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-'\" te
-.\" Copyright (c) 2012, Martin Matuska <mm@FreeBSD.org>.
-.\" Copyright (c) 2013-2014, Xin Li <delphij@FreeBSD.org>.
-.\" All Rights Reserved.
-.\"
-.\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
-.\" Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
-.\" You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
-.\"
-.\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
-.\" or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
-.\" See the License for the specific language governing permissions
-.\" and limitations under the License.
-.\"
-.\" When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each
-.\" file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
-.\" If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
-.\" fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
-.\" information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
-.\"
-.\" Copyright (c) 2010, Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
-.\" Copyright (c) 2011, Justin T. Gibbs <gibbs@FreeBSD.org>
-.\" Copyright (c) 2012, Glen Barber <gjb@FreeBSD.org>
-.\" Copyright (c) 2012, 2017 by Delphix. All Rights Reserved.
-.\" Copyright 2017 Nexenta Systems, Inc.
-.\" Copyright (c) 2017 Datto Inc.
-.\" Copyright (c) 2017 George Melikov. All Rights Reserved.
-.\" Copyright 2019 Joyent, Inc.
-.\"
-.\" $FreeBSD$
-.\"
-.Dd February 25, 2020
-.Dt ZPOOL 8
-.Os
-.Sh NAME
-.Nm zpool
-.Nd configures ZFS storage pools
-.Sh SYNOPSIS
-.Nm
-.Op Fl \&?
-.Nm
-.Cm add
-.Op Fl fgLnP
-.Ar pool vdev ...
-.Nm
-.Cm attach
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool device new_device
-.Nm
-.Cm checkpoint
-.Op Fl d, -discard
-.Ar pool
-.Nm
-.Cm clear
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Ar pool
-.Op Ar device
-.Nm
-.Cm create
-.Op Fl fnd
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl t Ar tempname
-.Ar pool vdev ...
-.Nm
-.Cm destroy
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool
-.Nm
-.Cm detach
-.Ar pool device
-.Nm
-.Cm export
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool ...
-.Nm
-.Cm get
-.Op Fl Hp
-.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Ar all | property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Ar pool ...
-.Nm
-.Cm history
-.Op Fl il
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Op Fl f
-.Op Fl m
-.Op Fl N
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Fl a
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Op Fl f
-.Op Fl m
-.Op Fl N
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl t
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Ar pool | id
-.Op Ar newpool
-.Nm
-.Cm initialize
-.Op Fl cs
-.Ar pool
-.Op Ar device Ns ...
-.Nm
-.Cm iostat
-.Op Fl v
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Fl gLP
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Nm
-.Cm labelclear
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar device
-.Nm
-.Cm list
-.Op Fl HgLpPv
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Nm
-.Cm offline
-.Op Fl t
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Nm
-.Cm online
-.Op Fl e
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Nm
-.Cm reguid
-.Ar pool
-.Nm
-.Cm remove
-.Op Fl np
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Nm
-.Cm remove
-.Fl s
-.Ar pool
-.Nm
-.Cm reopen
-.Ar pool
-.Nm
-.Cm replace
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool device
-.Op Ar new_device
-.Nm
-.Cm scrub
-.Op Fl s | Fl p
-.Ar pool ...
-.Nm
-.Cm set
-.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value pool
-.Nm
-.Cm split
-.Op Fl gLnP
-.Op Fl R Ar altroot
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar pool newpool
-.Op Ar device ...
-.Nm
-.Cm status
-.Op Fl DgLPvx
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Nm
-.Cm sync
-.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
-.Nm
-.Cm upgrade
-.Op Fl v
-.Nm
-.Cm upgrade
-.Op Fl V Ar version
-.Fl a | Ar pool ...
-.Sh DESCRIPTION
-The
-.Nm
-command configures
-.Tn ZFS
-storage pools. A storage pool is a collection of devices that provides physical
-storage and data replication for
-.Tn ZFS
-datasets.
-.Pp
-All datasets within a storage pool share the same space. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for information on managing datasets.
-.Ss Virtual Devices (vdevs)
-A
-.Qq virtual device
-.Pq No vdev
-describes a single device or a collection of devices organized according to
-certain performance and fault characteristics. The following virtual devices
-are supported:
-.Bl -tag -width "XXXXXX"
-.It Sy disk
-A block device, typically located under
-.Pa /dev .
-.Tn ZFS
-can use individual slices or partitions, though the recommended mode of
-operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be specified by a full path to the
-device or the
-.Xr geom 4
-provider name. When given a whole disk,
-.Tn ZFS
-automatically labels the disk, if necessary.
-.It Sy file
-A regular file. The use of files as a backing store is strongly discouraged. It
-is designed primarily for experimental purposes, as the fault tolerance of a
-file is only as good the file system of which it is a part. A file must be
-specified by a full path.
-.It Sy mirror
-A mirror of two or more devices. Data is replicated in an identical fashion
-across all components of a mirror. A mirror with
-.Em N
-disks of size
-.Em X
-can hold
-.Em X
-bytes and can withstand
-.Pq Em N-1
-devices failing before data integrity is compromised.
-.It Sy raidz
-(or
-.Sy raidz1 raidz2 raidz3 ) .
