
+.I directory
+whose names can be printed by the command
+.I pwd .
+The
+.I chdir
+command will change you to another
+.I directory ,
+and make the files
+in that
+.I directory
+visible. The
+.I directory
+in which you are when you first login is your
+.I home
+directory (1.1, 2.7).
+.IP "directory\ stack"
+The shell saves the names of previous
+.I "working directories"
+in the
+.I "directory stack"
+when you change your current
+.I "working directory"
+via the
+.I pushd
+command. The
+.I "directory stack"
+can be printed by using the
+.I dirs
+command, which includes your current
+.I "working directory"
+as the first directory name on the left (2.7).
+.IP dirs
+The
+.I dirs
+command prints the shell's
+.I "directory stack"
+(2.7).
+.IP du
+The
+.I du
+command is a program (described in `du (1)') which
+prints the number of disk blocks is all directories below
+and including your current
+.I "working directory"
+(2.6).
+.IP echo
+The
+.I echo
+command prints its arguments (1.6, 3.6).
+.IP else
+The
+.I else
+command is part of the `if-then-else-endif' control
+command construct (3.6).
+.IP endif
+If an
+.I if
+statement is ended with the word
+.I then ,
+all lines following the
+.I if
+up to a line starting with the word
+.I endif
+or
+.I else
+are executed if the condition between parentheses after the
+.I if
+is true (3.6).
+.IP \s-2EOF\s0
+An
+.I "end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile"
+is generated by the terminal by a control-d,
+and whenever a command reads to the end of a file which
+it has been given as input.
+Commands receiving input from a
+.I pipe
+receive an
+.I "end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile"
+when the command sending them input completes.
+Most commands terminate when they receive an
+.I "end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile" .
+The shell has an option to ignore
+.I "end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile"
+from a terminal
+input which may help you keep from logging out accidentally
+by typing too many control-d's (1.1, 1.8, 3.8).
+.IP escape
+A character `\e' used to prevent the special meaning of a metacharacter
+is said to
+.I escape
+the character from its special meaning.
+Thus
+.DS
+echo \e*
+.DE
+will echo the character `*' while just
+.DS
+echo *
+.DE
+will echo the names of the file in the current directory.
+In this example, \e
+.I escape s
+`*' (1.7).
+There is also a non-printing character called
+.I escape ,
+usually labelled
+\s-2ESC\s0
+or
+\s-2ALTMODE\s0
+on terminal keyboards.
+Some older \s-2UNIX\s0 systems use this character to indicate that
+output is to be
+.I suspended .
+Most systems use control-s to stop the output and control-q to start it.
+.IP /etc/passwd
+This file contains information about the accounts currently on the
+system.
+It consists of a line for each account with fields separated by
+`:' characters (1.8).
+You can look at this file by saying
+.DS
+cat /etc/passwd
+.DE
+The commands
+.I finger
+and
+.I grep
+are often used to search for information in this file.
+See `finger (1)', `passwd(5)', and `grep (1)' for more details.
+.IP exit
+The
+.I exit
+command is used to force termination of a shell script,
+and is built into the shell (3.9).
+.IP "exit\ status"
+A command which discovers a problem may reflect this back to the command
+(such as a shell) which invoked (executed) it.
+It does this by returning a non-zero number as its
+.I "exit status" ,
+a status of zero being considered
+`normal termination'.
+The
+.I exit
+command can be used to force a shell command script to give a non-zero
+.I "exit status"
+(3.6).
+.IP expansion
+The replacement of strings in the shell input which contain metacharacters
+by other strings is referred to as the process of
+.I expansion .
+Thus the replacement of the word `*' by a sorted list of files
+in the current directory is a `filename expansion'.
+Similarly the replacement of the characters `!!' by the text of
+the last command is a `history expansion'.
+.I Expansions
+are also referred to as
+.I substitutions
+(1.6, 3.4, 4.2).
+.IP expressions
+.I Expressions
+are used in the shell
+to control the conditional structures used in the writing of shell
+scripts and in calculating values for these scripts.
+The operators available in shell
+.I expressions
+are those of the language
+C (3.5).
+.IP extension
+Filenames often consist of a
+.I base
+name and an
+.I extension
+separated by the character `.'.
+By convention, groups of related files often share the same
+.I root
+name.
+Thus if `prog.c' were a C program, then the object file for this
+program would be stored in `prog.o'.
+Similarly a paper written with the
+`\-me'
+nroff macro package might be stored in
+`paper.me'
+while a formatted version of this paper might be kept in
+`paper.out' and a list of spelling errors in
+`paper.errs' (1.6).
+.IP fg
+The
+.I "job control"
+command
+.I fg
+is used to run a
+.I background
+or
+.I suspended
+job in the
+.I foreground
+(1.8, 2.6).
+.IP filename
+Each file in \s-2UNIX\s0 has a name consisting of up to 14 characters
+and not including the character `/' which is used in
+.I pathname
+building. Most
+.I filenames
+do not begin with the character `.', and contain
+only letters and digits with perhaps a `.' separating the
+.I base
+portion of the
+.I filename
+from an
+.I extension
+(1.6).
+.IP "filename expansion"
+.br
+.I "Filename expansion"
+uses the metacharacters `*', `?' and `[' and `]'
+to provide a convenient mechanism for naming files.
+Using
+.I "filename expansion"
+it is easy to name all the files in
+the current directory, or all files which have a common
+.I root
+name. Other
+.I "filename expansion"
+mechanisms use the metacharacter `~' and allow
+files in other users' directories to be named easily (1.6, 4.2).
+.IP flag
+Many \s-2UNIX\s0 commands accept arguments which are not the names
+of files or other users but are used to modify the action of the commands.
+These are referred to as
+.I flag
+options, and by convention consist of one or more letters preceded by
+the character `\-' (1.2).
+Thus the
+.I ls
+(list files) command has an option
+`\-s' to list the sizes of files.
+This is specified
+.DS
+ls \-s
+.DE
+.IP foreach
+The
+.I foreach
+command is used in shell scripts and at the terminal to specify
+repetition of a sequence of commands while the value of a certain
+shell variable ranges through a specified list (3.6, 4.1).
+.IP foreground
+When commands are executing in the normal way such that the
+shell is waiting for them to finish before prompting for another
+command they are said to be
+.I "foreground jobs"
+or
+.I "running in the foreground" \&.
+This is as opposed to
+.I background .
+.I Foreground
+jobs can be stopped by signals
+from the terminal caused by typing different
+control characters at the keyboard (1.8, 2.6).
+.IP goto
+The shell has a command
+.I goto
+used in shell scripts to transfer control to a given label (3.7).
+.IP grep
+The
+.I grep
+command searches through a list of argument files for a specified string.
+Thus
+.DS
+grep bill /etc/passwd
+.DE
+will print each line in the file
+.I "/etc/passwd"
+which contains the string `bill'.
+Actually,
+.I grep
+scans for
+.I "regular expressions"
+in the sense of the editors
+`ed (1)' and `ex (1)'.
+.I Grep
+stands for
+`globally find
+.I "regular expression"
+and print' (2.4).
+.IP head
+The
+.I head
+command prints the first few lines of one or more files.
+If you have a bunch of files containing text which you are wondering
+about it is sometimes useful to run
+.I head
+with these files as arguments.
+This will usually show enough of what is in these files to let you decide
+which you are interested in (1.5).
+.br
+.I Head
+is also used to describe the part of a
+.I pathname
+before and including the last `/' character. The
+.I tail
+of a
+.I pathname
+is the part after the last `/'. The `:h' and `:t' modifiers allow the
+.I head
+or
+.I tail
+of a
+.I pathname
+stored in a shell variable to be used (3.6).
+.IP history
+The
+.I history
+mechanism of the shell allows previous commands to be repeated,
+possibly after modification to correct typing mistakes or to change
+the meaning of the command.
+The shell has a
+.I "history list"
+where these commands are kept, and a
+.I history
+variable which controls how large this list is (2.3).
+.IP "home\ directory"
+.br
+Each user has a
+.I "home directory" ,
+which is given in your entry
+in the password file,
+.I /etc/passwd .
+This is the directory which you are placed in when you first login.
+The
+.I cd
+or
+.I chdir
+command with no arguments takes you back to this directory, whose
+name is recorded in the shell variable
+.I home .
+You can also access the
+.I "home directories"
+of other users in forming
+filenames using a
+.I "filename expansion"
+notation and the character `~' (1.6).
+.IP if
+A conditional command within the shell, the
+.I if
+command is used in shell command scripts to make decisions
+about what course of action to take next (3.6).
+.IP ignoreeof
+Normally, your shell will exit, printing
+`logout'
+if you type a control-d at a prompt of `% '.
+This is the way you usually log off the system.
+You can
+.I set
+the
+.I ignoreeof
+variable if you wish in your
+.I \&.login
+file and then use the command
+.I logout
+to logout.
+This is useful if you sometimes accidentally type too many control-d
+characters, logging yourself off
+(2.2).
+.IP input
+Many commands on \s-2UNIX\s0 take information from the terminal or from
+files which they then act on.
+This information is called
+.I input .
+Commands normally read for
+.I input
+from their
+.I "standard input"
+which is, by default, the terminal.
+This
+.I "standard input"
+can be redirected from a file using a shell metanotation
+with the character `<'.
+Many commands will also read from a file specified as argument.
+Commands placed in
+.I pipelines
+will read from the output of the previous
+command in the
+.I pipeline .
+The leftmost command in a
+.I pipeline
+reads from the terminal if
+you neither redirect its
+.I input
+nor give it a filename to use as
+.I "standard input" .
+Special mechanisms exist for supplying input to commands in shell
+scripts (1.5, 3.8).
+.IP interrupt
+An
+.I interrupt
+is a signal to a program that is generated by typing ^C. (On older versions
+of UNIX the \s-2RUBOUT\s0 or \s-2DELETE\s0 key were used for this purpose.)
+It causes most programs to stop execution.
+Certain programs, such as the shell and the editors,
+handle an
+.I interrupt
+in special ways, usually by stopping what they
+are doing and prompting for another command.
+While the shell is executing another command and waiting for it
+to finish, the shell does not listen to
+.I interrupts.
+The shell often wakes up when you hit
+.I interrupt
+because many commands
+die when they receive an
+.I interrupt
+(1.8, 3.9).
+.IP job
+One or more commands
+typed on the same input line separated by `|' or `;' characters
+are run together and are called a
+.I job \&.
+Simple commands run by themselves without any `|' or `;' characters
+are the simplest
+.I jobs.
+.I Jobs
+are classified as
+.I foreground ,
+.I background ,
+or
+.I suspended
+(2.6).
+.IP "job\ control"
+The builtin functions that control the execution of
+jobs are called
+.I "job control"
+commands. These are
+.I "bg, fg, stop, kill"
+(2.6).
+.IP "job\ number"
+When each job
+is started it is assigned a small number called a
+.I "job number"
+which is printed next to the job in the output of the
+.I jobs
+command. This number, preceded by a `%' character, can be used as an argument
+to
+.I "job control"
+commands to indicate
+a specific job (2.6).
+.IP jobs
+The
+.I jobs
+command prints a table showing
+jobs that are either running in the
+.I background
+or are
+.I suspended
+(2.6).
+.IP kill
+A command which sends a
+signal
+to a job causing it to terminate (2.6).
+.IP \&.login
+The file
+.I \&.login
+in your
+.I home
+directory is read by the shell each time you login to \s-2UNIX\s0
+and the commands there are executed.
+There are a number of commands which are usefully placed here,
+especially
+.I set
+commands to the shell itself (2.1).
+.IP "login\ shell"
+The shell that is started on your terminal when you login is called
+your
+.I "login shell" .
+It is different from other shells which you may run (e.g. on
+shell scripts)
+in that it reads the
+.I \&.login
+file before reading commands from the terminal and it reads the
+.I \&.logout
+file after you logout
+(2.1).
+.IP logout
+The
+.I logout
+command causes a login shell to exit.
+Normally, a login shell will exit when you hit control-d
+generating an
+.I end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile,
+but if you have set
+.I ignoreeof
+in you
+.I \&.login
+file then this will not work and you must use
+.I logout
+to log off the \s-2UNIX\s0 system (2.8).
+.IP \&.logout
+When you log off of \s-2UNIX\s0 the shell will execute commands from
+the file
+.I \&.logout
+in your
+.I home
+directory after it prints `logout'.
+.IP lpr
+The command
+.I lpr
+is the line printer daemon.
+The standard input of
+.I lpr
+spooled and printed on the \s-2UNIX\s0 line printer.
+You can also give
+.I lpr
+a list of filenames as arguments to be printed.
+It is most common to use
+.I lpr
+as the last component of a
+.I pipeline
+(2.3).
+.IP ls
+The
+.I ls
+(list files) command is one of the most commonly used \s-2UNIX\s0
+commands.
+With no argument filenames it prints the names of the files in the
+current directory.
+It has a number of useful
+.I flag
+arguments, and can also be given the names of directories
+as arguments, in which case it lists the names of the files in these
+directories (1.2).
+.IP mail
+The
+.I mail
+program is used to send and receive messages from other \s-2UNIX\s0
+users (1.1, 2.1), whether they are logged on or not.
+.IP make
+The
+.I make
+command is used to maintain one or more related files and to
+organize functions to be performed on these files.
+In many ways
+.I make
+is easier to use, and more helpful than
+shell command scripts (3.2).
+.IP makefile
+The file containing commands for
+.I make
+is called
+.I makefile
+or
+.I Makefile
+(3.2).
+.IP manual
+The
+.I manual
+often referred to is the
+`\s-2UNIX\s0 manual'.
+It contains 8 numbered sections with a description of each \s-2UNIX\s0
+program (section 1), system call (section 2), subroutine (section 3),
+device (section 4), special data structure (section 5), game (section 6),
+miscellaneous item (section 7) and system administration program (section 8).
+There are also supplementary documents (tutorials and reference guides)
+for individual programs which require explanation in more detail.
+An online version of the
+.I manual
+is accessible through the
+.I man
+command.
+Its documentation can be obtained online via
+.DS
+man man
+.DE
+If you can't decide what manual page to look in, try the
+.I apropos (1)
+command.
+The supplementary documents are in subdirectories of /usr/doc.
+.IP metacharacter
+.br
+Many characters which are neither letters nor digits have special meaning
+either to the shell or to \s-2UNIX\s0.
+These characters are called
+.I metacharacters .
+If it is necessary to place these characters in arguments to commands
+without them having their special meaning then they must be
+.I quoted .
+An example of a
+.I metacharacter
+is the character `>' which is used
+to indicate placement of output into a file.
+For the purposes of the
+.I history
+mechanism,
+most unquoted
+.I metacharacters
+form separate words (1.4).
+The appendix to this user's manual lists the
+.I metacharacters
+in groups by their function.
+.IP mkdir
+The
+.I mkdir
+command is used to create a new directory.
+.IP modifier
+Substitutions with the
+.I history
+mechanism, keyed by the character `!'
+or of variables using the metacharacter `$', are often subjected
+to modifications, indicated by placing the character `:' after the
+substitution and following this with the
+.I modifier
+itself.
+The
+.I "command substitution"
+mechanism can also be used to perform modification in a similar way,
+but this notation is less clear (3.6).
+.IP more
+The program
+.I more
+writes a file on your terminal allowing you to control how much text
+is displayed at a time.
+.I More
+can move through the file screenful by screenful, line by line,
+search forward for a string, or start again at the beginning of the file.
+It is generally the easiest way of viewing a file (1.8).
+.IP noclobber
+The shell has a variable
+.I noclobber
+which may be set in the file
+.I \&.login
+to prevent accidental destruction of files by the `>' output redirection
+metasyntax of the shell (2.2, 2.5).
+.IP noglob
+The shell variable
+.I noglob
+is set to suppress the
+.I "filename expansion"
+of arguments containing the metacharacters `~', `*', `?', `[' and `]' (3.6).
+.IP notify
+The
+.I notify
+command tells the shell to report on the termination of a specific
+.I "background job"
+at the exact time it occurs as opposed to waiting
+until just before the next prompt to report the termination.
+The
+.I notify
+variable, if set, causes the shell to always report the termination
+of
+.I background
+jobs exactly when they occur (2.6).
+.IP onintr
+The
+.I onintr
+command is built into the shell and is used to control the action
+of a shell command script when an
+.I interrupt
+signal is received (3.9).
+.IP output
+Many commands in \s-2UNIX\s0 result in some lines of text which are
+called their
+.I output.
+This
+.I output
+is usually placed on what is known as the
+.I "standard output"
+which is normally connected to the user's terminal.
+The shell has a syntax using the metacharacter `>' for redirecting
+the
+.I "standard output"
+of a command to a file (1.3).
+Using the
+.I pipe
+mechanism and the metacharacter `|' it is also possible for
+the
+.I "standard output"
+of one command to become the
+.I "standard input"
+of another command (1.5).
+Certain commands such as the line printer daemon
+.I p
+do not place their results on the
+.I "standard output"
+but rather in more
+useful places such as on the line printer (2.3).
+Similarly the
+.I write
+command places its output on another user's terminal rather than its
+.I "standard output"
+(2.3).
+Commands also have a
+.I "diagnostic output"
+where they write their error messages.
+Normally these go to the terminal even if the
+.I "standard output"
+has been sent to a file or another command, but it is possible
+to direct error diagnostics along with
+.I "standard output"
+using a special metanotation (2.5).
+.IP path
+The shell has a variable
+.I path
+which gives the names of the directories in which it searches for
+the commands which it is given.
+It always checks first to see if the command it is given is
+built into the shell.
+If it is, then it need not search for the command as it can do it internally.
+If the command is not builtin, then the shell searches for a file
+with the name given in each of the directories in the
+.I path
+variable, left to right.
+Since the normal definition of the
+.I path
+variable is
+.DS
+path (. /usr/ucb /bin /usr/bin)
+.DE
+the shell normally looks in the current directory, and then in
+the standard system directories `/usr/ucb', `/bin' and `/usr/bin' for the named
+command (2.2).
+If the command cannot be found the shell will print an error diagnostic.
+Scripts of shell commands will be executed using another shell to interpret
+them if they have `execute' permission set.
+This is normally true because a command of the form
+.DS
+chmod 755 script
+.DE
+was executed to turn this execute permission on (3.3).
+If you add new commands to a directory in the
+.I path ,
+you should issue
+the command
+.I rehash
+(2.2).
+.IP pathname
+A list of names, separated by `/' characters, forms a
+.I pathname.
+Each
+.I component,
+between successive `/' characters, names a directory
+in which the next
+.I component
+file resides.
+.I Pathnames
+which begin with the character `/' are interpreted relative
+to the
+.I root
+directory in the filesystem.
+Other
+.I pathnames
+are interpreted relative to the current directory
+as reported by
+.I pwd.
+The last component of a
+.I pathname
+may name a directory, but
+usually names a file.
+.IP pipeline
+A group of commands which are connected together, the
+.I "standard output"
+of each connected to the
+.I "standard input"
+of the next,
+is called a
+.I pipeline.
+The
+.I pipe
+mechanism used to connect these commands is indicated by
+the shell metacharacter `|' (1.5, 2.3).
+.IP popd
+The
+.I popd
+command changes the shell's
+.I "working directory"
+to the directory you most recently left using the
+.I pushd
+command. It returns to the directory without having to type its name,
+forgetting the name of the current
+.I "working directory"
+before doing so (2.7).
+.IP port
+The part of a computer system to which each terminal is
+connected is called a
+.I port .
+Usually the system has a fixed number of
+.I ports ,
+some of which are connected to telephone lines
+for dial-up access, and some of which are permanently
+wired directly to specific terminals.
+.IP pr
+The
+.I pr
+command is used to prepare listings of the contents of files
+with headers giving the name of the file and the date and
+time at which the file was last modified (2.3).
+.IP printenv
+The
+.I printenv
+command is used
+to print the current setting of variables in the environment
+(2.8).
+.IP process
+An instance of a running program is called a
+.I process
+(2.6).
+\s-2UNIX\s0 assigns each
+.I process
+a unique number when it is
+started \- called the
+.I "process number" .
+.I "Process numbers"
+can be used to stop individual
+.I processes
+using the
+.I kill
+or
+.I stop
+commands when the
+.I processes
+are part of a detached
+.I background
+job.
+.IP program
+Usually synonymous with
+.I command ;
+a binary file or shell command script
+which performs a useful function is often
+called a
+.I program .
+.IP prompt
+Many programs will print a
+.I prompt
+on the terminal when they expect input.
+Thus the editor
+`ex (1)' will print a `:' when it expects input.
+The shell
+.I prompts
+for input with `% ' and occasionally with `? ' when
+reading commands from the terminal (1.1).
+The shell has a variable
+.I prompt
+which may be set to a different value to change the shell's main
+.I prompt .
+This is mostly used when debugging the shell (2.8).
+.IP pushd
+The
+.I pushd
+command, which means `push directory', changes the shell's
+.I "working directory"
+and also remembers the current
+.I "working directory"
+before the change is made, allowing you to return to the same
+directory via the
+.I popd
+command later without retyping its name (2.7).
+.IP ps
+The
+.I ps
+command is used to show the processes you are currently running.
+Each process is shown with its unique process number,
+an indication of the terminal name it is attached to,
+an indication of the state of the process (whether it is running,
+stopped, awaiting some event (sleeping), and whether it is swapped out),
+and the amount of \s-2CPU\s0 time it has used so far.
+The command is identified by printing some of the words used
+when it was invoked (2.6).
+Shells, such as the
+.I csh
+you use to run the
+.I ps
+command, are not normally shown in the output.
+.IP pwd
+The
+.I pwd
+command prints the full
+.I pathname
+of the current
+.I "working directory" \&.
+The
+.I dirs
+builtin command is usually a better and faster choice.
+.IP quit
+The
+.I quit
+signal, generated by a control-\e,
+is used to terminate programs which are behaving unreasonably.
+It normally produces a core image file (1.8).
+.IP quotation
+The process by which metacharacters are prevented their special
+meaning, usually by using the character `\' in pairs, or by
+using the character `\e', is referred to as
+.I quotation
+(1.7).
+.IP redirection
+The routing of input or output from or to a file is known
+as
+.I redirection
+of input or output (1.3).
+.IP rehash
+The
+.I rehash
+command tells the shell to rebuild its internal table of which commands
+are found in which directories in your
+.I path .
+This is necessary when a new program is installed in one of these
+directories (2.8).
+.IP "relative pathname"
+.br
+A
+.I pathname
+which does not begin with a `/' is called a
+.I "relative pathname"
+since it is interpreted
+.I relative
+to the current
+.I "working directory" .
+The first
+.I component
+of such a
+.I pathname
+refers to some file or directory in the
+.I "working directory" ,
+and subsequent
+.I components
+between `/' characters refer to directories below the
+.I "working directory" .
+.I Pathnames
+that are not
+.I relative
+are called
+.I "absolute pathnames"
+(1.6).
+.IP repeat
+The
+.I repeat
+command iterates another command a specified number of times.
+.IP root
+The directory
+that is at the top of the entire directory structure is called the
+.I root
+directory since it is the `root' of the entire tree structure of
+directories. The name used in
+.I pathnames
+to indicate the
+.I root
+is `/'.
+.I Pathnames
+starting with `/' are said to be
+.I absolute
+since they start at the
+.I root
+directory.
+.I Root
+is also used as the part of a
+.I pathname
+that is left after removing
+the
+.I extension .
+See
+.I filename
+for a further explanation (1.6).
+.IP \s-2RUBOUT\s0
+The \s-2RUBOUT\s0 or \s-2DELETE\s0
+key is often used to erase the previously typed character; some users
+prefer the \s-2BACKSPACE\s0 for this purpose. On older versions of \s-2UNIX\s0
+this key served as the \s-2INTR\s0 character.
+.IP "scratch file"
+Files whose names begin with a `#' are referred to as
+.I "scratch files" ,
+since they are automatically removed by the system after a couple of
+days of non-use, or more frequently if disk space becomes tight (1.3).
+.IP script
+Sequences of shell commands placed in a file are called shell command
+.I scripts .
+It is often possible to perform simple tasks using these
+.I scripts
+without writing a program in a language such as C, by
+using the shell to selectively run other programs (3.3, 3.10).
+.IP set
+The builtin
+.I set
+command is used to assign new values to shell variables
+and to show the values of the current variables.
+Many shell variables have special meaning to the shell itself.
+Thus by using the
+.I set
+command the behavior of the shell can be affected (2.1).
+.IP setenv
+Variables in the environment `environ (5)'
+can be changed by using the
+.I setenv
+builtin command (2.8).
+The
+.I printenv
+command can be used to print the value of the variables in the environment.
+.IP shell
+A
+.I shell
+is a command language interpreter.
+It is possible to write and run your own
+.I shell ,
+as
+.I shells
+are no different than any other programs as far as the
+system is concerned.
+This manual deals with the details of one particular
+.I shell ,
+called
+.I csh.
+.IP "shell script"
+See
+.I script
+(3.3, 3.10).
+.IP signal
+A
+.I signal
+in \s-2UNIX\s0 is a short message that is sent to a running program
+which causes something to happen to that process.
+.I Signals
+are sent either by typing special
+.I control
+characters on the keyboard or by using the
+.I kill
+or
+.I stop
+commands (1.8, 2.6).
+.IP sort
+The
+.I sort
+program sorts a sequence of lines in ways that can be controlled
+by argument
+.I flags
+(1.5).
+.IP source
+The
+.I source
+command causes the shell to read commands from a specified file.
+It is most useful for reading files such as
+.I \&.cshrc
+after changing them (2.8).
+.IP "special character"
+.br
+See
+.I metacharacters
+and the
+appendix to this manual.
+.IP standard
+We refer often to the
+.I "standard input"
+and
+.I "standard output"
+of commands.
+See
+.I input
+and
+.I output
+(1.3, 3.8).
+.IP status
+A command normally returns a
+.I status
+when it finishes.
+By convention a
+.I status
+of zero indicates that the command succeeded.
+Commands may return non-zero
+.I status
+to indicate that some abnormal event has occurred.
+The shell variable
+.I status
+is set to the
+.I status
+returned by the last command.
+It is most useful in shell commmand scripts (3.6).
+.IP stop
+The
+.I stop
+command causes a
+.I background
+job to become
+.I suspended
+(2.6).
+.IP string
+A sequential group of characters taken together is called a
+.I string \&.
+.I Strings
+can contain any printable characters (2.2).
+.IP stty
+The
+.I stty
+program changes certain parameters inside \s-2UNIX\s0 which determine
+how your terminal is handled. See `stty (1)' for a complete description (2.6).
+.IP substitution
+The shell implements a number of
+.I substitutions
+where sequences indicated by metacharacters are replaced by other sequences.
+Notable examples of this are history
+.I substitution
+keyed by the
+metacharacter `!' and variable
+.I substitution
+indicated by `$'.
+We also refer to
+.I substitutions
+as
+.I expansions
+(3.4).
+.IP suspended
+A job becomes
+.I suspended
+after a \s-2STOP\s0 signal is sent to it, either by typing a
+.I control -z
+at the terminal (for
+.I foreground
+jobs) or by using the
+.I stop
+command (for
+.I background
+jobs). When
+.I suspended ,
+a job temporarily stops running until it is restarted by either the
+.I fg
+or
+.I bg
+command (2.6).
+.IP switch
+The
+.I switch
+command of the shell allows the shell
+to select one of a number of sequences of commands based on an
+argument string.
+It is similar to the
+.I switch
+statement in the language C (3.7).
+.IP termination
+When a command which is being executed finishes we say it undergoes
+.I termination
+or
+.I terminates.
+Commands normally terminate when they read an
+.I end\f1-\fPof\f1-\fPfile
+from their
+.I "standard input" .
+It is also possible to terminate commands by sending them
+an
+.I interrupt
+or
+.I quit
+signal (1.8).
+The
+.I kill
+program terminates specified jobs (2.6).
+.IP then
+The
+.I then
+command is part of the shell's
+`if-then-else-endif' control construct used in command scripts (3.6).
+.IP time
+The
+.I time
+command can be used to measure the amount of \s-2CPU\s0
+and real time consumed by a specified command as well
+as the amount of disk i/o, memory utilized, and number
+of page faults and swaps taken by the command (2.1, 2.8).
+.IP tset
+The
+.I tset
+program is used to set standard erase and kill characters
+and to tell the system what kind of terminal you are using.
+It is often invoked in a
+.I \&.login
+file (2.1).
+.IP tty
+The word
+.I tty
+is a historical abbreviation for `teletype' which is frequently used
+in \s-2UNIX\s0 to indicate the
+.I port
+to which a given terminal is connected. The
+.I tty
+command will print the name of the
+.I tty
+or
+.I port
+to which your terminal is presently connected.
+.IP unalias
+The
+.I unalias
+command removes aliases (2.8).
+.IP \s-2UNIX\s0
+\s-2UNIX\s0 is an operating system on which
+.I csh
+runs.
+\s-2UNIX\s0 provides facilities which allow
+.I csh
+to invoke other programs such as editors and text formatters which
+you may wish to use.
+.IP unset
+The
+.I unset
+command removes the definitions of shell variables (2.2, 2.8).
+.IP "variable expansion"
+.br
+See
+.I variables
+and
+.I expansion
+(2.2, 3.4).
+.IP variables
+.I Variables
+in
+.I csh
+hold one or more strings as value.
+The most common use of
+.I variables
+is in controlling the behavior
+of the shell.
+See
+.I path ,
+.I noclobber ,
+and
+.I ignoreeof
+for examples.
+.I Variables
+such as
+.I argv
+are also used in writing shell programs (shell command scripts)
+(2.2).
+.IP verbose
+The
+.I verbose
+shell variable can be set to cause commands to be echoed
+after they are history expanded.
+This is often useful in debugging shell scripts.
+The
+.I verbose
+variable is set by the shell's
+.I \-v
+command line option (3.10).
+.IP wc
+The
+.I wc
+program calculates the number of characters, words, and lines in the
+files whose names are given as arguments (2.6).
+.IP while
+The
+.I while
+builtin control construct is used in shell command scripts (3.7).
+.IP word
+A sequence of characters which forms an argument to a command is called
+a
+.I word .
+Many characters which are neither letters, digits, `\-', `.' nor `/'
+form
+.I words
+all by themselves even if they are not surrounded
+by blanks.
+Any sequence of characters may be made into a
+.I word
+by surrounding it
+with `\'' characters
+except for the characters `\'' and `!' which require special treatment
+(1.1).
+This process of placing special characters in
+.I words
+without their special meaning is called
+.I quoting .
+.IP "working directory"
+.br
+At any given time you are in one particular directory, called
+your
+.I "working directory" .
+This directory's name is printed by the
+.I pwd
+command and the files listed by
+.I ls
+are the ones in this directory.
+You can change
+.I "working directories"
+using
+.I chdir .
+.IP write
+The
+.I write
+command is an obsolete way of communicating with other users who are logged in to
+\s-2UNIX\s0 (you have to take turns typing). If you are both using display
+terminals, use \fItalk\fP(1), which is much more pleasant.
diff --git a/bin/csh/USD.doc/tabs b/bin/csh/USD.doc/tabs
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..9d274a14caf8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/USD.doc/tabs
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)tabs 8.1 (Berkeley) 6/8/93
+.\"
+.ta 5n 10n 15n 20n 25n 30n 35n 40n 45n 50n 55n 60n 65n 70n 75n 80n
diff --git a/bin/csh/alloc.c b/bin/csh/alloc.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..6fc8cf594301
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/alloc.c
@@ -0,0 +1,124 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1983, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)alloc.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+char *memtop = NULL; /* PWP: top of current memory */
+char *membot = NULL; /* PWP: bottom of allocatable memory */
+
+ptr_t
+Malloc(n)
+ size_t n;
+{
+ ptr_t ptr;
+
+ if (membot == NULL)
+ memtop = membot = sbrk(0);
+ if ((ptr = malloc(n)) == (ptr_t) 0) {
+ child++;
+ stderror(ERR_NOMEM);
+ }
+ return (ptr);
+}
+
+ptr_t
+Realloc(p, n)
+ ptr_t p;
+ size_t n;
+{
+ ptr_t ptr;
+
+ if (membot == NULL)
+ memtop = membot = sbrk(0);
+ if ((ptr = realloc(p, n)) == (ptr_t) 0) {
+ child++;
+ stderror(ERR_NOMEM);
+ }
+ return (ptr);
+}
+
+ptr_t
+Calloc(s, n)
+ size_t s, n;
+{
+ ptr_t ptr;
+
+ if (membot == NULL)
+ memtop = membot = sbrk(0);
+ if ((ptr = calloc(s, n)) == (ptr_t) 0) {
+ child++;
+ stderror(ERR_NOMEM);
+ }
+
+ return (ptr);
+}
+
+void
+Free(p)
+ ptr_t p;
+{
+ if (p)
+ free(p);
+}
+
+/*
+ * mstats - print out statistics about malloc
+ *
+ * Prints two lines of numbers, one showing the length of the free list
+ * for each size category, the second showing the number of mallocs -
+ * frees for each size category.
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+showall(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ memtop = (char *) sbrk(0);
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "Allocated memory from 0x%lx to 0x%lx (%ld).\n",
+ (unsigned long) membot, (unsigned long) memtop, memtop - membot);
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/char.c b/bin/csh/char.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..7da611fc6c76
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/char.c
@@ -0,0 +1,311 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)char.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include "char.h"
+
+unsigned short _cmap[256] = {
+/* nul soh stx etx */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* eot enq ack bel */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* bs ht nl vt */
+ _CTR, _CTR|_SP|_META, _CTR|_NL|_META, _CTR,
+
+/* np cr so si */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* dle dc1 dc2 dc3 */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* dc4 nak syn etb */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* can em sub esc */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* fs gs rs us */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* sp ! " # */
+ _SP|_META, 0, _QF, _META,
+
+/* $ % & ' */
+ _DOL, 0, _META|_CMD, _QF,
+
+/* ( ) * + */
+ _META|_CMD, _META, _GLOB, 0,
+
+/* , - . / */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* 0 1 2 3 */
+ _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD,
+
+/* 4 5 6 7 */
+ _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD,
+
+/* 8 9 : ; */
+ _DIG|_XD, _DIG|_XD, 0, _META|_CMD,
+
+/* < = > ? */
+ _META, 0, _META, _GLOB,
+
+/* @ A B C */
+ 0, _LET|_UP|_XD, _LET|_UP|_XD, _LET|_UP|_XD,
+
+/* D E F G */
+ _LET|_UP|_XD, _LET|_UP|_XD, _LET|_UP|_XD, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* H I J K */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* L M N O */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* P Q R S */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* T U V W */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* X Y Z [ */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _GLOB,
+
+/* \ ] ^ _ */
+ _ESC, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* ` a b c */
+ _QB|_GLOB|_META, _LET|_LOW|_XD, _LET|_LOW|_XD, _LET|_LOW|_XD,
+
+/* d e f g */
+ _LET|_LOW|_XD, _LET|_LOW|_XD, _LET|_LOW|_XD, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* h i j k */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* l m n o */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* p q r s */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* t u v w */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* x y z { */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _GLOB,
+
+/* | } ~ del */
+ _META|_CMD, 0, 0, _CTR,
+
+#if defined(SHORT_STRINGS) && !defined(KANJI)
+/****************************************************************/
+/* 128 - 255 The below is supposedly ISO 8859/1 */
+/****************************************************************/
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* (undef) (undef) (undef) (undef) */
+ _CTR, _CTR, _CTR, _CTR,
+
+/* nobreakspace exclamdown cent sterling */
+ _SP, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* currency yen brokenbar section */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* diaeresis copyright ordfeminine guillemotleft */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* notsign hyphen registered macron */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* degree plusminus twosuperior threesuperior */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* acute mu paragraph periodcentered */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* cedilla onesuperior masculine guillemotright */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* onequarter onehalf threequarters questiondown */
+ 0, 0, 0, 0,
+
+/* Agrave Aacute Acircumflex Atilde */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* Adiaeresis Aring AE Ccedilla */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* Egrave Eacute Ecircumflex Ediaeresis */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* Igrave Iacute Icircumflex Idiaeresis */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* ETH Ntilde Ograve Oacute */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* Ocircumflex Otilde Odiaeresis multiply */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, 0,
+
+/* Ooblique Ugrave Uacute Ucircumflex */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP,
+
+/* Udiaeresis Yacute THORN ssharp */
+ _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_UP, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* agrave aacute acircumflex atilde */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* adiaeresis aring ae ccedilla */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* egrave eacute ecircumflex ediaeresis */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* igrave iacute icircumflex idiaeresis */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* eth ntilde ograve oacute */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* ocircumflex otilde odiaeresis division */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, 0,
+
+/* oslash ugrave uacute ucircumflex */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+
+/* udiaeresis yacute thorn ydiaeresis */
+ _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW, _LET|_LOW,
+#endif /* SHORT_STRINGS && !KANJI */
+};
+
+#ifndef NLS
+/* _cmap_lower, _cmap_upper for ISO 8859/1 */
+
+unsigned char _cmap_lower[256] = {
+ 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0004, 0005, 0006, 0007,
+ 0010, 0011, 0012, 0013, 0014, 0015, 0016, 0017,
+ 0020, 0021, 0022, 0023, 0024, 0025, 0026, 0027,
+ 0030, 0031, 0032, 0033, 0034, 0035, 0036, 0037,
+ 0040, 0041, 0042, 0043, 0044, 0045, 0046, 0047,
+ 0050, 0051, 0052, 0053, 0054, 0055, 0056, 0057,
+ 0060, 0061, 0062, 0063, 0064, 0065, 0066, 0067,
+ 0070, 0071, 0072, 0073, 0074, 0075, 0076, 0077,
+ 0100, 0141, 0142, 0143, 0144, 0145, 0146, 0147,
+ 0150, 0151, 0152, 0153, 0154, 0155, 0156, 0157,
+ 0160, 0161, 0162, 0163, 0164, 0165, 0166, 0167,
+ 0170, 0171, 0172, 0133, 0134, 0135, 0136, 0137,
+ 0140, 0141, 0142, 0143, 0144, 0145, 0146, 0147,
+ 0150, 0151, 0152, 0153, 0154, 0155, 0156, 0157,
+ 0160, 0161, 0162, 0163, 0164, 0165, 0166, 0167,
+ 0170, 0171, 0172, 0173, 0174, 0175, 0176, 0177,
+ 0200, 0201, 0202, 0203, 0204, 0205, 0206, 0207,
+ 0210, 0211, 0212, 0213, 0214, 0215, 0216, 0217,
+ 0220, 0221, 0222, 0223, 0224, 0225, 0226, 0227,
+ 0230, 0231, 0232, 0233, 0234, 0235, 0236, 0237,
+ 0240, 0241, 0242, 0243, 0244, 0245, 0246, 0247,
+ 0250, 0251, 0252, 0253, 0254, 0255, 0256, 0257,
+ 0260, 0261, 0262, 0263, 0264, 0265, 0266, 0267,
+ 0270, 0271, 0272, 0273, 0274, 0275, 0276, 0277,
+ 0340, 0341, 0342, 0343, 0344, 0345, 0346, 0347,
+ 0350, 0351, 0352, 0353, 0354, 0355, 0356, 0357,
+ 0360, 0361, 0362, 0363, 0364, 0365, 0366, 0327,
+ 0370, 0371, 0372, 0373, 0374, 0375, 0376, 0337,
+ 0340, 0341, 0342, 0343, 0344, 0345, 0346, 0347,
+ 0350, 0351, 0352, 0353, 0354, 0355, 0356, 0357,
+ 0360, 0361, 0362, 0363, 0364, 0365, 0366, 0367,
+ 0370, 0371, 0372, 0373, 0374, 0375, 0376, 0377,
+};
+
+unsigned char _cmap_upper[256] = {
+ 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0004, 0005, 0006, 0007,
+ 0010, 0011, 0012, 0013, 0014, 0015, 0016, 0017,
+ 0020, 0021, 0022, 0023, 0024, 0025, 0026, 0027,
+ 0030, 0031, 0032, 0033, 0034, 0035, 0036, 0037,
+ 0040, 0041, 0042, 0043, 0044, 0045, 0046, 0047,
+ 0050, 0051, 0052, 0053, 0054, 0055, 0056, 0057,
+ 0060, 0061, 0062, 0063, 0064, 0065, 0066, 0067,
+ 0070, 0071, 0072, 0073, 0074, 0075, 0076, 0077,
+ 0100, 0101, 0102, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0106, 0107,
+ 0110, 0111, 0112, 0113, 0114, 0115, 0116, 0117,
+ 0120, 0121, 0122, 0123, 0124, 0125, 0126, 0127,
+ 0130, 0131, 0132, 0133, 0134, 0135, 0136, 0137,
+ 0140, 0101, 0102, 0103, 0104, 0105, 0106, 0107,
+ 0110, 0111, 0112, 0113, 0114, 0115, 0116, 0117,
+ 0120, 0121, 0122, 0123, 0124, 0125, 0126, 0127,
+ 0130, 0131, 0132, 0173, 0174, 0175, 0176, 0177,
+ 0200, 0201, 0202, 0203, 0204, 0205, 0206, 0207,
+ 0210, 0211, 0212, 0213, 0214, 0215, 0216, 0217,
+ 0220, 0221, 0222, 0223, 0224, 0225, 0226, 0227,
+ 0230, 0231, 0232, 0233, 0234, 0235, 0236, 0237,
+ 0240, 0241, 0242, 0243, 0244, 0245, 0246, 0247,
+ 0250, 0251, 0252, 0253, 0254, 0255, 0256, 0257,
+ 0260, 0261, 0262, 0263, 0264, 0265, 0266, 0267,
+ 0270, 0271, 0272, 0273, 0274, 0275, 0276, 0277,
+ 0300, 0301, 0302, 0303, 0304, 0305, 0306, 0307,
+ 0310, 0311, 0312, 0313, 0314, 0315, 0316, 0317,
+ 0320, 0321, 0322, 0323, 0324, 0325, 0326, 0327,
+ 0330, 0331, 0332, 0333, 0334, 0335, 0336, 0337,
+ 0300, 0301, 0302, 0303, 0304, 0305, 0306, 0307,
+ 0310, 0311, 0312, 0313, 0314, 0315, 0316, 0317,
+ 0320, 0321, 0322, 0323, 0324, 0325, 0326, 0367,
+ 0330, 0331, 0332, 0333, 0334, 0335, 0336, 0377,
+};
+#endif /* NLS */
diff --git a/bin/csh/char.h b/bin/csh/char.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..a791de45a49c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/char.h
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * @(#)char.h 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+ */
+
+#include <ctype.h>
+
+extern unsigned short _cmap[];
+
+#ifndef NLS
+extern unsigned char _cmap_lower[], _cmap_upper[];
+
+#endif
+
+#define _QF 0x0001 /* '" (Forward quotes) */
+#define _QB 0x0002 /* ` (Backquote) */
+#define _SP 0x0004 /* space and tab */
+#define _NL 0x0008 /* \n */
+#define _META 0x0010 /* lex meta characters, sp #'`";&<>()|\t\n */
+#define _GLOB 0x0020 /* glob characters, *?{[` */
+#define _ESC 0x0040 /* \ */
+#define _DOL 0x0080 /* $ */
+#define _DIG 0x0100 /* 0-9 */
+#define _LET 0x0200 /* a-z, A-Z, _ */
+#define _UP 0x0400 /* A-Z */
+#define _LOW 0x0800 /* a-z */
+#define _XD 0x1000 /* 0-9, a-f, A-F */
+#define _CMD 0x2000 /* lex end of command chars, ;&(|` */
+#define _CTR 0x4000 /* control */
+
+#define cmap(c, bits) \
+ (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : (_cmap[(unsigned char)(c)] & (bits)))
+
+#define isglob(c) cmap(c, _GLOB)
+#define isspc(c) cmap(c, _SP)
+#define ismeta(c) cmap(c, _META)
+#define iscmdmeta(c) cmap(c, _CMD)
+#define letter(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : \
+ (isalpha((unsigned char) (c)) || (c) == '_'))
+#define alnum(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : \
+ (isalnum((unsigned char) (c)) || (c) == '_'))
+#ifdef NLS
+#define Isspace(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isspace((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isdigit(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isdigit((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isalpha(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isalpha((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Islower(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : islower((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isupper(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isupper((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Tolower(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : tolower((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Toupper(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : toupper((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isxdigit(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isxdigit((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isalnum(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isalnum((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Iscntrl(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : iscntrl((unsigned char) (c)))
+#define Isprint(c) (((c) & QUOTE) ? 0 : isprint((unsigned char) (c)))
+#else
+#define Isspace(c) cmap(c, _SP|_NL)
+#define Isdigit(c) cmap(c, _DIG)
+#define Isalpha(c) (cmap(c,_LET) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#define Islower(c) (cmap(c,_LOW) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#define Isupper(c) (cmap(c, _UP) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#define Tolower(c) (_cmap_lower[(unsigned char)(c)])
+#define Toupper(c) (_cmap_upper[(unsigned char)(c)])
+#define Isxdigit(c) cmap(c, _XD)
+#define Isalnum(c) (cmap(c, _DIG|_LET) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#define Iscntrl(c) (cmap(c,_CTR) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#define Isprint(c) (!cmap(c,_CTR) && !(((c) & META) && AsciiOnly))
+#endif
diff --git a/bin/csh/const.c b/bin/csh/const.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..25a02e0c7a5f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/const.c
@@ -0,0 +1,160 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)const.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+/*
+ * tc.const.c: String constants for csh.
+ */
+
+#include "csh.h"
+
+Char STR0[] = { '0', '\0' };
+Char STR1[] = { '1', '\0' };
+Char STRHOME[] = { 'H', 'O', 'M', 'E', '\0' };
+Char STRLANG[] = { 'L', 'A', 'N', 'G', '\0' };
+Char STRLC_CTYPE[] = { 'L', 'C', '_', 'C', 'T', 'Y', 'P', 'E' ,'\0' };
+Char STRLOGNAME[] = { 'L', 'O', 'G', 'N', 'A', 'M', 'E', '\0' };
+Char STRLbrace[] = { '{', '\0' };
+Char STRLparen[] = { '(', '\0' };
+Char STRLparensp[] = { '(', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRNULL[] = { '\0' };
+Char STRPATH[] = { 'P', 'A', 'T', 'H', '\0' };
+Char STRPWD[] = { 'P', 'W', 'D', '\0' };
+Char STRQNULL[] = { '\0' | QUOTE, '\0' };
+Char STRRbrace[] = { '}', '\0' };
+Char STRspRparen[] = { ' ', ')', '\0' };
+Char STRTERM[] = { 'T', 'E', 'R', 'M', '\0' };
+Char STRUSER[] = { 'U', 'S', 'E', 'R', '\0' };
+Char STRalias[] = { 'a', 'l', 'i', 'a', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRand[] = { '&', '\0' };
+Char STRand2[] = { '&', '&', '\0' };
+Char STRaout[] = { 'a', '.', 'o', 'u', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRargv[] = { 'a', 'r', 'g', 'v', '\0' };
+Char STRbang[] = { '!', '\0' };
+Char STRcaret[] = { '^', '\0' };
+Char STRcdpath[] = { 'c', 'd', 'p', 'a', 't', 'h', '\0' };
+Char STRcent2[] = { '%', '%', '\0' };
+Char STRcenthash[] = { '%', '#', '\0' };
+Char STRcentplus[] = { '%', '+', '\0' };
+Char STRcentminus[] = { '%', '-', '\0' };
+Char STRchase_symlinks[] = { 'c', 'h', 'a', 's', 'e', '_', 's', 'y', 'm', 'l',
+ 'i', 'n', 'k', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRchild[] = { 'c', 'h', 'i', 'l', 'd', '\0' };
+Char STRcolon[] = { ':', '\0' };
+Char STRcwd[] = { 'c', 'w', 'd', '\0' };
+Char STRdefault[] = { 'd', 'e', 'f', 'a', 'u', 'l', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRdot[] = { '.', '\0' };
+Char STRdotdotsl[] = { '.', '.', '/', '\0' };
+Char STRdotsl[] = { '.', '/', '\0' };
+Char STRecho[] = { 'e', 'c', 'h', 'o', '\0' };
+Char STRequal[] = { '=', '\0' };
+Char STRfakecom[] = { '{', ' ', '.', '.', '.', ' ', '}', '\0' };
+Char STRfakecom1[] = { '`', ' ', '.', '.', '.', ' ', '`', '\0' };
+Char STRfignore[] = { 'f', 'i', 'g', 'n', 'o', 'r', 'e', '\0' };
+#ifdef FILEC
+Char STRfilec[] = { 'f', 'i', 'l', 'e', 'c', '\0' };
+#endif /* FILEC */
+Char STRhistchars[] = { 'h', 'i', 's', 't', 'c', 'h', 'a', 'r', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRtildothist[] = { '~', '/', '.', 'h', 'i', 's', 't', 'o', 'r',
+ 'y', '\0' };
+Char STRhistfile[] = { 'h', 'i', 's', 't', 'f', 'i', 'l', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRhistory[] = { 'h', 'i', 's', 't', 'o', 'r', 'y', '\0' };
+Char STRhome[] = { 'h', 'o', 'm', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRignore_symlinks[] = { 'i', 'g', 'n', 'o', 'r', 'e', '_', 's', 'y', 'm',
+ 'l', 'i', 'n', 'k', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRignoreeof[] = { 'i', 'g', 'n', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'e', 'o', 'f', '\0' };
+Char STRjobs[] = { 'j', 'o', 'b', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRlistjobs[] = { 'l', 'i', 's', 't', 'j', 'o', 'b', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRlogout[] = { 'l', 'o', 'g', 'o', 'u', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRlong[] = { 'l', 'o', 'n', 'g', '\0' };
+Char STRmail[] = { 'm', 'a', 'i', 'l', '\0' };
+Char STRmh[] = { '-', 'h', '\0' };
+Char STRminus[] = { '-', '\0' };
+Char STRml[] = { '-', 'l', '\0' };
+Char STRmn[] = { '-', 'n', '\0' };
+Char STRmquestion[] = { '?' | QUOTE, ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRnice[] = { 'n', 'i', 'c', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRnoambiguous[] = { 'n', 'o', 'a', 'm', 'b', 'i', 'g', 'u', 'o', 'u',
+ 's', '\0' };
+Char STRnobeep[] = { 'n', 'o', 'b', 'e', 'e', 'p', '\0' };
+Char STRnoclobber[] = { 'n', 'o', 'c', 'l', 'o', 'b', 'b', 'e', 'r', '\0' };
+Char STRnoglob[] = { 'n', 'o', 'g', 'l', 'o', 'b', '\0' };
+Char STRnohup[] = { 'n', 'o', 'h', 'u', 'p', '\0' };
+Char STRnonomatch[] = { 'n', 'o', 'n', 'o', 'm', 'a', 't', 'c', 'h', '\0' };
+Char STRnormal[] = { 'n', 'o', 'r', 'm', 'a', 'l', '\0' };
+Char STRnotify[] = { 'n', 'o', 't', 'i', 'f', 'y', '\0' };
+Char STRor[] = { '|', '\0' };
+Char STRor2[] = { '|', '|', '\0' };
+Char STRpath[] = { 'p', 'a', 't', 'h', '\0' };
+Char STRprintexitvalue[] = { 'p', 'r', 'i', 'n', 't', 'e', 'x', 'i', 't', 'v',
+ 'a', 'l', 'u', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRprompt[] = { 'p', 'r', 'o', 'm', 'p', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRprompt2[] = { 'p', 'r', 'o', 'm', 'p', 't', '2', '\0' };
+Char STRpushdsilent[] = { 'p', 'u', 's', 'h', 'd', 's', 'i', 'l', 'e', 'n',
+ 't', '\0' };
+Char STRret[] = { '\n', '\0' };
+Char STRsavehist[] = { 's', 'a', 'v', 'e', 'h', 'i', 's', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRsemisp[] = { ';', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRshell[] = { 's', 'h', 'e', 'l', 'l', '\0' };
+Char STRslash[] = { '/', '\0' };
+Char STRsldotcshrc[] = { '/', '.', 'c', 's', 'h', 'r', 'c', '\0' };
+Char STRsldotlogin[] = { '/', '.', 'l', 'o', 'g', 'i', 'n', '\0' };
+Char STRsldthist[] = { '/', '.', 'h', 'i', 's', 't', 'o', 'r', 'y', '\0' };
+Char STRsldtlogout[] = { '/', '.', 'l', 'o', 'g', 'o', 'u', 't', '\0' };
+Char STRsource[] = { 's', 'o', 'u', 'r', 'c', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRsp3dots[] = { ' ', '.', '.', '.', '\0' };
+Char STRspLarrow2sp[] = { ' ', '<', '<', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRspLarrowsp[] = { ' ', '<', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRspRarrow[] = { ' ', '>', '\0' };
+Char STRspRarrow2[] = { ' ', '>', '>', '\0' };
+Char STRRparen[] = { ')', '\0' };
+Char STRspace[] = { ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRspand2sp[] = { ' ', '&', '&', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRspor2sp[] = { ' ', '|', '|', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRsporsp[] = { ' ', '|', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRstar[] = { '*', '\0' };
+Char STRstatus[] = { 's', 't', 'a', 't', 'u', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRsymcent[] = { '%', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRsymhash[] = { '#', ' ', '\0' };
+Char STRterm[] = { 't', 'e', 'r', 'm', '\0' };
+Char STRthen[] = { 't', 'h', 'e', 'n', '\0' };
+Char STRtilde[] = { '~', '\0' };
+Char STRtime[] = { 't', 'i', 'm', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRtmpsh[] = { '/', 't', 'm', 'p', '/', 's', 'h', '\0' };
+Char STRunalias[] = { 'u', 'n', 'a', 'l', 'i', 'a', 's', '\0' };
+Char STRuser[] = { 'u', 's', 'e', 'r', '\0' };
+Char STRverbose[] = { 'v', 'e', 'r', 'b', 'o', 's', 'e', '\0' };
+Char STRwordchars[] = { 'w', 'o', 'r', 'd', 'c', 'h', 'a', 'r', 's', '\0' };
diff --git a/bin/csh/csh.1 b/bin/csh/csh.1
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..58a9ddb191a1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/csh.1
@@ -0,0 +1,2175 @@
+.\" Copyright (c) 1980, 1990, 1993
+.\" The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+.\"
+.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+.\" are met:
+.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
+.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
+.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+.\" without specific prior written permission.
+.\"
+.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
+.\"
+.\" @(#)csh.1 8.2 (Berkeley) 1/21/94
+.\"
+.Dd January 21, 1994
+.Dt CSH 1
+.Os BSD 4
+.Sh NAME
+.Nm csh
+.Nd a shell (command interpreter) with C-like syntax
+.Sh SYNOPSIS
+.Nm csh
+.Op Fl bcefinstvVxX
+.Op arg ...
+.Nm csh
+.Op Fl l
+.Sh DESCRIPTION
+The
+.Nm csh
+is a command language interpreter
+incorporating a history mechanism (see
+.Nm History Substitutions ) ,
+job control facilities (see
+.Nm Jobs ) ,
+interactive file name
+and user name completion (see
+.Nm File Name Completion ) ,
+and a C-like syntax. It is used both as an interactive
+login shell and a shell script command processor.
+.Ss Argument list processing
+If the first argument (argument 0) to the shell is
+.Ql Fl \& ,
+then this is a login shell.
+A login shell also can be specified by invoking the shell with the
+.Ql Fl l
+flag as the only argument.
+.Pp
+The rest of the flag arguments are interpreted as follows:
+.Bl -tag -width 5n
+.It Fl b
+This flag forces a ``break'' from option processing, causing any further
+shell arguments to be treated as non-option arguments.
+The remaining arguments will not be interpreted as shell options.
+This may be used to pass options to a shell script without confusion
+or possible subterfuge.
+The shell will not run a set-user ID script without this option.
+.It Fl c
+Commands are read from the (single) following argument which must
+be present.
+Any remaining arguments are placed in
+.Ar argv .
+.It Fl e
+The shell exits if any invoked command terminates abnormally
+or yields a non-zero exit status.
+.It Fl f
+The shell will start faster, because it will neither search for nor
+execute commands from the file
+.Pa \&.cshrc
+in the invoker's home directory.
+.It Fl i
+The shell is interactive and prompts for its top-level input,
+even if it appears not to be a terminal.
+Shells are interactive without this option if their inputs
+and outputs are terminals.
+.It Fl l
+The shell is a login shell (only applicable if
+.Fl l
+is the only flag specified).
+.It Fl n
+Commands are parsed, but not executed.
+This aids in syntactic checking of shell scripts.
+.It Fl s
+Command input is taken from the standard input.
+.It Fl t
+A single line of input is read and executed.
+A
+.Ql \e
+may be used to escape the newline at the end of this
+line and continue onto another line.
+.It Fl v
+Causes the
+.Ar verbose
+variable to be set, with the effect
+that command input is echoed after history substitution.
+.It Fl x
+Causes the
+.Ar echo
+variable to be set, so that commands are echoed immediately before execution.
+.It Fl V
+Causes the
+.Ar verbose
+variable to be set even before
+.Pa .cshrc
+is executed.
+.It Fl X
+Is to
+.Fl x
+as
+.Fl V
+is to
+.Fl v .
+.El
+.Pp
+After processing of flag arguments, if arguments remain but none of the
+.Fl c ,
+.Fl i ,
+.Fl s ,
+or
+.Fl t
+options were given, the first argument is taken as the name of a file of
+commands to be executed.
+The shell opens this file, and saves its name for possible resubstitution
+by `$0'.
+Since many systems use either the standard version 6 or version 7 shells
+whose shell scripts are not compatible with this shell, the shell will
+execute such a `standard' shell if the first character of a script
+is not a `#', i.e., if the script does not start with a comment.
+Remaining arguments initialize the variable
+.Ar argv .
+.Pp
+An instance of
+.Nm csh
+begins by executing commands from the file
+.Pa /etc/csh.cshrc
+and,
+if this is a login shell,
+.Pa \&/etc/csh.login .
+It then executes
+commands from
+.Pa \&.cshrc
+in the
+.Ar home
+directory of the invoker, and, if this is a login shell, the file
+.Pa \&.login
+in the same location.
+It is typical for users on crt's to put the command ``stty crt''
+in their
+.Pa \&.login
+file, and to also invoke
+.Xr tset 1
+there.
+.Pp
+In the normal case, the shell will begin reading commands from the
+terminal, prompting with `% '.
+Processing of arguments and the use of the shell to process files
+containing command scripts will be described later.
+.Pp
+The shell repeatedly performs the following actions:
+a line of command input is read and broken into
+.Ar words .
+This sequence of words is placed on the command history list and parsed.
+Finally each command in the current line is executed.
+.Pp
+When a login shell terminates it executes commands from the files
+.Pa .logout
+in the user's
+.Ar home
+directory and
+.Pa /etc/csh.logout .
+.Ss Lexical structure
+The shell splits input lines into words at blanks and tabs with the
+following exceptions.
+The characters
+`&' `\&|' `;' `<' `>' `(' `)'
+form separate words.
+If doubled in `&&', `\&|\&|', `<<' or `>>' these pairs form single words.
+These parser metacharacters may be made part of other words, or prevented their
+special meaning, by preceding them with `\e'.
+A newline preceded by a `\e' is equivalent to a blank.
+.Pp
+Strings enclosed in matched pairs of quotations,
+`'\|', `\*(ga' or `"',
+form parts of a word; metacharacters in these strings, including blanks
+and tabs, do not form separate words.
+These quotations have semantics to be described later.
+Within pairs of `\'' or `"' characters, a newline preceded by a `\e' gives
+a true newline character.
+.Pp
+When the shell's input is not a terminal,
+the character `#' introduces a comment that continues to the end of the
+input line.
+It is prevented this special meaning when preceded by `\e'
+and in quotations using `\`', `\'', and `"'.
+.Ss Commands
+A simple command is a sequence of words, the first of which
+specifies the command to be executed.
+A simple command or
+a sequence of simple commands separated by `\&|' characters
+forms a pipeline.
+The output of each command in a pipeline is connected to the input of the next.
+Sequences of pipelines may be separated by `;', and are then executed
+sequentially.
+A sequence of pipelines may be executed without immediately
+waiting for it to terminate by following it with an `&'.
+.Pp
+Any of the above may be placed in `(' `)' to form a simple command (that
+may be a component of a pipeline, etc.).
+It is also possible to separate pipelines with `\&|\&|' or `&&' showing,
+as in the C language,
+that the second is to be executed only if the first fails or succeeds
+respectively. (See
+.Em Expressions . )
+.Ss Jobs
+The shell associates a
+.Ar job
+with each pipeline. It keeps
+a table of current jobs, printed by the
+.Ar jobs
+command, and assigns them small integer numbers. When
+a job is started asynchronously with `&', the shell prints a line that looks
+like:
+.Bd -filled -offset indent
+.Op 1
+1234
+.Ed
+.Pp
+showing that the job which was started asynchronously was job number
+1 and had one (top-level) process, whose process id was 1234.
+.Pp
+If you are running a job and wish to do something else you may hit the key
+.Nm ^Z
+(control-Z) which sends a STOP signal to the current job.
+The shell will then normally show that the job has been `Stopped',
+and print another prompt. You can then manipulate the state of this job,
+putting it in the
+.Em background
+with the
+.Ar bg
+command, or run some other
+commands and eventually bring the job back into the foreground with
+the
+.Em foreground
+command
+.Ar fg .
+A
+.Nm ^Z
+takes effect immediately and
+is like an interrupt in that pending output and unread input are discarded
+when it is typed. There is another special key
+.Nm ^Y
+that does not generate a STOP signal until a program attempts to
+.Xr read 2
+it.
+This request can usefully be typed ahead when you have prepared some commands
+for a job that you wish to stop after it has read them.
+.Pp
+A job being run in the background will stop if it tries to read
+from the terminal. Background jobs are normally allowed to produce output,
+but this can be disabled by giving the command ``stty tostop''.
+If you set this
+tty option, then background jobs will stop when they try to produce
+output like they do when they try to read input.
+.Pp
+There are several ways to refer to jobs in the shell. The character
+`%' introduces a job name. If you wish to refer to job number 1, you can
+name it as `%1'. Just naming a job brings it to the foreground; thus
+`%1' is a synonym for `fg %1', bringing job number 1 back into the foreground.
+Similarly saying `%1 &' resumes job number 1 in the background.
+Jobs can also be named by prefixes of the string typed in to start them,
+if these prefixes are unambiguous, thus `%ex' would normally restart
+a suspended
+.Xr ex 1
+job, if there were only one suspended job whose name began with
+the string `ex'. It is also possible to say `%?string'
+which specifies a job whose text contains
+.Ar string ,
+if there is only one such job.
+.Pp
+The shell maintains a notion of the current and previous jobs.
+In output about jobs, the current job is marked with a `+'
+and the previous job with a `\-'. The abbreviation `%+' refers
+to the current job and `%\-' refers to the previous job. For close
+analogy with the syntax of the
+.Ar history
+mechanism (described below),
+`%%' is also a synonym for the current job.
+.Pp
+The job control mechanism requires that the
+.Xr stty 1
+option
+.Ic new
+be set. It is an artifact from a
+.Em new
+implementation
+of the
+tty driver that allows generation of interrupt characters from
+the keyboard to tell jobs to stop. See stty(1) for details
+on setting options in the new tty driver.
+.Ss Status reporting
+This shell learns immediately whenever a process changes state.
+It normally informs you whenever a job becomes blocked so that
+no further progress is possible, but only just before it prints
+a prompt. This is done so that it does not otherwise disturb your work.
+If, however, you set the shell variable
+.Ar notify ,
+the shell will notify you immediately of changes of status in background
+jobs.
+There is also a shell command
+.Ar notify
+that marks a single process so that its status changes will be immediately
+reported. By default
+.Ar notify
+marks the current process;
+simply say `notify' after starting a background job to mark it.
+.Pp
+When you try to leave the shell while jobs are stopped, you will
+be warned that `You have stopped jobs.' You may use the
+.Ar jobs
+command to see what they are. If you do this or immediately try to
+exit again, the shell will not warn you a second time, and the suspended
+jobs will be terminated.
+.Ss File Name Completion
+When the file name completion feature is enabled by setting
+the shell variable
+.Ar filec
+(see
+.Ic set ) ,
+.Nm csh
+will
+interactively complete file names and user names from unique
+prefixes, when they are input from the terminal followed by
+the escape character (the escape key, or control-[)
+For example,
+if the current directory looks like
+.Bd -literal -offset indent
+DSC.OLD bin cmd lib xmpl.c
+DSC.NEW chaosnet cmtest mail xmpl.o
+bench class dev mbox xmpl.out
+.Ed
+.Pp
+and the input is
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi ch<escape>
+.Pp
+.Nm csh
+will complete the prefix ``ch''
+to the only matching file name ``chaosnet'', changing the input
+line to
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi chaosnet
+.Pp
+However, given
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi D<escape>
+.Pp
+.Nm csh
+will only expand the input to
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi DSC.
+.Pp
+and will sound the terminal bell to indicate that the expansion is
+incomplete, since there are two file names matching the prefix ``D''.
+.Pp
+If a partial file name is followed by the end-of-file character
+(usually control-D), then, instead of completing the name,
+.Nm csh
+will list all file names matching the prefix. For example,
+the input
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi D<control-D>
+.Pp
+causes all files beginning with ``D'' to be listed:
+.Pp
+.Dl DSC.NEW DSC.OLD
+.Pp
+while the input line remains unchanged.
+.Pp
+The same system of escape and end-of-file can also be used to
+expand partial user names, if the word to be completed
+(or listed) begins with the character ``~''. For example,
+typing
+.Pp
+.Dl cd ~ro<escape>
+.Pp
+may produce the expansion
+.Pp
+.Dl cd ~root
+.Pp
+The use of the terminal bell to signal errors or multiple matches
+can be inhibited by setting the variable
+.Ar nobeep .
+.Pp
+Normally, all files in the particular directory are candidates
+for name completion. Files with certain suffixes can be excluded
+from consideration by setting the variable
+.Ar fignore
+to the
+list of suffixes to be ignored. Thus, if
+.Ar fignore
+is set by
+the command
+.Pp
+.Dl % set fignore = (.o .out)
+.Pp
+then typing
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi x<escape>
+.Pp
+would result in the completion to
+.Pp
+.Dl % vi xmpl.c
+.Pp
+ignoring the files "xmpl.o" and "xmpl.out".
+However, if the only completion possible requires not ignoring these
+suffixes, then they are not ignored. In addition,
+.Ar fignore
+does not affect the listing of file names by control-D. All files
+are listed regardless of their suffixes.
+.Ss Substitutions
+We now describe the various transformations the shell performs on the
+input in the order in which they occur.
+.Ss History substitutions
+History substitutions place words from previous command input as portions
+of new commands, making it easy to repeat commands, repeat arguments
+of a previous command in the current command, or fix spelling mistakes
+in the previous command with little typing and a high degree of confidence.
+History substitutions begin with the character `!' and may begin
+.Ar anywhere
+in the input stream (with the proviso that they
+.Nm "do not"
+nest.)
+This `!' may be preceded by a `\e' to prevent its special meaning; for
+convenience, an `!' is passed unchanged when it is followed by a blank,
+tab, newline, `=' or `('.
+(History substitutions also occur when an input line begins with `\*(ua'.
+This special abbreviation will be described later.)
+Any input line that contains history substitution is echoed on the terminal
+before it is executed as it could have been typed without history substitution.
+.Pp
+Commands input from the terminal that consist of one or more words
+are saved on the history list.
+The history substitutions reintroduce sequences of words from these
+saved commands into the input stream.
+The size of the history list is controlled by the
+.Ar history
+variable; the previous command is always retained,
+regardless of the value of the history variable.
+Commands are numbered sequentially from 1.
+.Pp
+For definiteness, consider the following output from the
+.Ar history
+command:
+.Bd -literal -offset indent
+\09 write michael
+10 ex write.c
+11 cat oldwrite.c
+12 diff *write.c
+.Ed
+.Pp
+The commands are shown with their event numbers.
+It is not usually necessary to use event numbers, but the current event
+number can be made part of the
+.Ar prompt
+by placing an `!' in the prompt string.
+.Pp
+With the current event 13 we can refer to previous events by event
+number `!11', relatively as in `!\-2' (referring to the same event),
+by a prefix of a command word
+as in `!d' for event 12 or `!wri' for event 9, or by a string contained in
+a word in the command as in `!?mic?' also referring to event 9.
+These forms, without further change, simply reintroduce the words
+of the specified events, each separated by a single blank.
+As a special case, `!!' refers to the previous command; thus `!!'
+alone is a
+.Ar redo .
+.Pp
+To select words from an event we can follow the event specification by
+a `:' and a designator for the desired words.
+The words of an input line are numbered from 0,
+the first (usually command) word being 0, the second word (first argument)
+being 1, etc.
+The basic word designators are:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It \&0
+first (command) word
+.It Ar n
+.Ar n Ns 'th
+argument
+.It \*(ua
+first argument, i.e., `1'
+.It $
+last argument
+.It %
+word matched by (immediately preceding)
+.No \&? Ns Ar s Ns \&?
+search
+.It Ar \&x\-y
+range of words
+.It Ar \&\-y
+abbreviates
+.Ar `\&0\-y\'
+.It *
+abbreviates `\*(ua\-$', or nothing if only 1 word in event
+.It Ar x*
+abbreviates
+.Ar `x\-$\'
+.It Ar x\-
+like
+.Ar `x*\'
+but omitting word `$'
+.El
+.Pp
+The `:' separating the event specification from the word designator
+can be omitted if the argument selector begins with a `\*(ua', `$', `*'
+`\-' or `%'.
+After the optional word designator can be
+placed a sequence of modifiers, each preceded by a `:'.
+The following modifiers are defined:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It h
+Remove a trailing pathname component, leaving the head.
+.It r
+Remove a trailing `.xxx' component, leaving the root name.
+.It e
+Remove all but the extension `.xxx' part.
+.It s Ns Ar /l/r/
+Substitute
+.Ar l
+for
+.Ar r
+.It t
+Remove all leading pathname components, leaving the tail.
+.It \&&
+Repeat the previous substitution.
+.It g
+Apply the change once on each word, prefixing the above, e.g., `g&'.
+.It a
+Apply the change as many times as possible on a single word, prefixing
+the above. It can be used together with `g' to apply a substitution
+globally.
+.It p
+Print the new command line but do not execute it.
+.It q
+Quote the substituted words, preventing further substitutions.
+.It x
+Like q, but break into words at blanks, tabs and newlines.
+.El
+.Pp
+Unless preceded by a `g' the change is applied only to the first
+modifiable word. With substitutions, it is an error for no word to be
+applicable.
+.Pp
+The left hand side of substitutions are not regular expressions in the sense
+of the editors, but instead strings.
+Any character may be used as the delimiter in place of `/';
+a `\e' quotes the delimiter into the
+.Ar l " "
+and
+.Ar r " "
+strings.
+The character `&' in the right hand side is replaced by the text from
+the left.
+A `\e' also quotes `&'.
+A null
+.Ar l
+(`//')
+uses the previous string either from an
+.Ar l
+or from a
+contextual scan string
+.Ar s
+in
+.No \&`!? Ns Ar s Ns \e?' .
+The trailing delimiter in the substitution may be omitted if a newline
+follows immediately as may the trailing `?' in a contextual scan.
+.Pp
+A history reference may be given without an event specification, e.g., `!$'.
+Here, the reference is to the previous command unless a previous
+history reference occurred on the same line in which case this form repeats
+the previous reference.
+Thus `!?foo?\*(ua !$' gives the first and last arguments
+from the command matching `?foo?'.
+.Pp
+A special abbreviation of a history reference occurs when the first
+non-blank character of an input line is a `\*(ua'.
+This is equivalent to `!:s\*(ua' providing a convenient shorthand for substitutions
+on the text of the previous line.
+Thus `\*(ualb\*(ualib' fixes the spelling of
+`lib'
+in the previous command.
+Finally, a history substitution may be surrounded with `{' and `}'
+if necessary to insulate it from the characters that follow.
+Thus, after `ls \-ld ~paul' we might do `!{l}a' to do `ls \-ld ~paula',
+while `!la' would look for a command starting with `la'.
+.Pp
+.Ss Quotations with \' and \&"
+The quotation of strings by `\'' and `"' can be used
+to prevent all or some of the remaining substitutions.
+Strings enclosed in `\'' are prevented any further interpretation.
+Strings enclosed in `"' may be expanded as described below.
+.Pp
+In both cases the resulting text becomes (all or part of) a single word;
+only in one special case (see
+.Em Command Substitution
+below) does a `"' quoted string yield parts of more than one word;
+`\'' quoted strings never do.
+.Ss Alias substitution
+The shell maintains a list of aliases that can be established, displayed
+and modified by the
+.Ar alias
+and
+.Ar unalias
+commands.
+After a command line is scanned, it is parsed into distinct commands and
+the first word of each command, left-to-right, is checked to see if it
+has an alias.
+If it does, then the text that is the alias for that command is reread
+with the history mechanism available
+as though that command were the previous input line.
+The resulting words replace the
+command and argument list.
+If no reference is made to the history list, then the argument list is
+left unchanged.
+.Pp
+Thus if the alias for `ls' is `ls \-l' the command `ls /usr' would map to
+`ls \-l /usr', the argument list here being undisturbed.
+Similarly if the alias for `lookup' was `grep !\*(ua /etc/passwd' then
+`lookup bill' would map to `grep bill /etc/passwd'.
+.Pp
+If an alias is found, the word transformation of the input text
+is performed and the aliasing process begins again on the reformed input line.
+Looping is prevented if the first word of the new text is the same as the old
+by flagging it to prevent further aliasing.
+Other loops are detected and cause an error.
+.Pp
+Note that the mechanism allows aliases to introduce parser metasyntax.
+Thus, we can `alias print \'pr \e!* \&| lpr\'' to make a command that
+.Ar pr Ns 's
+its arguments to the line printer.
+.Ss Variable substitution
+The shell maintains a set of variables, each of which has as value a list
+of zero or more words.
+Some of these variables are set by the shell or referred to by it.
+For instance, the
+.Ar argv
+variable is an image of the shell's argument list, and words of this
+variable's value are referred to in special ways.
+.Pp
+The values of variables may be displayed and changed by using the
+.Ar set
+and
+.Ar unset
+commands.
+Of the variables referred to by the shell a number are toggles;
+the shell does not care what their value is,
+only whether they are set or not.
+For instance, the
+.Ar verbose
+variable is a toggle that causes command input to be echoed.
+The setting of this variable results from the
+.Fl v
+command line option.
+.Pp
+Other operations treat variables numerically.
+The `@' command permits numeric calculations to be performed and the result
+assigned to a variable.
+Variable values are, however, always represented as (zero or more) strings.
+For the purposes of numeric operations, the null string is considered to be
+zero, and the second and additional words of multiword values are ignored.
+.Pp
+After the input line is aliased and parsed, and before each command
+is executed, variable substitution
+is performed keyed by `$' characters.
+This expansion can be prevented by preceding the `$' with a `\e' except
+within `"'s where it
+.Em always
+occurs, and within `\''s where it
+.Em never
+occurs.
+Strings quoted by `\*(ga' are interpreted later (see
+.Nm "Command substitution"
+below) so `$' substitution does not occur there until later, if at all.
+A `$' is passed unchanged if followed by a blank, tab, or end-of-line.
+.Pp
+Input/output redirections are recognized before variable expansion,
+and are variable expanded separately.
+Otherwise, the command name and entire argument list are expanded together.
+It is thus possible for the first (command) word (to this point) to generate
+more than one word, the first of which becomes the command name,
+and the rest of which become arguments.
+.Pp
+Unless enclosed in `"' or given the `:q' modifier the results of variable
+substitution may eventually be command and filename substituted.
+Within `"', a variable whose value consists of multiple words expands to a
+(portion of) a single word, with the words of the variables value
+separated by blanks.
+When the `:q' modifier is applied to a substitution
+the variable will expand to multiple words with each word separated
+by a blank and quoted to prevent later command or filename substitution.
+.Pp
+The following metasequences are provided for introducing variable values into
+the shell input.
+Except as noted, it is an error to reference a variable that is not set.
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It $name
+.It ${name}
+Are replaced by the words of the value of variable
+.Ar name ,
+each separated by a blank.
+Braces insulate
+.Ar name
+from following characters that would otherwise be part of it.
+Shell variables have names consisting of up to 20 letters and digits
+starting with a letter. The underscore character is considered a letter.
+If
+.Ar name
+is not a shell variable, but is set in the environment, then
+that value is returned (but
+.Nm :
+modifiers and the other forms
+given below are not available here).
+.It $name Ns Op selector
+.It ${name Ns [ selector ] }
+May be used to select only some of the words from the value of
+.Ar name .
+The selector is subjected to `$' substitution and may consist of a single
+number or two numbers separated by a `\-'.
+The first word of a variables value is numbered `1'.
+If the first number of a range is omitted it defaults to `1'.
+If the last number of a range is omitted it defaults to `$#name'.
+The selector `*' selects all words.
+It is not an error for a range to be empty if the second argument is omitted
+or in range.
+.It $#name
+.It ${#name}
+Gives the number of words in the variable.
+This is useful for later use in a
+`$argv[selector]'.
+.It $0
+Substitutes the name of the file from which command input is being read.
+An error occurs if the name is not known.
+.It $number
+.It ${number}
+Equivalent to
+`$argv[number]'.
+.It $*
+Equivalent to
+`$argv[*]'.
+The modifiers `:e', `:h', `:t', `:r', `:q' and `:x' may be applied to
+the substitutions above as may `:gh', `:gt' and `:gr'.
+If braces `{' '}' appear in the command form then the modifiers
+must appear within the braces.
+The current implementation allows only one `:' modifier on each `$' expansion.
+.El
+.Pp
+The following substitutions may not be modified with `:' modifiers.
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It $?name
+.It ${?name}
+Substitutes the string `1' if name is set, `0' if it is not.
+.It $?0
+Substitutes `1' if the current input filename is known, `0' if it is not.
+.It \&$\&$\&
+Substitute the (decimal) process number of the (parent) shell.
+.It $!
+Substitute the (decimal) process number of the last background process
+started by this shell.
+.It $<
+Substitutes a line from the standard
+input, with no further interpretation.
+It can be used to read from the keyboard in a shell script.
+.El
+.Ss Command and filename substitution
+The remaining substitutions, command and filename substitution,
+are applied selectively to the arguments of builtin commands.
+By selectively, we mean that portions of expressions which are
+not evaluated are not subjected to these expansions.
+For commands that are not internal to the shell, the command
+name is substituted separately from the argument list.
+This occurs very late,
+after input-output redirection is performed, and in a child
+of the main shell.
+.Ss Command substitution
+Command substitution is shown by a command enclosed in `\*(ga'.
+The output from such a command is normally broken into separate words
+at blanks, tabs and newlines, with null words being discarded;
+this text then replaces the original string.
+Within `"'s, only newlines force new words; blanks and tabs are preserved.
+.Pp
+In any case, the single final newline does not force a new word.
+Note that it is thus possible for a command substitution to yield
+only part of a word, even if the command outputs a complete line.
+.Ss Filename substitution
+If a word contains any of the characters `*', `?', `[' or `{'
+or begins with the character `~', then that word is a candidate for
+filename substitution, also known as `globbing'.
+This word is then regarded as a pattern, and replaced with an alphabetically
+sorted list of file names that match the pattern.
+In a list of words specifying filename substitution it is an error for
+no pattern to match an existing file name, but it is not required
+for each pattern to match.
+Only the metacharacters `*', `?' and `[' imply pattern matching,
+the characters `~' and `{' being more akin to abbreviations.
+.Pp
+In matching filenames, the character `.' at the beginning of a filename
+or immediately following a `/', as well as the character `/' must
+be matched explicitly.
+The character `*' matches any string of characters, including the null
+string.
+The character `?' matches any single character.
+The sequence
+.Sq Op ...
+matches any one of the characters enclosed.
+Within
+.Sq Op ... ,
+a pair of characters separated by `\-' matches any character lexically between
+the two (inclusive).
+.Pp
+The character `~' at the beginning of a filename refers to home
+directories.
+Standing alone, i.e., `~' it expands to the invokers home directory as reflected
+in the value of the variable
+.Ar home .
+When followed by a name consisting of letters, digits and `\-' characters,
+the shell searches for a user with that name and substitutes their
+home directory; thus `~ken' might expand to `/usr/ken' and `~ken/chmach'
+to `/usr/ken/chmach'.
+If the character `~' is followed by a character other than a letter or `/'
+or does not appear at the beginning of a word,
+it is left undisturbed.
+.Pp
+The metanotation `a{b,c,d}e' is a shorthand for `abe ace ade'.
+Left to right order is preserved, with results of matches being sorted
+separately at a low level to preserve this order.
+This construct may be nested.
+Thus, `~source/s1/{oldls,ls}.c' expands to
+`/usr/source/s1/oldls.c /usr/source/s1/ls.c'
+without chance of error
+if the home directory for `source' is `/usr/source'.
+Similarly `../{memo,*box}' might expand to `../memo ../box ../mbox'.
+(Note that `memo' was not sorted with the results of the match to `*box'.)
+As a special case `{', `}' and `{}' are passed undisturbed.
+.Ss Input/output
+The standard input and the standard output of a command may be redirected
+with the following syntax:
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It < name
+Open file
+.Ar name
+(which is first variable, command and filename expanded) as the standard
+input.
+.It << word
+Read the shell input up to a line that is identical to
+.Ar word .
+.Ar Word
+is not subjected to variable, filename or command substitution,
+and each input line is compared to
+.Ar word
+before any substitutions are done on the input line.
+Unless a quoting `\e', `"', `\*(aa' or `\*(ga' appears in
+.Ar word ,
+variable and command substitution is performed on the intervening lines,
+allowing `\e' to quote `$', `\e' and `\*(ga'.
+Commands that are substituted have all blanks, tabs, and newlines
+preserved, except for the final newline which is dropped.
+The resultant text is placed in an anonymous temporary file that
+is given to the command as its standard input.
+.It > name
+.It >! name
+.It >& name
+.It >&! name
+The file
+.Ar name
+is used as the standard output.
+If the file does not exist then it is created;
+if the file exists, it is truncated; its previous contents are lost.
+.Pp
+If the variable
+.Ar noclobber
+is set, then the file must not exist or be a character special file (e.g., a
+terminal or `/dev/null') or an error results.
+This helps prevent accidental destruction of files.
+Here, the `!' forms can be used to suppress this check.
+.Pp
+The forms involving `&' route the standard error output into the specified
+file as well as the standard output.
+.Ar Name
+is expanded in the same way as `<' input filenames are.
+.It >> name
+.It >>& name
+.It >>! name
+.It >>&! name
+Uses file
+.Ar name
+as the standard output;
+like `>' but places output at the end of the file.
+If the variable
+.Ar noclobber
+is set, then it is an error for the file not to exist unless
+one of the `!' forms is given.