-A variation on
-.Sy RAID-5
-that allows for better distribution of parity and eliminates the
-.Qq Sy RAID-5
-write hole (in which data and parity become inconsistent after a power loss).
-Data and parity is striped across all disks within a
-.No raidz
-group.
-.Pp
-A
-.No raidz
-group can have single-, double- , or triple parity, meaning that the
-.No raidz
-group can sustain one, two, or three failures, respectively, without
-losing any data. The
-.Sy raidz1 No vdev
-type specifies a single-parity
-.No raidz
-group; the
-.Sy raidz2 No vdev
-type specifies a double-parity
-.No raidz
-group; and the
-.Sy raidz3 No vdev
-type specifies a triple-parity
-.No raidz
-group. The
-.Sy raidz No vdev
-type is an alias for
-.Sy raidz1 .
-.Pp
-A
-.No raidz
-group with
-.Em N
-disks of size
-.Em X
-with
-.Em P
-parity disks can hold approximately
-.Sm off
-.Pq Em N-P
-*X
-.Sm on
-bytes and can withstand
-.Em P
-device(s) failing before data integrity is compromised. The minimum number of
-devices in a
-.No raidz
-group is one more than the number of parity disks. The
-recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help increase performance.
-.It Sy spare
-A special
-.No pseudo- Ns No vdev
-which keeps track of available hot spares for a pool.
-For more information, see the
-.Qq Sx Hot Spares
-section.
-.It Sy log
-A separate-intent log device. If more than one log device is specified, then
-writes are load-balanced between devices. Log devices can be mirrored. However,
-.No raidz
-.No vdev
-types are not supported for the intent log. For more information,
-see the
-.Qq Sx Intent Log
-section.
-.It Sy dedup
-A device dedicated solely for allocating dedup data.
-The redundancy of this device should match the redundancy of the other normal
-devices in the pool.
-If more than one dedup device is specified, then allocations are load-balanced
-between devices.
-.It Sy special
-A device dedicated solely for allocating various kinds of internal metadata,
-and optionally small file data.
-The redundancy of this device should match the redundancy of the other normal
-devices in the pool.
-If more than one special device is specified, then allocations are
-load-balanced between devices.
-.Pp
-For more information on special allocations, see the
-.Sx Special Allocation Class
-section.
-.It Sy cache
-A device used to cache storage pool data.
-A cache device cannot be configured as a mirror or raidz group.
-For more information, see the
-.Qq Sx Cache Devices
-section.
-.El
-.Pp
-Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or
-.No raidz
-virtual device can only
-contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors (or other combinations) are not
-allowed.
-.Pp
-A pool can have any number of virtual devices at the top of the configuration
-(known as
-.Qq root
-.No vdev Ns s).
-Data is dynamically distributed across all top-level devices to balance data
-among devices. As new virtual devices are added,
-.Tn ZFS
-automatically places data on the newly available devices.
-.Pp
-Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line, separated by
-whitespace. The keywords
-.Qq mirror
-and
-.Qq raidz
-are used to distinguish where a group ends and another begins. For example, the
-following creates two root
-.No vdev Ns s,
-each a mirror of two disks:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create mypool mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3
-.Ed
-.Ss Device Failure and Recovery
-.Tn ZFS
-supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and data
-corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and
-.Tn ZFS
-automatically repairs bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
-.Pp
-In order to take advantage of these features, a pool must make use of some form
-of redundancy, using either mirrored or
-.No raidz
-groups. While
-.Tn ZFS
-supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root
-.No vdev
-is simply a disk or file, this is strongly discouraged. A single case of bit
-corruption can render some or all of your data unavailable.
-.Pp
-A pool's health status is described by one of three states: online, degraded,
-or faulted. An online pool has all devices operating normally. A degraded pool
-is one in which one or more devices have failed, but the data is still
-available due to a redundant configuration. A faulted pool has corrupted
-metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and insufficient replicas to continue
-functioning.
-.Pp
-The health of the top-level
-.No vdev ,
-such as mirror or
-.No raidz
-device, is
-potentially impacted by the state of its associated
-.No vdev Ns s,
-or component devices. A top-level
-.No vdev
-or component device is in one of the following states:
-.Bl -tag -width "DEGRADED"
-.It Sy DEGRADED
-One or more top-level
-.No vdev Ns s
-is in the degraded state because one or more
-component devices are offline. Sufficient replicas exist to continue
-functioning.
-.Pp
-One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted state, but
-sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions
-are as follows:
-.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
-.It
-The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is
-degraded as an indication that something may be wrong.
-.Tn ZFS
-continues to use the device as necessary.
-.It
-The number of
-.Tn I/O
-errors exceeds acceptable levels. The device could not be
-marked as faulted because there are insufficient replicas to continue
-functioning.
-.El
-.It Sy FAULTED
-One or more top-level
-.No vdev Ns s
-is in the faulted state because one or more
-component devices are offline. Insufficient replicas exist to continue
-functioning.
-.Pp
-One or more component devices is in the faulted state, and insufficient
-replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions are as
-follows:
-.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
-.It
-The device could be opened, but the contents did not match expected values.
-.It
-The number of
-.Tn I/O
-errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is faulted to
-prevent further use of the device.