+Otherwise similar to `>'.
+.El
+.Pp
+A command receives the environment in which the shell was
+invoked as modified by the input-output parameters and
+the presence of the command in a pipeline.
+Thus, unlike some previous shells, commands run from a file of shell commands
+have no access to the text of the commands by default;
+instead they receive the original standard input of the shell.
+The `<<' mechanism should be used to present inline data.
+This permits shell command scripts to function as components of pipelines
+and allows the shell to block read its input.
+Note that the default standard input for a command run detached is
+.Ar not
+modified to be the empty file
+.Pa /dev/null ;
+instead the standard input
+remains as the original standard input of the shell. If this is a terminal
+and if the process attempts to read from the terminal, then the process
+will block and the user will be notified (see
+.Sx Jobs
+above).
+.Pp
+The standard error output may be directed through
+a pipe with the standard output.
+Simply use the form `\&|&' instead of just `\&|'.
+.Ss Expressions
+Several of the builtin commands (to be described later)
+take expressions, in which the operators are similar to those of C, with
+the same precedence.
+These expressions appear in the
+.Nm @,
+.Ar exit ,
+.Ar if ,
+and
+.Ar while
+commands.
+The following operators are available:
+.Bd -ragged -offset indent
+\&|\&| && \&| \*(ua & == != =~ !~ <= >=
+< > << >> + \- * / % ! ~ ( )
+.Ed
+.Pp
+Here the precedence increases to the right,
+`==' `!=' `=~' and `!~', `<=' `>=' `<' and `>', `<<' and `>>', `+' and `\-',
+`*' `/' and `%' being, in groups, at the same level.
+The `==' `!=' `=~' and `!~' operators compare their arguments as strings;
+all others operate on numbers.
+The operators `=~' and `!~' are like `!=' and `==' except that the right
+hand side is a
+.Ar pattern
+(containing, e.g., `*'s, `?'s and instances of `[...]')
+against which the left hand operand is matched. This reduces the
+need for use of the
+.Ar switch
+statement in shell scripts when all that is really needed is pattern matching.
+.Pp
+Strings that begin with `0' are considered octal numbers.
+Null or missing arguments are considered `0'.
+The result of all expressions are strings,
+which represent decimal numbers.
+It is important to note that no two components of an expression can appear
+in the same word; except when adjacent to components of expressions that
+are syntactically significant to the parser (`&' `\&|' `<' `>' `(' `)'),
+they should be surrounded by spaces.
+.Pp
+Also available in expressions as primitive operands are command executions
+enclosed in `{' and `}'
+and file enquiries of the form
+.Fl l
+.Ar name
+where
+.Ic l
+is one of:
+.Bd -literal -offset indent
+r read access
+w write access
+x execute access
+e existence
+o ownership
+z zero size
+f plain file
+d directory
+.Ed
+.Pp
+The specified name is command and filename expanded and then tested
+to see if it has the specified relationship to the real user.
+If the file does not exist or is inaccessible then all enquiries return
+false, i.e., `0'.
+Command executions succeed, returning true, i.e., `1',
+if the command exits with status 0, otherwise they fail, returning
+false, i.e., `0'.
+If more detailed status information is required then the command
+should be executed outside an expression and the variable
+.Ar status
+examined.
+.Ss Control flow
+The shell contains several commands that can be used to regulate the
+flow of control in command files (shell scripts) and
+(in limited but useful ways) from terminal input.
+These commands all operate by forcing the shell to reread or skip in its
+input and, because of the implementation, restrict the placement of some
+of the commands.
+.Pp
+The
+.Ic foreach ,
+.Ic switch ,
+and
+.Ic while
+statements, as well as the
+.Ic if\-then\-else
+form of the
+.Ic if
+statement require that the major keywords appear in a single simple command
+on an input line as shown below.
+.Pp
+If the shell's input is not seekable,
+the shell buffers up input whenever a loop is being read
+and performs seeks in this internal buffer to accomplish the rereading
+implied by the loop.
+(To the extent that this allows, backward goto's will succeed on
+non-seekable inputs.)
+.Ss Builtin commands
+Builtin commands are executed within the shell.
+If a builtin command occurs as any component of a pipeline
+except the last then it is executed in a subshell.
+.Pp
+.Bl -tag -width Ds -compact -offset indent
+.It Ic alias
+.It Ic alias Ar name
+.It Ic alias Ar name wordlist
+The first form prints all aliases.
+The second form prints the alias for name.
+The final form assigns the specified
+.Ar wordlist
+as the alias of
+.Ar name ;
+.Ar wordlist
+is command and filename substituted.
+.Ar Name
+is not allowed to be
+.Ar alias
+or
+.Ar unalias .
+.Pp
+.It Ic alloc
+Shows the amount of dynamic memory acquired, broken down into used and
+free memory.
+With an argument shows the number of free and used blocks in each size
+category. The categories start at size 8 and double at each step.
+This command's output may vary across system types, since
+systems other than the VAX may use a different memory allocator.
+.Pp
+.It Ic bg
+.It Ic bg \&% Ns Ar job ...
+Puts the current or specified jobs into the background, continuing them
+if they were stopped.
+.Pp
+.It Ic break
+Causes execution to resume after the
+.Ic end
+of the nearest enclosing
+.Ic foreach
+or
+.Ic while .
+The remaining commands on the current line are executed.
+Multi-level breaks are thus possible by writing them all on one line.
+.Pp
+.It Ic breaksw
+Causes a break from a
+.Ic switch ,
+resuming after the
+.Ic endsw .
+.Pp
+.It Ic case Ar label :
+A label in a
+.Ic switch
+statement as discussed below.
+.Pp
+.It Ic cd
+.It Ic cd Ar name
+.It Ic chdir
+.It Ic chdir Ar name
+Change the shell's working directory to directory
+.Ar name .
+If no argument is given then change to the home directory of the user.
+If
+.Ar name
+is not found as a subdirectory of the current directory (and does not begin
+with `/', `./' or `../'), then each
+component of the variable
+.Ic cdpath
+is checked to see if it has a subdirectory
+.Ar name .
+Finally, if all else fails but
+.Ar name
+is a shell variable whose value begins with `/', then this
+is tried to see if it is a directory.
+.Pp
+.It Ic continue
+Continue execution of the nearest enclosing
+.Ic while
+or
+.Ic foreach .
+The rest of the commands on the current line are executed.
+.Pp
+.It Ic default :
+Labels the default case in a
+.Ic switch
+statement.
+The default should come after all
+.Ic case
+labels.
+.Pp
+.It Ic dirs
+Prints the directory stack; the top of the stack is at the left,
+the first directory in the stack being the current directory.
+.Pp
+.It Ic echo Ar wordlist
+.It Ic echo Fl n Ar wordlist
+The specified words are written to the shell's standard output, separated
+by spaces, and terminated with a newline unless the
+.Fl n
+option is specified.
+.Pp
+.It Ic else
+.It Ic end
+.It Ic endif
+.It Ic endsw
+See the description of the
+.Ic foreach ,
+.Ic if ,
+.Ic switch ,
+and
+.Ic while
+statements below.
+.Pp
+.It Ic eval Ar arg ...
+(As in
+.Xr sh 1 . )
+The arguments are read as input to the shell and the resulting
+command(s) executed in the context of the current shell.
+This is usually used to execute commands
+generated as the result of command or variable substitution, since
+parsing occurs before these substitutions. See
+.Xr tset 1
+for an example of using
+.Ic eval .
+.Pp
+.It Ic exec Ar command
+The specified command is executed in place of the current shell.
+.Pp
+.It Ic exit
+.It Ic exit Ar (expr )
+The shell exits either with the value of the
+.Ic status
+variable (first form) or with the value of the specified
+.Ic expr
+(second form).
+.Pp
+.It Ic fg
+.It Ic fg % Ns Ar job ...
+Brings the current or specified jobs into the foreground, continuing them if
+they were stopped.
+.Pp
+.It Ic foreach Ar name (wordlist)
+.It ...
+.It Ic end
+The variable
+.Ic name
+is successively set to each member of
+.Ic wordlist
+and the sequence of commands between this command and the matching
+.Ic end
+are executed.
+(Both
+.Ic foreach
+and
+.Ic end
+must appear alone on separate lines.)
+The builtin command
+.Ic continue
+may be used to continue the loop prematurely and the builtin
+command
+.Ic break
+to terminate it prematurely.
+When this command is read from the terminal, the loop is read once
+prompting with `?' before any statements in the loop are executed.
+If you make a mistake typing in a loop at the terminal you can rub it out.
+.Pp
+.It Ic glob Ar wordlist
+Like
+.Ic echo
+but no `\e' escapes are recognized and words are delimited
+by null characters in the output.
+Useful for programs that wish to use the shell to filename expand a list
+of words.
+.Pp
+.It Ic goto Ar word
+The specified
+.Ic word
+is filename and command expanded to yield a string of the form `label'.
+The shell rewinds its input as much as possible
+and searches for a line of the form `label:'
+possibly preceded by blanks or tabs.
+Execution continues after the specified line.
+.Pp
+.It Ic hashstat
+Print a statistics line showing how effective the internal hash
+table has been at locating commands (and avoiding
+.Ic exec Ns \'s ) .
+An
+.Ic exec
+is attempted for each component of the
+.Em path
+where the hash function indicates a possible hit, and in each component
+that does not begin with a `/'.
+.Pp
+.It Ic history
+.It Ic history Ar n
+.It Ic history Fl r Ar n
+.It Ic history Fl h Ar n
+Displays the history event list; if
+.Ar n
+is given only the
+.Ar n
+most recent events are printed.
+The
+.Fl r
+option reverses the order of printout to be most recent first
+instead of oldest first.
+The
+.Fl h
+option causes the history list to be printed without leading numbers.
+This format produces files suitable for sourcing using the \-h
+option to
+.Ic source .
+.Pp
+.It Ic if ( Ar expr ) No command
+If the specified expression evaluates true, then the single
+.Ar command
+with arguments is executed.
+Variable substitution on
+.Ar command
+happens early, at the same
+time it does for the rest of the
+.Ic if
+command.
+.Ar Command
+must be a simple command, not
+a pipeline, a command list, or a parenthesized command list.
+Input/output redirection occurs even if
+.Ar expr
+is false, i.e., when command is
+.Sy not
+executed (this is a bug).
+.Pp
+.It Ic if ( Ar expr ) Ic then
+.It ...
+.It Ic else if ( Ar expr2 ) Ic then
+.It ...
+.It Ic else
+.It ...
+.It Ic endif
+If the specified
+.Ar expr
+is true then the commands up to the first
+.Ic else
+are executed; otherwise if
+.Ar expr2
+is true then the commands up to the
+second
+.Ic else
+are executed, etc.
+Any number of
+.Ic else-if
+pairs are possible; only one
+.Ic endif
+is needed.
+The
+.Ic else
+part is likewise optional.
+(The words
+.Ic else
+and
+.Ic endif
+must appear at the beginning of input lines;
+the
+.Ic if
+must appear alone on its input line or after an
+.Ic else . )
+.Pp
+.It Ic jobs
+.It Ic jobs Fl l
+Lists the active jobs; the
+.Fl l
+option lists process id's in addition to the normal information.
+.Pp
+.It Ic kill % Ns Ar job
+.It Ic kill Ar pid
+.It Ic kill Fl sig Ar pid ...
+.It Ic kill Fl l
+Sends either the TERM (terminate) signal or the
+specified signal to the specified jobs or processes.
+Signals are either given by number or by names (as given in
+.Pa /usr/include/signal.h,
+stripped of the prefix ``SIG'').
+The signal names are listed by ``kill \-l''.
+There is no default, just saying `kill' does not
+send a signal to the current job.
+If the signal being sent is TERM (terminate) or HUP (hangup),
+then the job or process will be sent a CONT (continue) signal as well.
+.Pp
+.It Ic limit
+.It Ic limit Ar resource
+.It Ic limit Ar resource maximum-use
+.It Ic limit Fl h
+.It Ic limit Fl h Ar resource
+.It Ic limit Fl h Ar resource maximum-use
+Limits the consumption by the current process and each process
+it creates to not individually exceed
+.Ar maximum-use
+on the
+specified
+.Ar resource .
+If no
+.Ar maximum-use
+is given, then
+the current limit is printed; if no
+.Ar resource
+is given, then
+all limitations are given. If the
+.Fl h
+flag is given, the hard limits are used instead of the current
+limits. The hard limits impose a ceiling on the values of
+the current limits. Only the super-user may raise the hard limits,
+but a user may lower or raise the current limits within the legal range.
+.Pp
+Resources controllable currently include
+.Ar cputime
+(the maximum
+number of cpu-seconds to be used by each process),
+.Ar filesize
+(the largest single file that can be created),
+.Ar datasize
+(the maximum growth of the data+stack region via
+.Xr sbrk 2
+beyond the end of the program text),
+.Ar stacksize
+(the maximum
+size of the automatically-extended stack region), and
+.Ar coredumpsize
+(the size of the largest core dump that will be created).
+.Pp
+The
+.Ar maximum-use
+may be given as a (floating point or integer)
+number followed by a scale factor. For all limits other than
+.Ar cputime
+the default scale is `k' or `kilobytes' (1024 bytes);
+a scale factor of `m' or `megabytes' may also be used.
+For
+.Ar cputime
+the default scale is `seconds';
+a scale factor of `m' for minutes
+or `h' for hours, or a time of the form `mm:ss' giving minutes
+and seconds also may be used.
+.Pp
+For both
+.Ar resource
+names and scale factors, unambiguous prefixes
+of the names suffice.
+.Pp
+.It Ic login
+Terminate a login shell, replacing it with an instance of
+.Pa /bin/login.
+This is one way to log off, included for compatibility with
+.Xr sh 1 .
+.Pp
+.It Ic logout
+Terminate a login shell.
+Especially useful if
+.Ic ignoreeof
+is set.
+.Pp
+.It Ic nice
+.It Ic nice Ar +number
+.It Ic nice Ar command
+.It Ic nice Ar +number command
+The first form sets the
+scheduling priority
+for this shell to 4.
+The second form sets the
+priority
+to the given
+.Ar number .
+The final two forms run command at priority 4 and
+.Ar number
+respectively.
+The greater the number, the less cpu the process will get.
+The super-user may specify negative priority by using `nice \-number ...'.
+.Ar Command
+is always executed in a sub-shell, and the restrictions
+placed on commands in simple
+.Ic if
+statements apply.
+.Pp
+.It Ic nohup
+.It Ic nohup Ar command
+The first form can be used in shell scripts to cause hangups to be
+ignored for the remainder of the script.
+The second form causes the specified command to be run with hangups
+ignored.
+All processes detached with `&' are effectively
+.Ic nohup Ns \'ed .
+.Pp
+.It Ic notify
+.It Ic notify % Ns Ar job ...
+Causes the shell to notify the user asynchronously when the status of the
+current or specified jobs change; normally notification is presented
+before a prompt. This is automatic if the shell variable
+.Ic notify
+is set.
+.Pp
+.It Ic onintr
+.It Ic onintr Fl
+.It Ic onintr Ar label
+Control the action of the shell on interrupts.
+The first form restores the default action of the shell on interrupts
+which is to terminate shell scripts or to return to the terminal command
+input level.
+The second form `onintr \-' causes all interrupts to be ignored.
+The final form causes the shell to execute a `goto label' when
+an interrupt is received or a child process terminates because
+it was interrupted.
+.Pp
+In any case, if the shell is running detached and interrupts are
+being ignored, all forms of
+.Ic onintr
+have no meaning and interrupts
+continue to be ignored by the shell and all invoked commands.
+Finally
+.Ic onintr
+statements are ignored in the system startup files where interrupts
+are disabled (/etc/csh.cshrc, /etc/csh.login).
+.Pp
+.It Ic popd
+.It Ic popd Ar +n
+Pops the directory stack, returning to the new top directory.
+With an argument
+.Ns \`+ Ar n Ns \'
+discards the
+.Ar n Ns \'th
+entry in the stack.
+The members of the directory stack are numbered from the top starting at 0.
+.Pp
+.It Ic pushd
+.It Ic pushd Ar name
+.It Ic pushd Ar n
+With no arguments,
+.Ic pushd
+exchanges the top two elements of the directory stack.
+Given a
+.Ar name
+argument,
+.Ic pushd
+changes to the new directory (ala
+.Ic cd )
+and pushes the old current working directory
+(as in
+.Ic csw )
+onto the directory stack.
+With a numeric argument,
+.Ic pushd
+rotates the
+.Ar n Ns \'th
+argument of the directory
+stack around to be the top element and changes to it. The members
+of the directory stack are numbered from the top starting at 0.
+.Pp
+.It Ic rehash
+Causes the internal hash table of the contents of the directories in
+the
+.Ic path
+variable to be recomputed. This is needed if new commands are added
+to directories in the
+.Ic path
+while you are logged in. This should only be necessary if you add
+commands to one of your own directories, or if a systems programmer
+changes the contents of a system directory.
+.Pp
+.It Ic repeat Ar count command
+The specified
+.Ar command
+which is subject to the same restrictions
+as the
+.Ar command
+in the one line
+.Ic if
+statement above,
+is executed
+.Ar count
+times.
+I/O redirections occur exactly once, even if
+.Ar count
+is 0.
+.Pp
+.It Ic set
+.It Ic set Ar name
+.It Ic set Ar name Ns =word
+.It Ic set Ar name[index] Ns =word
+.It Ic set Ar name Ns =(wordlist)
+The first form of the command shows the value of all shell variables.
+Variables that have other than a single word as their
+value print as a parenthesized word list.
+The second form sets
+.Ar name
+to the null string.
+The third form sets
+.Ar name
+to the single
+.Ar word .
+The fourth form sets
+the
+.Ar index Ns 'th
+component of
+.Ar name
+to
+.Ar word ;
+this component must already exist.
+The final form sets
+.Ar name
+to the list of words in
+.Ar wordlist .
+The value is always command and filename expanded.
+.Pp
+These arguments may be repeated to set multiple values in a single set command.
+Note however, that variable expansion happens for all arguments before any
+setting occurs.
+.Pp
+.It Ic setenv
+.It Ic setenv Ar name
+.It Ic setenv Ar name value
+The first form lists all current environment variables.
+It is equivalent to
+.Xr printenv 1 .
+The last form sets the value of environment variable
+.Ar name
+to be
+.Ar value ,
+a single string. The second form sets
+.Ar name
+to an empty string.
+The most commonly used environment variables
+.Ev USER ,
+.Ev TERM ,
+and
+.Ev PATH
+are automatically imported to and exported from the
+.Nm csh
+variables
+.Ar user ,
+.Ar term ,
+and
+.Ar path ;
+there is no need to use
+.Ic setenv
+for these.
+.Pp
+.It Ic shift
+.It Ic shift Ar variable
+The members of
+.Ic argv
+are shifted to the left, discarding
+.Ic argv Ns Bq 1 .
+It is an error for
+.Ic argv
+not to be set or to have less than one word as value.
+The second form performs the same function on the specified variable.
+.Pp
+.It Ic source Ar name
+.It Ic source Fl h Ar name
+The shell reads commands from
+.Ar name .
+.Ic Source
+commands may be nested; if they are nested too deeply the shell may
+run out of file descriptors.
+An error in a
+.Ic source
+at any level terminates all nested
+.Ic source
+commands.
+Normally input during
+.Ic source
+commands is not placed on the history list;
+the \-h option causes the commands to be placed on the
+history list without being executed.
+.Pp
+.It Ic stop
+.It Ic stop % Ns Ar job ...
+Stops the current or specified jobs that are executing in the background.
+.Pp
+.It Ic suspend
+Causes the shell to stop in its tracks, much as if it had been sent a stop
+signal with
+.Ic ^Z .
+This is most often used to stop shells started by
+.Xr su 1 .
+.Pp
+.It Ic switch Ar (string)
+.It Ic case Ar str1 :
+.It \ \ \ \ \&...
+.It Ic \ \ \ \ breaksw
+.It \ \ \ \ \&...
+.It Ic default :
+.It \ \ \ \ \&...
+.It Ic \ \ \ \ breaksw
+.It Ic endsw
+Each case label is successively matched against the specified
+.Ar string
+which is first command and filename expanded.
+The file metacharacters `*', `?' and `[...]'
+may be used in the case labels,
+which are variable expanded.
+If none of the labels match before the `default' label is found, then
+the execution begins after the default label.
+Each case label and the default label must appear at the beginning of a line.
+The command
+.Ic breaksw
+causes execution to continue after the
+.Ic endsw .
+Otherwise control may fall through case labels and the default label as in C.
+If no label matches and there is no default, execution continues after
+the
+.Ic endsw .
+.Pp
+.It Ic time
+.It Ic time Ar command
+With no argument, a summary of time used by this shell and its children
+is printed.
+If arguments are given
+the specified simple command is timed and a time summary
+as described under the
+.Ic time
+variable is printed. If necessary, an extra shell is created to print the time
+statistic when the command completes.
+.Pp
+.It Ic umask
+.It Ic umask Ar value
+The file creation mask is displayed (first form) or set to the specified
+value (second form). The mask is given in octal. Common values for
+the mask are 002 giving all access to the group and read and execute
+access to others or 022 giving all access except write access for
+users in the group or others.
+.Pp
+.It Ic unalias Ar pattern
+All aliases whose names match the specified pattern are discarded.
+Thus all aliases are removed by `unalias *'.
+It is not an error for nothing to be
+.Ic unaliased .
+.Pp
+.It Ic unhash
+Use of the internal hash table to speed location of executed programs
+is disabled.
+.Pp
+.It Ic unlimit
+.It Ic unlimit Ar resource
+.It Ic unlimit Fl h
+.It Ic unlimit Fl h Ar resource
+Removes the limitation on
+.Ar resource .
+If no
+.Ar resource
+is specified, then all
+.Ar resource
+limitations are removed. If
+.Fl h
+is given, the corresponding hard limits are removed. Only the
+super-user may do this.
+.Pp
+.It Ic unset Ar pattern
+All variables whose names match the specified pattern are removed.
+Thus all variables are removed by `unset *'; this has noticeably
+distasteful side-effects.
+It is not an error for nothing to be
+.Ic unset .
+.Pp
+.It Ic unsetenv Ar pattern
+Removes all variables whose name match the specified pattern from the
+environment. See also the
+.Ic setenv
+command above and
+.Xr printenv 1 .
+.Pp
+.It Ic wait
+Wait for all background jobs.
+If the shell is interactive, then an interrupt can disrupt the wait.
+After the interrupt, the shell prints names and job numbers of all jobs
+known to be outstanding.
+.It Ic which Ar command
+Displays the resolved command that will be executed by the shell.
+.Pp
+.It Ic while Ar (expr)
+.It \&...
+.It Ic end
+While the specified expression evaluates non-zero, the commands between
+the
+.Ic while
+and the matching
+.Ic end
+are evaluated.
+.Ic Break
+and
+.Ic continue
+may be used to terminate or continue the loop prematurely.
+(The
+.Ic while
+and
+.Ic end
+must appear alone on their input lines.)
+Prompting occurs here the first time through the loop as for the
+.Ic foreach
+statement if the input is a terminal.
+.Pp
+.It Ic % Ns Ar job
+Brings the specified job into the foreground.
+.Pp
+.It Ic % Ns Ar job Ic &
+Continues the specified job in the background.
+.Pp
+.It Ic @
+.It Ic @ Ns Ar name Ns = expr
+.It Ic @ Ns Ar name[index] Ns = expr
+The first form prints the values of all the shell variables.
+The second form sets the specified
+.Ar name
+to the value of
+.Ar expr .
+If the expression contains `<', `>', `&' or `|' then at least
+this part of the expression must be placed within `(' `)'.
+The third form assigns the value of
+.Ar expr
+to the
+.Ar index Ns 'th
+argument of
+.Ar name .
+Both
+.Ar name
+and its
+.Ar index Ns 'th
+component must already exist.
+.El
+.Pp
+The operators `*=', `+=', etc are available as in C.
+The space separating the name from the assignment operator is optional.
+Spaces are, however, mandatory in separating components of
+.Ar expr
+which would otherwise be single words.
+.Pp
+Special postfix `+\|+' and `\-\|\-' operators increment and decrement
+.Ar name
+respectively, i.e., `@ i++'.
+.Ss Pre-defined and environment variables
+The following variables have special meaning to the shell.
+Of these,
+.Ar argv ,
+.Ar cwd,
+.Ar home ,
+.Ar path,
+.Ar prompt ,
+.Ar shell
+and
+.Ar status
+are always set by the shell.
+Except for
+.Ar cwd
+and
+.Ar status ,
+this setting occurs only at initialization;
+these variables will not then be modified unless done
+explicitly by the user.
+.Pp
+The shell copies the environment variable
+.Ev USER
+into the variable
+.Ar user ,
+.Ev TERM
+into
+.Ar term ,
+and
+.Ev HOME
+into
+.Ar home ,
+and copies these back into the environment whenever the normal
+shell variables are reset.
+The environment variable
+.Ev PATH
+is likewise handled; it is not
+necessary to worry about its setting other than in the file
+.Ar \&.cshrc
+as inferior
+.Nm csh
+processes will import the definition of
+.Ar path
+from the environment, and re-export it if you then change it.
+.Bl -tag -width histchars
+.It Ic argv
+Set to the arguments to the shell, it is from this variable that
+positional parameters are substituted, i.e., `$1' is replaced by
+`$argv[1]',
+etc.
+.It Ic cdpath
+Gives a list of alternate directories searched to find subdirectories
+in
+.Ar chdir
+commands.
+.It Ic cwd
+The full pathname of the current directory.
+.It Ic echo
+Set when the
+.Fl x
+command line option is given.
+Causes each command and its arguments
+to be echoed just before it is executed.
+For non-builtin commands all expansions occur before echoing.
+Builtin commands are echoed before command and filename substitution,
+since these substitutions are then done selectively.
+.It Ic filec
+Enable file name completion.
+.It Ic histchars
+Can be given a string value to change the characters used in history
+substitution. The first character of its value is used as the
+history substitution character, replacing the default character `!'.
+The second character of its value replaces the character `\(ua' in
+quick substitutions.
+.It Ic histfile
+Can be set to the pathname where history is going to be saved/restored.
+.It Ic history
+Can be given a numeric value to control the size of the history list.
+Any command that has been referenced in this many events will not be
+discarded.
+Too large values of
+.Ar history
+may run the shell out of memory.
+The last executed command is always saved on the history list.
+.It Ic home
+The home directory of the invoker, initialized from the environment.
+The filename expansion of
+.Sq Pa ~
+refers to this variable.
+.It Ic ignoreeof
+If set the shell ignores
+end-of-file from input devices which are terminals.
+This prevents shells from accidentally being killed by control-D's.
+.It Ic mail
+The files where the shell checks for mail.
+This checking is done after each command completion that will
+result in a prompt,
+if a specified interval has elapsed.
+The shell says `You have new mail.'
+if the file exists with an access time not greater than its modify time.
+.Pp
+If the first word of the value of
+.Ar mail
+is numeric it specifies a different mail checking interval, in seconds,
+than the default, which is 10 minutes.
+.Pp
+If multiple mail files are specified, then the shell says
+`New mail in
+.Ar name Ns '
+when there is mail in the file
+.Ar name .
+.It Ic noclobber
+As described in the section on
+.Sx input/output ,
+restrictions are placed on output redirection to insure that
+files are not accidentally destroyed, and that `>>' redirections
+refer to existing files.
+.It Ic noglob
+If set, filename expansion is inhibited.
+This inhibition is most useful in shell scripts that
+ are not dealing with filenames,
+or after a list of filenames has been obtained and further expansions
+are not desirable.
+.It Ic nonomatch
+If set, it is not an error for a filename expansion to not match any
+existing files; instead the primitive pattern is returned.
+It is still an error for the primitive pattern to be malformed, i.e.,
+`echo ['
+still gives an error.
+.It Ic notify
+If set, the shell notifies asynchronously of job completions;
+the default is to present job completions just before printing
+a prompt.
+.It Ic path
+Each word of the path variable specifies a directory in which
+commands are to be sought for execution.
+A null word specifies the current directory.
+If there is no
+.Ar path
+variable then only full path names will execute.
+The usual search path is `.', `/bin' and `/usr/bin', but this
+may vary from system to system.
+For the super-user the default search path is `/etc', `/bin' and `/usr/bin'.
+A shell that is given neither the
+.Fl c
+nor the
+.Fl t
+option will normally hash the contents of the directories in the
+.Ar path
+variable after reading
+.Ar \&.cshrc ,
+and each time the
+.Ar path
+variable is reset. If new commands are added to these directories
+while the shell is active, it may be necessary to do a
+.Ic rehash
+or the commands may not be found.
+.It Ic prompt
+The string that is printed before each command is read from
+an interactive terminal input.
+If a `!' appears in the string it will be replaced by the current event number
+unless a preceding `\e' is given.
+Default is `% ', or `# ' for the super-user.
+.It Ic savehist
+Is given a numeric value to control the number of entries of the
+history list that are saved in ~/.history when the user logs out.
+Any command that has been referenced in this many events will be saved.
+During start up the shell sources ~/.history into the history list
+enabling history to be saved across logins.
+Too large values of
+.Ar savehist
+will slow down the shell during start up.
+If
+.Ar savehist
+is just set, the shell will use the value of
+.Ar history.
+.It Ic shell
+The file in which the shell resides.
+This variable is used in forking shells to interpret files that have execute
+bits set, but which are not executable by the system.
+(See the description of
+.Sx Non-builtin Command Execution
+below.)
+Initialized to the (system-dependent) home of the shell.
+.It Ic status
+The status returned by the last command.
+If it terminated abnormally, then 0200 is added to the status.
+Builtin commands that fail return exit status `1',
+all other builtin commands set status to `0'.
+.It Ic time
+Controls automatic timing of commands.
+If set, then any command that takes more than this many cpu seconds
+will cause a line giving user, system, and real times and a utilization
+percentage which is the ratio of user plus system times to real time
+to be printed when it terminates.
+.It Ic verbose
+Set by the
+.Fl v
+command line option, causes the words of each command to be printed
+after history substitution.
+.El
+.Ss Non-builtin command execution
+When a command to be executed is found to not be a builtin command
+the shell attempts to execute the command via
+.Xr execve 2 .
+Each word in the variable
+.Ar path
+names a directory from which the shell will attempt to execute the command.
+If it is given neither a
+.Fl c
+nor a
+.Fl t
+option, the shell will hash the names in these directories into an internal
+table so that it will only try an
+.Ic exec
+in a directory if there is a possibility that the command resides there.
+This shortcut greatly speeds command location when many directories
+are present in the search path.
+If this mechanism has been turned off (via
+.Ic unhash ) ,
+or if the shell was given a
+.Fl c
+or
+.Fl t
+argument, and in any case for each directory component of
+.Ar path
+that does not begin with a `/',
+the shell concatenates with the given command name to form a path name
+of a file which it then attempts to execute.
+.Pp
+Parenthesized commands are always executed in a subshell.
+Thus
+.Pp
+.Dl (cd ; pwd) ; pwd
+.Pp
+prints the
+.Ar home
+directory; leaving you where you were (printing this after the home directory),
+while
+.Pp
+.Dl cd ; pwd
+.Pp
+leaves you in the
+.Ar home
+directory.
+Parenthesized commands are most often used to prevent
+.Ic chdir
+from affecting the current shell.
+.Pp
+If the file has execute permissions but is not an
+executable binary to the system, then it is assumed to be a
+file containing shell commands and a new shell is spawned to read it.
+.Pp
+If there is an
+.Ic alias
+for
+.Ic shell
+then the words of the alias will be prepended to the argument list to form
+the shell command.
+The first word of the
+.Ic alias
+should be the full path name of the shell
+(e.g., `$shell').
+Note that this is a special, late occurring, case of
+.Ic alias
+substitution,
+and only allows words to be prepended to the argument list without change.
+.Ss Signal handling
+The shell normally ignores
+.Ar quit
+signals.
+Jobs running detached (either by
+.Ic \&&
+or the
+.Ic bg
+or
+.Ic %... &
+commands) are immune to signals generated from the keyboard, including
+hangups.
+Other signals have the values which the shell inherited from its parent.
+The shell's handling of interrupts and terminate signals
+in shell scripts can be controlled by
+.Ic onintr .
+Login shells catch the
+.Ar terminate
+signal; otherwise this signal is passed on to children from the state in the
+shell's parent.
+Interrupts are not allowed when a login shell is reading the file
+.Pa \&.logout .
+.Sh AUTHOR
+William Joy.
+Job control and directory stack features first implemented by J.E. Kulp of
+IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria,
+with different syntax than that used now.
+File name completion code written by Ken Greer, HP Labs.
+Eight-bit implementation Christos S. Zoulas, Cornell University.
+.Sh FILES
+.Bl -tag -width /etc/passwd -compact
+.It Pa ~/.cshrc
+Read at beginning of execution by each shell.
+.It Pa ~/.login
+Read by login shell, after `.cshrc' at login.
+.It Pa ~/.logout
+Read by login shell, at logout.
+.It Pa /bin/sh
+Standard shell, for shell scripts not starting with a `#'.
+.It Pa /tmp/sh*
+Temporary file for `<<'.
+.It Pa /etc/passwd
+Source of home directories for `~name'.
+.El
+.Sh LIMITATIONS
+Word lengths \-
+Words can be no longer than 1024 characters.
+The system limits argument lists to 10240 characters.
+The number of arguments to a command that involves filename expansion
+is limited to 1/6'th the number of characters allowed in an argument list.
+Command substitutions may substitute no more characters than are
+allowed in an argument list.
+To detect looping, the shell restricts the number of
+.Ic alias
+substitutions on a single line to 20.
+.Sh SEE ALSO
+.Xr sh 1 ,
+.Xr access 2 ,
+.Xr execve 2 ,
+.Xr fork 2 ,
+.Xr killpg 2 ,
+.Xr pipe 2 ,
+.Xr sigvec 2 ,
+.Xr umask 2 ,
+.Xr setrlimit 2 ,
+.Xr wait 2 ,
+.Xr tty 4 ,
+.Xr a.out 5 ,
+.Xr environ 7 ,
+.br
+.Em An introduction to the C shell
+.Sh HISTORY
+.Nm Csh
+appeared in
+.Bx 3 .
+It
+was a first implementation of a command language interpreter
+incorporating a history mechanism (see
+.Sx History Substitutions ) ,
+job control facilities (see
+.Sx Jobs ) ,
+interactive file name
+and user name completion (see
+.Sx File Name Completion ) ,
+and a C-like syntax.
+There are now many shells that also have these mechanisms, plus
+a few more (and maybe some bugs too), which are available through the
+usenet.
+.Sh BUGS
+When a command is restarted from a stop,
+the shell prints the directory it started in if this is different
+from the current directory; this can be misleading (i.e., wrong)
+as the job may have changed directories internally.
+.Pp
+Shell builtin functions are not stoppable/restartable.
+Command sequences of the form `a ; b ; c' are also not handled gracefully
+when stopping is attempted. If you suspend `b', the shell will
+immediately execute `c'. This is especially noticeable if this
+expansion results from an
+.Ar alias .
+It suffices to place the sequence of commands in ()'s to force it to
+a subshell, i.e., `( a ; b ; c )'.
+.Pp
+Control over tty output after processes are started is primitive;
+perhaps this will inspire someone to work on a good virtual
+terminal interface. In a virtual terminal interface much more
+interesting things could be done with output control.
+.Pp
+Alias substitution is most often used to clumsily simulate shell procedures;
+shell procedures should be provided instead of aliases.
+.Pp
+Commands within loops, prompted for by `?', are not placed on the
+.Ic history
+list.
+Control structure should be parsed instead of being recognized as built-in
+commands. This would allow control commands to be placed anywhere,
+to be combined with `\&|', and to be used with `&' and `;' metasyntax.
+.Pp
+It should be possible to use the `:' modifiers on the output of command
+substitutions.
+.Pp
+The way the
+.Ic filec
+facility is implemented is ugly and expensive.
diff --git a/bin/csh/csh.c b/bin/csh/csh.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..8f70d3204d98
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/csh.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1352 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char copyright[] =
+"@(#) Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993\n\
+ The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.\n";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)csh.c 8.2 (Berkeley) 10/12/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <pwd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <locale.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <vis.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "proc.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+#include "pathnames.h"
+
+extern bool MapsAreInited;
+extern bool NLSMapsAreInited;
+
+/*
+ * C Shell
+ *
+ * Bill Joy, UC Berkeley, California, USA
+ * October 1978, May 1980
+ *
+ * Jim Kulp, IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria
+ * April 1980
+ *
+ * Christos Zoulas, Cornell University
+ * June, 1991
+ */
+
+Char *dumphist[] = {STRhistory, STRmh, 0, 0};
+Char *loadhist[] = {STRsource, STRmh, STRtildothist, 0};
+
+int nofile = 0;
+bool reenter = 0;
+bool nverbose = 0;
+bool nexececho = 0;
+bool quitit = 0;
+bool fast = 0;
+bool batch = 0;
+bool mflag = 0;
+bool prompt = 1;
+bool enterhist = 0;
+bool tellwhat = 0;
+
+extern char **environ;
+
+static int readf __P((void *, char *, int));
+static fpos_t seekf __P((void *, fpos_t, int));
+static int writef __P((void *, const char *, int));
+static int closef __P((void *));
+static int srccat __P((Char *, Char *));
+static int srcfile __P((char *, bool, bool));
+static void phup __P((int));
+static void srcunit __P((int, bool, bool));
+static void mailchk __P((void));
+static Char **defaultpath __P((void));
+
+int
+main(argc, argv)
+ int argc;
+ char **argv;
+{
+ register Char *cp;
+ register char *tcp;
+ register int f;
+ register char **tempv;
+ struct sigvec osv;
+
+ cshin = stdin;
+ cshout = stdout;
+ csherr = stderr;
+
+ settimes(); /* Immed. estab. timing base */
+
+ /*
+ * Initialize non constant strings
+ */
+#ifdef _PATH_BSHELL
+ STR_BSHELL = SAVE(_PATH_BSHELL);
+#endif
+#ifdef _PATH_CSHELL
+ STR_SHELLPATH = SAVE(_PATH_CSHELL);
+#endif
+ STR_environ = blk2short(environ);
+ environ = short2blk(STR_environ); /* So that we can free it */
+ STR_WORD_CHARS = SAVE(WORD_CHARS);
+
+ HIST = '!';
+ HISTSUB = '^';
+ word_chars = STR_WORD_CHARS;
+
+ tempv = argv;
+ if (eq(str2short(tempv[0]), STRaout)) /* A.out's are quittable */
+ quitit = 1;
+ uid = getuid();
+ gid = getgid();
+ euid = geteuid();
+ egid = getegid();
+ /*
+ * We are a login shell if: 1. we were invoked as -<something> and we had
+ * no arguments 2. or we were invoked only with the -l flag
+ */
+ loginsh = (**tempv == '-' && argc == 1) ||
+ (argc == 2 && tempv[1][0] == '-' && tempv[1][1] == 'l' &&
+ tempv[1][2] == '\0');
+
+ if (loginsh && **tempv != '-') {
+ /*
+ * Mangle the argv space
+ */
+ tempv[1][0] = '\0';
+ tempv[1][1] = '\0';
+ tempv[1] = NULL;
+ for (tcp = *tempv; *tcp++;)
+ continue;
+ for (tcp--; tcp >= *tempv; tcp--)
+ tcp[1] = tcp[0];
+ *++tcp = '-';
+ argc--;
+ }
+ if (loginsh)
+ (void) time(&chktim);
+
+ AsciiOnly = 1;
+#ifdef NLS
+ (void) setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
+ {
+ int k;
+
+ for (k = 0200; k <= 0377 && !Isprint(k); k++)
+ continue;
+ AsciiOnly = k > 0377;
+ }
+#else
+ AsciiOnly = getenv("LANG") == NULL && getenv("LC_CTYPE") == NULL;
+#endif /* NLS */
+
+ /*
+ * Move the descriptors to safe places. The variable didfds is 0 while we
+ * have only FSH* to work with. When didfds is true, we have 0,1,2 and
+ * prefer to use these.
+ */
+ initdesc();
+ /*
+ * XXX: This is to keep programs that use stdio happy.
+ * what we really want is freunopen() ....
+ * Closing cshin cshout and csherr (which are really stdin stdout
+ * and stderr at this point and then reopening them in the same order
+ * gives us again stdin == cshin stdout == cshout and stderr == csherr.
+ * If that was not the case builtins like printf that use stdio
+ * would break. But in any case we could fix that with memcpy and
+ * a bit of pointer manipulation...
+ * Fortunately this is not needed under the current implementation
+ * of stdio.
+ */
+ (void) fclose(cshin);
+ (void) fclose(cshout);
+ (void) fclose(csherr);
+ if (!(cshin = funopen((void *) &SHIN, readf, writef, seekf, closef)))
+ exit(1);
+ if (!(cshout = funopen((void *) &SHOUT, readf, writef, seekf, closef)))
+ exit(1);
+ if (!(csherr = funopen((void *) &SHERR, readf, writef, seekf, closef)))
+ exit(1);
+ (void) setvbuf(cshin, NULL, _IOLBF, 0);
+ (void) setvbuf(cshout, NULL, _IOLBF, 0);
+ (void) setvbuf(csherr, NULL, _IOLBF, 0);
+
+ /*
+ * Initialize the shell variables. ARGV and PROMPT are initialized later.
+ * STATUS is also munged in several places. CHILD is munged when
+ * forking/waiting
+ */
+ set(STRstatus, Strsave(STR0));
+
+ if ((tcp = getenv("HOME")) != NULL)
+ cp = SAVE(tcp);
+ else
+ cp = NULL;
+
+ if (cp == NULL)
+ fast = 1; /* No home -> can't read scripts */
+ else
+ set(STRhome, cp);
+ dinit(cp); /* dinit thinks that HOME == cwd in a login
+ * shell */
+ /*
+ * Grab other useful things from the environment. Should we grab
+ * everything??
+ */
+ if ((tcp = getenv("LOGNAME")) != NULL ||
+ (tcp = getenv("USER")) != NULL)
+ set(STRuser, SAVE(tcp));
+ if ((tcp = getenv("TERM")) != NULL)
+ set(STRterm, SAVE(tcp));
+
+ /*
+ * Re-initialize path if set in environment
+ */
+ if ((tcp = getenv("PATH")) == NULL)
+ set1(STRpath, defaultpath(), &shvhed);
+ else
+ importpath(SAVE(tcp));
+
+ set(STRshell, Strsave(STR_SHELLPATH));
+
+ doldol = putn((int) getpid()); /* For $$ */
+ shtemp = Strspl(STRtmpsh, doldol); /* For << */
+
+ /*
+ * Record the interrupt states from the parent process. If the parent is
+ * non-interruptible our hand must be forced or we (and our children) won't
+ * be either. Our children inherit termination from our parent. We catch it
+ * only if we are the login shell.
+ */
+ /* parents interruptibility */
+ (void) sigvec(SIGINT, NULL, &osv);
+ parintr = (void (*) ()) osv.sv_handler;
+ (void) sigvec(SIGTERM, NULL, &osv);
+ parterm = (void (*) ()) osv.sv_handler;
+
+ if (loginsh) {
+ (void) signal(SIGHUP, phup); /* exit processing on HUP */
+ (void) signal(SIGXCPU, phup); /* ...and on XCPU */
+ (void) signal(SIGXFSZ, phup); /* ...and on XFSZ */
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Process the arguments.
+ *
+ * Note that processing of -v/-x is actually delayed till after script
+ * processing.
+ *
+ * We set the first character of our name to be '-' if we are a shell
+ * running interruptible commands. Many programs which examine ps'es
+ * use this to filter such shells out.
+ */
+ argc--, tempv++;
+ while (argc > 0 && (tcp = tempv[0])[0] == '-' && *++tcp != '\0' && !batch) {
+ do
+ switch (*tcp++) {
+
+ case 0: /* - Interruptible, no prompt */
+ prompt = 0;
+ setintr = 1;
+ nofile = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'b': /* -b Next arg is input file */
+ batch = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'c': /* -c Command input from arg */
+ if (argc == 1)
+ xexit(0);
+ argc--, tempv++;
+ arginp = SAVE(tempv[0]);
+ prompt = 0;
+ nofile = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'e': /* -e Exit on any error */
+ exiterr = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'f': /* -f Fast start */
+ fast = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'i': /* -i Interactive, even if !intty */
+ intact = 1;
+ nofile = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'm': /* -m read .cshrc (from su) */
+ mflag = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'n': /* -n Don't execute */
+ noexec = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'q': /* -q (Undoc'd) ... die on quit */
+ quitit = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 's': /* -s Read from std input */
+ nofile = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 't': /* -t Read one line from input */
+ onelflg = 2;
+ prompt = 0;
+ nofile = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'v': /* -v Echo hist expanded input */
+ nverbose = 1; /* ... later */
+ break;
+
+ case 'x': /* -x Echo just before execution */
+ nexececho = 1; /* ... later */
+ break;
+
+ case 'V': /* -V Echo hist expanded input */
+ setNS(STRverbose); /* NOW! */
+ break;
+
+ case 'X': /* -X Echo just before execution */
+ setNS(STRecho); /* NOW! */
+ break;
+
+ } while (*tcp);
+ tempv++, argc--;
+ }
+
+ if (quitit) /* With all due haste, for debugging */
+ (void) signal(SIGQUIT, SIG_DFL);
+
+ /*
+ * Unless prevented by -, -c, -i, -s, or -t, if there are remaining
+ * arguments the first of them is the name of a shell file from which to
+ * read commands.
+ */
+ if (nofile == 0 && argc > 0) {
+ nofile = open(tempv[0], O_RDONLY);
+ if (nofile < 0) {
+ child = 1; /* So this doesn't return */
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tempv[0], strerror(errno));
+ }
+ ffile = SAVE(tempv[0]);
+ /*
+ * Replace FSHIN. Handle /dev/std{in,out,err} specially
+ * since once they are closed we cannot open them again.
+ * In that case we use our own saved descriptors
+ */
+ if ((SHIN = dmove(nofile, FSHIN)) < 0)
+ switch(nofile) {
+ case 0:
+ SHIN = FSHIN;
+ break;
+ case 1:
+ SHIN = FSHOUT;
+ break;
+ case 2:
+ SHIN = FSHERR;
+ break;
+ default:
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tempv[0], strerror(errno));
+ break;
+ }
+ (void) ioctl(SHIN, FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ prompt = 0;
+ /* argc not used any more */ tempv++;
+ }
+
+ intty = isatty(SHIN);
+ intty |= intact;
+ if (intty || (intact && isatty(SHOUT))) {
+ if (!batch && (uid != euid || gid != egid)) {
+ errno = EACCES;
+ child = 1; /* So this doesn't return */
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, "csh", strerror(errno));
+ }
+ }
+ /*
+ * Decide whether we should play with signals or not. If we are explicitly
+ * told (via -i, or -) or we are a login shell (arg0 starts with -) or the
+ * input and output are both the ttys("csh", or "csh</dev/ttyx>/dev/ttyx")
+ * Note that in only the login shell is it likely that parent may have set
+ * signals to be ignored
+ */
+ if (loginsh || intact || (intty && isatty(SHOUT)))
+ setintr = 1;
+ settell();
+ /*
+ * Save the remaining arguments in argv.
+ */
+ setq(STRargv, blk2short(tempv), &shvhed);
+
+ /*
+ * Set up the prompt.
+ */
+ if (prompt) {
+ set(STRprompt, Strsave(uid == 0 ? STRsymhash : STRsymcent));
+ /* that's a meta-questionmark */
+ set(STRprompt2, Strsave(STRmquestion));
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If we are an interactive shell, then start fiddling with the signals;
+ * this is a tricky game.
+ */
+ shpgrp = getpgrp();
+ opgrp = tpgrp = -1;
+ if (setintr) {
+ **argv = '-';
+ if (!quitit) /* Wary! */
+ (void) signal(SIGQUIT, SIG_IGN);
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, pintr);
+ (void) sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ (void) signal(SIGTERM, SIG_IGN);
+ if (quitit == 0 && arginp == 0) {
+ (void) signal(SIGTSTP, SIG_IGN);
+ (void) signal(SIGTTIN, SIG_IGN);
+ (void) signal(SIGTTOU, SIG_IGN);
+ /*
+ * Wait till in foreground, in case someone stupidly runs csh &
+ * dont want to try to grab away the tty.
+ */
+ if (isatty(FSHERR))
+ f = FSHERR;
+ else if (isatty(FSHOUT))
+ f = FSHOUT;
+ else if (isatty(OLDSTD))
+ f = OLDSTD;
+ else
+ f = -1;
+ retry:
+ if ((tpgrp = tcgetpgrp(f)) != -1) {
+ if (tpgrp != shpgrp) {
+ sig_t old = signal(SIGTTIN, SIG_DFL);
+ (void) kill(0, SIGTTIN);
+ (void) signal(SIGTTIN, old);
+ goto retry;
+ }
+ opgrp = shpgrp;
+ shpgrp = getpid();
+ tpgrp = shpgrp;
+ /*
+ * Setpgid will fail if we are a session leader and
+ * mypid == mypgrp (POSIX 4.3.3)
+ */
+ if (opgrp != shpgrp)
+ if (setpgid(0, shpgrp) == -1)
+ goto notty;
+ /*
+ * We do that after we set our process group, to make sure
+ * that the process group belongs to a process in the same
+ * session as the tty (our process and our group) (POSIX 7.2.4)
+ */
+ if (tcsetpgrp(f, shpgrp) == -1)
+ goto notty;
+ (void) ioctl(dcopy(f, FSHTTY), FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ }
+ if (tpgrp == -1) {
+notty:
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "Warning: no access to tty (%s).\n",
+ strerror(errno));
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "Thus no job control in this shell.\n");
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ if ((setintr == 0) && (parintr == SIG_DFL))
+ setintr = 1;
+ (void) signal(SIGCHLD, pchild); /* while signals not ready */
+
+ /*
+ * Set an exit here in case of an interrupt or error reading the shell
+ * start-up scripts.
+ */
+ reenter = setexit(); /* PWP */
+ haderr = 0; /* In case second time through */
+ if (!fast && reenter == 0) {
+ /* Will have value(STRhome) here because set fast if don't */
+ {
+ int osetintr = setintr;
+ sig_t oparintr = parintr;
+ sigset_t omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+
+ setintr = 0;
+ parintr = SIG_IGN; /* Disable onintr */
+#ifdef _PATH_DOTCSHRC
+ (void) srcfile(_PATH_DOTCSHRC, 0, 0);
+#endif
+ if (!fast && !arginp && !onelflg)
+ dohash(NULL, NULL);
+#ifdef _PATH_DOTLOGIN
+ if (loginsh)
+ (void) srcfile(_PATH_DOTLOGIN, 0, 0);
+#endif
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+ setintr = osetintr;
+ parintr = oparintr;
+ }
+ (void) srccat(value(STRhome), STRsldotcshrc);
+
+ if (!fast && !arginp && !onelflg && !havhash)
+ dohash(NULL, NULL);
+ /*
+ * Source history before .login so that it is available in .login
+ */
+ if ((cp = value(STRhistfile)) != STRNULL)
+ loadhist[2] = cp;
+ dosource(loadhist, NULL);
+ if (loginsh)
+ (void) srccat(value(STRhome), STRsldotlogin);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Now are ready for the -v and -x flags
+ */
+ if (nverbose)
+ setNS(STRverbose);
+ if (nexececho)
+ setNS(STRecho);
+
+ /*
+ * All the rest of the world is inside this call. The argument to process
+ * indicates whether it should catch "error unwinds". Thus if we are a
+ * interactive shell our call here will never return by being blown past on
+ * an error.
+ */
+ process(setintr);
+
+ /*
+ * Mop-up.
+ */
+ if (intty) {
+ if (loginsh) {
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "logout\n");
+ (void) close(SHIN);
+ child = 1;
+ goodbye();
+ }
+ else {
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "exit\n");
+ }
+ }
+ rechist();
+ exitstat();
+ return (0);
+}
+
+void
+untty()
+{
+ if (tpgrp > 0) {
+ (void) setpgid(0, opgrp);
+ (void) tcsetpgrp(FSHTTY, opgrp);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+importpath(cp)
+ Char *cp;
+{
+ register int i = 0;
+ register Char *dp;
+ register Char **pv;
+ int c;
+
+ for (dp = cp; *dp; dp++)
+ if (*dp == ':')
+ i++;
+ /*
+ * i+2 where i is the number of colons in the path. There are i+1
+ * directories in the path plus we need room for a zero terminator.
+ */
+ pv = (Char **) xcalloc((size_t) (i + 2), sizeof(Char **));
+ dp = cp;
+ i = 0;
+ if (*dp)
+ for (;;) {
+ if ((c = *dp) == ':' || c == 0) {
+ *dp = 0;
+ if ((*cp != '/' || *cp == '\0') && (euid == 0 || uid == 0))
+ (void) fprintf(csherr,
+ "Warning: imported path contains relative components\n");
+ pv[i++] = Strsave(*cp ? cp : STRdot);
+ if (c) {
+ cp = dp + 1;
+ *dp = ':';
+ }
+ else
+ break;
+ }
+ dp++;
+ }
+ pv[i] = 0;
+ set1(STRpath, pv, &shvhed);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Source to the file which is the catenation of the argument names.
+ */
+static int
+srccat(cp, dp)
+ Char *cp, *dp;
+{
+ register Char *ep = Strspl(cp, dp);
+ char *ptr = short2str(ep);
+
+ xfree((ptr_t) ep);
+ return srcfile(ptr, mflag ? 0 : 1, 0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Source to a file putting the file descriptor in a safe place (> 2).
+ */
+static int
+srcfile(f, onlyown, flag)
+ char *f;
+ bool onlyown, flag;
+{
+ register int unit;
+
+ if ((unit = open(f, O_RDONLY)) == -1)
+ return 0;
+ unit = dmove(unit, -1);
+
+ (void) ioctl(unit, FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ srcunit(unit, onlyown, flag);
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Source to a unit. If onlyown it must be our file or our group or
+ * we don't chance it. This occurs on ".cshrc"s and the like.
+ */
+int insource;
+static void
+srcunit(unit, onlyown, hflg)
+ register int unit;
+ bool onlyown, hflg;
+{
+ /* We have to push down a lot of state here */
+ /* All this could go into a structure */
+ int oSHIN = -1, oldintty = intty, oinsource = insource;
+ struct whyle *oldwhyl = whyles;
+ Char *ogointr = gointr, *oarginp = arginp;
+ Char *oevalp = evalp, **oevalvec = evalvec;
+ int oonelflg = onelflg;
+ bool oenterhist = enterhist;
+ char OHIST = HIST;
+ bool otell = cantell;
+
+ struct Bin saveB;
+ volatile sigset_t omask;
+ jmp_buf oldexit;
+
+ /* The (few) real local variables */
+ int my_reenter;
+
+ if (unit < 0)
+ return;
+ if (didfds)
+ donefds();
+ if (onlyown) {
+ struct stat stb;
+
+ if (fstat(unit, &stb) < 0) {
+ (void) close(unit);
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * There is a critical section here while we are pushing down the input
+ * stream since we have stuff in different structures. If we weren't
+ * careful an interrupt could corrupt SHIN's Bin structure and kill the
+ * shell.
+ *
+ * We could avoid the critical region by grouping all the stuff in a single
+ * structure and pointing at it to move it all at once. This is less
+ * efficient globally on many variable references however.
+ */
+ insource = 1;
+ getexit(oldexit);
+ omask = 0;
+
+ if (setintr)
+ omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ /* Setup the new values of the state stuff saved above */
+ bcopy((char *) &B, (char *) &(saveB), sizeof(B));
+ fbuf = NULL;
+ fseekp = feobp = fblocks = 0;
+ oSHIN = SHIN, SHIN = unit, arginp = 0, onelflg = 0;
+ intty = isatty(SHIN), whyles = 0, gointr = 0;
+ evalvec = 0;
+ evalp = 0;
+ enterhist = hflg;
+ if (enterhist)
+ HIST = '\0';
+
+ /*
+ * Now if we are allowing commands to be interrupted, we let ourselves be
+ * interrupted.
+ */
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+ settell();
+
+ if ((my_reenter = setexit()) == 0)
+ process(0); /* 0 -> blow away on errors */
+
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+ if (oSHIN >= 0) {
+ register int i;
+
+ /* We made it to the new state... free up its storage */
+ /* This code could get run twice but xfree doesn't care */
+ for (i = 0; i < fblocks; i++)
+ xfree((ptr_t) fbuf[i]);
+ xfree((ptr_t) fbuf);
+
+ /* Reset input arena */
+ bcopy((char *) &(saveB), (char *) &B, sizeof(B));
+
+ (void) close(SHIN), SHIN = oSHIN;
+ arginp = oarginp, onelflg = oonelflg;
+ evalp = oevalp, evalvec = oevalvec;
+ intty = oldintty, whyles = oldwhyl, gointr = ogointr;
+ if (enterhist)
+ HIST = OHIST;
+ enterhist = oenterhist;
+ cantell = otell;
+ }
+
+ resexit(oldexit);
+ /*
+ * If process reset() (effectively an unwind) then we must also unwind.
+ */
+ if (my_reenter)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+ insource = oinsource;
+}
+
+void
+rechist()
+{
+ Char buf[BUFSIZ], hbuf[BUFSIZ], *hfile;
+ int fp, ftmp, oldidfds;
+ struct varent *shist;
+
+ if (!fast) {
+ /*
+ * If $savehist is just set, we use the value of $history
+ * else we use the value in $savehist
+ */
+ if ((shist = adrof(STRsavehist)) != NULL) {
+ if (shist->vec[0][0] != '\0')
+ (void) Strcpy(hbuf, shist->vec[0]);
+ else if ((shist = adrof(STRhistory)) && shist->vec[0][0] != '\0')
+ (void) Strcpy(hbuf, shist->vec[0]);
+ else
+ return;
+ }
+ else
+ return;
+
+ if ((hfile = value(STRhistfile)) == STRNULL) {
+ hfile = Strcpy(buf, value(STRhome));
+ (void) Strcat(buf, STRsldthist);
+ }
+
+ if ((fp = creat(short2str(hfile), 0600)) == -1)
+ return;
+
+ oldidfds = didfds;
+ didfds = 0;
+ ftmp = SHOUT;
+ SHOUT = fp;
+ dumphist[2] = hbuf;
+ dohist(dumphist, NULL);
+ SHOUT = ftmp;
+ (void) close(fp);
+ didfds = oldidfds;
+ }
+}
+
+void
+goodbye()
+{
+ rechist();
+
+ if (loginsh) {
+ (void) signal(SIGQUIT, SIG_IGN);
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, SIG_IGN);
+ (void) signal(SIGTERM, SIG_IGN);
+ setintr = 0; /* No interrupts after "logout" */
+ if (!(adrof(STRlogout)))
+ set(STRlogout, STRnormal);
+#ifdef _PATH_DOTLOGOUT
+ (void) srcfile(_PATH_DOTLOGOUT, 0, 0);
+#endif
+ if (adrof(STRhome))
+ (void) srccat(value(STRhome), STRsldtlogout);
+ }
+ exitstat();
+}
+
+void
+exitstat()
+{
+ Char *s;
+#ifdef PROF
+ monitor(0);
+#endif
+ /*
+ * Note that if STATUS is corrupted (i.e. getn bombs) then error will exit
+ * directly because we poke child here. Otherwise we might continue
+ * unwarrantedly (sic).
+ */
+ child = 1;
+ s = value(STRstatus);
+ xexit(s ? getn(s) : 0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * in the event of a HUP we want to save the history
+ */
+static void
+phup(sig)
+int sig;
+{
+ rechist();
+
+ /*
+ * We kill the last foreground process group. It then becomes
+ * responsible to propagate the SIGHUP to its progeny.
+ */
+ {
+ struct process *pp, *np;
+
+ for (pp = proclist.p_next; pp; pp = pp->p_next) {
+ np = pp;
+ /*
+ * Find if this job is in the foreground. It could be that
+ * the process leader has exited and the foreground flag
+ * is cleared for it.
+ */
+ do
+ /*
+ * If a process is in the foreground; we try to kill
+ * it's process group. If we succeed, then the
+ * whole job is gone. Otherwise we keep going...
+ * But avoid sending HUP to the shell again.
+ */
+ if ((np->p_flags & PFOREGND) != 0 && np->p_jobid != shpgrp &&
+ killpg(np->p_jobid, SIGHUP) != -1) {
+ /* In case the job was suspended... */
+ (void) killpg(np->p_jobid, SIGCONT);
+ break;
+ }
+ while ((np = np->p_friends) != pp);
+ }
+ }
+ _exit(sig);
+}
+
+Char *jobargv[2] = {STRjobs, 0};
+
+/*
+ * Catch an interrupt, e.g. during lexical input.
+ * If we are an interactive shell, we reset the interrupt catch
+ * immediately. In any case we drain the shell output,
+ * and finally go through the normal error mechanism, which
+ * gets a chance to make the shell go away.
+ */
+/* ARGSUSED */
+void
+pintr(notused)
+ int notused;
+{
+ pintr1(1);
+}
+
+void
+pintr1(wantnl)
+ bool wantnl;
+{
+ Char **v;
+ sigset_t omask;
+
+ omask = sigblock((sigset_t) 0);
+ if (setintr) {
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask & ~sigmask(SIGINT));
+ if (pjobs) {
+ pjobs = 0;
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "\n");
+ dojobs(jobargv, NULL);
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_INTR);
+ }
+ }
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask & ~sigmask(SIGCHLD));
+ (void) fpurge(cshout);
+ (void) endpwent();
+
+ /*
+ * If we have an active "onintr" then we search for the label. Note that if
+ * one does "onintr -" then we shan't be interruptible so we needn't worry
+ * about that here.
+ */
+ if (gointr) {
+ gotolab(gointr);
+ timflg = 0;
+ if ((v = pargv) != NULL)
+ pargv = 0, blkfree(v);
+ if ((v = gargv) != NULL)
+ gargv = 0, blkfree(v);
+ reset();
+ }
+ else if (intty && wantnl) {
+ (void) fputc('\r', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+ }
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Process is the main driving routine for the shell.
+ * It runs all command processing, except for those within { ... }
+ * in expressions (which is run by a routine evalav in sh.exp.c which
+ * is a stripped down process), and `...` evaluation which is run
+ * also by a subset of this code in sh.glob.c in the routine backeval.
+ *
+ * The code here is a little strange because part of it is interruptible
+ * and hence freeing of structures appears to occur when none is necessary
+ * if this is ignored.
+ *
+ * Note that if catch is not set then we will unwind on any error.
+ * If an end-of-file occurs, we return.
+ */
+static struct command *savet = NULL;
+void
+process(catch)
+ bool catch;
+{
+ jmp_buf osetexit;
+ struct command *t = savet;
+
+ savet = NULL;
+ getexit(osetexit);
+ for (;;) {
+ pendjob();
+ paraml.next = paraml.prev = &paraml;
+ paraml.word = STRNULL;
+ (void) setexit();
+ justpr = enterhist; /* execute if not entering history */
+
+ /*
+ * Interruptible during interactive reads
+ */
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(sigblock((sigset_t) 0) & ~sigmask(SIGINT));
+
+ /*
+ * For the sake of reset()
+ */
+ freelex(&paraml);
+ if (savet)
+ freesyn(savet), savet = NULL;
+
+ if (haderr) {
+ if (!catch) {
+ /* unwind */
+ doneinp = 0;
+ resexit(osetexit);
+ savet = t;
+ reset();
+ }
+ haderr = 0;
+ /*
+ * Every error is eventually caught here or the shell dies. It is
+ * at this point that we clean up any left-over open files, by
+ * closing all but a fixed number of pre-defined files. Thus
+ * routines don't have to worry about leaving files open due to
+ * deeper errors... they will get closed here.
+ */
+ closem();
+ continue;
+ }
+ if (doneinp) {
+ doneinp = 0;
+ break;
+ }
+ if (chkstop)
+ chkstop--;
+ if (neednote)
+ pnote();
+ if (intty && prompt && evalvec == 0) {
+ mailchk();
+ /*
+ * If we are at the end of the input buffer then we are going to
+ * read fresh stuff. Otherwise, we are rereading input and don't
+ * need or want to prompt.
+ */
+ if (aret == F_SEEK && fseekp == feobp)
+ printprompt();
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+ }
+ if (seterr) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) seterr);
+ seterr = NULL;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Echo not only on VERBOSE, but also with history expansion. If there
+ * is a lexical error then we forego history echo.
+ */
+ if ((lex(&paraml) && !seterr && intty) || adrof(STRverbose)) {
+ prlex(csherr, &paraml);
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * The parser may lose space if interrupted.
+ */
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+
+ /*
+ * Save input text on the history list if reading in old history, or it
+ * is from the terminal at the top level and not in a loop.
+ *
+ * PWP: entry of items in the history list while in a while loop is done
+ * elsewhere...
+ */
+ if (enterhist || (catch && intty && !whyles))
+ savehist(&paraml);
+
+ /*
+ * Print lexical error messages, except when sourcing history lists.
+ */
+ if (!enterhist && seterr)
+ stderror(ERR_OLD);
+
+ /*
+ * If had a history command :p modifier then this is as far as we
+ * should go
+ */
+ if (justpr)
+ reset();
+
+ alias(&paraml);
+
+ /*
+ * Parse the words of the input into a parse tree.
+ */
+ savet = syntax(paraml.next, &paraml, 0);
+ if (seterr)
+ stderror(ERR_OLD);
+
+ execute(savet, (tpgrp > 0 ? tpgrp : -1), NULL, NULL);
+
+ /*
+ * Made it!
+ */
+ freelex(&paraml);
+ freesyn((struct command *) savet), savet = NULL;
+ }
+ resexit(osetexit);
+ savet = t;
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dosource(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+
+{
+ register Char *f;
+ bool hflg = 0;
+ Char buf[BUFSIZ];
+
+ v++;
+ if (*v && eq(*v, STRmh)) {
+ if (*++v == NULL)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_HFLAG);
+ hflg++;
+ }
+ (void) Strcpy(buf, *v);
+ f = globone(buf, G_ERROR);
+ (void) strcpy((char *) buf, short2str(f));
+ xfree((ptr_t) f);
+ if (!srcfile((char *) buf, 0, hflg) && !hflg)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, (char *) buf, strerror(errno));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Check for mail.
+ * If we are a login shell, then we don't want to tell
+ * about any mail file unless its been modified
+ * after the time we started.
+ * This prevents us from telling the user things he already
+ * knows, since the login program insists on saying
+ * "You have mail."
+ */
+static void
+mailchk()
+{
+ register struct varent *v;
+ register Char **vp;
+ time_t t;
+ int intvl, cnt;
+ struct stat stb;
+ bool new;
+
+ v = adrof(STRmail);
+ if (v == 0)
+ return;
+ (void) time(&t);
+ vp = v->vec;
+ cnt = blklen(vp);
+ intvl = (cnt && number(*vp)) ? (--cnt, getn(*vp++)) : MAILINTVL;
+ if (intvl < 1)
+ intvl = 1;
+ if (chktim + intvl > t)
+ return;
+ for (; *vp; vp++) {
+ if (stat(short2str(*vp), &stb) < 0)
+ continue;
+ new = stb.st_mtime > time0.tv_sec;
+ if (stb.st_size == 0 || stb.st_atime > stb.st_mtime ||
+ (stb.st_atime < chktim && stb.st_mtime < chktim) ||
+ (loginsh && !new))
+ continue;
+ if (cnt == 1)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "You have %smail.\n", new ? "new " : "");
+ else
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s in %s.\n", new ? "New mail" : "Mail",
+ vis_str(*vp));
+ }
+ chktim = t;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Extract a home directory from the password file
+ * The argument points to a buffer where the name of the
+ * user whose home directory is sought is currently.
+ * We write the home directory of the user back there.
+ */
+int
+gethdir(home)
+ Char *home;
+{
+ Char *h;
+ struct passwd *pw;
+
+ /*
+ * Is it us?
+ */
+ if (*home == '\0') {
+ if ((h = value(STRhome)) != NULL) {
+ (void) Strcpy(home, h);
+ return 0;
+ }
+ else
+ return 1;
+ }
+
+ if ((pw = getpwnam(short2str(home))) != NULL) {
+ (void) Strcpy(home, str2short(pw->pw_dir));
+ return 0;
+ }
+ else
+ return 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * When didfds is set, we do I/O from 0, 1, 2 otherwise from 15, 16, 17
+ * We also check if the shell has already changed the decriptor to point to
+ * 0, 1, 2 when didfds is set.
+ */
+#define DESC(a) (*((int *) (a)) - (didfds && *((int *) a) >= FSHIN ? FSHIN : 0))
+
+static int
+readf(oreo, buf, siz)
+ void *oreo;
+ char *buf;
+ int siz;
+{
+ return read(DESC(oreo), buf, siz);
+}
+
+
+static int
+writef(oreo, buf, siz)
+ void *oreo;
+ const char *buf;
+ int siz;
+{
+ return write(DESC(oreo), buf, siz);
+}
+
+static fpos_t
+seekf(oreo, off, whence)
+ void *oreo;
+ fpos_t off;
+ int whence;
+{
+ return lseek(DESC(oreo), off, whence);
+}
+
+
+static int
+closef(oreo)
+ void *oreo;
+{
+ return close(DESC(oreo));
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Print the visible version of a string.
+ */
+int
+vis_fputc(ch, fp)
+ int ch;
+ FILE *fp;
+{
+ char uenc[5]; /* 4 + NULL */
+
+ if (ch & QUOTE)
+ return fputc(ch & TRIM, fp);
+ /*
+ * XXX: When we are in AsciiOnly we want all characters >= 0200 to
+ * be encoded, but currently there is no way in vis to do that.
+ */
+ (void) vis(uenc, ch & TRIM, VIS_NOSLASH, 0);
+ return fputs(uenc, fp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Move the initial descriptors to their eventual
+ * resting places, closin all other units.
+ */
+void
+initdesc()
+{
+
+ didfds = 0; /* 0, 1, 2 aren't set up */
+ (void) ioctl(SHIN = dcopy(0, FSHIN), FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ (void) ioctl(SHOUT = dcopy(1, FSHOUT), FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ (void) ioctl(SHERR = dcopy(2, FSHERR), FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ (void) ioctl(OLDSTD = dcopy(SHIN, FOLDSTD), FIOCLEX, NULL);
+ closem();
+}
+
+
+void
+#ifdef PROF
+done(i)
+#else
+xexit(i)
+#endif
+ int i;
+{
+ untty();
+ _exit(i);
+}
+
+static Char **
+defaultpath()
+{
+ char *ptr;
+ Char **blk, **blkp;
+ struct stat stb;
+
+ blkp = blk = (Char **) xmalloc((size_t) sizeof(Char *) * 10);
+
+#define DIRAPPEND(a) \
+ if (stat(ptr = a, &stb) == 0 && (stb.st_mode & S_IFMT) == S_IFDIR) \
+ *blkp++ = SAVE(ptr)
+
+ DIRAPPEND(_PATH_BIN);
+ DIRAPPEND(_PATH_USRBIN);
+
+#undef DIRAPPEND
+
+ if (euid != 0 && uid != 0)
+ *blkp++ = Strsave(STRdot);
+ *blkp = NULL;
+ return (blk);
+}
+
+void
+printprompt()
+{
+ register Char *cp;
+
+ if (!whyles) {
+ for (cp = value(STRprompt); *cp; cp++)
+ if (*cp == HIST)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%d", eventno + 1);
+ else {
+ if (*cp == '\\' && cp[1] == HIST)
+ cp++;
+ (void) vis_fputc(*cp | QUOTE, cshout);
+ }
+ }
+ else
+ /*
+ * Prompt for forward reading loop body content.
+ */
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "? ");
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/csh.h b/bin/csh/csh.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..367b51ef7d24
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/csh.h
@@ -0,0 +1,552 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * @(#)csh.h 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Fundamental definitions which may vary from system to system.
+ *
+ * BUFSIZ The i/o buffering size; also limits word size
+ * MAILINTVL How often to mailcheck; more often is more expensive
+ */
+#ifndef BUFSIZ
+#define BUFSIZ 1024 /* default buffer size */
+#endif /* BUFSIZ */
+
+#define FORKSLEEP 10 /* delay loop on non-interactive fork failure */
+#define MAILINTVL 600 /* 10 minutes */
+
+/*
+ * The shell moves std in/out/diag and the old std input away from units
+ * 0, 1, and 2 so that it is easy to set up these standards for invoked
+ * commands.
+ */
+#define FSHTTY 15 /* /dev/tty when manip pgrps */
+#define FSHIN 16 /* Preferred desc for shell input */
+#define FSHOUT 17 /* ... shell output */
+#define FSHERR 18 /* ... shell diagnostics */
+#define FOLDSTD 19 /* ... old std input */
+
+#ifdef PROF
+#define xexit(n) done(n)
+#endif
+
+#ifdef SHORT_STRINGS
+typedef short Char;
+
+#define SAVE(a) (Strsave(str2short(a)))
+#else
+typedef char Char;
+
+#define SAVE(a) (strsave(a))
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Make sure a variable is not stored in a register by taking its address
+ * This is used where variables might be clobbered by longjmp.
+ */
+#define UNREGISTER(a) (void) &a
+
+typedef void *ioctl_t; /* Third arg of ioctl */
+
+typedef void *ptr_t;
+
+#include "const.h"
+#include "char.h"
+#include "err.h"
+
+#define xmalloc(i) Malloc(i)
+#define xrealloc(p, i) Realloc(p, i)
+#define xcalloc(n, s) Calloc(n, s)
+#define xfree(p) Free(p)
+
+#include <stdio.h>
+FILE *cshin, *cshout, *csherr;
+
+#define isdir(d) ((d.st_mode & S_IFMT) == S_IFDIR)
+
+typedef int bool;
+
+#define eq(a, b) (Strcmp(a, b) == 0)
+
+/* globone() flags */
+#define G_ERROR 0 /* default action: error if multiple words */
+#define G_IGNORE 1 /* ignore the rest of the words */
+#define G_APPEND 2 /* make a sentence by cat'ing the words */
+
+/*
+ * Global flags
+ */
+bool chkstop; /* Warned of stopped jobs... allow exit */
+bool didfds; /* Have setup i/o fd's for child */
+bool doneinp; /* EOF indicator after reset from readc */
+bool exiterr; /* Exit if error or non-zero exit status */
+bool child; /* Child shell ... errors cause exit */
+bool haderr; /* Reset was because of an error */
+bool intty; /* Input is a tty */
+bool intact; /* We are interactive... therefore prompt */
+bool justpr; /* Just print because of :p hist mod */
+bool loginsh; /* We are a loginsh -> .login/.logout */
+bool neednote; /* Need to pnotify() */
+bool noexec; /* Don't execute, just syntax check */
+bool pjobs; /* want to print jobs if interrupted */
+bool setintr; /* Set interrupts on/off -> Wait intr... */
+bool timflg; /* Time the next waited for command */
+bool havhash; /* path hashing is available */
+
+#ifdef FILEC
+bool filec; /* doing filename expansion */
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * Global i/o info
+ */
+Char *arginp; /* Argument input for sh -c and internal `xx` */
+int onelflg; /* 2 -> need line for -t, 1 -> exit on read */
+Char *ffile; /* Name of shell file for $0 */
+
+char *seterr; /* Error message from scanner/parser */
+Char *shtemp; /* Temp name for << shell files in /tmp */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/time.h>
+#include <sys/resource.h>
+
+struct timeval time0; /* Time at which the shell started */
+struct rusage ru0;
+
+/*
+ * Miscellany
+ */
+Char *doldol; /* Character pid for $$ */
+int backpid; /* Pid of the last background process */
+int uid, euid; /* Invokers uid */
+int gid, egid; /* Invokers gid */
+time_t chktim; /* Time mail last checked */
+int shpgrp; /* Pgrp of shell */
+int tpgrp; /* Terminal process group */
+
+/* If tpgrp is -1, leave tty alone! */
+int opgrp; /* Initial pgrp and tty pgrp */
+
+
+/*
+ * To be able to redirect i/o for builtins easily, the shell moves the i/o
+ * descriptors it uses away from 0,1,2.
+ * Ideally these should be in units which are closed across exec's
+ * (this saves work) but for version 6, this is not usually possible.
+ * The desired initial values for these descriptors are F{SHIN,...}.
+ */
+int SHIN; /* Current shell input (script) */
+int SHOUT; /* Shell output */
+int SHERR; /* Diagnostic output... shell errs go here */
+int OLDSTD; /* Old standard input (def for cmds) */
+
+/*
+ * Error control
+ *
+ * Errors in scanning and parsing set up an error message to be printed
+ * at the end and complete. Other errors always cause a reset.
+ * Because of source commands and .cshrc we need nested error catches.
+ */
+
+#include <setjmp.h>
+jmp_buf reslab;
+
+#define setexit() (setjmp(reslab))
+#define reset() longjmp(reslab, 1)
+ /* Should use structure assignment here */
+#define getexit(a) bcopy((char *)reslab, ((char *)(a)), sizeof reslab)
+#define resexit(a) bcopy((char *)(a), (char *)reslab, sizeof reslab)
+
+Char *gointr; /* Label for an onintr transfer */
+
+#include <signal.h>
+sig_t parintr; /* Parents interrupt catch */
+sig_t parterm; /* Parents terminate catch */
+
+/*
+ * Lexical definitions.
+ *
+ * All lexical space is allocated dynamically.
+ * The eighth/sixteenth bit of characters is used to prevent recognition,
+ * and eventually stripped.
+ */
+#define META 0200
+#define ASCII 0177
+#ifdef SHORT_STRINGS
+#define CHAR 0377
+#define QUOTE 0100000 /* 16nth char bit used for 'ing */
+#define TRIM 0077777 /* Mask to strip quote bit */
+#else
+#define CHAR 0177
+#define QUOTE 0200 /* Eighth char bit used for 'ing */
+#define TRIM 0177 /* Mask to strip quote bit */
+#endif
+
+int AsciiOnly; /* If set only 7 bits is expected in characters */
+
+/*
+ * Each level of input has a buffered input structure.
+ * There are one or more blocks of buffered input for each level,
+ * exactly one if the input is seekable and tell is available.
+ * In other cases, the shell buffers enough blocks to keep all loops
+ * in the buffer.
+ */
+struct Bin {
+ off_t Bfseekp; /* Seek pointer */
+ off_t Bfbobp; /* Seekp of beginning of buffers */
+ off_t Bfeobp; /* Seekp of end of buffers */
+ int Bfblocks; /* Number of buffer blocks */
+ Char **Bfbuf; /* The array of buffer blocks */
+} B;
+
+/*
+ * This structure allows us to seek inside aliases
+ */
+struct Ain {
+ int type;
+#define I_SEEK -1 /* Invalid seek */
+#define A_SEEK 0 /* Alias seek */
+#define F_SEEK 1 /* File seek */
+#define E_SEEK 2 /* Eval seek */
+ union {
+ off_t _f_seek;
+ Char* _c_seek;
+ } fc;
+#define f_seek fc._f_seek
+#define c_seek fc._c_seek
+ Char **a_seek;
+} ;
+extern int aret; /* What was the last character returned */
+#define SEEKEQ(a, b) ((a)->type == (b)->type && \
+ (a)->f_seek == (b)->f_seek && \
+ (a)->a_seek == (b)->a_seek)
+
+#define fseekp B.Bfseekp
+#define fbobp B.Bfbobp
+#define feobp B.Bfeobp
+#define fblocks B.Bfblocks
+#define fbuf B.Bfbuf
+
+/*
+ * The shell finds commands in loops by reseeking the input
+ * For whiles, in particular, it reseeks to the beginning of the
+ * line the while was on; hence the while placement restrictions.
+ */
+struct Ain lineloc;
+
+bool cantell; /* Is current source tellable ? */
+
+/*
+ * Input lines are parsed into doubly linked circular
+ * lists of words of the following form.
+ */
+struct wordent {
+ Char *word;
+ struct wordent *prev;
+ struct wordent *next;
+};
+
+/*
+ * During word building, both in the initial lexical phase and
+ * when expanding $ variable substitutions, expansion by `!' and `$'
+ * must be inhibited when reading ahead in routines which are themselves
+ * processing `!' and `$' expansion or after characters such as `\' or in
+ * quotations. The following flags are passed to the getC routines
+ * telling them which of these substitutions are appropriate for the
+ * next character to be returned.
+ */
+#define DODOL 1
+#define DOEXCL 2
+#define DOALL DODOL|DOEXCL
+
+/*
+ * Labuf implements a general buffer for lookahead during lexical operations.
+ * Text which is to be placed in the input stream can be stuck here.
+ * We stick parsed ahead $ constructs during initial input,
+ * process id's from `$$', and modified variable values (from qualifiers
+ * during expansion in sh.dol.c) here.
+ */
+Char *lap;
+
+/*
+ * Parser structure
+ *
+ * Each command is parsed to a tree of command structures and
+ * flags are set bottom up during this process, to be propagated down
+ * as needed during the semantics/exeuction pass (sh.sem.c).
+ */
+struct command {
+ short t_dtyp; /* Type of node */
+#define NODE_COMMAND 1 /* t_dcom <t_dlef >t_drit */
+#define NODE_PAREN 2 /* ( t_dspr ) <t_dlef >t_drit */
+#define NODE_PIPE 3 /* t_dlef | t_drit */
+#define NODE_LIST 4 /* t_dlef ; t_drit */
+#define NODE_OR 5 /* t_dlef || t_drit */
+#define NODE_AND 6 /* t_dlef && t_drit */
+ short t_dflg; /* Flags, e.g. F_AMPERSAND|... */
+#define F_SAVE (F_NICE|F_TIME|F_NOHUP) /* save these when re-doing */
+
+#define F_AMPERSAND (1<<0) /* executes in background */
+#define F_APPEND (1<<1) /* output is redirected >> */
+#define F_PIPEIN (1<<2) /* input is a pipe */
+#define F_PIPEOUT (1<<3) /* output is a pipe */
+#define F_NOFORK (1<<4) /* don't fork, last ()ized cmd */
+#define F_NOINTERRUPT (1<<5) /* should be immune from intr's */
+/* spare */
+#define F_STDERR (1<<7) /* redirect unit 2 with unit 1 */
+#define F_OVERWRITE (1<<8) /* output was ! */
+#define F_READ (1<<9) /* input redirection is << */
+#define F_REPEAT (1<<10) /* reexec aft if, repeat,... */
+#define F_NICE (1<<11) /* t_nice is meaningful */
+#define F_NOHUP (1<<12) /* nohup this command */
+#define F_TIME (1<<13) /* time this command */
+ union {
+ Char *T_dlef; /* Input redirect word */
+ struct command *T_dcar; /* Left part of list/pipe */
+ } L;
+ union {
+ Char *T_drit; /* Output redirect word */
+ struct command *T_dcdr; /* Right part of list/pipe */
+ } R;
+#define t_dlef L.T_dlef
+#define t_dcar L.T_dcar
+#define t_drit R.T_drit
+#define t_dcdr R.T_dcdr
+ Char **t_dcom; /* Command/argument vector */
+ struct command *t_dspr; /* Pointer to ()'d subtree */
+ int t_nice;
+};
+
+
+/*
+ * These are declared here because they want to be
+ * initialized in sh.init.c (to allow them to be made readonly)
+ */
+
+extern struct biltins {
+ char *bname;
+ void (*bfunct) __P((Char **, struct command *));
+ short minargs, maxargs;
+} bfunc[];
+extern int nbfunc;
+
+extern struct srch {
+ char *s_name;
+ short s_value;
+} srchn[];
+extern int nsrchn;
+
+/*
+ * The keywords for the parser
+ */
+#define T_BREAK 0
+#define T_BRKSW 1
+#define T_CASE 2
+#define T_DEFAULT 3
+#define T_ELSE 4
+#define T_END 5
+#define T_ENDIF 6
+#define T_ENDSW 7
+#define T_EXIT 8
+#define T_FOREACH 9
+#define T_GOTO 10
+#define T_IF 11
+#define T_LABEL 12
+#define T_LET 13
+#define T_SET 14
+#define T_SWITCH 15
+#define T_TEST 16
+#define T_THEN 17
+#define T_WHILE 18
+
+/*
+ * Structure defining the existing while/foreach loops at this
+ * source level. Loops are implemented by seeking back in the
+ * input. For foreach (fe), the word list is attached here.