-.El
-.It Sy OFFLINE
-The device was explicitly taken offline by the
-.Qq Nm Cm offline
-command.
-.It Sy ONLINE
-The device is online and functioning.
-.It Sy REMOVED
-The device was physically removed while the system was running. Device removal
-detection is hardware-dependent and may not be supported on all platforms.
-.It Sy UNAVAIL
-The device could not be opened. If a pool is imported when a device was
-unavailable, then the device will be identified by a unique identifier instead
-of its path since the path was never correct in the first place.
-.El
-.Pp
-If a device is removed and later reattached to the system,
-.Tn ZFS
-attempts to put the device online automatically. Device attach detection is
-hardware-dependent and might not be supported on all platforms.
-.Ss Hot Spares
-.Tn ZFS
-allows devices to be associated with pools as
-.Qq hot spares .
-These devices are not actively used in the pool, but when an active device
-fails, it is automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool with hot
-spares, specify a
-.Qq spare
-.No vdev
-with any number of devices. For example,
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create pool mirror da0 da1 spare da2 da3
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the
-.Qq Nm Cm add
-command and removed with the
-.Qq Nm Cm remove
-command. Once a spare replacement is initiated, a new "spare"
-.No vdev
-is created
-within the configuration that will remain there until the original device is
-replaced. At this point, the hot spare becomes available again if another
-device fails.
-.Pp
-If a pool has a shared spare that is currently being used, the pool can not be
-exported since other pools may use this shared spare, which may lead to
-potential data corruption.
-.Pp
-Shared spares add some risk.
-If the pools are imported on different hosts, and both pools suffer a device
-failure at the same time, both could attempt to use the spare at the same time.
-This may not be detected, resulting in data corruption.
-.Pp
-An in-progress spare replacement can be cancelled by detaching the hot spare.
-If the original faulted device is detached, then the hot spare assumes its
-place in the configuration, and is removed from the spare list of all active
-pools.
-.Pp
-Spares cannot replace log devices.
-.Pp
-This feature requires a userland helper.
-FreeBSD provides
-.Xr zfsd 8
-for this purpose.
-It must be manually enabled by adding
-.Va zfsd_enable="YES"
-to
-.Pa /etc/rc.conf .
-.Ss Intent Log
-The
-.Tn ZFS
-Intent Log
-.Pq Tn ZIL
-satisfies
-.Tn POSIX
-requirements for synchronous transactions. For instance, databases often
-require their transactions to be on stable storage devices when returning from
-a system call.
-.Tn NFS
-and other applications can also use
-.Xr fsync 2
-to ensure data stability. By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks
-within the main pool. However, it might be possible to get better performance
-using separate intent log devices such as
-.Tn NVRAM
-or a dedicated disk. For example:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create pool da0 da1 log da2
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Multiple log devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored. See the
-.Sx EXAMPLES
-section for an example of mirroring multiple log devices.
-.Pp
-Log devices can be added, replaced, attached, detached, imported and exported
-as part of the larger pool.
-Mirrored devices can be removed by specifying the top-level mirror vdev.
-.Ss Cache devices
-Devices can be added to a storage pool as "cache devices." These devices
-provide an additional layer of caching between main memory and disk. For
-read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than what can
-be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this working
-set to be served from low latency media. Using cache devices provides the
-greatest performance improvement for random read-workloads of mostly static
-content.
-.Pp
-To create a pool with cache devices, specify a "cache"
-.No vdev
-with any number of devices. For example:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create pool da0 da1 cache da2 da3
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a
-.No raidz
-configuration. If a read
-error is encountered on a cache device, that read
-.Tn I/O
-is reissued to the original storage pool device, which might be part of a
-mirrored or
-.No raidz
-configuration.
-.Pp
-The content of the cache devices is considered volatile, as is the case with
-other system caches.
-.Ss Pool checkpoint
-Before starting critical procedures that include destructive actions (e.g
-.Nm zfs Cm destroy
-), an administrator can checkpoint the pool's state and in the case of a
-mistake or failure, rewind the entire pool back to the checkpoint.
-Otherwise, the checkpoint can be discarded when the procedure has completed
-successfully.
-.Pp
-A pool checkpoint can be thought of as a pool-wide snapshot and should be used
-with care as it contains every part of the pool's state, from properties to vdev
-configuration.
-Thus, while a pool has a checkpoint certain operations are not allowed.
-Specifically, vdev removal/attach/detach, mirror splitting, and
-changing the pool's guid.
-Adding a new vdev is supported but in the case of a rewind it will have to be
-added again.
-Finally, users of this feature should keep in mind that scrubs in a pool that
-has a checkpoint do not repair checkpointed data.
-.Pp
-To create a checkpoint for a pool:
-.Bd -literal
-# zpool checkpoint pool
-.Ed
-.Pp
-To later rewind to its checkpointed state, you need to first export it and
-then rewind it during import:
-.Bd -literal
-# zpool export pool
-# zpool import --rewind-to-checkpoint pool
-.Ed
-.Pp
-To discard the checkpoint from a pool:
-.Bd -literal
-# zpool checkpoint -d pool
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Dataset reservations (controlled by the
-.Nm reservation
-or
-.Nm refreservation
-zfs properties) may be unenforceable while a checkpoint exists, because the
-checkpoint is allowed to consume the dataset's reservation.
-Finally, data that is part of the checkpoint but has been freed in the
-current state of the pool won't be scanned during a scrub.
-.Ss Special Allocation Class
-The allocations in the special class are dedicated to specific block types.
-By default this includes all metadata, the indirect blocks of user data, and
-any dedup data.
-The class can also be provisioned to accept a limited percentage of small file
-data blocks.
-.Pp
-A pool must always have at least one general (non-specified) vdev before
-other devices can be assigned to the special class.
-If the special class becomes full, then allocations intended for it will spill
-back into the normal class.
-.Pp
-Dedup data can be excluded from the special class by setting the
-.Sy vfs.zfs.ddt_data_is_special
-sysctl to false (0).
-.Pp
-Inclusion of small file blocks in the special class is opt-in.
-Each dataset can control the size of small file blocks allowed in the special
-class by setting the
-.Sy special_small_blocks
-dataset property.
-It defaults to zero so you must opt-in by setting it to a non-zero value.
-See
-.Xr zfs 1M
-for more info on setting this property.
-.Ss Properties
-Each pool has several properties associated with it. Some properties are
-read-only statistics while others are configurable and change the behavior of
-the pool. The following are read-only properties:
-.Bl -tag -width "dedupratio"
-.It Sy allocated
-Amount of storage space used within the pool.
-.It Sy capacity
-Percentage of pool space used. This property can also be referred to by its
-shortened column name, "cap".
-.It Sy dedupratio
-The deduplication ratio specified for a pool, expressed as a multiplier.
-For example, a
-.Sy dedupratio
-value of 1.76 indicates that 1.76 units of data were stored but only 1 unit of disk space was actually consumed. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for a description of the deduplication feature.
-.It Sy expandsize
-Amount of uninitialized space within the pool or device that can be used to
-increase the total capacity of the pool.
-Uninitialized space consists of
-any space on an EFI labeled vdev which has not been brought online
-.Pq i.e. zpool online -e .
-This space occurs when a LUN is dynamically expanded.
-.It Sy fragmentation
-The amount of fragmentation in the pool.
-.It Sy free
-Number of blocks within the pool that are not allocated.
-.It Sy freeing
-After a file system or snapshot is destroyed, the space it was using is
-returned to the pool asynchronously.
-.Sy freeing
-is the amount of space remaining to be reclaimed.
-Over time
-.Sy freeing
-will decrease while
-.Sy free
-increases.
-.It Sy guid
-A unique identifier for the pool.
-.It Sy health
-The current health of the pool. Health can be
-.Qq Sy ONLINE ,
-.Qq Sy DEGRADED ,
-.Qq Sy FAULTED ,
-.Qq Sy OFFLINE ,
-.Qq Sy REMOVED ,
-or
-.Qq Sy UNAVAIL .
-.It Sy size
-Total size of the storage pool.
-.It Sy unsupported@ Ns Ar feature_guid
-Information about unsupported features that are enabled on the pool.
-See
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-for details.
-.El
-.Pp
-The space usage properties report actual physical space available to the
-storage pool. The physical space can be different from the total amount of
-space that any contained datasets can actually use. The amount of space used in
-a
-.No raidz
-configuration depends on the characteristics of the data being written.
-In addition,
-.Tn ZFS
-reserves some space for internal accounting that the
-.Xr zfs 8
-command takes into account, but the
-.Xr zpool 8
-command does not. For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should
-be invisible. For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely
-full, these discrepancies may become more noticeable.
-.Pp
-The following property can be set at creation time and import time:
-.Bl -tag -width 2n
-.It Sy altroot
-Alternate root directory. If set, this directory is prepended to any mount
-points within the pool. This can be used when examining an unknown pool where
-the mount points cannot be trusted, or in an alternate boot environment, where
-the typical paths are not valid.
-.Sy altroot
-is not a persistent property. It is valid only while the system is up.
-Setting
-.Sy altroot
-defaults to using
-.Cm cachefile=none ,
-though this may be overridden using an explicit setting.
-.El
-.Pp
-The following property can only be set at import time:
-.Bl -tag -width 2n
-.It Sy readonly Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
-If set to
-.Cm on ,
-pool will be imported in read-only mode with the following restrictions:
-.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
-.It
-Synchronous data in the intent log will not be accessible
-.It
-Properties of the pool can not be changed
-.It
-Datasets of this pool can only be mounted read-only
-.It
-To write to a read-only pool, a export and import of the pool is required.
-.El
-.Pp
-This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
-.Sy rdonly .
-.El
-.Pp
-The following properties can be set at creation time and import time, and later
-changed with the
-.Ic zpool set
-command:
-.Bl -tag -width 2n
-.It Sy autoexpand Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
-Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is grown. If set to
-.Qq Cm on ,
-the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded
-device. If the device is part of a mirror or
-.No raidz
-then all devices within that
-.No mirror/ Ns No raidz
-group must be expanded before the new space is made available to
-the pool. The default behavior is
-.Qq off .
-This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
-.Sy expand .