+ */
+struct whyle {
+ struct Ain w_start; /* Point to restart loop */
+ struct Ain w_end; /* End of loop (0 if unknown) */
+ Char **w_fe, **w_fe0; /* Current/initial wordlist for fe */
+ Char *w_fename; /* Name for fe */
+ struct whyle *w_next; /* Next (more outer) loop */
+} *whyles;
+
+/*
+ * Variable structure
+ *
+ * Aliases and variables are stored in AVL balanced binary trees.
+ */
+struct varent {
+ Char **vec; /* Array of words which is the value */
+ Char *v_name; /* Name of variable/alias */
+ struct varent *v_link[3]; /* The links, see below */
+ int v_bal; /* Balance factor */
+} shvhed, aliases;
+
+#define v_left v_link[0]
+#define v_right v_link[1]
+#define v_parent v_link[2]
+
+struct varent *adrof1();
+
+#define adrof(v) adrof1(v, &shvhed)
+#define value(v) value1(v, &shvhed)
+
+/*
+ * The following are for interfacing redo substitution in
+ * aliases to the lexical routines.
+ */
+struct wordent *alhistp; /* Argument list (first) */
+struct wordent *alhistt; /* Node after last in arg list */
+Char **alvec, *alvecp; /* The (remnants of) alias vector */
+
+/*
+ * Filename/command name expansion variables
+ */
+int gflag; /* After tglob -> is globbing needed? */
+
+#define MAXVARLEN 30 /* Maximum number of char in a variable name */
+
+/*
+ * Variables for filename expansion
+ */
+extern Char **gargv; /* Pointer to the (stack) arglist */
+extern long gargc; /* Number args in gargv */
+
+/*
+ * Variables for command expansion.
+ */
+extern Char **pargv; /* Pointer to the argv list space */
+extern long pargc; /* Count of arguments in pargv */
+Char *pargs; /* Pointer to start current word */
+long pnleft; /* Number of chars left in pargs */
+Char *pargcp; /* Current index into pargs */
+
+/*
+ * History list
+ *
+ * Each history list entry contains an embedded wordlist
+ * from the scanner, a number for the event, and a reference count
+ * to aid in discarding old entries.
+ *
+ * Essentially "invisible" entries are put on the history list
+ * when history substitution includes modifiers, and thrown away
+ * at the next discarding since their event numbers are very negative.
+ */
+struct Hist {
+ struct wordent Hlex;
+ int Hnum;
+ int Href;
+ struct Hist *Hnext;
+} Histlist;
+
+struct wordent paraml; /* Current lexical word list */
+int eventno; /* Next events number */
+int lastev; /* Last event reference (default) */
+
+Char HIST; /* history invocation character */
+Char HISTSUB; /* auto-substitute character */
+
+/*
+ * strings.h:
+ */
+#ifndef SHORT_STRINGS
+#define Strchr(a, b) strchr(a, b)
+#define Strrchr(a, b) strrchr(a, b)
+#define Strcat(a, b) strcat(a, b)
+#define Strncat(a, b, c) strncat(a, b, c)
+#define Strcpy(a, b) strcpy(a, b)
+#define Strncpy(a, b, c) strncpy(a, b, c)
+#define Strlen(a) strlen(a)
+#define Strcmp(a, b) strcmp(a, b)
+#define Strncmp(a, b, c) strncmp(a, b, c)
+
+#define Strspl(a, b) strspl(a, b)
+#define Strsave(a) strsave(a)
+#define Strend(a) strend(a)
+#define Strstr(a, b) strstr(a, b)
+
+#define str2short(a) (a)
+#define blk2short(a) saveblk(a)
+#define short2blk(a) saveblk(a)
+#define short2str(a) strip(a)
+#else
+#define Strchr(a, b) s_strchr(a, b)
+#define Strrchr(a, b) s_strrchr(a, b)
+#define Strcat(a, b) s_strcat(a, b)
+#define Strncat(a, b, c) s_strncat(a, b, c)
+#define Strcpy(a, b) s_strcpy(a, b)
+#define Strncpy(a, b, c) s_strncpy(a, b, c)
+#define Strlen(a) s_strlen(a)
+#define Strcmp(a, b) s_strcmp(a, b)
+#define Strncmp(a, b, c) s_strncmp(a, b, c)
+
+#define Strspl(a, b) s_strspl(a, b)
+#define Strsave(a) s_strsave(a)
+#define Strend(a) s_strend(a)
+#define Strstr(a, b) s_strstr(a, b)
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * setname is a macro to save space (see sh.err.c)
+ */
+char *bname;
+
+#define setname(a) (bname = (a))
+
+Char *Vsav;
+Char *Vdp;
+Char *Vexpath;
+char **Vt;
+
+Char **evalvec;
+Char *evalp;
+
+/* word_chars is set by default to WORD_CHARS but can be overridden by
+ the worchars variable--if unset, reverts to WORD_CHARS */
+
+Char *word_chars;
+
+#define WORD_CHARS "*?_-.[]~=" /* default chars besides alnums in words */
+
+Char *STR_SHELLPATH;
+
+#include <paths.h>
+#ifdef _PATH_BSHELL
+Char *STR_BSHELL;
+#endif
+Char *STR_WORD_CHARS;
+Char **STR_environ;
diff --git a/bin/csh/dir.c b/bin/csh/dir.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..04efd3f31336
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/dir.c
@@ -0,0 +1,930 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)dir.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "dir.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+/* Directory management. */
+
+static struct directory
+ *dfind __P((Char *));
+static Char *dfollow __P((Char *));
+static void printdirs __P((void));
+static Char *dgoto __P((Char *));
+static void dnewcwd __P((struct directory *));
+static void dset __P((Char *));
+
+struct directory dhead; /* "head" of loop */
+int printd; /* force name to be printed */
+
+static int dirflag = 0;
+
+/*
+ * dinit - initialize current working directory
+ */
+void
+dinit(hp)
+ Char *hp;
+{
+ register char *tcp;
+ register Char *cp;
+ register struct directory *dp;
+ char path[MAXPATHLEN];
+ static char *emsg = "csh: Trying to start from \"%s\"\n";
+
+ /* Don't believe the login shell home, because it may be a symlink */
+ tcp = getwd(path); /* see ngetwd.c for System V version */
+ if (tcp == NULL || *tcp == '\0') {
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "csh: %s\n", path);
+ if (hp && *hp) {
+ tcp = short2str(hp);
+ if (chdir(tcp) == -1)
+ cp = NULL;
+ else
+ cp = hp;
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, emsg, vis_str(hp));
+ }
+ else
+ cp = NULL;
+ if (cp == NULL) {
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, emsg, "/");
+ if (chdir("/") == -1)
+ /* I am not even try to print an error message! */
+ xexit(1);
+ cp = SAVE("/");
+ }
+ }
+ else {
+ struct stat swd, shp;
+
+ /*
+ * See if $HOME is the working directory we got and use that
+ */
+ if (hp && *hp &&
+ stat(tcp, &swd) != -1 && stat(short2str(hp), &shp) != -1 &&
+ swd.st_dev == shp.st_dev && swd.st_ino == shp.st_ino)
+ cp = hp;
+ else {
+ char *cwd;
+
+ /*
+ * use PWD if we have it (for subshells)
+ */
+ if ((cwd = getenv("PWD")) != NULL) {
+ if (stat(cwd, &shp) != -1 && swd.st_dev == shp.st_dev &&
+ swd.st_ino == shp.st_ino)
+ tcp = cwd;
+ }
+ cp = dcanon(SAVE(tcp), STRNULL);
+ }
+ }
+
+ dp = (struct directory *) xcalloc(sizeof(struct directory), 1);
+ dp->di_name = Strsave(cp);
+ dp->di_count = 0;
+ dhead.di_next = dhead.di_prev = dp;
+ dp->di_next = dp->di_prev = &dhead;
+ printd = 0;
+ dnewcwd(dp);
+}
+
+static void
+dset(dp)
+Char *dp;
+{
+ /*
+ * Don't call set() directly cause if the directory contains ` or
+ * other junk characters glob will fail.
+ */
+ register Char **vec = (Char **) xmalloc((size_t) (2 * sizeof(Char **)));
+
+ vec[0] = Strsave(dp);
+ vec[1] = 0;
+ setq(STRcwd, vec, &shvhed);
+ Setenv(STRPWD, dp);
+}
+
+#define DIR_LONG 1
+#define DIR_VERT 2
+#define DIR_LINE 4
+
+static void
+skipargs(v, str)
+ Char ***v;
+ char *str;
+{
+ Char **n = *v, *s;
+
+ dirflag = 0;
+ for (n++; *n != NULL && (*n)[0] == '-'; n++)
+ for (s = &((*n)[1]); *s; s++)
+ switch (*s) {
+ case 'l':
+ dirflag |= DIR_LONG;
+ break;
+ case 'v':
+ dirflag |= DIR_VERT;
+ break;
+ case 'n':
+ dirflag |= DIR_LINE;
+ break;
+ default:
+ stderror(ERR_DIRUS, vis_str(**v), str);
+ break;
+ }
+ *v = n;
+}
+
+/*
+ * dodirs - list all directories in directory loop
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dodirs(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ skipargs(&v, "");
+
+ if (*v != NULL)
+ stderror(ERR_DIRUS, "dirs", "");
+ printdirs();
+}
+
+static void
+printdirs()
+{
+ register struct directory *dp;
+ Char *s, *hp = value(STRhome);
+ int idx, len, cur;
+
+ if (*hp == '\0')
+ hp = NULL;
+ dp = dcwd;
+ idx = 0;
+ cur = 0;
+ do {
+ if (dp == &dhead)
+ continue;
+ if (dirflag & DIR_VERT) {
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%d\t", idx++);
+ cur = 0;
+ }
+ if (!(dirflag & DIR_LONG) && hp != NULL && !eq(hp, STRslash) &&
+ (len = Strlen(hp), Strncmp(hp, dp->di_name, len) == 0) &&
+ (dp->di_name[len] == '\0' || dp->di_name[len] == '/'))
+ len = Strlen(s = (dp->di_name + len)) + 2;
+ else
+ len = Strlen(s = dp->di_name) + 1;
+
+ cur += len;
+ if ((dirflag & DIR_LINE) && cur >= 80 - 1 && len < 80) {
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "\n");
+ cur = len;
+ }
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, s != dp->di_name ? "~%s%c" : "%s%c",
+ vis_str(s), (dirflag & DIR_VERT) ? '\n' : ' ');
+ } while ((dp = dp->di_prev) != dcwd);
+ if (!(dirflag & DIR_VERT))
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "\n");
+}
+
+void
+dtildepr(home, dir)
+ register Char *home, *dir;
+{
+
+ if (!eq(home, STRslash) && prefix(home, dir))
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "~%s", vis_str(dir + Strlen(home)));
+ else
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s", vis_str(dir));
+}
+
+void
+dtilde()
+{
+ struct directory *d = dcwd;
+
+ do {
+ if (d == &dhead)
+ continue;
+ d->di_name = dcanon(d->di_name, STRNULL);
+ } while ((d = d->di_prev) != dcwd);
+
+ dset(dcwd->di_name);
+}
+
+
+/* dnormalize():
+ * If the name starts with . or .. then we might need to normalize
+ * it depending on the symbolic link flags
+ */
+Char *
+dnormalize(cp)
+ Char *cp;
+{
+
+#define UC (unsigned char)
+#define ISDOT(c) (UC(c)[0] == '.' && ((UC(c)[1] == '\0') || (UC(c)[1] == '/')))
+#define ISDOTDOT(c) (UC(c)[0] == '.' && ISDOT(&((c)[1])))
+
+ if ((unsigned char) cp[0] == '/')
+ return (Strsave(cp));
+
+ if (adrof(STRignore_symlinks)) {
+ int dotdot = 0;
+ Char *dp, *cwd;
+
+ cwd = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t) ((Strlen(dcwd->di_name) + 3) *
+ sizeof(Char)));
+ (void) Strcpy(cwd, dcwd->di_name);
+
+ /*
+ * Ignore . and count ..'s
+ */
+ while (*cp) {
+ if (ISDOT(cp)) {
+ if (*++cp)
+ cp++;
+ }
+ else if (ISDOTDOT(cp)) {
+ dotdot++;
+ cp += 2;
+ if (*cp)
+ cp++;
+ }
+ else
+ break;
+ }
+ while (dotdot > 0)
+ if ((dp = Strrchr(cwd, '/'))) {
+ *dp = '\0';
+ dotdot--;
+ }
+ else
+ break;
+
+ if (*cp) {
+ cwd[dotdot = Strlen(cwd)] = '/';
+ cwd[dotdot + 1] = '\0';
+ dp = Strspl(cwd, cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cwd);
+ return dp;
+ }
+ else {
+ if (!*cwd) {
+ cwd[0] = '/';
+ cwd[1] = '\0';
+ }
+ return cwd;
+ }
+ }
+ return Strsave(cp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * dochngd - implement chdir command.
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dochngd(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp;
+ register struct directory *dp;
+
+ skipargs(&v, " [<dir>]");
+ printd = 0;
+ if (*v == NULL) {
+ if ((cp = value(STRhome)) == NULL || *cp == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOHOMEDIR);
+ if (chdir(short2str(cp)) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_CANTCHANGE);
+ cp = Strsave(cp);
+ }
+ else if (v[1] != NULL) {
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TOOMANY);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ return;
+ }
+ else if ((dp = dfind(*v)) != 0) {
+ char *tmp;
+
+ printd = 1;
+ if (chdir(tmp = short2str(dp->di_name)) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ dcwd->di_prev->di_next = dcwd->di_next;
+ dcwd->di_next->di_prev = dcwd->di_prev;
+ dfree(dcwd);
+ dnewcwd(dp);
+ return;
+ }
+ else
+ cp = dfollow(*v);
+ dp = (struct directory *) xcalloc(sizeof(struct directory), 1);
+ dp->di_name = cp;
+ dp->di_count = 0;
+ dp->di_next = dcwd->di_next;
+ dp->di_prev = dcwd->di_prev;
+ dp->di_prev->di_next = dp;
+ dp->di_next->di_prev = dp;
+ dfree(dcwd);
+ dnewcwd(dp);
+}
+
+static Char *
+dgoto(cp)
+ Char *cp;
+{
+ Char *dp;
+
+ if (*cp != '/') {
+ register Char *p, *q;
+ int cwdlen;
+
+ for (p = dcwd->di_name; *p++;)
+ continue;
+ if ((cwdlen = p - dcwd->di_name - 1) == 1) /* root */
+ cwdlen = 0;
+ for (p = cp; *p++;)
+ continue;
+ dp = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)((cwdlen + (p - cp) + 1) * sizeof(Char)));
+ for (p = dp, q = dcwd->di_name; (*p++ = *q++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ if (cwdlen)
+ p[-1] = '/';
+ else
+ p--; /* don't add a / after root */
+ for (q = cp; (*p++ = *q++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = dp;
+ dp += cwdlen;
+ }
+ else
+ dp = cp;
+
+ cp = dcanon(cp, dp);
+ return cp;
+}
+
+/*
+ * dfollow - change to arg directory; fall back on cdpath if not valid
+ */
+static Char *
+dfollow(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ register Char *dp;
+ struct varent *c;
+ char ebuf[MAXPATHLEN];
+ int serrno;
+
+ cp = globone(cp, G_ERROR);
+ /*
+ * if we are ignoring symlinks, try to fix relatives now.
+ */
+ dp = dnormalize(cp);
+ if (chdir(short2str(dp)) >= 0) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ return dgoto(dp);
+ }
+ else {
+ xfree((ptr_t) dp);
+ if (chdir(short2str(cp)) >= 0)
+ return dgoto(cp);
+ serrno = errno;
+ }
+
+ if (cp[0] != '/' && !prefix(STRdotsl, cp) && !prefix(STRdotdotsl, cp)
+ && (c = adrof(STRcdpath))) {
+ Char **cdp;
+ register Char *p;
+ Char buf[MAXPATHLEN];
+
+ for (cdp = c->vec; *cdp; cdp++) {
+ for (dp = buf, p = *cdp; (*dp++ = *p++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ dp[-1] = '/';
+ for (p = cp; (*dp++ = *p++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ if (chdir(short2str(buf)) >= 0) {
+ printd = 1;
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = Strsave(buf);
+ return dgoto(cp);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ dp = value(cp);
+ if ((dp[0] == '/' || dp[0] == '.') && chdir(short2str(dp)) >= 0) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = Strsave(dp);
+ printd = 1;
+ return dgoto(cp);
+ }
+ (void) strcpy(ebuf, short2str(cp));
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, ebuf, strerror(serrno));
+ return (NULL);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * dopushd - push new directory onto directory stack.
+ * with no arguments exchange top and second.
+ * with numeric argument (+n) bring it to top.
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dopushd(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register struct directory *dp;
+
+ skipargs(&v, " [<dir>|+<n>]");
+ printd = 1;
+ if (*v == NULL) {
+ char *tmp;
+
+ if ((dp = dcwd->di_prev) == &dhead)
+ dp = dhead.di_prev;
+ if (dp == dcwd)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NODIR);
+ if (chdir(tmp = short2str(dp->di_name)) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ dp->di_prev->di_next = dp->di_next;
+ dp->di_next->di_prev = dp->di_prev;
+ dp->di_next = dcwd->di_next;
+ dp->di_prev = dcwd;
+ dcwd->di_next->di_prev = dp;
+ dcwd->di_next = dp;
+ }
+ else if (v[1] != NULL) {
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TOOMANY);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ return;
+ }
+ else if ((dp = dfind(*v)) != NULL) {
+ char *tmp;
+
+ if (chdir(tmp = short2str(dp->di_name)) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ }
+ else {
+ register Char *ccp;
+
+ ccp = dfollow(*v);
+ dp = (struct directory *) xcalloc(sizeof(struct directory), 1);
+ dp->di_name = ccp;
+ dp->di_count = 0;
+ dp->di_prev = dcwd;
+ dp->di_next = dcwd->di_next;
+ dcwd->di_next = dp;
+ dp->di_next->di_prev = dp;
+ }
+ dnewcwd(dp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * dfind - find a directory if specified by numeric (+n) argument
+ */
+static struct directory *
+dfind(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ register struct directory *dp;
+ register int i;
+ register Char *ep;
+
+ if (*cp++ != '+')
+ return (0);
+ for (ep = cp; Isdigit(*ep); ep++)
+ continue;
+ if (*ep)
+ return (0);
+ i = getn(cp);
+ if (i <= 0)
+ return (0);
+ for (dp = dcwd; i != 0; i--) {
+ if ((dp = dp->di_prev) == &dhead)
+ dp = dp->di_prev;
+ if (dp == dcwd)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_DEEP);
+ }
+ return (dp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * dopopd - pop a directory out of the directory stack
+ * with a numeric argument just discard it.
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dopopd(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register struct directory *dp, *p = NULL;
+
+ skipargs(&v, " [+<n>]");
+ printd = 1;
+ if (*v == NULL)
+ dp = dcwd;
+ else if (v[1] != NULL) {
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TOOMANY);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ return;
+ }
+ else if ((dp = dfind(*v)) == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_BADDIR);
+ if (dp->di_prev == &dhead && dp->di_next == &dhead)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EMPTY);
+ if (dp == dcwd) {
+ char *tmp;
+
+ if ((p = dp->di_prev) == &dhead)
+ p = dhead.di_prev;
+ if (chdir(tmp = short2str(p->di_name)) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ }
+ dp->di_prev->di_next = dp->di_next;
+ dp->di_next->di_prev = dp->di_prev;
+ if (dp == dcwd)
+ dnewcwd(p);
+ else {
+ printdirs();
+ }
+ dfree(dp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * dfree - free the directory (or keep it if it still has ref count)
+ */
+void
+dfree(dp)
+ register struct directory *dp;
+{
+
+ if (dp->di_count != 0) {
+ dp->di_next = dp->di_prev = 0;
+ }
+ else {
+ xfree((char *) dp->di_name);
+ xfree((ptr_t) dp);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * dcanon - canonicalize the pathname, removing excess ./ and ../ etc.
+ * we are of course assuming that the file system is standardly
+ * constructed (always have ..'s, directories have links)
+ */
+Char *
+dcanon(cp, p)
+ register Char *cp, *p;
+{
+ register Char *sp;
+ register Char *p1, *p2; /* general purpose */
+ bool slash;
+
+ Char link[MAXPATHLEN];
+ char tlink[MAXPATHLEN];
+ int cc;
+ Char *newcp;
+
+ /*
+ * christos: if the path given does not start with a slash prepend cwd. If
+ * cwd does not start with a path or the result would be too long abort().
+ */
+ if (*cp != '/') {
+ Char tmpdir[MAXPATHLEN];
+
+ p1 = value(STRcwd);
+ if (p1 == NULL || *p1 != '/')
+ abort();
+ if (Strlen(p1) + Strlen(cp) + 1 >= MAXPATHLEN)
+ abort();
+ (void) Strcpy(tmpdir, p1);
+ (void) Strcat(tmpdir, STRslash);
+ (void) Strcat(tmpdir, cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = p = Strsave(tmpdir);
+ }
+
+ while (*p) { /* for each component */
+ sp = p; /* save slash address */
+ while (*++p == '/') /* flush extra slashes */
+ continue;
+ if (p != ++sp)
+ for (p1 = sp, p2 = p; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ p = sp; /* save start of component */
+ slash = 0;
+ while (*++p) /* find next slash or end of path */
+ if (*p == '/') {
+ slash = 1;
+ *p = 0;
+ break;
+ }
+
+ if (*sp == '\0') /* if component is null */
+ if (--sp == cp) /* if path is one char (i.e. /) */
+ break;
+ else
+ *sp = '\0';
+ else if (sp[0] == '.' && sp[1] == 0) {
+ if (slash) {
+ for (p1 = sp, p2 = p + 1; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ p = --sp;
+ }
+ else if (--sp != cp)
+ *sp = '\0';
+ }
+ else if (sp[0] == '.' && sp[1] == '.' && sp[2] == 0) {
+ /*
+ * We have something like "yyy/xxx/..", where "yyy" can be null or
+ * a path starting at /, and "xxx" is a single component. Before
+ * compressing "xxx/..", we want to expand "yyy/xxx", if it is a
+ * symbolic link.
+ */
+ *--sp = 0; /* form the pathname for readlink */
+ if (sp != cp && !adrof(STRignore_symlinks) &&
+ (cc = readlink(short2str(cp), tlink,
+ sizeof tlink)) >= 0) {
+ (void) Strcpy(link, str2short(tlink));
+ link[cc] = '\0';
+
+ if (slash)
+ *p = '/';
+ /*
+ * Point p to the '/' in "/..", and restore the '/'.
+ */
+ *(p = sp) = '/';
+ /*
+ * find length of p
+ */
+ for (p1 = p; *p1++;)
+ continue;
+ if (*link != '/') {
+ /*
+ * Relative path, expand it between the "yyy/" and the
+ * "/..". First, back sp up to the character past "yyy/".
+ */
+ while (*--sp != '/')
+ continue;
+ sp++;
+ *sp = 0;
+ /*
+ * New length is "yyy/" + link + "/.." and rest
+ */
+ p1 = newcp = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)
+ (((sp - cp) + cc + (p1 - p)) *
+ sizeof(Char)));
+ /*
+ * Copy new path into newcp
+ */
+ for (p2 = cp; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = link; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = p; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ /*
+ * Restart canonicalization at expanded "/xxx".
+ */
+ p = sp - cp - 1 + newcp;
+ }
+ else {
+ /*
+ * New length is link + "/.." and rest
+ */
+ p1 = newcp = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)
+ ((cc + (p1 - p)) * sizeof(Char)));
+ /*
+ * Copy new path into newcp
+ */
+ for (p2 = link; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = p; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ /*
+ * Restart canonicalization at beginning
+ */
+ p = newcp;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = newcp;
+ continue; /* canonicalize the link */
+ }
+ *sp = '/';
+ if (sp != cp)
+ while (*--sp != '/')
+ continue;
+ if (slash) {
+ for (p1 = sp + 1, p2 = p + 1; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ p = sp;
+ }
+ else if (cp == sp)
+ *++sp = '\0';
+ else
+ *sp = '\0';
+ }
+ else { /* normal dir name (not . or .. or nothing) */
+
+ if (sp != cp && adrof(STRchase_symlinks) &&
+ !adrof(STRignore_symlinks) &&
+ (cc = readlink(short2str(cp), tlink,
+ sizeof tlink)) >= 0) {
+ (void) Strcpy(link, str2short(tlink));
+ link[cc] = '\0';
+
+ /*
+ * restore the '/'.
+ */
+ if (slash)
+ *p = '/';
+
+ /*
+ * point sp to p (rather than backing up).
+ */
+ sp = p;
+
+ /*
+ * find length of p
+ */
+ for (p1 = p; *p1++;)
+ continue;
+ if (*link != '/') {
+ /*
+ * Relative path, expand it between the "yyy/" and the
+ * remainder. First, back sp up to the character past
+ * "yyy/".
+ */
+ while (*--sp != '/')
+ continue;
+ sp++;
+ *sp = 0;
+ /*
+ * New length is "yyy/" + link + "/.." and rest
+ */
+ p1 = newcp = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)
+ (((sp - cp) + cc + (p1 - p))
+ * sizeof(Char)));
+ /*
+ * Copy new path into newcp
+ */
+ for (p2 = cp; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = link; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = p; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ /*
+ * Restart canonicalization at expanded "/xxx".
+ */
+ p = sp - cp - 1 + newcp;
+ }
+ else {
+ /*
+ * New length is link + the rest
+ */
+ p1 = newcp = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)
+ ((cc + (p1 - p)) * sizeof(Char)));
+ /*
+ * Copy new path into newcp
+ */
+ for (p2 = link; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ for (p1--, p2 = p; (*p1++ = *p2++) != '\0';)
+ continue;
+ /*
+ * Restart canonicalization at beginning
+ */
+ p = newcp;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = newcp;
+ continue; /* canonicalize the link */
+ }
+ if (slash)
+ *p = '/';
+ }
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * fix home...
+ */
+ p1 = value(STRhome);
+ cc = Strlen(p1);
+ /*
+ * See if we're not in a subdir of STRhome
+ */
+ if (p1 && *p1 == '/' &&
+ (Strncmp(p1, cp, cc) != 0 || (cp[cc] != '/' && cp[cc] != '\0'))) {
+ static ino_t home_ino = -1;
+ static dev_t home_dev = -1;
+ static Char *home_ptr = NULL;
+ struct stat statbuf;
+
+ /*
+ * Get dev and ino of STRhome
+ */
+ if (home_ptr != p1 &&
+ stat(short2str(p1), &statbuf) != -1) {
+ home_dev = statbuf.st_dev;
+ home_ino = statbuf.st_ino;
+ home_ptr = p1;
+ }
+ /*
+ * Start comparing dev & ino backwards
+ */
+ p2 = Strcpy(link, cp);
+ for (sp = NULL; *p2 && stat(short2str(p2), &statbuf) != -1;) {
+ if (statbuf.st_dev == home_dev &&
+ statbuf.st_ino == home_ino) {
+ sp = (Char *) - 1;
+ break;
+ }
+ if ((sp = Strrchr(p2, '/')) != NULL)
+ *sp = '\0';
+ }
+ /*
+ * See if we found it
+ */
+ if (*p2 && sp == (Char *) -1) {
+ /*
+ * Use STRhome to make '~' work
+ */
+ newcp = Strspl(p1, cp + Strlen(p2));
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = newcp;
+ }
+ }
+ return cp;
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * dnewcwd - make a new directory in the loop the current one
+ */
+static void
+dnewcwd(dp)
+ register struct directory *dp;
+{
+ dcwd = dp;
+ dset(dcwd->di_name);
+ if (printd && !(adrof(STRpushdsilent)))
+ printdirs();
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/dir.h b/bin/csh/dir.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..dcd155b67b5b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/dir.h
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * @(#)dir.h 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+ */
+
+/*
+ * Structure for entries in directory stack.
+ */
+struct directory {
+ struct directory *di_next; /* next in loop */
+ struct directory *di_prev; /* prev in loop */
+ unsigned short *di_count; /* refcount of processes */
+ Char *di_name; /* actual name */
+};
+struct directory *dcwd; /* the one we are in now */
diff --git a/bin/csh/dol.c b/bin/csh/dol.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..fcd4c652896b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/dol.c
@@ -0,0 +1,985 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)dol.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+/*
+ * These routines perform variable substitution and quoting via ' and ".
+ * To this point these constructs have been preserved in the divided
+ * input words. Here we expand variables and turn quoting via ' and " into
+ * QUOTE bits on characters (which prevent further interpretation).
+ * If the `:q' modifier was applied during history expansion, then
+ * some QUOTEing may have occurred already, so we dont "trim()" here.
+ */
+
+static int Dpeekc, Dpeekrd; /* Peeks for DgetC and Dreadc */
+static Char *Dcp, **Dvp; /* Input vector for Dreadc */
+
+#define DEOF -1
+
+#define unDgetC(c) Dpeekc = c
+
+#define QUOTES (_QF|_QB|_ESC) /* \ ' " ` */
+
+/*
+ * The following variables give the information about the current
+ * $ expansion, recording the current word position, the remaining
+ * words within this expansion, the count of remaining words, and the
+ * information about any : modifier which is being applied.
+ */
+#define MAXWLEN (BUFSIZ - 4)
+#define MAXMOD MAXWLEN /* This cannot overflow */
+static Char *dolp; /* Remaining chars from this word */
+static Char **dolnxt; /* Further words */
+static int dolcnt; /* Count of further words */
+static Char dolmod[MAXMOD]; /* : modifier character */
+static int dolnmod; /* Number of modifiers */
+static int dolmcnt; /* :gx -> 10000, else 1 */
+static int dolwcnt; /* :wx -> 10000, else 1 */
+
+static void Dfix2 __P((Char **));
+static Char *Dpack __P((Char *, Char *));
+static int Dword __P((void));
+static void dolerror __P((Char *));
+static int DgetC __P((int));
+static void Dgetdol __P((void));
+static void fixDolMod __P((void));
+static void setDolp __P((Char *));
+static void unDredc __P((int));
+static int Dredc __P((void));
+static void Dtestq __P((int));
+
+
+/*
+ * Fix up the $ expansions and quotations in the
+ * argument list to command t.
+ */
+void
+Dfix(t)
+ register struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char **pp;
+ register Char *p;
+
+ if (noexec)
+ return;
+ /* Note that t_dcom isn't trimmed thus !...:q's aren't lost */
+ for (pp = t->t_dcom; (p = *pp++) != NULL;)
+ for (; *p; p++) {
+ if (cmap(*p, _DOL | QUOTES)) { /* $, \, ', ", ` */
+ Dfix2(t->t_dcom); /* found one */
+ blkfree(t->t_dcom);
+ t->t_dcom = gargv;
+ gargv = 0;
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * $ substitute one word, for i/o redirection
+ */
+Char *
+Dfix1(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ Char *Dv[2];
+
+ if (noexec)
+ return (0);
+ Dv[0] = cp;
+ Dv[1] = NULL;
+ Dfix2(Dv);
+ if (gargc != 1) {
+ setname(vis_str(cp));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_AMBIG);
+ }
+ cp = Strsave(gargv[0]);
+ blkfree(gargv), gargv = 0;
+ return (cp);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Subroutine to do actual fixing after state initialization.
+ */
+static void
+Dfix2(v)
+ Char **v;
+{
+ ginit(); /* Initialize glob's area pointers */
+ Dvp = v;
+ Dcp = STRNULL; /* Setup input vector for Dreadc */
+ unDgetC(0);
+ unDredc(0); /* Clear out any old peeks (at error) */
+ dolp = 0;
+ dolcnt = 0; /* Clear out residual $ expands (...) */
+ while (Dword())
+ continue;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Pack up more characters in this word
+ */
+static Char *
+Dpack(wbuf, wp)
+ Char *wbuf, *wp;
+{
+ register int c;
+ register int i = MAXWLEN - (wp - wbuf);
+
+ for (;;) {
+ c = DgetC(DODOL);
+ if (c == '\\') {
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ if (c == DEOF) {
+ unDredc(c);
+ *wp = 0;
+ Gcat(STRNULL, wbuf);
+ return (NULL);
+ }
+ if (c == '\n')
+ c = ' ';
+ else
+ c |= QUOTE;
+ }
+ if (c == DEOF) {
+ unDredc(c);
+ *wp = 0;
+ Gcat(STRNULL, wbuf);
+ return (NULL);
+ }
+ if (cmap(c, _SP | _NL | _QF | _QB)) { /* sp \t\n'"` */
+ unDgetC(c);
+ if (cmap(c, QUOTES))
+ return (wp);
+ *wp++ = 0;
+ Gcat(STRNULL, wbuf);
+ return (NULL);
+ }
+ if (--i <= 0)
+ stderror(ERR_WTOOLONG);
+ *wp++ = c;
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Get a word. This routine is analogous to the routine
+ * word() in sh.lex.c for the main lexical input. One difference
+ * here is that we don't get a newline to terminate our expansion.
+ * Rather, DgetC will return a DEOF when we hit the end-of-input.
+ */
+static int
+Dword()
+{
+ register int c, c1;
+ Char wbuf[BUFSIZ];
+ register Char *wp = wbuf;
+ register int i = MAXWLEN;
+ register bool dolflg;
+ bool sofar = 0, done = 0;
+
+ while (!done) {
+ done = 1;
+ c = DgetC(DODOL);
+ switch (c) {
+
+ case DEOF:
+ if (sofar == 0)
+ return (0);
+ /* finish this word and catch the code above the next time */
+ unDredc(c);
+ /* fall into ... */
+
+ case '\n':
+ *wp = 0;
+ Gcat(STRNULL, wbuf);
+ return (1);
+
+ case ' ':
+ case '\t':
+ done = 0;
+ break;
+
+ case '`':
+ /* We preserve ` quotations which are done yet later */
+ *wp++ = c, --i;
+ case '\'':
+ case '"':
+ /*
+ * Note that DgetC never returns a QUOTES character from an
+ * expansion, so only true input quotes will get us here or out.
+ */
+ c1 = c;
+ dolflg = c1 == '"' ? DODOL : 0;
+ for (;;) {
+ c = DgetC(dolflg);
+ if (c == c1)
+ break;
+ if (c == '\n' || c == DEOF)
+ stderror(ERR_UNMATCHED, c1);
+ if ((c & (QUOTE | TRIM)) == ('\n' | QUOTE))
+ --wp, ++i;
+ if (--i <= 0)
+ stderror(ERR_WTOOLONG);
+ switch (c1) {
+
+ case '"':
+ /*
+ * Leave any `s alone for later. Other chars are all
+ * quoted, thus `...` can tell it was within "...".
+ */
+ *wp++ = c == '`' ? '`' : c | QUOTE;
+ break;
+
+ case '\'':
+ /* Prevent all further interpretation */
+ *wp++ = c | QUOTE;
+ break;
+
+ case '`':
+ /* Leave all text alone for later */
+ *wp++ = c;
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ if (c1 == '`')
+ *wp++ = '`' /* i--; eliminated */;
+ sofar = 1;
+ if ((wp = Dpack(wbuf, wp)) == NULL)
+ return (1);
+ else {
+ i = MAXWLEN - (wp - wbuf);
+ done = 0;
+ }
+ break;
+
+ case '\\':
+ c = DgetC(0); /* No $ subst! */
+ if (c == '\n' || c == DEOF) {
+ done = 0;
+ break;
+ }
+ c |= QUOTE;
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+ if (done) {
+ unDgetC(c);
+ sofar = 1;
+ if ((wp = Dpack(wbuf, wp)) == NULL)
+ return (1);
+ else {
+ i = MAXWLEN - (wp - wbuf);
+ done = 0;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ /* Really NOTREACHED */
+ return (0);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Get a character, performing $ substitution unless flag is 0.
+ * Any QUOTES character which is returned from a $ expansion is
+ * QUOTEd so that it will not be recognized above.
+ */
+static int
+DgetC(flag)
+ register int flag;
+{
+ register int c;
+
+top:
+ if ((c = Dpeekc) != '\0') {
+ Dpeekc = 0;
+ return (c);
+ }
+ if (lap) {
+ c = *lap++ & (QUOTE | TRIM);
+ if (c == 0) {
+ lap = 0;
+ goto top;
+ }
+quotspec:
+ if (cmap(c, QUOTES))
+ return (c | QUOTE);
+ return (c);
+ }
+ if (dolp) {
+ if ((c = *dolp++ & (QUOTE | TRIM)) != '\0')
+ goto quotspec;
+ if (dolcnt > 0) {
+ setDolp(*dolnxt++);
+ --dolcnt;
+ return (' ');
+ }
+ dolp = 0;
+ }
+ if (dolcnt > 0) {
+ setDolp(*dolnxt++);
+ --dolcnt;
+ goto top;
+ }
+ c = Dredc();
+ if (c == '$' && flag) {
+ Dgetdol();
+ goto top;
+ }
+ return (c);
+}
+
+static Char *nulvec[] = {0};
+static struct varent nulargv = {nulvec, STRargv, { NULL, NULL, NULL }, 0};
+
+static void
+dolerror(s)
+ Char *s;
+{
+ setname(vis_str(s));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_RANGE);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Handle the multitudinous $ expansion forms.
+ * Ugh.
+ */
+static void
+Dgetdol()
+{
+ register Char *np;
+ register struct varent *vp = NULL;
+ Char name[4 * MAXVARLEN + 1];
+ int c, sc;
+ int subscr = 0, lwb = 1, upb = 0;
+ bool dimen = 0, bitset = 0;
+ char tnp;
+ Char wbuf[BUFSIZ];
+ static Char *dolbang = NULL;
+
+ dolnmod = dolmcnt = dolwcnt = 0;
+ c = sc = DgetC(0);
+ if (c == '{')
+ c = DgetC(0); /* sc is { to take } later */
+ if ((c & TRIM) == '#')
+ dimen++, c = DgetC(0); /* $# takes dimension */
+ else if (c == '?')
+ bitset++, c = DgetC(0); /* $? tests existence */
+ switch (c) {
+
+ case '!':
+ if (dimen || bitset)
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ if (backpid != 0) {
+ if (dolbang)
+ xfree((ptr_t) dolbang);
+ setDolp(dolbang = putn(backpid));
+ }
+ goto eatbrac;
+
+ case '$':
+ if (dimen || bitset)
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ setDolp(doldol);
+ goto eatbrac;
+
+ case '<' | QUOTE:
+ if (bitset)
+ stderror(ERR_NOTALLOWED, "$?<");
+ if (dimen)
+ stderror(ERR_NOTALLOWED, "$?#");
+ for (np = wbuf; read(OLDSTD, &tnp, 1) == 1; np++) {
+ *np = (unsigned char) tnp;
+ if (np >= &wbuf[BUFSIZ - 1])
+ stderror(ERR_LTOOLONG);
+ if (tnp == '\n')
+ break;
+ }
+ *np = 0;
+ /*
+ * KLUDGE: dolmod is set here because it will cause setDolp to call
+ * domod and thus to copy wbuf. Otherwise setDolp would use it
+ * directly. If we saved it ourselves, no one would know when to free
+ * it. The actual function of the 'q' causes filename expansion not to
+ * be done on the interpolated value.