-.It Sy autoreplace Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
-Controls automatic device replacement. If set to
-.Qq Cm off ,
-device replacement must be initiated by the administrator by using the
-.Qq Nm Cm replace
-command. If set to
-.Qq Cm on ,
-any new device, found in the same
-physical location as a device that previously belonged to the pool, is
-automatically formatted and replaced. The default behavior is
-.Qq Cm off .
-This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name, "replace".
-.It Sy bootfs Ns = Ns Ar pool Ns / Ns Ar dataset
-Identifies the default bootable dataset for the root pool. This property is
-expected to be set mainly by the installation and upgrade programs.
-.It Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Ar path No | Cm none
-Controls the location of where the pool configuration is cached. Discovering
-all pools on system startup requires a cached copy of the configuration data
-that is stored on the root file system. All pools in this cache are
-automatically imported when the system boots. Some environments, such as
-install and clustering, need to cache this information in a different location
-so that pools are not automatically imported. Setting this property caches the
-pool configuration in a different location that can later be imported with
-.Qq Nm Cm import Fl c .
-Setting it to the special value
-.Qq Cm none
-creates a temporary pool that is never cached, and the special value
-.Cm ''
-(empty string) uses the default location.
-.It Sy comment Ns = Ns Ar text
-A text string consisting of printable ASCII characters that will be stored
-such that it is available even if the pool becomes faulted.
-An administrator can provide additional information about a pool using this
-property.
-.It Sy dedupditto Ns = Ns Ar number
-Threshold for the number of block ditto copies. If the reference count for a
-deduplicated block increases above this number, a new ditto copy of this block
-is automatically stored. Default setting is
-.Cm 0
-which causes no ditto copies to be created for deduplicated blocks.
-The miniumum legal nonzero setting is 100.
-.It Sy delegation Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
-Controls whether a non-privileged user is granted access based on the dataset
-permissions defined on the dataset. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for more information on
-.Tn ZFS
-delegated administration.
-.It Sy failmode Ns = Ns Cm wait No | Cm continue No | Cm panic
-Controls the system behavior in the event of catastrophic pool failure. This
-condition is typically a result of a loss of connectivity to the underlying
-storage device(s) or a failure of all devices within the pool. The behavior of
-such an event is determined as follows:
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Sy wait
-Blocks all
-.Tn I/O
-access until the device connectivity is recovered and the errors are cleared.
-This is the default behavior.
-.It Sy continue
-Returns
-.Em EIO
-to any new write
-.Tn I/O
-requests but allows reads to any of the remaining healthy devices. Any write
-requests that have yet to be committed to disk would be blocked.
-.It Sy panic
-Prints out a message to the console and generates a system crash dump.
-.El
-.It Sy feature@ Ns Ar feature_name Ns = Ns Sy enabled
-The value of this property is the current state of
-.Ar feature_name .
-The only valid value when setting this property is
-.Sy enabled
-which moves
-.Ar feature_name
-to the enabled state.
-See
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-for details on feature states.
-.It Sy listsnapshots Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
-Controls whether information about snapshots associated with this pool is
-output when
-.Qq Nm zfs Cm list
-is run without the
-.Fl t
-option. The default value is
-.Cm off .
-This property can also be referred to by its shortened name,
-.Sy listsnaps .
-.It Sy multihost Ns = Ns Sy on No | Sy off
-Controls whether a pool activity check should be performed during
-.Nm zpool Cm import .
-When a pool is determined to be active it cannot be imported, even with the
-.Fl f
-option.
-This property is intended to be used in failover configurations
-where multiple hosts have access to a pool on shared storage.
-.Pp
-Multihost provides protection on import only.
-It does not protect against an
-individual device being used in multiple pools, regardless of the type of vdev.
-See the discussion under
-.Sy zpool create.
-.Pp
-When this property is on, periodic writes to storage occur to show the pool is
-in use.
-See
-.Sy vfs.zfs.multihost_interval
-sysctl.
-In order to enable this property each host must set a unique hostid.
-The default value is
-.Sy off .
-.It Sy version Ns = Ns Ar version
-The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be increased, but never
-decreased. The preferred method of updating pools is with the
-.Qq Nm Cm upgrade
-command, though this property can be used when a specific version is needed
-for backwards compatibility.
-Once feature flags is enabled on a pool this property will no longer have a
-value.
-.El
-.Sh SUBCOMMANDS
-All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their
-original form.
-.Pp
-The
-.Nm
-command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage pools, add capacity
-to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools. The following
-subcommands are supported:
-.Bl -tag -width 2n
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Op Fl \&?
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Displays a help message.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm add
-.Op Fl fgLnP
-.Ar pool vdev ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool. The
-.No vdev
-specification is described in the
-.Qq Sx Virtual Devices
-section. The behavior of the
-.Fl f
-option, and the device checks performed are described in the
-.Qq Nm Cm create
-subcommand.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forces use of
-.Ar vdev ,
-even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
-Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.It Fl g
-Display
-.Ar vdev ,
-GUIDs instead of the normal device names.
-These GUIDs can be used in place of
-device names for the zpool detach/offline/remove/replace commands.
-.It Fl L
-Display real paths for
-.Ar vdev Ns s
-resolving all symbolic links.
-This can be used to look up the current block
-device name regardless of the /dev/disk/ path used to open it.
-.It Fl n
-Displays the configuration that would be used without actually adding the
-.Ar vdev Ns s.