+ */
+ dolmod[dolnmod++] = 'q';
+ dolmcnt = 10000;
+ setDolp(wbuf);
+ goto eatbrac;
+
+ case DEOF:
+ case '\n':
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ break;
+
+ case '*':
+ (void) Strcpy(name, STRargv);
+ vp = adrof(STRargv);
+ subscr = -1; /* Prevent eating [...] */
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ np = name;
+ if (Isdigit(c)) {
+ if (dimen)
+ stderror(ERR_NOTALLOWED, "$#<num>");
+ subscr = 0;
+ do {
+ subscr = subscr * 10 + c - '0';
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ } while (Isdigit(c));
+ unDredc(c);
+ if (subscr < 0) {
+ dolerror(vp->v_name);
+ return;
+ }
+ if (subscr == 0) {
+ if (bitset) {
+ dolp = ffile ? STR1 : STR0;
+ goto eatbrac;
+ }
+ if (ffile == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_DOLZERO);
+ fixDolMod();
+ setDolp(ffile);
+ goto eatbrac;
+ }
+ if (bitset)
+ stderror(ERR_DOLQUEST);
+ vp = adrof(STRargv);
+ if (vp == 0) {
+ vp = &nulargv;
+ goto eatmod;
+ }
+ break;
+ }
+ if (!alnum(c))
+ stderror(ERR_VARALNUM);
+ for (;;) {
+ *np++ = c;
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ if (!alnum(c))
+ break;
+ if (np >= &name[MAXVARLEN])
+ stderror(ERR_VARTOOLONG);
+ }
+ *np++ = 0;
+ unDredc(c);
+ vp = adrof(name);
+ }
+ if (bitset) {
+ dolp = (vp || getenv(short2str(name))) ? STR1 : STR0;
+ goto eatbrac;
+ }
+ if (vp == 0) {
+ np = str2short(getenv(short2str(name)));
+ if (np) {
+ fixDolMod();
+ setDolp(np);
+ goto eatbrac;
+ }
+ udvar(name);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ }
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ upb = blklen(vp->vec);
+ if (dimen == 0 && subscr == 0 && c == '[') {
+ np = name;
+ for (;;) {
+ c = DgetC(DODOL); /* Allow $ expand within [ ] */
+ if (c == ']')
+ break;
+ if (c == '\n' || c == DEOF)
+ stderror(ERR_INCBR);
+ if (np >= &name[sizeof(name) / sizeof(Char) - 2])
+ stderror(ERR_VARTOOLONG);
+ *np++ = c;
+ }
+ *np = 0, np = name;
+ if (dolp || dolcnt) /* $ exp must end before ] */
+ stderror(ERR_EXPORD);
+ if (!*np)
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ if (Isdigit(*np)) {
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; Isdigit(*np); i = i * 10 + *np++ - '0')
+ continue;
+ if ((i < 0 || i > upb) && !any("-*", *np)) {
+ dolerror(vp->v_name);
+ return;
+ }
+ lwb = i;
+ if (!*np)
+ upb = lwb, np = STRstar;
+ }
+ if (*np == '*')
+ np++;
+ else if (*np != '-')
+ stderror(ERR_MISSING, '-');
+ else {
+ register int i = upb;
+
+ np++;
+ if (Isdigit(*np)) {
+ i = 0;
+ while (Isdigit(*np))
+ i = i * 10 + *np++ - '0';
+ if (i < 0 || i > upb) {
+ dolerror(vp->v_name);
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+ if (i < lwb)
+ upb = lwb - 1;
+ else
+ upb = i;
+ }
+ if (lwb == 0) {
+ if (upb != 0) {
+ dolerror(vp->v_name);
+ return;
+ }
+ upb = -1;
+ }
+ if (*np)
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ }
+ else {
+ if (subscr > 0)
+ if (subscr > upb)
+ lwb = 1, upb = 0;
+ else
+ lwb = upb = subscr;
+ unDredc(c);
+ }
+ if (dimen) {
+ Char *cp = putn(upb - lwb + 1);
+
+ addla(cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ }
+ else {
+eatmod:
+ fixDolMod();
+ dolnxt = &vp->vec[lwb - 1];
+ dolcnt = upb - lwb + 1;
+ }
+eatbrac:
+ if (sc == '{') {
+ c = Dredc();
+ if (c != '}')
+ stderror(ERR_MISSING, '}');
+ }
+}
+
+static void
+fixDolMod()
+{
+ register int c;
+
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ if (c == ':') {
+ do {
+ c = DgetC(0), dolmcnt = 1, dolwcnt = 1;
+ if (c == 'g' || c == 'a') {
+ if (c == 'g')
+ dolmcnt = 10000;
+ else
+ dolwcnt = 10000;
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ }
+ if ((c == 'g' && dolmcnt != 10000) ||
+ (c == 'a' && dolwcnt != 10000)) {
+ if (c == 'g')
+ dolmcnt = 10000;
+ else
+ dolwcnt = 10000;
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ }
+
+ if (c == 's') { /* [eichin:19910926.0755EST] */
+ int delimcnt = 2;
+ int delim = DgetC(0);
+ dolmod[dolnmod++] = c;
+ dolmod[dolnmod++] = delim;
+
+ if (!delim || letter(delim)
+ || Isdigit(delim) || any(" \t\n", delim)) {
+ seterror(ERR_BADSUBST);
+ break;
+ }
+ while ((c = DgetC(0)) != (-1)) {
+ dolmod[dolnmod++] = c;
+ if(c == delim) delimcnt--;
+ if(!delimcnt) break;
+ }
+ if(delimcnt) {
+ seterror(ERR_BADSUBST);
+ break;
+ }
+ continue;
+ }
+ if (!any("htrqxes", c))
+ stderror(ERR_BADMOD, c);
+ dolmod[dolnmod++] = c;
+ if (c == 'q')
+ dolmcnt = 10000;
+ }
+ while ((c = DgetC(0)) == ':');
+ unDredc(c);
+ }
+ else
+ unDredc(c);
+}
+
+static void
+setDolp(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ register Char *dp;
+ int i;
+
+ if (dolnmod == 0 || dolmcnt == 0) {
+ dolp = cp;
+ return;
+ }
+ dp = cp = Strsave(cp);
+ for (i = 0; i < dolnmod; i++) {
+ /* handle s// [eichin:19910926.0510EST] */
+ if(dolmod[i] == 's') {
+ int delim;
+ Char *lhsub, *rhsub, *np;
+ size_t lhlen = 0, rhlen = 0;
+ int didmod = 0;
+
+ delim = dolmod[++i];
+ if (!delim || letter(delim)
+ || Isdigit(delim) || any(" \t\n", delim)) {
+ seterror(ERR_BADSUBST);
+ break;
+ }
+ lhsub = &dolmod[++i];
+ while(dolmod[i] != delim && dolmod[++i]) {
+ lhlen++;
+ }
+ dolmod[i] = 0;
+ rhsub = &dolmod[++i];
+ while(dolmod[i] != delim && dolmod[++i]) {
+ rhlen++;
+ }
+ dolmod[i] = 0;
+
+ do {
+ dp = Strstr(cp, lhsub);
+ if (dp) {
+ np = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t)
+ ((Strlen(cp) + 1 - lhlen + rhlen) *
+ sizeof(Char)));
+ (void) Strncpy(np, cp, dp - cp);
+ (void) Strcpy(np + (dp - cp), rhsub);
+ (void) Strcpy(np + (dp - cp) + rhlen, dp + lhlen);
+
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ dp = cp = np;
+ didmod = 1;
+ } else {
+ /* should this do a seterror? */
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ while (dolwcnt == 10000);
+ /*
+ * restore dolmod for additional words
+ */
+ dolmod[i] = rhsub[-1] = delim;
+ if (didmod)
+ dolmcnt--;
+ else
+ break;
+ } else {
+ int didmod = 0;
+
+ do {
+ if ((dp = domod(cp, dolmod[i]))) {
+ didmod = 1;
+ if (Strcmp(cp, dp) == 0) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = dp;
+ break;
+ }
+ else {
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ cp = dp;
+ }
+ }
+ else
+ break;
+ }
+ while (dolwcnt == 10000);
+ dp = cp;
+ if (didmod)
+ dolmcnt--;
+ else
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (dp) {
+ addla(dp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) dp);
+ }
+ else
+ addla(cp);
+
+ dolp = STRNULL;
+ if (seterr)
+ stderror(ERR_OLD);
+}
+
+static void
+unDredc(c)
+ int c;
+{
+
+ Dpeekrd = c;
+}
+
+static int
+Dredc()
+{
+ register int c;
+
+ if ((c = Dpeekrd) != '\0') {
+ Dpeekrd = 0;
+ return (c);
+ }
+ if (Dcp && (c = *Dcp++))
+ return (c & (QUOTE | TRIM));
+ if (*Dvp == 0) {
+ Dcp = 0;
+ return (DEOF);
+ }
+ Dcp = *Dvp++;
+ return (' ');
+}
+
+static void
+Dtestq(c)
+ register int c;
+{
+
+ if (cmap(c, QUOTES))
+ gflag = 1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Form a shell temporary file (in unit 0) from the words
+ * of the shell input up to EOF or a line the same as "term".
+ * Unit 0 should have been closed before this call.
+ */
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+heredoc(term)
+ Char *term;
+{
+ register int c;
+ Char *Dv[2];
+ Char obuf[BUFSIZ], lbuf[BUFSIZ], mbuf[BUFSIZ];
+ int ocnt, lcnt, mcnt;
+ register Char *lbp, *obp, *mbp;
+ Char **vp;
+ bool quoted;
+ char *tmp;
+
+ if (creat(tmp = short2str(shtemp), 0600) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ (void) close(0);
+ if (open(tmp, O_RDWR) < 0) {
+ int oerrno = errno;
+
+ (void) unlink(tmp);
+ errno = oerrno;
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, tmp, strerror(errno));
+ }
+ (void) unlink(tmp); /* 0 0 inode! */
+ Dv[0] = term;
+ Dv[1] = NULL;
+ gflag = 0;
+ trim(Dv);
+ rscan(Dv, Dtestq);
+ quoted = gflag;
+ ocnt = BUFSIZ;
+ obp = obuf;
+ for (;;) {
+ /*
+ * Read up a line
+ */
+ lbp = lbuf;
+ lcnt = BUFSIZ - 4;
+ for (;;) {
+ c = readc(1); /* 1 -> Want EOF returns */
+ if (c < 0 || c == '\n')
+ break;
+ if ((c &= TRIM) != '\0') {
+ *lbp++ = c;
+ if (--lcnt < 0) {
+ setname("<<");
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_OVERFLOW);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ *lbp = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * Check for EOF or compare to terminator -- before expansion
+ */
+ if (c < 0 || eq(lbuf, term)) {
+ (void) write(0, short2str(obuf), (size_t) (BUFSIZ - ocnt));
+ (void) lseek(0, 0l, L_SET);
+ return;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * If term was quoted or -n just pass it on
+ */
+ if (quoted || noexec) {
+ *lbp++ = '\n';
+ *lbp = 0;
+ for (lbp = lbuf; (c = *lbp++) != '\0';) {
+ *obp++ = c;
+ if (--ocnt == 0) {
+ (void) write(0, short2str(obuf), BUFSIZ);
+ obp = obuf;
+ ocnt = BUFSIZ;
+ }
+ }
+ continue;
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Term wasn't quoted so variable and then command expand the input
+ * line
+ */
+ Dcp = lbuf;
+ Dvp = Dv + 1;
+ mbp = mbuf;
+ mcnt = BUFSIZ - 4;
+ for (;;) {
+ c = DgetC(DODOL);
+ if (c == DEOF)
+ break;
+ if ((c &= TRIM) == 0)
+ continue;
+ /* \ quotes \ $ ` here */
+ if (c == '\\') {
+ c = DgetC(0);
+ if (!any("$\\`", c))
+ unDgetC(c | QUOTE), c = '\\';
+ else
+ c |= QUOTE;
+ }
+ *mbp++ = c;
+ if (--mcnt == 0) {
+ setname("<<");
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_OVERFLOW);
+ }
+ }
+ *mbp++ = 0;
+
+ /*
+ * If any ` in line do command substitution
+ */
+ mbp = mbuf;
+ if (any(short2str(mbp), '`')) {
+ /*
+ * 1 arg to dobackp causes substitution to be literal. Words are
+ * broken only at newlines so that all blanks and tabs are
+ * preserved. Blank lines (null words) are not discarded.
+ */
+ vp = dobackp(mbuf, 1);
+ }
+ else
+ /* Setup trivial vector similar to return of dobackp */
+ Dv[0] = mbp, Dv[1] = NULL, vp = Dv;
+
+ /*
+ * Resurrect the words from the command substitution each separated by
+ * a newline. Note that the last newline of a command substitution
+ * will have been discarded, but we put a newline after the last word
+ * because this represents the newline after the last input line!
+ */
+ for (; *vp; vp++) {
+ for (mbp = *vp; *mbp; mbp++) {
+ *obp++ = *mbp & TRIM;
+ if (--ocnt == 0) {
+ (void) write(0, short2str(obuf), BUFSIZ);
+ obp = obuf;
+ ocnt = BUFSIZ;
+ }
+ }
+ *obp++ = '\n';
+ if (--ocnt == 0) {
+ (void) write(0, short2str(obuf), BUFSIZ);
+ obp = obuf;
+ ocnt = BUFSIZ;
+ }
+ }
+ if (pargv)
+ blkfree(pargv), pargv = 0;
+ }
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/err.c b/bin/csh/err.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..745adc82e476
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/err.c
@@ -0,0 +1,407 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)err.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+char *seterr = NULL; /* Holds last error if there was one */
+
+#define ERR_FLAGS 0xf0000000
+#define ERR_NAME 0x10000000
+#define ERR_SILENT 0x20000000
+#define ERR_OLD 0x40000000
+
+static char *errorlist[] =
+{
+#define ERR_SYNTAX 0
+ "Syntax Error",
+#define ERR_NOTALLOWED 1
+ "%s is not allowed",
+#define ERR_WTOOLONG 2
+ "Word too long",
+#define ERR_LTOOLONG 3
+ "$< line too long",
+#define ERR_DOLZERO 4
+ "No file for $0",
+#define ERR_DOLQUEST 5
+ "$? not allowed here",
+#define ERR_INCBR 6
+ "Incomplete [] modifier",
+#define ERR_EXPORD 7
+ "$ expansion must end before ]",
+#define ERR_BADMOD 8
+ "Bad : modifier in $ (%c)",
+#define ERR_SUBSCRIPT 9
+ "Subscript error",
+#define ERR_BADNUM 10
+ "Badly formed number",
+#define ERR_NOMORE 11
+ "No more words",
+#define ERR_FILENAME 12
+ "Missing file name",
+#define ERR_GLOB 13
+ "Internal glob error",
+#define ERR_COMMAND 14
+ "Command not found",
+#define ERR_TOOFEW 15
+ "Too few arguments",
+#define ERR_TOOMANY 16
+ "Too many arguments",
+#define ERR_DANGER 17
+ "Too dangerous to alias that",
+#define ERR_EMPTYIF 18
+ "Empty if",
+#define ERR_IMPRTHEN 19
+ "Improper then",
+#define ERR_NOPAREN 20
+ "Words not parenthesized",
+#define ERR_NOTFOUND 21
+ "%s not found",
+#define ERR_MASK 22
+ "Improper mask",
+#define ERR_LIMIT 23
+ "No such limit",
+#define ERR_TOOLARGE 24
+ "Argument too large",
+#define ERR_SCALEF 25
+ "Improper or unknown scale factor",
+#define ERR_UNDVAR 26
+ "Undefined variable",
+#define ERR_DEEP 27
+ "Directory stack not that deep",
+#define ERR_BADSIG 28
+ "Bad signal number",
+#define ERR_UNKSIG 29
+ "Unknown signal; kill -l lists signals",
+#define ERR_VARBEGIN 30
+ "Variable name must begin with a letter",
+#define ERR_VARTOOLONG 31
+ "Variable name too long",
+#define ERR_VARALNUM 32
+ "Variable name must contain alphanumeric characters",
+#define ERR_JOBCONTROL 33
+ "No job control in this shell",
+#define ERR_EXPRESSION 34
+ "Expression Syntax",
+#define ERR_NOHOMEDIR 35
+ "No home directory",
+#define ERR_CANTCHANGE 36
+ "Can't change to home directory",
+#define ERR_NULLCOM 37
+ "Invalid null command",
+#define ERR_ASSIGN 38
+ "Assignment missing expression",
+#define ERR_UNKNOWNOP 39
+ "Unknown operator",
+#define ERR_AMBIG 40
+ "Ambiguous",
+#define ERR_EXISTS 41
+ "%s: File exists",
+#define ERR_INTR 42
+ "Interrupted",
+#define ERR_RANGE 43
+ "Subscript out of range",
+#define ERR_OVERFLOW 44
+ "Line overflow",
+#define ERR_VARMOD 45
+ "Unknown variable modifier",
+#define ERR_NOSUCHJOB 46
+ "No such job",
+#define ERR_TERMINAL 47
+ "Can't from terminal",
+#define ERR_NOTWHILE 48
+ "Not in while/foreach",
+#define ERR_NOPROC 49
+ "No more processes",
+#define ERR_NOMATCH 50
+ "No match",
+#define ERR_MISSING 51
+ "Missing %c",
+#define ERR_UNMATCHED 52
+ "Unmatched %c",
+#define ERR_NOMEM 53
+ "Out of memory",
+#define ERR_PIPE 54
+ "Can't make pipe",
+#define ERR_SYSTEM 55
+ "%s: %s",
+#define ERR_STRING 56
+ "%s",
+#define ERR_JOBS 57
+ "Usage: jobs [ -l ]",
+#define ERR_JOBARGS 58
+ "Arguments should be jobs or process id's",
+#define ERR_JOBCUR 59
+ "No current job",
+#define ERR_JOBPREV 60
+ "No previous job",
+#define ERR_JOBPAT 61
+ "No job matches pattern",
+#define ERR_NESTING 62
+ "Fork nesting > %d; maybe `...` loop",
+#define ERR_JOBCTRLSUB 63
+ "No job control in subshells",
+#define ERR_BADPLPS 64
+ "Badly placed ()'s",
+#define ERR_STOPPED 65
+ "%sThere are suspended jobs",
+#define ERR_NODIR 66
+ "No other directory",
+#define ERR_EMPTY 67
+ "Directory stack empty",
+#define ERR_BADDIR 68
+ "Bad directory",
+#define ERR_DIRUS 69
+ "Usage: %s [-lvn]%s",
+#define ERR_HFLAG 70
+ "No operand for -h flag",
+#define ERR_NOTLOGIN 71
+ "Not a login shell",
+#define ERR_DIV0 72
+ "Division by 0",
+#define ERR_MOD0 73
+ "Mod by 0",
+#define ERR_BADSCALE 74
+ "Bad scaling; did you mean \"%s\"?",
+#define ERR_SUSPLOG 75
+ "Can't suspend a login shell (yet)",
+#define ERR_UNKUSER 76
+ "Unknown user: %s",
+#define ERR_NOHOME 77
+ "No $home variable set",
+#define ERR_HISTUS 78
+ "Usage: history [-rh] [# number of events]",
+#define ERR_SPDOLLT 79
+ "$, ! or < not allowed with $# or $?",
+#define ERR_NEWLINE 80
+ "Newline in variable name",
+#define ERR_SPSTAR 81
+ "* not allowed with $# or $?",
+#define ERR_DIGIT 82
+ "$?<digit> or $#<digit> not allowed",
+#define ERR_VARILL 83
+ "Illegal variable name",
+#define ERR_NLINDEX 84
+ "Newline in variable index",
+#define ERR_EXPOVFL 85
+ "Expansion buffer overflow",
+#define ERR_VARSYN 86
+ "Variable syntax",
+#define ERR_BADBANG 87
+ "Bad ! form",
+#define ERR_NOSUBST 88
+ "No previous substitute",
+#define ERR_BADSUBST 89
+ "Bad substitute",
+#define ERR_LHS 90
+ "No previous left hand side",
+#define ERR_RHSLONG 91
+ "Right hand side too long",
+#define ERR_BADBANGMOD 92
+ "Bad ! modifier: %c",
+#define ERR_MODFAIL 93
+ "Modifier failed",
+#define ERR_SUBOVFL 94
+ "Substitution buffer overflow",
+#define ERR_BADBANGARG 95
+ "Bad ! arg selector",
+#define ERR_NOSEARCH 96
+ "No prev search",
+#define ERR_NOEVENT 97
+ "%s: Event not found",
+#define ERR_TOOMANYRP 98
+ "Too many )'s",
+#define ERR_TOOMANYLP 99
+ "Too many ('s",
+#define ERR_BADPLP 100
+ "Badly placed (",
+#define ERR_MISRED 101
+ "Missing name for redirect",
+#define ERR_OUTRED 102
+ "Ambiguous output redirect",
+#define ERR_REDPAR 103
+ "Can't << within ()'s",
+#define ERR_INRED 104
+ "Ambiguous input redirect",
+#define ERR_ALIASLOOP 105
+ "Alias loop",
+#define ERR_HISTLOOP 106
+ "!# History loop",
+#define ERR_ARCH 107
+ "%s: %s. Wrong Architecture",
+#define ERR_FILEINQ 108
+ "Malformed file inquiry",
+#define ERR_SELOVFL 109
+ "Selector overflow",
+#define ERR_INVALID 110
+ "Invalid Error"
+};
+
+/*
+ * The parser and scanner set up errors for later by calling seterr,
+ * which sets the variable err as a side effect; later to be tested,
+ * e.g. in process.
+ */
+void
+#if __STDC__
+seterror(int id, ...)
+#else
+seterror(id, va_alist)
+ int id;
+ va_dcl
+#endif
+{
+ if (seterr == 0) {
+ char berr[BUFSIZ];
+ va_list va;
+
+#if __STDC__
+ va_start(va, id);
+#else
+ va_start(va);
+#endif
+ if (id < 0 || id > sizeof(errorlist) / sizeof(errorlist[0]))
+ id = ERR_INVALID;
+ vsprintf(berr, errorlist[id], va);
+ va_end(va);
+
+ seterr = strsave(berr);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Print the error with the given id.
+ *
+ * Special ids:
+ * ERR_SILENT: Print nothing.
+ * ERR_OLD: Print the previously set error if one was there.
+ * otherwise return.
+ * ERR_NAME: If this bit is set, print the name of the function
+ * in bname
+ *
+ * This routine always resets or exits. The flag haderr
+ * is set so the routine who catches the unwind can propogate
+ * it if they want.
+ *
+ * Note that any open files at the point of error will eventually
+ * be closed in the routine process in sh.c which is the only
+ * place error unwinds are ever caught.
+ */
+void
+#if __STDC__
+stderror(int id, ...)
+#else
+stderror(id, va_alist)
+ int id;
+ va_dcl
+#endif
+{
+ va_list va;
+ register Char **v;
+ int flags = id & ERR_FLAGS;
+
+ id &= ~ERR_FLAGS;
+
+ if ((flags & ERR_OLD) && seterr == NULL)
+ return;
+
+ if (id < 0 || id > sizeof(errorlist) / sizeof(errorlist[0]))
+ id = ERR_INVALID;
+
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+ (void) fflush(csherr);
+ haderr = 1; /* Now to diagnostic output */
+ timflg = 0; /* This isn't otherwise reset */
+
+
+ if (!(flags & ERR_SILENT)) {
+ if (flags & ERR_NAME)
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s: ", bname);
+ if ((flags & ERR_OLD))
+ /* Old error. */
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s.\n", seterr);
+ else {
+#if __STDC__
+ va_start(va, id);
+#else
+ va_start(va);
+#endif
+ (void) vfprintf(csherr, errorlist[id], va);
+ va_end(va);
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, ".\n");
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (seterr) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) seterr);
+ seterr = NULL;
+ }
+
+ if ((v = pargv) != NULL)
+ pargv = 0, blkfree(v);
+ if ((v = gargv) != NULL)
+ gargv = 0, blkfree(v);
+
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+ (void) fflush(csherr);
+ didfds = 0; /* Forget about 0,1,2 */
+ /*
+ * Go away if -e or we are a child shell
+ */
+ if (exiterr || child)
+ xexit(1);
+
+ /*
+ * Reset the state of the input. This buffered seek to end of file will
+ * also clear the while/foreach stack.
+ */
+ btoeof();
+
+ set(STRstatus, Strsave(STR1));
+ if (tpgrp > 0)
+ (void) tcsetpgrp(FSHTTY, tpgrp);
+ reset(); /* Unwind */
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/exec.c b/bin/csh/exec.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..c9799cbaa34e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/exec.c
@@ -0,0 +1,736 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)exec.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+/*
+ * System level search and execute of a command. We look in each directory
+ * for the specified command name. If the name contains a '/' then we
+ * execute only the full path name. If there is no search path then we
+ * execute only full path names.
+ */
+extern char **environ;
+
+/*
+ * As we search for the command we note the first non-trivial error
+ * message for presentation to the user. This allows us often
+ * to show that a file has the wrong mode/no access when the file
+ * is not in the last component of the search path, so we must
+ * go on after first detecting the error.
+ */
+static char *exerr; /* Execution error message */
+static Char *expath; /* Path for exerr */
+
+/*
+ * Xhash is an array of HSHSIZ bits (HSHSIZ / 8 chars), which are used
+ * to hash execs. If it is allocated (havhash true), then to tell
+ * whether ``name'' is (possibly) present in the i'th component
+ * of the variable path, you look at the bit in xhash indexed by
+ * hash(hashname("name"), i). This is setup automatically
+ * after .login is executed, and recomputed whenever ``path'' is
+ * changed.
+ * The two part hash function is designed to let texec() call the
+ * more expensive hashname() only once and the simple hash() several
+ * times (once for each path component checked).
+ * Byte size is assumed to be 8.
+ */
+#define HSHSIZ 8192 /* 1k bytes */
+#define HSHMASK (HSHSIZ - 1)
+#define HSHMUL 243
+static char xhash[HSHSIZ / 8];
+
+#define hash(a, b) (((a) * HSHMUL + (b)) & HSHMASK)
+#define bit(h, b) ((h)[(b) >> 3] & 1 << ((b) & 7)) /* bit test */
+#define bis(h, b) ((h)[(b) >> 3] |= 1 << ((b) & 7)) /* bit set */
+static int hits, misses;
+
+/* Dummy search path for just absolute search when no path */
+static Char *justabs[] = {STRNULL, 0};
+
+static void pexerr __P((void));
+static void texec __P((Char *, Char **));
+static int hashname __P((Char *));
+static void tellmewhat __P((struct wordent *));
+static int executable __P((Char *, Char *, bool));
+static int iscommand __P((Char *));
+
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doexec(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *dp, **pv, **av, *sav;
+ register struct varent *pathv;
+ register bool slash;
+ register int hashval = 0, hashval1, i;
+ Char *blk[2];
+
+ /*
+ * Glob the command name. We will search $path even if this does something,
+ * as in sh but not in csh. One special case: if there is no PATH, then we
+ * execute only commands which start with '/'.
+ */
+ blk[0] = t->t_dcom[0];
+ blk[1] = 0;
+ gflag = 0, tglob(blk);
+ if (gflag) {
+ pv = globall(blk);
+ if (pv == 0) {
+ setname(vis_str(blk[0]));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOMATCH);
+ }
+ gargv = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ pv = saveblk(blk);
+
+ trim(pv);
+
+ exerr = 0;
+ expath = Strsave(pv[0]);
+ Vexpath = expath;
+
+ pathv = adrof(STRpath);
+ if (pathv == 0 && expath[0] != '/') {
+ blkfree(pv);
+ pexerr();
+ }
+ slash = any(short2str(expath), '/');
+
+ /*
+ * Glob the argument list, if necessary. Otherwise trim off the quote bits.
+ */
+ gflag = 0;
+ av = &t->t_dcom[1];
+ tglob(av);
+ if (gflag) {
+ av = globall(av);
+ if (av == 0) {
+ blkfree(pv);
+ setname(vis_str(expath));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOMATCH);
+ }
+ gargv = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ av = saveblk(av);
+
+ blkfree(t->t_dcom);
+ t->t_dcom = blkspl(pv, av);
+ xfree((ptr_t) pv);
+ xfree((ptr_t) av);
+ av = t->t_dcom;
+ trim(av);
+
+ if (*av == NULL || **av == '\0')
+ pexerr();
+
+ xechoit(av); /* Echo command if -x */
+ /*
+ * Since all internal file descriptors are set to close on exec, we don't
+ * need to close them explicitly here. Just reorient ourselves for error
+ * messages.
+ */
+ SHIN = 0;
+ SHOUT = 1;
+ SHERR = 2;
+ OLDSTD = 0;
+ /*
+ * We must do this AFTER any possible forking (like `foo` in glob) so that
+ * this shell can still do subprocesses.
+ */
+ (void) sigsetmask((sigset_t) 0);
+ /*
+ * If no path, no words in path, or a / in the filename then restrict the
+ * command search.
+ */
+ if (pathv == 0 || pathv->vec[0] == 0 || slash)
+ pv = justabs;
+ else
+ pv = pathv->vec;
+ sav = Strspl(STRslash, *av);/* / command name for postpending */
+ Vsav = sav;
+ if (havhash)
+ hashval = hashname(*av);
+ i = 0;
+ hits++;
+ do {
+ /*
+ * Try to save time by looking at the hash table for where this command
+ * could be. If we are doing delayed hashing, then we put the names in
+ * one at a time, as the user enters them. This is kinda like Korn
+ * Shell's "tracked aliases".
+ */
+ if (!slash && pv[0][0] == '/' && havhash) {
+ hashval1 = hash(hashval, i);
+ if (!bit(xhash, hashval1))
+ goto cont;
+ }
+ if (pv[0][0] == 0 || eq(pv[0], STRdot)) /* don't make ./xxx */
+ texec(*av, av);
+ else {
+ dp = Strspl(*pv, sav);
+ Vdp = dp;
+ texec(dp, av);
+ Vdp = 0;
+ xfree((ptr_t) dp);
+ }
+ misses++;
+cont:
+ pv++;
+ i++;
+ } while (*pv);
+ hits--;
+ Vsav = 0;
+ xfree((ptr_t) sav);
+ pexerr();
+}
+
+static void
+pexerr()
+{
+ /* Couldn't find the damn thing */
+ if (expath) {
+ setname(vis_str(expath));
+ Vexpath = 0;
+ xfree((ptr_t) expath);
+ expath = 0;
+ }
+ else
+ setname("");
+ if (exerr)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_STRING, exerr);
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_COMMAND);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Execute command f, arg list t.
+ * Record error message if not found.
+ * Also do shell scripts here.
+ */
+static void
+texec(sf, st)
+ Char *sf;
+ register Char **st;
+{
+ register char **t;
+ register char *f;
+ register struct varent *v;
+ register Char **vp;
+ Char *lastsh[2];
+ int fd;
+ unsigned char c;
+ Char *st0, **ost;
+
+ /* The order for the conversions is significant */
+ t = short2blk(st);
+ f = short2str(sf);
+ Vt = t;
+ errno = 0; /* don't use a previous error */
+ (void) execve(f, t, environ);
+ Vt = 0;
+ blkfree((Char **) t);
+ switch (errno) {
+
+ case ENOEXEC:
+ /*
+ * From: casper@fwi.uva.nl (Casper H.S. Dik) If we could not execute
+ * it, don't feed it to the shell if it looks like a binary!
+ */
+ if ((fd = open(f, O_RDONLY)) != -1) {
+ if (read(fd, (char *) &c, 1) == 1) {
+ if (!Isprint(c) && (c != '\n' && c != '\t')) {
+ (void) close(fd);
+ /*
+ * We *know* what ENOEXEC means.
+ */
+ stderror(ERR_ARCH, f, strerror(errno));
+ }
+ }
+#ifdef _PATH_BSHELL
+ else
+ c = '#';
+#endif
+ (void) close(fd);
+ }
+ /*
+ * If there is an alias for shell, then put the words of the alias in
+ * front of the argument list replacing the command name. Note no
+ * interpretation of the words at this point.
+ */
+ v = adrof1(STRshell, &aliases);
+ if (v == 0) {
+ vp = lastsh;
+ vp[0] = adrof(STRshell) ? value(STRshell) : STR_SHELLPATH;
+ vp[1] = NULL;
+#ifdef _PATH_BSHELL
+ if (fd != -1 && c != '#')
+ vp[0] = STR_BSHELL;
+#endif
+ }
+ else
+ vp = v->vec;
+ st0 = st[0];
+ st[0] = sf;
+ ost = st;
+ st = blkspl(vp, st); /* Splice up the new arglst */
+ ost[0] = st0;
+ sf = *st;
+ /* The order for the conversions is significant */
+ t = short2blk(st);
+ f = short2str(sf);
+ xfree((ptr_t) st);
+ Vt = t;
+ (void) execve(f, t, environ);
+ Vt = 0;
+ blkfree((Char **) t);
+ /* The sky is falling, the sky is falling! */
+
+ case ENOMEM:
+ stderror(ERR_SYSTEM, f, strerror(errno));
+
+ case ENOENT:
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ if (exerr == 0) {
+ exerr = strerror(errno);
+ if (expath)
+ xfree((ptr_t) expath);
+ expath = Strsave(sf);
+ Vexpath = expath;
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+void
+execash(t, kp)
+ Char **t;
+ register struct command *kp;
+{
+ int saveIN, saveOUT, saveDIAG, saveSTD;
+ int oSHIN;
+ int oSHOUT;
+ int oSHERR;
+ int oOLDSTD;
+ jmp_buf osetexit;
+ int my_reenter;
+ int odidfds;
+ sig_t osigint, osigquit, osigterm;
+
+ if (chkstop == 0 && setintr)
+ panystop(0);
+ /*
+ * Hmm, we don't really want to do that now because we might
+ * fail, but what is the choice
+ */
+ rechist();
+
+ osigint = signal(SIGINT, parintr);
+ osigquit = signal(SIGQUIT, parintr);
+ osigterm = signal(SIGTERM, parterm);
+
+ odidfds = didfds;
+ oSHIN = SHIN;
+ oSHOUT = SHOUT;
+ oSHERR = SHERR;
+ oOLDSTD = OLDSTD;
+
+ saveIN = dcopy(SHIN, -1);
+ saveOUT = dcopy(SHOUT, -1);
+ saveDIAG = dcopy(SHERR, -1);
+ saveSTD = dcopy(OLDSTD, -1);
+
+ lshift(kp->t_dcom, 1);
+
+ getexit(osetexit);
+
+ if ((my_reenter = setexit()) == 0) {
+ SHIN = dcopy(0, -1);
+ SHOUT = dcopy(1, -1);
+ SHERR = dcopy(2, -1);
+ didfds = 0;
+ doexec(t, kp);
+ }
+
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, osigint);
+ (void) signal(SIGQUIT, osigquit);
+ (void) signal(SIGTERM, osigterm);
+
+ doneinp = 0;
+ didfds = odidfds;
+ (void) close(SHIN);
+ (void) close(SHOUT);
+ (void) close(SHERR);
+ (void) close(OLDSTD);
+ SHIN = dmove(saveIN, oSHIN);
+ SHOUT = dmove(saveOUT, oSHOUT);
+ SHERR = dmove(saveDIAG, oSHERR);
+ OLDSTD = dmove(saveSTD, oOLDSTD);
+
+ resexit(osetexit);
+ if (my_reenter)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+}
+
+void
+xechoit(t)
+ Char **t;
+{
+ if (adrof(STRecho)) {
+ (void) fflush(csherr);
+ blkpr(csherr, t);
+ (void) fputc('\n', csherr);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dohash(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ DIR *dirp;
+ register struct dirent *dp;
+ register int cnt;
+ int i = 0;
+ struct varent *pathv = adrof(STRpath);
+ Char **pv;
+ int hashval;
+
+ havhash = 1;
+ for (cnt = 0; cnt < sizeof xhash; cnt++)
+ xhash[cnt] = 0;
+ if (pathv == 0)
+ return;
+ for (pv = pathv->vec; *pv; pv++, i++) {
+ if (pv[0][0] != '/')
+ continue;
+ dirp = opendir(short2str(*pv));
+ if (dirp == NULL)
+ continue;
+ while ((dp = readdir(dirp)) != NULL) {
+ if (dp->d_ino == 0)
+ continue;
+ if (dp->d_name[0] == '.' &&
+ (dp->d_name[1] == '\0' ||
+ (dp->d_name[1] == '.' && dp->d_name[2] == '\0')))
+ continue;
+ hashval = hash(hashname(str2short(dp->d_name)), i);
+ bis(xhash, hashval);
+ /* tw_add_comm_name (dp->d_name); */
+ }
+ (void) closedir(dirp);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dounhash(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ havhash = 0;
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+hashstat(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (hits + misses)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%d hits, %d misses, %d%%\n",
+ hits, misses, 100 * hits / (hits + misses));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Hash a command name.
+ */
+static int
+hashname(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ register long h = 0;
+
+ while (*cp)
+ h = hash(h, *cp++);
+ return ((int) h);
+}
+
+static int
+iscommand(name)
+ Char *name;
+{
+ register Char **pv;
+ register Char *sav;
+ register struct varent *v;
+ register bool slash = any(short2str(name), '/');
+ register int hashval = 0, hashval1, i;
+
+ v = adrof(STRpath);
+ if (v == 0 || v->vec[0] == 0 || slash)
+ pv = justabs;
+ else
+ pv = v->vec;
+ sav = Strspl(STRslash, name); /* / command name for postpending */
+ if (havhash)
+ hashval = hashname(name);
+ i = 0;
+ do {
+ if (!slash && pv[0][0] == '/' && havhash) {
+ hashval1 = hash(hashval, i);
+ if (!bit(xhash, hashval1))
+ goto cont;
+ }
+ if (pv[0][0] == 0 || eq(pv[0], STRdot)) { /* don't make ./xxx */
+ if (executable(NULL, name, 0)) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) sav);
+ return i + 1;
+ }
+ }
+ else {
+ if (executable(*pv, sav, 0)) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) sav);
+ return i + 1;
+ }
+ }
+cont:
+ pv++;
+ i++;
+ } while (*pv);
+ xfree((ptr_t) sav);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/* Also by:
+ * Andreas Luik <luik@isaak.isa.de>
+ * I S A GmbH - Informationssysteme fuer computerintegrierte Automatisierung
+ * Azenberstr. 35
+ * D-7000 Stuttgart 1
+ * West-Germany
+ * is the executable() routine below and changes to iscommand().
+ * Thanks again!!
+ */
+
+/*
+ * executable() examines the pathname obtained by concatenating dir and name
+ * (dir may be NULL), and returns 1 either if it is executable by us, or
+ * if dir_ok is set and the pathname refers to a directory.
+ * This is a bit kludgy, but in the name of optimization...
+ */
+static int
+executable(dir, name, dir_ok)
+ Char *dir, *name;
+ bool dir_ok;
+{
+ struct stat stbuf;
+ Char path[MAXPATHLEN + 1], *dp, *sp;
+ char *strname;
+
+ if (dir && *dir) {
+ for (dp = path, sp = dir; *sp; *dp++ = *sp++)
+ if (dp == &path[MAXPATHLEN + 1]) {
+ *--dp = '\0';
+ break;
+ }
+ for (sp = name; *sp; *dp++ = *sp++)
+ if (dp == &path[MAXPATHLEN + 1]) {
+ *--dp = '\0';
+ break;
+ }
+ *dp = '\0';
+ strname = short2str(path);
+ }
+ else
+ strname = short2str(name);
+ return (stat(strname, &stbuf) != -1 &&
+ ((S_ISREG(stbuf.st_mode) &&
+ /* save time by not calling access() in the hopeless case */
+ (stbuf.st_mode & (S_IXOTH | S_IXGRP | S_IXUSR)) &&
+ access(strname, X_OK) == 0) ||
+ (dir_ok && S_ISDIR(stbuf.st_mode))));
+}
+
+/* The dowhich() is by:
+ * Andreas Luik <luik@isaak.isa.de>
+ * I S A GmbH - Informationssysteme fuer computerintegrierte Automatisierung
+ * Azenberstr. 35
+ * D-7000 Stuttgart 1
+ * West-Germany
+ * Thanks!!