-The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
-device sharing.
-.It Fl P
-Display real paths for
-.Ar vdev Ns s
-instead of only the last component of the path.
-This can be used in conjunction with the
-.Fl L
-flag.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm attach
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool device new_device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Attaches
-.Ar new_device
-to an existing
-.Sy zpool
-device. The existing device cannot be part of a
-.No raidz
-configuration. If
-.Ar device
-is not currently part of a mirrored configuration,
-.Ar device
-automatically transforms into a two-way mirror of
-.Ar device No and Ar new_device .
-If
-.Ar device
-is part of a two-way mirror, attaching
-.Ar new_device
-creates a three-way mirror, and so on. In either case,
-.Ar new_device
-begins to resilver immediately.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forces use of
-.Ar new_device ,
-even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
-manner.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm checkpoint
-.Op Fl d, -discard
-.Ar pool
-.Xc
-Checkpoints the current state of
-.Ar pool
-, which can be later restored by
-.Nm zpool Cm import --rewind-to-checkpoint .
-The existence of a checkpoint in a pool prohibits the following
-.Nm zpool
-commands:
-.Cm remove ,
-.Cm attach ,
-.Cm detach ,
-.Cm split ,
-and
-.Cm reguid .
-In addition, it may break reservation boundaries if the pool lacks free
-space.
-The
-.Nm zpool Cm status
-command indicates the existence of a checkpoint or the progress of discarding a
-checkpoint from a pool.
-The
-.Nm zpool Cm list
-command reports how much space the checkpoint takes from the pool.
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl d, -discard
-Discards an existing checkpoint from
-.Ar pool .
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm clear
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Ar pool
-.Op Ar device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Clears device errors in a pool.
-If no arguments are specified, all device errors within the pool are cleared.
-If one or more devices is specified, only those errors associated with the
-specified device or devices are cleared.
-If multihost is enabled, and the pool has been suspended, this will not
-resume I/O.
-While the pool was suspended, it may have been imported on
-another host, and resuming I/O could result in pool damage.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl F
-Initiates recovery mode for an unopenable pool. Attempts to discard the last
-few transactions in the pool to return it to an openable state. Not all damaged
-pools can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
-discarded transactions is irretrievably lost.
-.It Fl n
-Used in combination with the
-.Fl F
-flag. Check whether discarding transactions would make the pool openable, but
-do not actually discard any transactions.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm create
-.Op Fl fnd
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl t Ar tempname
-.Ar pool vdev ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the
-command line. The pool name must begin with a letter, and can only contain
-alphanumeric characters as well as underscore ("_"), dash ("-"), and period
-("."). The pool names "mirror", "raidz", "spare" and "log" are reserved, as are
-names beginning with the pattern "c[0-9]". The
-.No vdev
-specification is described in the
-.Qq Sx Virtual Devices
-section.
-.Pp
-The command attempts to verify that each device specified is accessible and not
-currently in use by another subsystem.
-However this check is not robust enough
-to detect simultaneous attempts to use a new device in different pools, even if
-.Sy multihost
-is
-.Sy enabled.
-The
-administrator must ensure that simultaneous invocations of any combination of
-.Sy zpool replace ,
-.Sy zpool create ,
-.Sy zpool add ,
-or
-.Sy zpool labelclear ,
-do not refer to the same device.
-Using the same device in two pools will
-result in pool corruption.
-.Pp
-There are some uses, such as being currently mounted, or specified as the
-dedicated dump device, that prevents a device from ever being used by ZFS.
-Other uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file system, can be overridden
-with the
-.Fl f
-option.
-.Pp
-The command also checks that the replication strategy for the pool is
-consistent. An attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant storage in a
-single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in an error unless
-.Fl f
-is specified. The use of differently sized devices within a single
-.No raidz
-or mirror group is also flagged as an error unless
-.Fl f
-is specified.
-.Pp
-Unless the
-.Fl R
-option is specified, the default mount point is
-.Qq Pa /pool .
-The mount point must not exist or must be empty, or else the
-root dataset cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the
-.Fl m
-option.
-.Pp
-By default all supported features are enabled on the new pool unless the
-.Fl d
-option is specified.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forces use of
-.Ar vdev Ns s,
-even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
-Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
-.It Fl n
-Displays the configuration that would be used without actually creating the
-pool. The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
-device sharing.
-.It Fl d
-Do not enable any features on the new pool.
-Individual features can be enabled by setting their corresponding properties
-to
-.Sy enabled
-with the
-.Fl o
-option.
-See
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-for details about feature properties.
-.It Xo
-.Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Xc
-Sets the given pool properties. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for a list of valid properties that can be set.
-.It Xo
-.Fl O
-.Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Xc
-Sets the given file system properties in the root file system of the pool. See
-.Xr zfs 8 Properties
-for a list of valid properties that
-can be set.
-.It Fl R Ar root
-Equivalent to
-.Qq Fl o Cm cachefile=none,altroot= Ns Pa root
-.It Fl m Ar mountpoint
-Sets the mount point for the root dataset. The default mount point is
-.Qq Pa /pool
-or
-.Qq Cm altroot Ns Pa /pool
-if
-.Sy altroot
-is specified. The mount point must be an absolute path,
-.Qq Cm legacy ,
-or
-.Qq Cm none .