+ */
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+void
+dowhich(v, c)
+ register Char **v;
+ struct command *c;
+{
+ struct wordent lex[3];
+ struct varent *vp;
+
+ lex[0].next = &lex[1];
+ lex[1].next = &lex[2];
+ lex[2].next = &lex[0];
+
+ lex[0].prev = &lex[2];
+ lex[1].prev = &lex[0];
+ lex[2].prev = &lex[1];
+
+ lex[0].word = STRNULL;
+ lex[2].word = STRret;
+
+ while (*++v) {
+ if ((vp = adrof1(*v, &aliases)) != NULL) {
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s: \t aliased to ", vis_str(*v));
+ blkpr(cshout, vp->vec);
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+ }
+ else {
+ lex[1].word = *v;
+ tellmewhat(lex);
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+static void
+tellmewhat(lex)
+ struct wordent *lex;
+{
+ register int i;
+ register struct biltins *bptr;
+ register struct wordent *sp = lex->next;
+ bool aliased = 0;
+ Char *s0, *s1, *s2;
+ Char qc;
+
+ if (adrof1(sp->word, &aliases)) {
+ alias(lex);
+ sp = lex->next;
+ aliased = 1;
+ }
+
+ s0 = sp->word; /* to get the memory freeing right... */
+
+ /* handle quoted alias hack */
+ if ((*(sp->word) & (QUOTE | TRIM)) == QUOTE)
+ (sp->word)++;
+
+ /* do quoting, if it hasn't been done */
+ s1 = s2 = sp->word;
+ while (*s2)
+ switch (*s2) {
+ case '\'':
+ case '"':
+ qc = *s2++;
+ while (*s2 && *s2 != qc)
+ *s1++ = *s2++ | QUOTE;
+ if (*s2)
+ s2++;
+ break;
+ case '\\':
+ if (*++s2)
+ *s1++ = *s2++ | QUOTE;
+ break;
+ default:
+ *s1++ = *s2++;
+ }
+ *s1 = '\0';
+
+ for (bptr = bfunc; bptr < &bfunc[nbfunc]; bptr++) {
+ if (eq(sp->word, str2short(bptr->bname))) {
+ if (aliased)
+ prlex(cshout, lex);
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s: shell built-in command.\n",
+ vis_str(sp->word));
+ sp->word = s0; /* we save and then restore this */
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if ((i = iscommand(strip(sp->word))) != 0) {
+ register Char **pv;
+ register struct varent *v;
+ bool slash = any(short2str(sp->word), '/');
+
+ v = adrof(STRpath);
+ if (v == 0 || v->vec[0] == 0 || slash)
+ pv = justabs;
+ else
+ pv = v->vec;
+
+ while (--i)
+ pv++;
+ if (pv[0][0] == 0 || eq(pv[0], STRdot)) {
+ sp->word = Strspl(STRdotsl, sp->word);
+ prlex(cshout, lex);
+ xfree((ptr_t) sp->word);
+ sp->word = s0; /* we save and then restore this */
+ return;
+ }
+ s1 = Strspl(*pv, STRslash);
+ sp->word = Strspl(s1, sp->word);
+ xfree((ptr_t) s1);
+ prlex(cshout, lex);
+ xfree((ptr_t) sp->word);
+ }
+ else {
+ if (aliased)
+ prlex(cshout, lex);
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s: Command not found.\n", vis_str(sp->word));
+ }
+ sp->word = s0; /* we save and then restore this */
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/exp.c b/bin/csh/exp.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..59b6964b9793
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/exp.c
@@ -0,0 +1,711 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)exp.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#ifndef SHORT_STRINGS
+#include <string.h>
+#endif /* SHORT_STRINGS */
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+#define IGNORE 1 /* in ignore, it means to ignore value, just parse */
+#define NOGLOB 2 /* in ignore, it means not to globone */
+
+#define ADDOP 1
+#define MULOP 2
+#define EQOP 4
+#define RELOP 8
+#define RESTOP 16
+#define ANYOP 31
+
+#define EQEQ 1
+#define GTR 2
+#define LSS 4
+#define NOTEQ 6
+#define EQMATCH 7
+#define NOTEQMATCH 8
+
+static int exp1 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static int exp2 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static int exp2a __P((Char ***, bool));
+static int exp2b __P((Char ***, bool));
+static int exp2c __P((Char ***, bool));
+static Char * exp3 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static Char * exp3a __P((Char ***, bool));
+static Char * exp4 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static Char * exp5 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static Char * exp6 __P((Char ***, bool));
+static void evalav __P((Char **));
+static int isa __P((Char *, int));
+static int egetn __P((Char *));
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+static void etracc __P((char *, Char *, Char ***));
+static void etraci __P((char *, int, Char ***));
+#endif
+
+int
+expr(vp)
+ register Char ***vp;
+{
+ return (exp0(vp, 0));
+}
+
+int
+exp0(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register int p1 = exp1(vp, ignore);
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp0 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRor2)) {
+ register int p2;
+
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp0(vp, (ignore & IGNORE) || p1);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp0 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ return (p1 || p2);
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static int
+exp1(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register int p1 = exp2(vp, ignore);
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp1 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRand2)) {
+ register int p2;
+
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp1(vp, (ignore & IGNORE) || !p1);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp1 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ return (p1 && p2);
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static int
+exp2(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register int p1 = exp2a(vp, ignore);
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp3 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRor)) {
+ register int p2;
+
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp2(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp3 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ return (p1 | p2);
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static int
+exp2a(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register int p1 = exp2b(vp, ignore);
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp2a p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRcaret)) {
+ register int p2;
+
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp2a(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp2a p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ return (p1 ^ p2);
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static int
+exp2b(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register int p1 = exp2c(vp, ignore);
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp2b p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRand)) {
+ register int p2;
+
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp2b(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp2b p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ return (p1 & p2);
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static int
+exp2c(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register Char *p1 = exp3(vp, ignore);
+ register Char *p2;
+ register int i;
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp2c p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if ((i = isa(**vp, EQOP)) != 0) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ if (i == EQMATCH || i == NOTEQMATCH)
+ ignore |= NOGLOB;
+ p2 = exp3(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp2c p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ if (!(ignore & IGNORE))
+ switch (i) {
+
+ case EQEQ:
+ i = eq(p1, p2);
+ break;
+
+ case NOTEQ:
+ i = !eq(p1, p2);
+ break;
+
+ case EQMATCH:
+ i = Gmatch(p1, p2);
+ break;
+
+ case NOTEQMATCH:
+ i = !Gmatch(p1, p2);
+ break;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p2);
+ return (i);
+ }
+ i = egetn(p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ return (i);
+}
+
+static Char *
+exp3(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register Char *p1, *p2;
+ register int i;
+
+ p1 = exp3a(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp3 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if ((i = isa(**vp, RELOP)) != 0) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ if (**vp && eq(**vp, STRequal))
+ i |= 1, (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp3(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp3 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ if (!(ignore & IGNORE))
+ switch (i) {
+
+ case GTR:
+ i = egetn(p1) > egetn(p2);
+ break;
+
+ case GTR | 1:
+ i = egetn(p1) >= egetn(p2);
+ break;
+
+ case LSS:
+ i = egetn(p1) < egetn(p2);
+ break;
+
+ case LSS | 1:
+ i = egetn(p1) <= egetn(p2);
+ break;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p2);
+ return (putn(i));
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static Char *
+exp3a(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register Char *p1, *p2, *op;
+ register int i;
+
+ p1 = exp4(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp3a p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ op = **vp;
+ if (op && any("<>", op[0]) && op[0] == op[1]) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ p2 = exp3a(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp3a p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ if (op[0] == '<')
+ i = egetn(p1) << egetn(p2);
+ else
+ i = egetn(p1) >> egetn(p2);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p2);
+ return (putn(i));
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static Char *
+exp4(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register Char *p1, *p2;
+ register int i = 0;
+
+ p1 = exp5(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp4 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (isa(**vp, ADDOP)) {
+ register Char *op = *(*vp)++;
+
+ p2 = exp4(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp4 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ if (!(ignore & IGNORE))
+ switch (op[0]) {
+
+ case '+':
+ i = egetn(p1) + egetn(p2);
+ break;
+
+ case '-':
+ i = egetn(p1) - egetn(p2);
+ break;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p2);
+ return (putn(i));
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static Char *
+exp5(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ register Char *p1, *p2;
+ register int i = 0;
+
+ p1 = exp6(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp5 p1", p1, vp);
+#endif
+ if (isa(**vp, MULOP)) {
+ register Char *op = *(*vp)++;
+
+ p2 = exp5(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp5 p2", p2, vp);
+#endif
+ if (!(ignore & IGNORE))
+ switch (op[0]) {
+
+ case '*':
+ i = egetn(p1) * egetn(p2);
+ break;
+
+ case '/':
+ i = egetn(p2);
+ if (i == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_DIV0);
+ i = egetn(p1) / i;
+ break;
+
+ case '%':
+ i = egetn(p2);
+ if (i == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_MOD0);
+ i = egetn(p1) % i;
+ break;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) p1);
+ xfree((ptr_t) p2);
+ return (putn(i));
+ }
+ return (p1);
+}
+
+static Char *
+exp6(vp, ignore)
+ register Char ***vp;
+ bool ignore;
+{
+ int ccode, i = 0;
+ register Char *cp, *dp, *ep;
+
+ if (**vp == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EXPRESSION);
+ if (eq(**vp, STRbang)) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ cp = exp6(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp6 ! cp", cp, vp);
+#endif
+ i = egetn(cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ return (putn(!i));
+ }
+ if (eq(**vp, STRtilde)) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ cp = exp6(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp6 ~ cp", cp, vp);
+#endif
+ i = egetn(cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ return (putn(~i));
+ }
+ if (eq(**vp, STRLparen)) {
+ (*vp)++;
+ ccode = exp0(vp, ignore);
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp6 () ccode", ccode, vp);
+#endif
+ if (*vp == 0 || **vp == 0 || ***vp != ')')
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EXPRESSION);
+ (*vp)++;
+ return (putn(ccode));
+ }
+ if (eq(**vp, STRLbrace)) {
+ register Char **v;
+ struct command faket;
+ Char *fakecom[2];
+
+ faket.t_dtyp = NODE_COMMAND;
+ faket.t_dflg = 0;
+ faket.t_dcar = faket.t_dcdr = faket.t_dspr = NULL;
+ faket.t_dcom = fakecom;
+ fakecom[0] = STRfakecom;
+ fakecom[1] = NULL;
+ (*vp)++;
+ v = *vp;
+ for (;;) {
+ if (!**vp)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_MISSING, '}');
+ if (eq(*(*vp)++, STRRbrace))
+ break;
+ }
+ if (ignore & IGNORE)
+ return (Strsave(STRNULL));
+ psavejob();
+ if (pfork(&faket, -1) == 0) {
+ *--(*vp) = 0;
+ evalav(v);
+ exitstat();
+ }
+ pwait();
+ prestjob();
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp6 {} status", egetn(value(STRstatus)), vp);
+#endif
+ return (putn(egetn(value(STRstatus)) == 0));
+ }
+ if (isa(**vp, ANYOP))
+ return (Strsave(STRNULL));
+ cp = *(*vp)++;
+ if (*cp == '-' && any("erwxfdzopls", cp[1])) {
+ struct stat stb;
+
+ if (cp[2] != '\0')
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_FILEINQ);
+ /*
+ * Detect missing file names by checking for operator in the file name
+ * position. However, if an operator name appears there, we must make
+ * sure that there's no file by that name (e.g., "/") before announcing
+ * an error. Even this check isn't quite right, since it doesn't take
+ * globbing into account.
+ */
+ if (isa(**vp, ANYOP) && stat(short2str(**vp), &stb))
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_FILENAME);
+
+ dp = *(*vp)++;
+ if (ignore & IGNORE)
+ return (Strsave(STRNULL));
+ ep = globone(dp, G_ERROR);
+ switch (cp[1]) {
+
+ case 'r':
+ i = !access(short2str(ep), R_OK);
+ break;
+
+ case 'w':
+ i = !access(short2str(ep), W_OK);
+ break;
+
+ case 'x':
+ i = !access(short2str(ep), X_OK);
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ if (
+#ifdef S_IFLNK
+ cp[1] == 'l' ? lstat(short2str(ep), &stb) :
+#endif
+ stat(short2str(ep), &stb)) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) ep);
+ return (Strsave(STR0));
+ }
+ switch (cp[1]) {
+
+ case 'f':
+ i = S_ISREG(stb.st_mode);
+ break;
+
+ case 'd':
+ i = S_ISDIR(stb.st_mode);
+ break;
+
+ case 'p':
+#ifdef S_ISFIFO
+ i = S_ISFIFO(stb.st_mode);
+#else
+ i = 0;
+#endif
+ break;
+
+ case 'l':
+#ifdef S_ISLNK
+ i = S_ISLNK(stb.st_mode);
+#else
+ i = 0;
+#endif
+ break;
+
+ case 's':
+#ifdef S_ISSOCK
+ i = S_ISSOCK(stb.st_mode);
+#else
+ i = 0;
+#endif
+ break;
+
+ case 'z':
+ i = stb.st_size == 0;
+ break;
+
+ case 'e':
+ i = 1;
+ break;
+
+ case 'o':
+ i = stb.st_uid == uid;
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etraci("exp6 -? i", i, vp);
+#endif
+ xfree((ptr_t) ep);
+ return (putn(i));
+ }
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+ etracc("exp6 default", cp, vp);
+#endif
+ return (ignore & NOGLOB ? Strsave(cp) : globone(cp, G_ERROR));
+}
+
+static void
+evalav(v)
+ register Char **v;
+{
+ struct wordent paraml1;
+ register struct wordent *hp = &paraml1;
+ struct command *t;
+ register struct wordent *wdp = hp;
+
+ set(STRstatus, Strsave(STR0));
+ hp->prev = hp->next = hp;
+ hp->word = STRNULL;
+ while (*v) {
+ register struct wordent *new =
+ (struct wordent *) xcalloc(1, sizeof *wdp);
+
+ new->prev = wdp;
+ new->next = hp;
+ wdp->next = new;
+ wdp = new;
+ wdp->word = Strsave(*v++);
+ }
+ hp->prev = wdp;
+ alias(&paraml1);
+ t = syntax(paraml1.next, &paraml1, 0);
+ if (seterr)
+ stderror(ERR_OLD);
+ execute(t, -1, NULL, NULL);
+ freelex(&paraml1), freesyn(t);
+}
+
+static int
+isa(cp, what)
+ register Char *cp;
+ register int what;
+{
+ if (cp == 0)
+ return ((what & RESTOP) != 0);
+ if (cp[1] == 0) {
+ if (what & ADDOP && (*cp == '+' || *cp == '-'))
+ return (1);
+ if (what & MULOP && (*cp == '*' || *cp == '/' || *cp == '%'))
+ return (1);
+ if (what & RESTOP && (*cp == '(' || *cp == ')' || *cp == '!' ||
+ *cp == '~' || *cp == '^' || *cp == '"'))
+ return (1);
+ }
+ else if (cp[2] == 0) {
+ if (what & RESTOP) {
+ if (cp[0] == '|' && cp[1] == '&')
+ return (1);
+ if (cp[0] == '<' && cp[1] == '<')
+ return (1);
+ if (cp[0] == '>' && cp[1] == '>')
+ return (1);
+ }
+ if (what & EQOP) {
+ if (cp[0] == '=') {
+ if (cp[1] == '=')
+ return (EQEQ);
+ if (cp[1] == '~')
+ return (EQMATCH);
+ }
+ else if (cp[0] == '!') {
+ if (cp[1] == '=')
+ return (NOTEQ);
+ if (cp[1] == '~')
+ return (NOTEQMATCH);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ if (what & RELOP) {
+ if (*cp == '<')
+ return (LSS);
+ if (*cp == '>')
+ return (GTR);
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+static int
+egetn(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ if (*cp && *cp != '-' && !Isdigit(*cp))
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EXPRESSION);
+ return (getn(cp));
+}
+
+/* Phew! */
+
+#ifdef EDEBUG
+static void
+etraci(str, i, vp)
+ char *str;
+ int i;
+ Char ***vp;
+{
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s=%d\t", str, i);
+ blkpr(csherr, *vp);
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "\n");
+}
+static void
+etracc(str, cp, vp)
+ char *str;
+ Char *cp;
+ Char ***vp;
+{
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s=%s\t", str, vis_str(cp));
+ blkpr(csherr, *vp);
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "\n");
+}
+#endif
diff --git a/bin/csh/extern.h b/bin/csh/extern.h
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..db37b8adaa5e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/extern.h
@@ -0,0 +1,338 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ *
+ * @(#)extern.h 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93
+ */
+
+#include <sys/cdefs.h>
+
+/*
+ * csh.c
+ */
+int gethdir __P((Char *));
+void dosource __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void exitstat __P((void));
+void goodbye __P((void));
+void importpath __P((Char *));
+void initdesc __P((void));
+void pintr __P((int));
+void pintr1 __P((bool));
+void printprompt __P((void));
+void process __P((bool));
+void rechist __P((void));
+void untty __P((void));
+int vis_fputc __P((int, FILE *));
+
+#ifdef PROF
+void done __P((int));
+#else
+void xexit __P((int));
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * dir.c
+ */
+void dinit __P((Char *));
+void dodirs __P((Char **, struct command *));
+Char *dcanon __P((Char *, Char *));
+void dtildepr __P((Char *, Char *));
+void dtilde __P((void));
+void dochngd __P((Char **, struct command *));
+Char *dnormalize __P((Char *));
+void dopushd __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dopopd __P((Char **, struct command *));
+struct directory;
+void dfree __P((struct directory *));
+
+/*
+ * dol.c
+ */
+void Dfix __P((struct command *));
+Char *Dfix1 __P((Char *));
+void heredoc __P((Char *));
+
+/*
+ * err.c
+ */
+void seterror __P((int, ...));
+void stderror __P((int, ...));
+
+/*
+ * exec.c
+ */
+void doexec __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dohash __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dounhash __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dowhich __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void execash __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void hashstat __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void xechoit __P((Char **));
+
+/*
+ * exp.c
+ */
+int expr __P((Char ***));
+int exp0 __P((Char ***, bool));
+
+/*
+ * file.c
+ */
+#ifdef FILEC
+int tenex __P((Char *, int));
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * func.c
+ */
+void Setenv __P((Char *, Char *));
+void doalias __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dobreak __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void docontin __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doecho __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doelse __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doend __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doeval __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doexit __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doforeach __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doglob __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dogoto __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doif __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dolimit __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dologin __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dologout __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void donohup __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doonintr __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doprintf __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dorepeat __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dosetenv __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dosuspend __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doswbrk __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doswitch __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void doumask __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dounlimit __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dounsetenv __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dowhile __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dozip __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void func __P((struct command *, struct biltins *));
+struct biltins *
+ isbfunc __P((struct command *));
+void prvars __P((void));
+void gotolab __P((Char *));
+int srchx __P((Char *));
+void unalias __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void wfree __P((void));
+
+/*
+ * glob.c
+ */
+Char **dobackp __P((Char *, bool));
+void Gcat __P((Char *, Char *));
+Char *globone __P((Char *, int));
+int Gmatch __P((Char *, Char *));
+void ginit __P((void));
+Char **globall __P((Char **));
+void rscan __P((Char **, void (*)()));
+void tglob __P((Char **));
+void trim __P((Char **));
+#ifdef FILEC
+int sortscmp __P((const ptr_t, const ptr_t));
+#endif /* FILEC */
+
+/*
+ * hist.c
+ */
+void dohist __P((Char **, struct command *));
+struct Hist *
+ enthist __P((int, struct wordent *, bool));
+void savehist __P((struct wordent *));
+
+/*
+ * lex.c
+ */
+void addla __P((Char *));
+void bseek __P((struct Ain *));
+void btell __P((struct Ain *));
+void btoeof __P((void));
+void copylex __P((struct wordent *, struct wordent *));
+Char *domod __P((Char *, int));
+void freelex __P((struct wordent *));
+int lex __P((struct wordent *));
+void prlex __P((FILE *, struct wordent *));
+int readc __P((bool));
+void settell __P((void));
+void unreadc __P((int));
+
+/*
+ * misc.c
+ */
+int any __P((char *, int));
+Char **blkcat __P((Char **, Char **));
+Char **blkcpy __P((Char **, Char **));
+Char **blkend __P((Char **));
+void blkfree __P((Char **));
+int blklen __P((Char **));
+void blkpr __P((FILE *, Char **));
+Char **blkspl __P((Char **, Char **));
+void closem __P((void));
+Char **copyblk __P((Char **));
+int dcopy __P((int, int));
+int dmove __P((int, int));
+void donefds __P((void));
+Char lastchr __P((Char *));
+void lshift __P((Char **, int));
+int number __P((Char *));
+int prefix __P((Char *, Char *));
+Char **saveblk __P((Char **));
+void setzero __P((char *, int));
+Char *strip __P((Char *));
+char *strsave __P((char *));
+char *strspl __P((char *, char *));
+void udvar __P((Char *));
+
+#ifndef SHORT_STRINGS
+# ifdef NOTUSED
+char *strstr __P((const char *, const char *));
+# endif /* NOTUSED */
+char *strend __P((char *));
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * parse.c
+ */
+void alias __P((struct wordent *));
+void freesyn __P((struct command *));
+struct command *
+ syntax __P((struct wordent *, struct wordent *, int));
+
+
+/*
+ * proc.c
+ */
+void dobg __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dobg1 __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dofg __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dofg1 __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dojobs __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dokill __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void donotify __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dostop __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dowait __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void palloc __P((int, struct command *));
+void panystop __P((bool));
+void pchild __P((int));
+void pendjob __P((void));
+struct process *
+ pfind __P((Char *));
+int pfork __P((struct command *, int));
+void pgetty __P((int, int));
+void pjwait __P((struct process *));
+void pnote __P((void));
+void prestjob __P((void));
+void psavejob __P((void));
+void pstart __P((struct process *, int));
+void pwait __P((void));
+
+/*
+ * sem.c
+ */
+void execute __P((struct command *, int, int *, int *));
+void mypipe __P((int *));
+
+/*
+ * set.c
+ */
+struct varent
+ *adrof1 __P((Char *, struct varent *));
+void doset __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dolet __P((Char **, struct command *));
+Char *putn __P((int));
+int getn __P((Char *));
+Char *value1 __P((Char *, struct varent *));
+void set __P((Char *, Char *));
+void set1 __P((Char *, Char **, struct varent *));
+void setq __P((Char *, Char **, struct varent *));
+void unset __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void unset1 __P((Char *[], struct varent *));
+void unsetv __P((Char *));
+void setNS __P((Char *));
+void shift __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void plist __P((struct varent *));
+
+/*
+ * time.c
+ */
+void donice __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void dotime __P((Char **, struct command *));
+void prusage __P((struct rusage *, struct rusage *,
+ struct timeval *, struct timeval *));
+void ruadd __P((struct rusage *, struct rusage *));
+void settimes __P((void));
+void tvadd __P((struct timeval *, struct timeval *));
+void tvsub __P((struct timeval *, struct timeval *, struct timeval *));
+void pcsecs __P((long));
+void psecs __P((long));
+
+/*
+ * alloc.c
+ */
+void Free __P((ptr_t));
+ptr_t Malloc __P((size_t));
+ptr_t Realloc __P((ptr_t, size_t));
+ptr_t Calloc __P((size_t, size_t));
+void showall __P((Char **, struct command *));
+
+/*
+ * str.c:
+ */
+#ifdef SHORT_STRINGS
+Char *s_strchr __P((Char *, int));
+Char *s_strrchr __P((Char *, int));
+Char *s_strcat __P((Char *, Char *));
+#ifdef NOTUSED
+Char *s_strncat __P((Char *, Char *, size_t));
+#endif
+Char *s_strcpy __P((Char *, Char *));
+Char *s_strncpy __P((Char *, Char *, size_t));
+Char *s_strspl __P((Char *, Char *));
+size_t s_strlen __P((Char *));
+int s_strcmp __P((Char *, Char *));
+int s_strncmp __P((Char *, Char *, size_t));
+Char *s_strsave __P((Char *));
+Char *s_strend __P((Char *));
+Char *s_strstr __P((Char *, Char *));
+Char *str2short __P((char *));
+Char **blk2short __P((char **));
+char *short2str __P((Char *));
+char **short2blk __P((Char **));
+#endif
+char *short2qstr __P((Char *));
+char *vis_str __P((Char *));
diff --git a/bin/csh/file.c b/bin/csh/file.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..523844d2b3a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/file.c
@@ -0,0 +1,684 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)file.c 8.2 (Berkeley) 3/19/94";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#ifdef FILEC
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <termios.h>
+#include <dirent.h>
+#include <pwd.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#ifndef SHORT_STRINGS
+#include <string.h>
+#endif /* SHORT_STRINGS */
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+/*
+ * Tenex style file name recognition, .. and more.
+ * History:
+ * Author: Ken Greer, Sept. 1975, CMU.
+ * Finally got around to adding to the Cshell., Ken Greer, Dec. 1981.
+ */
+
+#define ON 1
+#define OFF 0
+#ifndef TRUE
+#define TRUE 1
+#endif
+#ifndef FALSE
+#define FALSE 0
+#endif
+
+#define ESC '\033'
+
+typedef enum {
+ LIST, RECOGNIZE
+} COMMAND;
+
+static void setup_tty __P((int));
+static void back_to_col_1 __P((void));
+static void pushback __P((Char *));
+static void catn __P((Char *, Char *, int));
+static void copyn __P((Char *, Char *, int));
+static Char filetype __P((Char *, Char *));
+static void print_by_column __P((Char *, Char *[], int));
+static Char *tilde __P((Char *, Char *));
+static void retype __P((void));
+static void beep __P((void));
+static void print_recognized_stuff __P((Char *));
+static void extract_dir_and_name __P((Char *, Char *, Char *));
+static Char *getentry __P((DIR *, int));
+static void free_items __P((Char **));
+static int tsearch __P((Char *, COMMAND, int));
+static int recognize __P((Char *, Char *, int, int));
+static int is_prefix __P((Char *, Char *));
+static int is_suffix __P((Char *, Char *));
+static int ignored __P((Char *));
+
+/*
+ * Put this here so the binary can be patched with adb to enable file
+ * completion by default. Filec controls completion, nobeep controls
+ * ringing the terminal bell on incomplete expansions.
+ */
+bool filec = 0;
+
+static void
+setup_tty(on)
+ int on;
+{
+ static struct termios tchars;
+
+ (void) tcgetattr(SHIN, &tchars);
+
+ if (on) {
+ tchars.c_cc[VEOL] = ESC;
+ if (tchars.c_lflag & ICANON)
+ on = TCSANOW;
+ else {
+ on = TCSAFLUSH;
+ tchars.c_lflag |= ICANON;
+ }
+ }
+ else {
+ tchars.c_cc[VEOL] = _POSIX_VDISABLE;
+ on = TCSANOW;
+ }
+
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHIN, TCSANOW, &tchars);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Move back to beginning of current line
+ */
+static void
+back_to_col_1()
+{
+ struct termios tty, tty_normal;
+ int omask;
+
+ omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ (void) tcgetattr(SHOUT, &tty);
+ tty_normal = tty;
+ tty.c_iflag &= ~INLCR;
+ tty.c_oflag &= ~ONLCR;
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHOUT, TCSANOW, &tty);
+ (void) write(SHOUT, "\r", 1);
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHOUT, TCSANOW, &tty_normal);
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Push string contents back into tty queue
+ */
+static void
+pushback(string)
+ Char *string;
+{
+ register Char *p;
+ struct termios tty, tty_normal;
+ int omask;
+ char c;
+
+ omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ (void) tcgetattr(SHOUT, &tty);
+ tty_normal = tty;
+ tty.c_lflag &= ~(ECHOKE | ECHO | ECHOE | ECHOK | ECHONL | ECHOPRT | ECHOCTL);
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHOUT, TCSANOW, &tty);
+
+ for (p = string; (c = *p) != '\0'; p++)
+ (void) ioctl(SHOUT, TIOCSTI, (ioctl_t) & c);
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHOUT, TCSANOW, &tty_normal);
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Concatenate src onto tail of des.
+ * Des is a string whose maximum length is count.
+ * Always null terminate.
+ */
+static void
+catn(des, src, count)
+ register Char *des, *src;
+ register int count;
+{
+ while (--count >= 0 && *des)
+ des++;
+ while (--count >= 0)
+ if ((*des++ = *src++) == 0)
+ return;
+ *des = '\0';
+}
+
+/*
+ * Like strncpy but always leave room for trailing \0
+ * and always null terminate.
+ */
+static void
+copyn(des, src, count)
+ register Char *des, *src;
+ register int count;
+{
+ while (--count >= 0)
+ if ((*des++ = *src++) == 0)
+ return;
+ *des = '\0';
+}
+
+static Char
+filetype(dir, file)
+ Char *dir, *file;
+{
+ Char path[MAXPATHLEN];
+ struct stat statb;
+
+ catn(Strcpy(path, dir), file, sizeof(path) / sizeof(Char));
+ if (lstat(short2str(path), &statb) == 0) {
+ switch (statb.st_mode & S_IFMT) {
+ case S_IFDIR:
+ return ('/');
+
+ case S_IFLNK:
+ if (stat(short2str(path), &statb) == 0 && /* follow it out */
+ S_ISDIR(statb.st_mode))
+ return ('>');
+ else
+ return ('@');
+
+ case S_IFSOCK:
+ return ('=');
+
+ default:
+ if (statb.st_mode & 0111)
+ return ('*');
+ }
+ }
+ return (' ');
+}
+
+static struct winsize win;
+
+/*
+ * Print sorted down columns
+ */
+static void
+print_by_column(dir, items, count)
+ Char *dir, *items[];
+ int count;
+{
+ register int i, rows, r, c, maxwidth = 0, columns;
+
+ if (ioctl(SHOUT, TIOCGWINSZ, (ioctl_t) & win) < 0 || win.ws_col == 0)
+ win.ws_col = 80;
+ for (i = 0; i < count; i++)
+ maxwidth = maxwidth > (r = Strlen(items[i])) ? maxwidth : r;
+ maxwidth += 2; /* for the file tag and space */
+ columns = win.ws_col / maxwidth;
+ if (columns == 0)
+ columns = 1;
+ rows = (count + (columns - 1)) / columns;
+ for (r = 0; r < rows; r++) {
+ for (c = 0; c < columns; c++) {
+ i = c * rows + r;
+ if (i < count) {
+ register int w;
+
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s", vis_str(items[i]));
+ (void) fputc(dir ? filetype(dir, items[i]) : ' ', cshout);
+ if (c < columns - 1) { /* last column? */
+ w = Strlen(items[i]) + 1;
+ for (; w < maxwidth; w++)
+ (void) fputc(' ', cshout);
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ (void) fputc('\r', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Expand file name with possible tilde usage
+ * ~person/mumble
+ * expands to
+ * home_directory_of_person/mumble
+ */
+static Char *
+tilde(new, old)
+ Char *new, *old;
+{
+ register Char *o, *p;
+ register struct passwd *pw;
+ static Char person[40];
+
+ if (old[0] != '~')
+ return (Strcpy(new, old));
+
+ for (p = person, o = &old[1]; *o && *o != '/'; *p++ = *o++)
+ continue;
+ *p = '\0';
+ if (person[0] == '\0')
+ (void) Strcpy(new, value(STRhome));
+ else {
+ pw = getpwnam(short2str(person));
+ if (pw == NULL)
+ return (NULL);
+ (void) Strcpy(new, str2short(pw->pw_dir));
+ }
+ (void) Strcat(new, o);
+ return (new);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Cause pending line to be printed
+ */
+static void
+retype()
+{
+ struct termios tty;
+
+ (void) tcgetattr(SHOUT, &tty);
+ tty.c_lflag |= PENDIN;
+ (void) tcsetattr(SHOUT, TCSANOW, &tty);
+}
+
+static void
+beep()
+{
+ if (adrof(STRnobeep) == 0)
+ (void) write(SHOUT, "\007", 1);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Erase that silly ^[ and
+ * print the recognized part of the string
+ */
+static void
+print_recognized_stuff(recognized_part)
+ Char *recognized_part;
+{
+ /* An optimized erasing of that silly ^[ */
+ (void) fputc('\b', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\b', cshout);
+ switch (Strlen(recognized_part)) {
+
+ case 0: /* erase two Characters: ^[ */
+ (void) fputc(' ', cshout);
+ (void) fputc(' ', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\b', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\b', cshout);
+ break;
+
+ case 1: /* overstrike the ^, erase the [ */
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s", vis_str(recognized_part));
+ (void) fputc(' ', cshout);
+ (void) fputc('\b', cshout);
+ break;
+
+ default: /* overstrike both Characters ^[ */
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s", vis_str(recognized_part));
+ break;
+ }
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Parse full path in file into 2 parts: directory and file names
+ * Should leave final slash (/) at end of dir.
+ */
+static void
+extract_dir_and_name(path, dir, name)
+ Char *path, *dir, *name;
+{
+ register Char *p;
+
+ p = Strrchr(path, '/');
+ if (p == NULL) {
+ copyn(name, path, MAXNAMLEN);
+ dir[0] = '\0';
+ }
+ else {
+ copyn(name, ++p, MAXNAMLEN);
+ copyn(dir, path, p - path);
+ }
+}
+
+static Char *
+getentry(dir_fd, looking_for_lognames)
+ DIR *dir_fd;
+ int looking_for_lognames;
+{
+ register struct passwd *pw;
+ register struct dirent *dirp;
+
+ if (looking_for_lognames) {
+ if ((pw = getpwent()) == NULL)
+ return (NULL);
+ return (str2short(pw->pw_name));
+ }
+ if ((dirp = readdir(dir_fd)) != NULL)
+ return (str2short(dirp->d_name));
+ return (NULL);
+}
+
+static void
+free_items(items)
+ register Char **items;
+{
+ register int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; items[i]; i++)
+ xfree((ptr_t) items[i]);
+ xfree((ptr_t) items);
+}
+
+#define FREE_ITEMS(items) { \
+ int omask;\
+\
+ omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));\
+ free_items(items);\
+ items = NULL;\
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);\
+}
+
+/*
+ * Perform a RECOGNIZE or LIST command on string "word".
+ */
+static int
+tsearch(word, command, max_word_length)
+ Char *word;
+ COMMAND command;
+ int max_word_length;
+{
+ static Char **items = NULL;
+ register DIR *dir_fd;
+ register numitems = 0, ignoring = TRUE, nignored = 0;
+ register name_length, looking_for_lognames;
+ Char tilded_dir[MAXPATHLEN + 1], dir[MAXPATHLEN + 1];
+ Char name[MAXNAMLEN + 1], extended_name[MAXNAMLEN + 1];
+ Char *entry;
+
+#define MAXITEMS 1024
+
+ if (items != NULL)
+ FREE_ITEMS(items);
+
+ looking_for_lognames = (*word == '~') && (Strchr(word, '/') == NULL);
+ if (looking_for_lognames) {
+ (void) setpwent();
+ copyn(name, &word[1], MAXNAMLEN); /* name sans ~ */
+ dir_fd = NULL;
+ }
+ else {
+ extract_dir_and_name(word, dir, name);
+ if (tilde(tilded_dir, dir) == 0)
+ return (0);
+ dir_fd = opendir(*tilded_dir ? short2str(tilded_dir) : ".");
+ if (dir_fd == NULL)
+ return (0);
+ }
+
+again: /* search for matches */
+ name_length = Strlen(name);
+ for (numitems = 0; (entry = getentry(dir_fd, looking_for_lognames)) != NULL;) {
+ if (!is_prefix(name, entry))
+ continue;
+ /* Don't match . files on null prefix match */
+ if (name_length == 0 && entry[0] == '.' &&
+ !looking_for_lognames)
+ continue;
+ if (command == LIST) {
+ if (numitems >= MAXITEMS) {
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "\nYikes!! Too many %s!!\n",
+ looking_for_lognames ?
+ "names in password file" : "files");
+ break;
+ }
+ if (items == NULL)
+ items = (Char **) xcalloc(sizeof(items[0]), MAXITEMS);
+ items[numitems] = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t) (Strlen(entry) + 1) *
+ sizeof(Char));
+ copyn(items[numitems], entry, MAXNAMLEN);
+ numitems++;
+ }
+ else { /* RECOGNIZE command */
+ if (ignoring && ignored(entry))
+ nignored++;
+ else if (recognize(extended_name,
+ entry, name_length, ++numitems))
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+ if (ignoring && numitems == 0 && nignored > 0) {
+ ignoring = FALSE;
+ nignored = 0;
+ if (looking_for_lognames)
+ (void) setpwent();
+ else
+ rewinddir(dir_fd);
+ goto again;
+ }
+
+ if (looking_for_lognames)
+ (void) endpwent();
+ else
+ (void) closedir(dir_fd);
+ if (numitems == 0)
+ return (0);
+ if (command == RECOGNIZE) {
+ if (looking_for_lognames)
+ copyn(word, STRtilde, 1);
+ else
+ /* put back dir part */
+ copyn(word, dir, max_word_length);
+ /* add extended name */
+ catn(word, extended_name, max_word_length);
+ return (numitems);
+ }
+ else { /* LIST */
+ qsort((ptr_t) items, numitems, sizeof(items[0]),
+ (int (*) __P((const void *, const void *))) sortscmp);
+ print_by_column(looking_for_lognames ? NULL : tilded_dir,
+ items, numitems);
+ if (items != NULL)
+ FREE_ITEMS(items);
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Object: extend what user typed up to an ambiguity.
+ * Algorithm:
+ * On first match, copy full entry (assume it'll be the only match)
+ * On subsequent matches, shorten extended_name to the first
+ * Character mismatch between extended_name and entry.
+ * If we shorten it back to the prefix length, stop searching.
+ */
+static int
+recognize(extended_name, entry, name_length, numitems)
+ Char *extended_name, *entry;
+ int name_length, numitems;
+{
+ if (numitems == 1) /* 1st match */
+ copyn(extended_name, entry, MAXNAMLEN);
+ else { /* 2nd & subsequent matches */
+ register Char *x, *ent;
+ register int len = 0;
+
+ x = extended_name;
+ for (ent = entry; *x && *x == *ent++; x++, len++)
+ continue;
+ *x = '\0'; /* Shorten at 1st Char diff */
+ if (len == name_length) /* Ambiguous to prefix? */
+ return (-1); /* So stop now and save time */
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return true if check matches initial Chars in template.
+ * This differs from PWB imatch in that if check is null
+ * it matches anything.
+ */
+static int
+is_prefix(check, template)
+ register Char *check, *template;
+{
+ do
+ if (*check == 0)
+ return (TRUE);
+ while (*check++ == *template++);
+ return (FALSE);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Return true if the Chars in template appear at the
+ * end of check, I.e., are it's suffix.
+ */
+static int
+is_suffix(check, template)
+ Char *check, *template;
+{
+ register Char *c, *t;
+
+ for (c = check; *c++;)
+ continue;
+ for (t = template; *t++;)
+ continue;
+ for (;;) {
+ if (t == template)
+ return 1;
+ if (c == check || *--t != *--c)
+ return 0;
+ }
+}
+
+int
+tenex(inputline, inputline_size)
+ Char *inputline;
+ int inputline_size;
+{
+ register int numitems, num_read;
+ char tinputline[BUFSIZ];
+
+
+ setup_tty(ON);
+
+ while ((num_read = read(SHIN, tinputline, BUFSIZ)) > 0) {
+ int i;
+ static Char delims[] = {' ', '\'', '"', '\t', ';', '&', '<',
+ '>', '(', ')', '|', '^', '%', '\0'};
+ register Char *str_end, *word_start, last_Char, should_retype;
+ register int space_left;
+ COMMAND command;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < num_read; i++)
+ inputline[i] = (unsigned char) tinputline[i];
+ last_Char = inputline[num_read - 1] & ASCII;
+
+ if (last_Char == '\n' || num_read == inputline_size)
+ break;
+ command = (last_Char == ESC) ? RECOGNIZE : LIST;
+ if (command == LIST)
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+ str_end = &inputline[num_read];
+ if (last_Char == ESC)
+ --str_end; /* wipeout trailing cmd Char */
+ *str_end = '\0';
+ /*
+ * Find LAST occurence of a delimiter in the inputline. The word start
+ * is one Character past it.
+ */
+ for (word_start = str_end; word_start > inputline; --word_start)
+ if (Strchr(delims, word_start[-1]))
+ break;
+ space_left = inputline_size - (word_start - inputline) - 1;
+ numitems = tsearch(word_start, command, space_left);
+
+ if (command == RECOGNIZE) {
+ /* print from str_end on */
+ print_recognized_stuff(str_end);
+ if (numitems != 1) /* Beep = No match/ambiguous */
+ beep();
+ }
+
+ /*
+ * Tabs in the input line cause trouble after a pushback. tty driver
+ * won't backspace over them because column positions are now
+ * incorrect. This is solved by retyping over current line.
+ */
+ should_retype = FALSE;
+ if (Strchr(inputline, '\t')) { /* tab Char in input line? */
+ back_to_col_1();
+ should_retype = TRUE;
+ }
+ if (command == LIST) /* Always retype after a LIST */
+ should_retype = TRUE;
+ if (should_retype)
+ printprompt();
+ pushback(inputline);
+ if (should_retype)
+ retype();
+ }
+ setup_tty(OFF);
+ return (num_read);
+}
+
+static int
+ignored(entry)
+ register Char *entry;
+{
+ struct varent *vp;
+ register Char **cp;
+
+ if ((vp = adrof(STRfignore)) == NULL || (cp = vp->vec) == NULL)
+ return (FALSE);
+ for (; *cp != NULL; cp++)
+ if (is_suffix(entry, *cp))
+ return (TRUE);
+ return (FALSE);
+}
+#endif /* FILEC */
diff --git a/bin/csh/func.c b/bin/csh/func.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..82664c67565e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/func.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1498 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)func.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/types.h>
+#include <sys/stat.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <locale.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+#include "pathnames.h"
+
+extern char **environ;
+
+static int zlast = -1;
+static void islogin __P((void));
+static void reexecute __P((struct command *));
+static void preread __P((void));
+static void doagain __P((void));
+static void search __P((int, int, Char *));
+static int getword __P((Char *));
+static int keyword __P((Char *));
+static void toend __P((void));
+static void xecho __P((int, Char **));
+static void Unsetenv __P((Char *));
+
+struct biltins *
+isbfunc(t)
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp = t->t_dcom[0];
+ register struct biltins *bp, *bp1, *bp2;
+ static struct biltins label = {"", dozip, 0, 0};
+ static struct biltins foregnd = {"%job", dofg1, 0, 0};
+ static struct biltins backgnd = {"%job &", dobg1, 0, 0};
+
+ if (lastchr(cp) == ':') {
+ label.bname = short2str(cp);
+ return (&label);
+ }
+ if (*cp == '%') {
+ if (t->t_dflg & F_AMPERSAND) {
+ t->t_dflg &= ~F_AMPERSAND;
+ backgnd.bname = short2str(cp);
+ return (&backgnd);
+ }
+ foregnd.bname = short2str(cp);
+ return (&foregnd);
+ }
+ /*
+ * Binary search Bp1 is the beginning of the current search range. Bp2 is
+ * one past the end.