-For more information on dataset mount points, see
-.Xr zfs 8 .
-.It Fl t Ar tempname
-Sets the in-core pool name to
-.Pa tempname
-while the on-disk name will be the name specified as the pool name
-.Pa pool .
-This will set the default
-.Sy cachefile
-property to
-.Sy none .
-This is intended to handle name space collisions when creating pools
-for other systems, such as virtual machines or physical machines
-whose pools live on network block devices.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm destroy
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This command
-tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the pool.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forces any active datasets contained within the pool to be unmounted.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm detach
-.Ar pool device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Detaches
-.Ar device
-from a mirror. The operation is refused if there are no other valid replicas
-of the data.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm export
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Exports the given pools from the system. All devices are marked as exported,
-but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The devices can be moved
-between systems (even those of different endianness) and imported as long as a
-sufficient number of devices are present.
-.Pp
-Before exporting the pool, all datasets within the pool are unmounted. A pool
-can not be exported if it has a shared spare that is currently being used.
-.Pp
-For pools to be portable, you must give the
-.Nm
-command whole disks, not just slices, so that
-.Tn ZFS
-can label the disks with portable
-.Sy EFI
-labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different endianness will not
-recognize the disks.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the
-.Qq Nm unmount Fl f
-command.
-.Pp
-This command will forcefully export the pool even if it has a shared spare that
-is currently being used. This may lead to potential data corruption.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm get
-.Op Fl Hp
-.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Ar all | property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Ar pool ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if
-.Qq Cm all
-is used) for the specified storage pool(s). These properties are displayed with
-the following fields:
-.Bl -column -offset indent "property"
-.It name Ta Name of storage pool
-.It property Ta Property name
-.It value Ta Property value
-.It source Ta Property source, either 'default' or 'local'.
-.El
-.Pp
-See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for more information on the available pool properties.
-.It Fl H
-Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
-instead of arbitrary space.
-.It Fl p
-Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
-.It Fl o Ar field
-A comma-separated list of columns to display.
-.Sy name Ns , Ns
-.Sy property Ns , Ns
-.Sy value Ns , Ns
-.Sy source
-is the default value.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm history
-.Op Fl il
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Displays the command history of the specified pools or all pools if no pool is
-specified.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl i
-Displays internally logged
-.Tn ZFS
-events in addition to user initiated events.
-.It Fl l
-Displays log records in long format, which in addition to standard format
-includes, the user name, the hostname, and the zone in which the operation was
-performed.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Lists pools available to import. If the
-.Fl d
-option is not specified, this command searches for devices in
-.Qq Pa /dev .
-The
-.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times, and all directories are searched. If
-the device appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a
-summary of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as
-the
-.No vdev
-layout and current health of the device for each device or file.
-Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
-.Qq Nm Cm destroy
-command, are not listed unless the
-.Fl D
-option is specified.
-.Pp
-The numeric identifier is unique, and can be used instead of the pool name when
-multiple exported pools of the same name are available.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl c Ar cachefile
-Reads configuration from the given
-.Ar cachefile
-that was created with the
-.Qq Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
-.Ar cachefile
-is used instead of searching for devices.
-.It Fl d Ar dir
-Searches for devices or files in
-.Ar dir .
-The
-.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times.
-.It Fl D
-Lists destroyed pools only.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Op Fl f
-.Op Fl m
-.Op Fl N
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Fl a
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical to the previous
-command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of devices available
-are imported. Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
-.Qq Nm Cm destroy
-command, will not be imported unless the
-.Fl D
-option is specified.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl o Ar mntopts
-Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
-.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for more information on the available pool properties.
-.It Fl c Ar cachefile
-Reads configuration from the given
-.Ar cachefile
-that was created with the
-.Qq Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
-.Ar cachefile
-is used instead of searching for devices.
-.It Fl d Ar dir
-Searches for devices or files in
-.Ar dir .
-The
-.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
-.Fl c
-option.
-.It Fl D
-Imports destroyed pools only. The
-.Fl f
-option is also required.
-.It Fl f
-Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
-.It Fl m
-Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
-can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
-.It Fl N
-Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
-.It Fl R Ar root
-Sets the
-.Qq Sy cachefile
-property to
-.Qq Cm none
-and the
-.Qq Sy altroot
-property to
-.Qq Ar root
-.It Fl F
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
-importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
-can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
-discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the
-pool is importable or already imported.
-.It Fl n
-Used with the
-.Fl F
-recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
-importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more
-details about pool recovery mode, see the
-.Fl F
-option, above.
-.It Fl a
-Searches for and imports all pools found.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm import
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar ...
-.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
-.Op Fl D
-.Op Fl f
-.Op Fl m
-.Op Fl N
-.Op Fl R Ar root
-.Op Fl t
-.Op Fl F Op Fl n
-.Ar pool | id
-.Op Ar newpool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Imports a specific pool. A pool can be identified by its name or the numeric
-identifier. If
-.Ar newpool
-is specified, the pool is imported using the name
-.Ar newpool .
-Otherwise, it is imported with the same name as its exported name.