+ */
+ for (bp1 = bfunc, bp2 = bfunc + nbfunc; bp1 < bp2;) {
+ register i;
+
+ bp = bp1 + ((bp2 - bp1) >> 1);
+ if ((i = *cp - *bp->bname) == 0 &&
+ (i = Strcmp(cp, str2short(bp->bname))) == 0)
+ return bp;
+ if (i < 0)
+ bp2 = bp;
+ else
+ bp1 = bp + 1;
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+void
+func(t, bp)
+ register struct command *t;
+ register struct biltins *bp;
+{
+ int i;
+
+ xechoit(t->t_dcom);
+ setname(bp->bname);
+ i = blklen(t->t_dcom) - 1;
+ if (i < bp->minargs)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TOOFEW);
+ if (i > bp->maxargs)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TOOMANY);
+ (*bp->bfunct) (t->t_dcom, t);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doonintr(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp;
+ register Char *vv = v[1];
+
+ if (parintr == SIG_IGN)
+ return;
+ if (setintr && intty)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TERMINAL);
+ cp = gointr;
+ gointr = 0;
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ if (vv == 0) {
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ else
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, SIG_DFL);
+ gointr = 0;
+ }
+ else if (eq((vv = strip(vv)), STRminus)) {
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, SIG_IGN);
+ gointr = Strsave(STRminus);
+ }
+ else {
+ gointr = Strsave(vv);
+ (void) signal(SIGINT, pintr);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+donohup(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (intty)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_TERMINAL);
+ if (setintr == 0) {
+ (void) signal(SIGHUP, SIG_IGN);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dozip(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ ;
+}
+
+void
+prvars()
+{
+ plist(&shvhed);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doalias(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register struct varent *vp;
+ register Char *p;
+
+ v++;
+ p = *v++;
+ if (p == 0)
+ plist(&aliases);
+ else if (*v == 0) {
+ vp = adrof1(strip(p), &aliases);
+ if (vp) {
+ blkpr(cshout, vp->vec);
+ fputc('\n', cshout);
+ }
+ }
+ else {
+ if (eq(p, STRalias) || eq(p, STRunalias)) {
+ setname(vis_str(p));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_DANGER);
+ }
+ set1(strip(p), saveblk(v), &aliases);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+unalias(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ unset1(v, &aliases);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dologout(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ islogin();
+ goodbye();
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dologin(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ islogin();
+ rechist();
+ (void) signal(SIGTERM, parterm);
+ (void) execl(_PATH_LOGIN, "login", short2str(v[1]), NULL);
+ untty();
+ xexit(1);
+}
+
+static void
+islogin()
+{
+ if (chkstop == 0 && setintr)
+ panystop(0);
+ if (loginsh)
+ return;
+ stderror(ERR_NOTLOGIN);
+}
+
+void
+doif(v, kp)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *kp;
+{
+ register int i;
+ register Char **vv;
+
+ v++;
+ i = expr(&v);
+ vv = v;
+ if (*vv == NULL)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EMPTYIF);
+ if (eq(*vv, STRthen)) {
+ if (*++vv)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_IMPRTHEN);
+ setname(vis_str(STRthen));
+ /*
+ * If expression was zero, then scan to else, otherwise just fall into
+ * following code.
+ */
+ if (!i)
+ search(T_IF, 0, NULL);
+ return;
+ }
+ /*
+ * Simple command attached to this if. Left shift the node in this tree,
+ * munging it so we can reexecute it.
+ */
+ if (i) {
+ lshift(kp->t_dcom, vv - kp->t_dcom);
+ reexecute(kp);
+ donefds();
+ }
+}
+
+/*
+ * Reexecute a command, being careful not
+ * to redo i/o redirection, which is already set up.
+ */
+static void
+reexecute(kp)
+ register struct command *kp;
+{
+ kp->t_dflg &= F_SAVE;
+ kp->t_dflg |= F_REPEAT;
+ /*
+ * If tty is still ours to arbitrate, arbitrate it; otherwise dont even set
+ * pgrp's as the jobs would then have no way to get the tty (we can't give
+ * it to them, and our parent wouldn't know their pgrp, etc.
+ */
+ execute(kp, (tpgrp > 0 ? tpgrp : -1), NULL, NULL);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doelse(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ search(T_ELSE, 0, NULL);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dogoto(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ Char *lp;
+
+ gotolab(lp = globone(v[1], G_ERROR));
+ xfree((ptr_t) lp);
+}
+
+void
+gotolab(lab)
+ Char *lab;
+{
+ register struct whyle *wp;
+ /*
+ * While we still can, locate any unknown ends of existing loops. This
+ * obscure code is the WORST result of the fact that we don't really parse.
+ */
+ zlast = T_GOTO;
+ for (wp = whyles; wp; wp = wp->w_next)
+ if (wp->w_end.type == F_SEEK && wp->w_end.f_seek == 0) {
+ search(T_BREAK, 0, NULL);
+ btell(&wp->w_end);
+ }
+ else
+ bseek(&wp->w_end);
+ search(T_GOTO, 0, lab);
+ /*
+ * Eliminate loops which were exited.
+ */
+ wfree();
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doswitch(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp, *lp;
+
+ v++;
+ if (!*v || *(*v++) != '(')
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ cp = **v == ')' ? STRNULL : *v++;
+ if (*(*v++) != ')')
+ v--;
+ if (*v)
+ stderror(ERR_SYNTAX);
+ search(T_SWITCH, 0, lp = globone(cp, G_ERROR));
+ xfree((ptr_t) lp);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dobreak(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (whyles)
+ toend();
+ else
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTWHILE);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doexit(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (chkstop == 0 && (intty || intact) && evalvec == 0)
+ panystop(0);
+ /*
+ * Don't DEMAND parentheses here either.
+ */
+ v++;
+ if (*v) {
+ set(STRstatus, putn(expr(&v)));
+ if (*v)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EXPRESSION);
+ }
+ btoeof();
+ if (intty)
+ (void) close(SHIN);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doforeach(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp, *sp;
+ register struct whyle *nwp;
+
+ v++;
+ sp = cp = strip(*v);
+ if (!letter(*sp))
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_VARBEGIN);
+ while (*cp && alnum(*cp))
+ cp++;
+ if (*cp)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_VARALNUM);
+ if ((cp - sp) > MAXVARLEN)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_VARTOOLONG);
+ cp = *v++;
+ if (v[0][0] != '(' || v[blklen(v) - 1][0] != ')')
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOPAREN);
+ v++;
+ gflag = 0, tglob(v);
+ v = globall(v);
+ if (v == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOMATCH);
+ nwp = (struct whyle *) xcalloc(1, sizeof *nwp);
+ nwp->w_fe = nwp->w_fe0 = v;
+ gargv = 0;
+ btell(&nwp->w_start);
+ nwp->w_fename = Strsave(cp);
+ nwp->w_next = whyles;
+ nwp->w_end.type = F_SEEK;
+ whyles = nwp;
+ /*
+ * Pre-read the loop so as to be more comprehensible to a terminal user.
+ */
+ zlast = T_FOREACH;
+ if (intty)
+ preread();
+ doagain();
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dowhile(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register int status;
+ register bool again = whyles != 0 && SEEKEQ(&whyles->w_start, &lineloc) &&
+ whyles->w_fename == 0;
+
+ v++;
+ /*
+ * Implement prereading here also, taking care not to evaluate the
+ * expression before the loop has been read up from a terminal.
+ */
+ if (intty && !again)
+ status = !exp0(&v, 1);
+ else
+ status = !expr(&v);
+ if (*v)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_EXPRESSION);
+ if (!again) {
+ register struct whyle *nwp =
+ (struct whyle *) xcalloc(1, sizeof(*nwp));
+
+ nwp->w_start = lineloc;
+ nwp->w_end.type = F_SEEK;
+ nwp->w_end.f_seek = 0;
+ nwp->w_next = whyles;
+ whyles = nwp;
+ zlast = T_WHILE;
+ if (intty) {
+ /*
+ * The tty preread
+ */
+ preread();
+ doagain();
+ return;
+ }
+ }
+ if (status)
+ /* We ain't gonna loop no more, no more! */
+ toend();
+}
+
+static void
+preread()
+{
+ whyles->w_end.type = I_SEEK;
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(sigblock((sigset_t) 0) & ~sigmask(SIGINT));
+
+ search(T_BREAK, 0, NULL); /* read the expression in */
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ btell(&whyles->w_end);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doend(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (!whyles)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTWHILE);
+ btell(&whyles->w_end);
+ doagain();
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+docontin(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ if (!whyles)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTWHILE);
+ doagain();
+}
+
+static void
+doagain()
+{
+ /* Repeating a while is simple */
+ if (whyles->w_fename == 0) {
+ bseek(&whyles->w_start);
+ return;
+ }
+ /*
+ * The foreach variable list actually has a spurious word ")" at the end of
+ * the w_fe list. Thus we are at the of the list if one word beyond this
+ * is 0.
+ */
+ if (!whyles->w_fe[1]) {
+ dobreak(NULL, NULL);
+ return;
+ }
+ set(whyles->w_fename, Strsave(*whyles->w_fe++));
+ bseek(&whyles->w_start);
+}
+
+void
+dorepeat(v, kp)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *kp;
+{
+ register int i;
+ register sigset_t omask = 0;
+
+ i = getn(v[1]);
+ if (setintr)
+ omask = sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT)) & ~sigmask(SIGINT);
+ lshift(v, 2);
+ while (i > 0) {
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+ reexecute(kp);
+ --i;
+ }
+ donefds();
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(omask);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doswbrk(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ search(T_BRKSW, 0, NULL);
+}
+
+int
+srchx(cp)
+ register Char *cp;
+{
+ register struct srch *sp, *sp1, *sp2;
+ register i;
+
+ /*
+ * Binary search Sp1 is the beginning of the current search range. Sp2 is
+ * one past the end.
+ */
+ for (sp1 = srchn, sp2 = srchn + nsrchn; sp1 < sp2;) {
+ sp = sp1 + ((sp2 - sp1) >> 1);
+ if ((i = *cp - *sp->s_name) == 0 &&
+ (i = Strcmp(cp, str2short(sp->s_name))) == 0)
+ return sp->s_value;
+ if (i < 0)
+ sp2 = sp;
+ else
+ sp1 = sp + 1;
+ }
+ return (-1);
+}
+
+static Char Stype;
+static Char *Sgoal;
+
+/*VARARGS2*/
+static void
+search(type, level, goal)
+ int type;
+ register int level;
+ Char *goal;
+{
+ Char wordbuf[BUFSIZ];
+ register Char *aword = wordbuf;
+ register Char *cp;
+
+ Stype = type;
+ Sgoal = goal;
+ if (type == T_GOTO) {
+ struct Ain a;
+ a.type = F_SEEK;
+ a.f_seek = 0;
+ bseek(&a);
+ }
+ do {
+ if (intty && fseekp == feobp && aret == F_SEEK)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "? "), (void) fflush(cshout);
+ aword[0] = 0;
+ (void) getword(aword);
+ switch (srchx(aword)) {
+
+ case T_ELSE:
+ if (level == 0 && type == T_IF)
+ return;
+ break;
+
+ case T_IF:
+ while (getword(aword))
+ continue;
+ if ((type == T_IF || type == T_ELSE) &&
+ eq(aword, STRthen))
+ level++;
+ break;
+
+ case T_ENDIF:
+ if (type == T_IF || type == T_ELSE)
+ level--;
+ break;
+
+ case T_FOREACH:
+ case T_WHILE:
+ if (type == T_BREAK)
+ level++;
+ break;
+
+ case T_END:
+ if (type == T_BREAK)
+ level--;
+ break;
+
+ case T_SWITCH:
+ if (type == T_SWITCH || type == T_BRKSW)
+ level++;
+ break;
+
+ case T_ENDSW:
+ if (type == T_SWITCH || type == T_BRKSW)
+ level--;
+ break;
+
+ case T_LABEL:
+ if (type == T_GOTO && getword(aword) && eq(aword, goal))
+ level = -1;
+ break;
+
+ default:
+ if (type != T_GOTO && (type != T_SWITCH || level != 0))
+ break;
+ if (lastchr(aword) != ':')
+ break;
+ aword[Strlen(aword) - 1] = 0;
+ if ((type == T_GOTO && eq(aword, goal)) ||
+ (type == T_SWITCH && eq(aword, STRdefault)))
+ level = -1;
+ break;
+
+ case T_CASE:
+ if (type != T_SWITCH || level != 0)
+ break;
+ (void) getword(aword);
+ if (lastchr(aword) == ':')
+ aword[Strlen(aword) - 1] = 0;
+ cp = strip(Dfix1(aword));
+ if (Gmatch(goal, cp))
+ level = -1;
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ break;
+
+ case T_DEFAULT:
+ if (type == T_SWITCH && level == 0)
+ level = -1;
+ break;
+ }
+ (void) getword(NULL);
+ } while (level >= 0);
+}
+
+static int
+getword(wp)
+ register Char *wp;
+{
+ register int found = 0;
+ register int c, d;
+ int kwd = 0;
+ Char *owp = wp;
+
+ c = readc(1);
+ d = 0;
+ do {
+ while (c == ' ' || c == '\t')
+ c = readc(1);
+ if (c == '#')
+ do
+ c = readc(1);
+ while (c >= 0 && c != '\n');
+ if (c < 0)
+ goto past;
+ if (c == '\n') {
+ if (wp)
+ break;
+ return (0);
+ }
+ unreadc(c);
+ found = 1;
+ do {
+ c = readc(1);
+ if (c == '\\' && (c = readc(1)) == '\n')
+ c = ' ';
+ if (c == '\'' || c == '"')
+ if (d == 0)
+ d = c;
+ else if (d == c)
+ d = 0;
+ if (c < 0)
+ goto past;
+ if (wp) {
+ *wp++ = c;
+ *wp = 0; /* end the string b4 test */
+ }
+ } while ((d || (!(kwd = keyword(owp)) && c != ' '
+ && c != '\t')) && c != '\n');
+ } while (wp == 0);
+
+ /*
+ * if we have read a keyword ( "if", "switch" or "while" ) then we do not
+ * need to unreadc the look-ahead char
+ */
+ if (!kwd) {
+ unreadc(c);
+ if (found)
+ *--wp = 0;
+ }
+
+ return (found);
+
+past:
+ switch (Stype) {
+
+ case T_IF:
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTFOUND, "then/endif");
+
+ case T_ELSE:
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTFOUND, "endif");
+
+ case T_BRKSW:
+ case T_SWITCH:
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTFOUND, "endsw");
+
+ case T_BREAK:
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTFOUND, "end");
+
+ case T_GOTO:
+ setname(vis_str(Sgoal));
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOTFOUND, "label");
+ }
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ return (0);
+}
+
+/*
+ * keyword(wp) determines if wp is one of the built-n functions if,
+ * switch or while. It seems that when an if statement looks like
+ * "if(" then getword above sucks in the '(' and so the search routine
+ * never finds what it is scanning for. Rather than rewrite doword, I hack
+ * in a test to see if the string forms a keyword. Then doword stops
+ * and returns the word "if" -strike
+ */
+
+static int
+keyword(wp)
+ Char *wp;
+{
+ static Char STRif[] = {'i', 'f', '\0'};
+ static Char STRwhile[] = {'w', 'h', 'i', 'l', 'e', '\0'};
+ static Char STRswitch[] = {'s', 'w', 'i', 't', 'c', 'h', '\0'};
+
+ if (!wp)
+ return (0);
+
+ if ((Strcmp(wp, STRif) == 0) || (Strcmp(wp, STRwhile) == 0)
+ || (Strcmp(wp, STRswitch) == 0))
+ return (1);
+
+ return (0);
+}
+
+static void
+toend()
+{
+ if (whyles->w_end.type == F_SEEK && whyles->w_end.f_seek == 0) {
+ search(T_BREAK, 0, NULL);
+ btell(&whyles->w_end);
+ whyles->w_end.f_seek--;
+ }
+ else
+ bseek(&whyles->w_end);
+ wfree();
+}
+
+void
+wfree()
+{
+ struct Ain o;
+ struct whyle *nwp;
+
+ btell(&o);
+
+ for (; whyles; whyles = nwp) {
+ register struct whyle *wp = whyles;
+ nwp = wp->w_next;
+
+ /*
+ * We free loops that have different seek types.
+ */
+ if (wp->w_end.type != I_SEEK && wp->w_start.type == wp->w_end.type &&
+ wp->w_start.type == o.type) {
+ if (wp->w_end.type == F_SEEK) {
+ if (o.f_seek >= wp->w_start.f_seek &&
+ (wp->w_end.f_seek == 0 || o.f_seek < wp->w_end.f_seek))
+ break;
+ }
+ else {
+ if (o.a_seek >= wp->w_start.a_seek &&
+ (wp->w_end.a_seek == 0 || o.a_seek < wp->w_end.a_seek))
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ if (wp->w_fe0)
+ blkfree(wp->w_fe0);
+ if (wp->w_fename)
+ xfree((ptr_t) wp->w_fename);
+ xfree((ptr_t) wp);
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doecho(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ xecho(' ', v);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doglob(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ xecho(0, v);
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+}
+
+static void
+xecho(sep, v)
+ int sep;
+ register Char **v;
+{
+ register Char *cp;
+ int nonl = 0;
+
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(sigblock((sigset_t) 0) & ~sigmask(SIGINT));
+ v++;
+ if (*v == 0)
+ return;
+ gflag = 0, tglob(v);
+ if (gflag) {
+ v = globall(v);
+ if (v == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_NOMATCH);
+ }
+ else {
+ v = gargv = saveblk(v);
+ trim(v);
+ }
+ if (sep == ' ' && *v && eq(*v, STRmn))
+ nonl++, v++;
+ while ((cp = *v++) != NULL) {
+ register int c;
+
+ while ((c = *cp++) != '\0')
+ (void) vis_fputc(c | QUOTE, cshout);
+
+ if (*v)
+ (void) vis_fputc(sep | QUOTE, cshout);
+ }
+ if (sep && nonl == 0)
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+ else
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigblock(sigmask(SIGINT));
+ if (gargv)
+ blkfree(gargv), gargv = 0;
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dosetenv(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ Char *vp, *lp;
+
+ v++;
+ if ((vp = *v++) == 0) {
+ register Char **ep;
+
+ if (setintr)
+ (void) sigsetmask(sigblock((sigset_t) 0) & ~sigmask(SIGINT));
+ for (ep = STR_environ; *ep; ep++)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s\n", vis_str(*ep));
+ return;
+ }
+ if ((lp = *v++) == 0)
+ lp = STRNULL;
+ Setenv(vp, lp = globone(lp, G_APPEND));
+ if (eq(vp, STRPATH)) {
+ importpath(lp);
+ dohash(NULL, NULL);
+ }
+ else if (eq(vp, STRLANG) || eq(vp, STRLC_CTYPE)) {
+#ifdef NLS
+ int k;
+
+ (void) setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
+ for (k = 0200; k <= 0377 && !Isprint(k); k++)
+ continue;
+ AsciiOnly = k > 0377;
+#else
+ AsciiOnly = 0;
+#endif /* NLS */
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) lp);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dounsetenv(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ Char **ep, *p, *n;
+ int i, maxi;
+ static Char *name = NULL;
+
+ if (name)
+ xfree((ptr_t) name);
+ /*
+ * Find the longest environment variable
+ */
+ for (maxi = 0, ep = STR_environ; *ep; ep++) {
+ for (i = 0, p = *ep; *p && *p != '='; p++, i++)
+ continue;
+ if (i > maxi)
+ maxi = i;
+ }
+
+ name = (Char *) xmalloc((size_t) (maxi + 1) * sizeof(Char));
+
+ while (++v && *v)
+ for (maxi = 1; maxi;)
+ for (maxi = 0, ep = STR_environ; *ep; ep++) {
+ for (n = name, p = *ep; *p && *p != '='; *n++ = *p++)
+ continue;
+ *n = '\0';
+ if (!Gmatch(name, *v))
+ continue;
+ maxi = 1;
+ if (eq(name, STRLANG) || eq(name, STRLC_CTYPE)) {
+#ifdef NLS
+ int k;
+
+ (void) setlocale(LC_ALL, "");
+ for (k = 0200; k <= 0377 && !Isprint(k); k++)
+ continue;
+ AsciiOnly = k > 0377;
+#else
+ AsciiOnly = getenv("LANG") == NULL &&
+ getenv("LC_CTYPE") == NULL;
+#endif /* NLS */
+ }
+ /*
+ * Delete name, and start again cause the environment changes
+ */
+ Unsetenv(name);
+ break;
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) name);
+ name = NULL;
+}
+
+void
+Setenv(name, val)
+ Char *name, *val;
+{
+ register Char **ep = STR_environ;
+ register Char *cp, *dp;
+ Char *blk[2];
+ Char **oep = ep;
+
+
+ for (; *ep; ep++) {
+ for (cp = name, dp = *ep; *cp && *cp == *dp; cp++, dp++)
+ continue;
+ if (*cp != 0 || *dp != '=')
+ continue;
+ cp = Strspl(STRequal, val);
+ xfree((ptr_t) * ep);
+ *ep = strip(Strspl(name, cp));
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ blkfree((Char **) environ);
+ environ = short2blk(STR_environ);
+ return;
+ }
+ cp = Strspl(name, STRequal);
+ blk[0] = strip(Strspl(cp, val));
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ blk[1] = 0;
+ STR_environ = blkspl(STR_environ, blk);
+ blkfree((Char **) environ);
+ environ = short2blk(STR_environ);
+ xfree((ptr_t) oep);
+}
+
+static void
+Unsetenv(name)
+ Char *name;
+{
+ register Char **ep = STR_environ;
+ register Char *cp, *dp;
+ Char **oep = ep;
+
+ for (; *ep; ep++) {
+ for (cp = name, dp = *ep; *cp && *cp == *dp; cp++, dp++)
+ continue;
+ if (*cp != 0 || *dp != '=')
+ continue;
+ cp = *ep;
+ *ep = 0;
+ STR_environ = blkspl(STR_environ, ep + 1);
+ environ = short2blk(STR_environ);
+ *ep = cp;
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) oep);
+ return;
+ }
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doumask(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register Char *cp = v[1];
+ register int i;
+
+ if (cp == 0) {
+ i = umask(0);
+ (void) umask(i);
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%o\n", i);
+ return;
+ }
+ i = 0;
+ while (Isdigit(*cp) && *cp != '8' && *cp != '9')
+ i = i * 8 + *cp++ - '0';
+ if (*cp || i < 0 || i > 0777)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_MASK);
+ (void) umask(i);
+}
+
+typedef quad_t RLIM_TYPE;
+
+static struct limits {
+ int limconst;
+ char *limname;
+ int limdiv;
+ char *limscale;
+} limits[] = {
+ { RLIMIT_CPU, "cputime", 1, "seconds" },
+ { RLIMIT_FSIZE, "filesize", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_DATA, "datasize", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_STACK, "stacksize", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_CORE, "coredumpsize", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_RSS, "memoryuse", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_MEMLOCK, "memorylocked", 1024, "kbytes" },
+ { RLIMIT_NPROC, "maxproc", 1, "" },
+ { RLIMIT_NOFILE, "openfiles", 1, "" },
+ { -1, NULL, 0, NULL }
+};
+
+static struct limits *findlim();
+static RLIM_TYPE getval();
+static void limtail();
+static void plim();
+static int setlim();
+
+static struct limits *
+findlim(cp)
+ Char *cp;
+{
+ register struct limits *lp, *res;
+
+ res = (struct limits *) NULL;
+ for (lp = limits; lp->limconst >= 0; lp++)
+ if (prefix(cp, str2short(lp->limname))) {
+ if (res)
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_AMBIG);
+ res = lp;
+ }
+ if (res)
+ return (res);
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_LIMIT);
+ /* NOTREACHED */
+ return (0);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dolimit(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register struct limits *lp;
+ register RLIM_TYPE limit;
+ char hard = 0;
+
+ v++;
+ if (*v && eq(*v, STRmh)) {
+ hard = 1;
+ v++;
+ }
+ if (*v == 0) {
+ for (lp = limits; lp->limconst >= 0; lp++)
+ plim(lp, hard);
+ return;
+ }
+ lp = findlim(v[0]);
+ if (v[1] == 0) {
+ plim(lp, hard);
+ return;
+ }
+ limit = getval(lp, v + 1);
+ if (setlim(lp, hard, limit) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+}
+
+static RLIM_TYPE
+getval(lp, v)
+ register struct limits *lp;
+ Char **v;
+{
+ register float f;
+ double atof();
+ Char *cp = *v++;
+
+ f = atof(short2str(cp));
+
+ while (Isdigit(*cp) || *cp == '.' || *cp == 'e' || *cp == 'E')
+ cp++;
+ if (*cp == 0) {
+ if (*v == 0)
+ return ((RLIM_TYPE) ((f + 0.5) * lp->limdiv));
+ cp = *v;
+ }
+ switch (*cp) {
+ case ':':
+ if (lp->limconst != RLIMIT_CPU)
+ goto badscal;
+ return ((RLIM_TYPE) (f * 60.0 + atof(short2str(cp + 1))));
+ case 'h':
+ if (lp->limconst != RLIMIT_CPU)
+ goto badscal;
+ limtail(cp, "hours");
+ f *= 3600.0;
+ break;
+ case 'm':
+ if (lp->limconst == RLIMIT_CPU) {
+ limtail(cp, "minutes");
+ f *= 60.0;
+ break;
+ }
+ *cp = 'm';
+ limtail(cp, "megabytes");
+ f *= 1024.0 * 1024.0;
+ break;
+ case 's':
+ if (lp->limconst != RLIMIT_CPU)
+ goto badscal;
+ limtail(cp, "seconds");
+ break;
+ case 'M':
+ if (lp->limconst == RLIMIT_CPU)
+ goto badscal;
+ *cp = 'm';
+ limtail(cp, "megabytes");
+ f *= 1024.0 * 1024.0;
+ break;
+ case 'k':
+ if (lp->limconst == RLIMIT_CPU)
+ goto badscal;
+ limtail(cp, "kbytes");
+ f *= 1024.0;
+ break;
+ case 'u':
+ limtail(cp, "unlimited");
+ return (RLIM_INFINITY);
+ default:
+badscal:
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_SCALEF);
+ }
+ f += 0.5;
+ if (f > (float) RLIM_INFINITY)
+ return RLIM_INFINITY;
+ else
+ return ((RLIM_TYPE) f);
+}
+
+static void
+limtail(cp, str)
+ Char *cp;
+ char *str;
+{
+ while (*cp && *cp == *str)
+ cp++, str++;
+ if (*cp)
+ stderror(ERR_BADSCALE, str);
+}
+
+
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+static void
+plim(lp, hard)
+ register struct limits *lp;
+ Char hard;
+{
+ struct rlimit rlim;
+ RLIM_TYPE limit;
+
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%s \t", lp->limname);
+
+ (void) getrlimit(lp->limconst, &rlim);
+ limit = hard ? rlim.rlim_max : rlim.rlim_cur;
+
+ if (limit == RLIM_INFINITY)
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "unlimited");
+ else if (lp->limconst == RLIMIT_CPU)
+ psecs((long) limit);
+ else
+ (void) fprintf(cshout, "%ld %s", (long) (limit / lp->limdiv),
+ lp->limscale);
+ (void) fputc('\n', cshout);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dounlimit(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ register struct limits *lp;
+ int lerr = 0;
+ Char hard = 0;
+
+ v++;
+ if (*v && eq(*v, STRmh)) {
+ hard = 1;
+ v++;
+ }
+ if (*v == 0) {
+ for (lp = limits; lp->limconst >= 0; lp++)
+ if (setlim(lp, hard, (RLIM_TYPE) RLIM_INFINITY) < 0)
+ lerr++;
+ if (lerr)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+ return;
+ }
+ while (*v) {
+ lp = findlim(*v++);
+ if (setlim(lp, hard, (RLIM_TYPE) RLIM_INFINITY) < 0)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+ }
+}
+
+static int
+setlim(lp, hard, limit)
+ register struct limits *lp;
+ Char hard;
+ RLIM_TYPE limit;
+{
+ struct rlimit rlim;
+
+ (void) getrlimit(lp->limconst, &rlim);
+
+ if (hard)
+ rlim.rlim_max = limit;
+ else if (limit == RLIM_INFINITY && geteuid() != 0)
+ rlim.rlim_cur = rlim.rlim_max;
+ else
+ rlim.rlim_cur = limit;
+
+ if (setrlimit(lp->limconst, &rlim) < 0) {
+ (void) fprintf(csherr, "%s: %s: Can't %s%s limit\n", bname, lp->limname,
+ limit == RLIM_INFINITY ? "remove" : "set",
+ hard ? " hard" : "");
+ return (-1);
+ }
+ return (0);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+dosuspend(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ int ctpgrp;
+
+ void (*old) ();
+
+ if (loginsh)
+ stderror(ERR_SUSPLOG);
+ untty();
+
+ old = signal(SIGTSTP, SIG_DFL);
+ (void) kill(0, SIGTSTP);
+ /* the shell stops here */
+ (void) signal(SIGTSTP, old);
+
+ if (tpgrp != -1) {
+ ctpgrp = tcgetpgrp(FSHTTY);
+ while (ctpgrp != opgrp) {
+ old = signal(SIGTTIN, SIG_DFL);
+ (void) kill(0, SIGTTIN);
+ (void) signal(SIGTTIN, old);
+ }
+ (void) setpgid(0, shpgrp);
+ (void) tcsetpgrp(FSHTTY, shpgrp);
+ }
+}
+
+/* This is the dreaded EVAL built-in.
+ * If you don't fiddle with file descriptors, and reset didfds,
+ * this command will either ignore redirection inside or outside
+ * its aguments, e.g. eval "date >x" vs. eval "date" >x
+ * The stuff here seems to work, but I did it by trial and error rather
+ * than really knowing what was going on. If tpgrp is zero, we are
+ * probably a background eval, e.g. "eval date &", and we want to
+ * make sure that any processes we start stay in our pgrp.
+ * This is also the case for "time eval date" -- stay in same pgrp.
+ * Otherwise, under stty tostop, processes will stop in the wrong
+ * pgrp, with no way for the shell to get them going again. -IAN!
+ */
+static Char **gv = NULL;
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doeval(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ Char **oevalvec;
+ Char *oevalp;
+ int odidfds;
+ jmp_buf osetexit;
+ int my_reenter;
+ Char **savegv = gv;
+ int saveIN;
+ int saveOUT;
+ int saveERR;
+ int oSHIN;
+ int oSHOUT;
+ int oSHERR;
+
+ UNREGISTER(v);
+
+ oevalvec = evalvec;
+ oevalp = evalp;
+ odidfds = didfds;
+ oSHIN = SHIN;
+ oSHOUT = SHOUT;
+ oSHERR = SHERR;
+
+ v++;
+ if (*v == 0)
+ return;
+ gflag = 0, tglob(v);
+ if (gflag) {
+ gv = v = globall(v);
+ gargv = 0;
+ if (v == 0)
+ stderror(ERR_NOMATCH);
+ v = copyblk(v);
+ }
+ else {
+ gv = NULL;
+ v = copyblk(v);
+ trim(v);
+ }
+
+ saveIN = dcopy(SHIN, -1);
+ saveOUT = dcopy(SHOUT, -1);
+ saveERR = dcopy(SHERR, -1);
+
+ getexit(osetexit);
+
+ if ((my_reenter = setexit()) == 0) {
+ evalvec = v;
+ evalp = 0;
+ SHIN = dcopy(0, -1);
+ SHOUT = dcopy(1, -1);
+ SHERR = dcopy(2, -1);
+ didfds = 0;
+ process(0);
+ }
+
+ evalvec = oevalvec;
+ evalp = oevalp;
+ doneinp = 0;
+ didfds = odidfds;
+ (void) close(SHIN);
+ (void) close(SHOUT);
+ (void) close(SHERR);
+ SHIN = dmove(saveIN, oSHIN);
+ SHOUT = dmove(saveOUT, oSHOUT);
+ SHERR = dmove(saveERR, oSHERR);
+ if (gv)
+ blkfree(gv), gv = NULL;
+ resexit(osetexit);
+ gv = savegv;
+ if (my_reenter)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+}
+
+void
+/*ARGSUSED*/
+doprintf(v, t)
+ Char **v;
+ struct command *t;
+{
+ char **c;
+ extern int progprintf __P((int, char **));
+ int ret;
+
+ ret = progprintf(blklen(v), c = short2blk(v));
+ (void) fflush(cshout);
+ (void) fflush(csherr);
+
+ blkfree((Char **) c);
+ if (ret)
+ stderror(ERR_SILENT);
+}
diff --git a/bin/csh/glob.c b/bin/csh/glob.c
new file mode 100644
index 000000000000..bdbebad0c3bb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/bin/csh/glob.c
@@ -0,0 +1,939 @@
+/*-
+ * Copyright (c) 1980, 1991, 1993
+ * The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ *
+ * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
+ * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ * are met:
+ * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
+ * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
+ * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
+ * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
+ * 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
+ * must display the following acknowledgement:
+ * This product includes software developed by the University of
+ * California, Berkeley and its contributors.
+ * 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
+ * may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
+ * without specific prior written permission.
+ *
+ * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
+ * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
+ * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
+ * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
+ * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
+ * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
+ * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
+ * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
+ * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
+ * SUCH DAMAGE.
+ */
+
+#ifndef lint
+static char sccsid[] = "@(#)glob.c 8.1 (Berkeley) 5/31/93";
+#endif /* not lint */
+
+#include <sys/param.h>
+#include <glob.h>
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#if __STDC__
+# include <stdarg.h>
+#else
+# include <varargs.h>
+#endif
+
+#include "csh.h"
+#include "extern.h"
+
+static int noglob;
+static int pargsiz, gargsiz;
+
+/*
+ * Values for gflag
+ */
+#define G_NONE 0 /* No globbing needed */
+#define G_GLOB 1 /* string contains *?[] characters */
+#define G_CSH 2 /* string contains ~`{ characters */
+
+#define GLOBSPACE 100 /* Alloc increment */
+
+#define LBRC '{'
+#define RBRC '}'
+#define LBRK '['
+#define RBRK ']'
+#define EOS '\0'
+
+Char **gargv = NULL;
+long gargc = 0;
+Char **pargv = NULL;
+long pargc = 0;
+
+/*
+ * globbing is now done in two stages. In the first pass we expand
+ * csh globbing idioms ~`{ and then we proceed doing the normal
+ * globbing if needed ?*[
+ *
+ * Csh type globbing is handled in globexpand() and the rest is
+ * handled in glob() which is part of the 4.4BSD libc.
+ *
+ */
+static Char *globtilde __P((Char **, Char *));
+static Char **libglob __P((Char **));
+static Char **globexpand __P((Char **));
+static int globbrace __P((Char *, Char *, Char ***));
+static void expbrace __P((Char ***, Char ***, int));
+static int pmatch __P((Char *, Char *));
+static void pword __P((void));
+static void psave __P((int));
+static void backeval __P((Char *, bool));
+
+
+static Char *
+globtilde(nv, s)
+ Char **nv, *s;
+{
+ Char gbuf[MAXPATHLEN], *gstart, *b, *u, *e;
+
+ gstart = gbuf;
+ *gstart++ = *s++;
+ u = s;
+ for (b = gstart, e = &gbuf[MAXPATHLEN - 1];
+ *s && *s != '/' && *s != ':' && b < e;
+ *b++ = *s++)
+ continue;
+ *b = EOS;
+ if (gethdir(gstart)) {
+ blkfree(nv);
+ if (*gstart)
+ stderror(ERR_UNKUSER, vis_str(gstart));
+ else
+ stderror(ERR_NOHOME);
+ }
+ b = &gstart[Strlen(gstart)];
+ while (*s)
+ *b++ = *s++;
+ *b = EOS;
+ --u;
+ xfree((ptr_t) u);
+ return (Strsave(gstart));
+}
+
+static int
+globbrace(s, p, bl)
+ Char *s, *p, ***bl;
+{
+ int i, len;
+ Char *pm, *pe, *lm, *pl;
+ Char **nv, **vl;
+ Char gbuf[MAXPATHLEN];
+ int size = GLOBSPACE;
+
+ nv = vl = (Char **) xmalloc((size_t) sizeof(Char *) * size);
+ *vl = NULL;
+
+ len = 0;
+ /* copy part up to the brace */
+ for (lm = gbuf, p = s; *p != LBRC; *lm++ = *p++)
+ continue;
+
+ /* check for balanced braces */
+ for (i = 0, pe = ++p; *pe; pe++)
+ if (*pe == LBRK) {
+ /* Ignore everything between [] */
+ for (++pe; *pe != RBRK && *pe != EOS; pe++)
+ continue;
+ if (*pe == EOS) {
+ blkfree(nv);
+ return (-RBRK);
+ }
+ }
+ else if (*pe == LBRC)
+ i++;
+ else if (*pe == RBRC) {
+ if (i == 0)
+ break;
+ i--;
+ }
+
+ if (i != 0 || *pe == '\0') {
+ blkfree(nv);
+ return (-RBRC);
+ }
+
+ for (i = 0, pl = pm = p; pm <= pe; pm++)
+ switch (*pm) {
+ case LBRK:
+ for (++pm; *pm != RBRK && *pm != EOS; pm++)
+ continue;
+ if (*pm == EOS) {
+ *vl = NULL;
+ blkfree(nv);
+ return (-RBRK);
+ }
+ break;
+ case LBRC:
+ i++;
+ break;
+ case RBRC:
+ if (i) {
+ i--;
+ break;
+ }
+ /* FALLTHROUGH */
+ case ',':
+ if (i && *pm == ',')
+ break;
+ else {
+ Char savec = *pm;
+
+ *pm = EOS;
+ (void) Strcpy(lm, pl);
+ (void) Strcat(gbuf, pe + 1);
+ *pm = savec;
+ *vl++ = Strsave(gbuf);
+ len++;
+ pl = pm + 1;
+ if (vl == &nv[size]) {
+ size += GLOBSPACE;
+ nv = (Char **) xrealloc((ptr_t) nv, (size_t)
+ size * sizeof(Char *));
+ vl = &nv[size - GLOBSPACE];
+ }
+ }
+ break;
+ default:
+ break;
+ }
+ *vl = NULL;
+ *bl = nv;
+ return (len);
+}
+
+
+static void
+expbrace(nvp, elp, size)
+ Char ***nvp, ***elp;
+ int size;
+{
+ Char **vl, **el, **nv, *s;
+
+ vl = nv = *nvp;
+ if (elp != NULL)
+ el = *elp;
+ else
+ for (el = vl; *el; el++)
+ continue;
+
+ for (s = *vl; s; s = *++vl) {
+ Char *b;
+ Char **vp, **bp;
+
+ /* leave {} untouched for find */
+ if (s[0] == '{' && (s[1] == '\0' || (s[1] == '}' && s[2] == '\0')))
+ continue;
+ if ((b = Strchr(s, '{')) != NULL) {
+ Char **bl;
+ int len;
+
+ if ((len = globbrace(s, b, &bl)) < 0) {
+ xfree((ptr_t) nv);
+ stderror(ERR_MISSING, -len);
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) s);
+ if (len == 1) {
+ *vl-- = *bl;
+ xfree((ptr_t) bl);
+ continue;
+ }
+ len = blklen(bl);
+ if (&el[len] >= &nv[size]) {
+ int l, e;
+
+ l = &el[len] - &nv[size];
+ size += GLOBSPACE > l ? GLOBSPACE : l;
+ l = vl - nv;
+ e = el - nv;
+ nv = (Char **) xrealloc((ptr_t) nv, (size_t)
+ size * sizeof(Char *));
+ vl = nv + l;
+ el = nv + e;
+ }
+ vp = vl--;
+ *vp = *bl;
+ len--;
+ for (bp = el; bp != vp; bp--)
+ bp[len] = *bp;
+ el += len;
+ vp++;
+ for (bp = bl + 1; *bp; *vp++ = *bp++)
+ continue;
+ xfree((ptr_t) bl);
+ }
+
+ }
+ if (elp != NULL)
+ *elp = el;
+ *nvp = nv;
+}
+
+static Char **
+globexpand(v)
+ Char **v;
+{
+ Char *s;
+ Char **nv, **vl, **el;
+ int size = GLOBSPACE;
+
+
+ nv = vl = (Char **) xmalloc((size_t) sizeof(Char *) * size);
+ *vl = NULL;
+
+ /*
+ * Step 1: expand backquotes.
+ */
+ while ((s = *v++) != NULL) {
+ if (Strchr(s, '`')) {
+ int i;
+
+ (void) dobackp(s, 0);
+ for (i = 0; i < pargc; i++) {
+ *vl++ = pargv[i];
+ if (vl == &nv[size]) {
+ size += GLOBSPACE;
+ nv = (Char **) xrealloc((ptr_t) nv,
+ (size_t) size * sizeof(Char *));
+ vl = &nv[size - GLOBSPACE];
+ }
+ }
+ xfree((ptr_t) pargv);
+ pargv = NULL;
+ }
+ else {
+ *vl++ = Strsave(s);
+ if (vl == &nv[size]) {
+ size += GLOBSPACE;
+ nv = (Char **) xrealloc((ptr_t) nv, (size_t)
+ size * sizeof(Char *));
+ vl = &nv[size - GLOBSPACE];
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ *vl = NULL;
+
+ if (noglob)
+ return (nv);
+
+ /*
+ * Step 2: expand braces
+ */
+ el = vl;
+ expbrace(&nv, &el, size);
+
+ /*
+ * Step 3: expand ~
+ */
+ vl = nv;
+ for (s = *vl; s; s = *++vl)
+ if (*s == '~')
+ *vl = globtilde(nv, s);
+ vl = nv;
+ return (vl);
+}
+
+static Char *
+handleone(str, vl, action)
+ Char *str, **vl;
+ int action;
+{
+
+ Char *cp, **vlp = vl;
+
+ switch (action) {
+ case G_ERROR:
+ setname(vis_str(str));
+ blkfree(vl);
+ stderror(ERR_NAME | ERR_AMBIG);
+ break;
+ case G_APPEND:
+ trim(vlp);
+ str = Strsave(*vlp++);
+ do {
+ cp = Strspl(str, STRspace);
+ xfree((ptr_t) str);
+ str = Strspl(cp, *vlp);
+ xfree((ptr_t) cp);
+ }
+ while (*++vlp);
+ bl