-.Pp
-If a device is removed from a system without running
-.Qq Nm Cm export
-first, the device appears as potentially active. It cannot be determined if
-this was a failed export, or whether the device is really in use from another
-host. To import a pool in this state, the
-.Fl f
-option is required.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl o Ar mntopts
-Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
-.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for more information on the available pool properties.
-.It Fl c Ar cachefile
-Reads configuration from the given
-.Ar cachefile
-that was created with the
-.Qq Sy cachefile
-pool property. This
-.Ar cachefile
-is used instead of searching for devices.
-.It Fl d Ar dir
-Searches for devices or files in
-.Ar dir .
-The
-.Fl d
-option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
-.Fl c
-option.
-.It Fl D
-Imports destroyed pools only. The
-.Fl f
-option is also required.
-.It Fl f
-Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
-.It Fl m
-Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
-can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
-.It Fl N
-Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
-.It Fl R Ar root
-Equivalent to
-.Qq Fl o Cm cachefile=none,altroot= Ns Pa root
-.It Fl t
-Used with
-.Ar newpool .
-Specifies that
-.Ar newpool
-is temporary.
-Temporary pool names last until export.
-Ensures that the original pool name will be used in all label updates and
-therefore is retained upon export.
-Will also set
-.Sy cachefile
-property to
-.Sy none
-when not explicitly specified.
-.It Fl F
-Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
-importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
-can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
-discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the
-pool is importable or already imported.
-.It Fl n
-Used with the
-.Fl F
-recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
-importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more
-details about pool recovery mode, see the
-.Fl F
-option, above.
-.It Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
-Rewinds pool to the checkpointed state.
-Once the pool is imported with this flag there is no way to undo the rewind.
-All changes and data that were written after the checkpoint are lost!
-The only exception is when the
-.Sy readonly
-mounting option is enabled.
-In this case, the checkpointed state of the pool is opened and an
-administrator can see how the pool would look like if they were
-to fully rewind.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm initialize
-.Op Fl cs
-.Ar pool
-.Op Ar device Ns ...
-.Xc
-Begins initializing by writing to all unallocated regions on the specified
-devices, or all eligible devices in the pool if no individual devices are
-specified.
-Only leaf data or log devices may be initialized.
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl c, -cancel
-Cancel initializing on the specified devices, or all eligible devices if none
-are specified.
-If one or more target devices are invalid or are not currently being
-initialized, the command will fail and no cancellation will occur on any device.
-.It Fl s -suspend
-Suspend initializing on the specified devices, or all eligible devices if none
-are specified.
-If one or more target devices are invalid or are not currently being
-initialized, the command will fail and no suspension will occur on any device.
-Initializing can then be resumed by running
-.Nm zpool Cm initialize
-with no flags on the relevant target devices.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm iostat
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Fl gLPv
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Displays
-.Tn I/O
-statistics for the given pools. When given an interval, the statistics are
-printed every
-.Ar interval
-seconds until
-.Sy Ctrl-C
-is pressed. If no
-.Ar pools
-are specified, statistics for every pool in the system is shown. If
-.Ar count
-is specified, the command exits after
-.Ar count
-reports are printed.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-Print a timestamp.
-.Pp
-Use modifier
-.Cm d
-for standard date format. See
-.Xr date 1 .
-Use modifier
-.Cm u
-for unixtime
-.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
-.It Fl g
-Display vdev GUIDs instead of the normal device names.
-These GUIDs can be used in place of device names for the zpool
-detach/offline/remove/replace commands.
-.It Fl L
-Display real paths for vdevs resolving all symbolic links.
-This can be used to look up the current block device name regardless of the
-.Pa /dev/disk/
-path used to open it.
-.It Fl P
-Display full paths for vdevs instead of only the last component of
-the path.
-This can be used in conjunction with the
-.Fl L
-flag.
-.It Fl v
-Verbose statistics.
-Reports usage statistics for individual vdevs within the
-pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm labelclear
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Removes
-.Tn ZFS
-label information from the specified
-.Ar device .
-The
-.Ar device
-must not be part of an active pool configuration.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Treat exported or foreign devices as inactive.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm list
-.Op Fl HgLpPv
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage. If no
-.Ar pools
-are specified, all pools in the system are listed.
-.Pp
-When given an interval, the output is printed every
-.Ar interval
-seconds until
-.Sy Ctrl-C
-is pressed. If
-.Ar count
-is specified, the command exits after
-.Ar count
-reports are printed.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-Print a timestamp.
-.Pp
-Use modifier
-.Cm d
-for standard date format. See
-.Xr date 1 .
-Use modifier
-.Cm u
-for unixtime
-.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
-.It Fl g
-Display vdev GUIDs instead of the normal device names.
-These GUIDs can be used in place of device names for the zpool
-detach/offline/remove/replace commands.
-.It Fl H
-Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
-instead of arbitrary space.
-.It Fl L
-Display real paths for vdevs resolving all symbolic links.
-This can be used to look up the current block device name regardless of the
-/dev/disk/ path used to open it.
-.It Fl p
-Display numbers in parsable
-.Pq exact
-values.
-.It Fl P
-Display full paths for vdevs instead of only the last component of
-the path.
-This can be used in conjunction with the
-.Fl L
-flag.
-.It Fl v
-Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual
-.Em vdevs
-within
-the pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
-.It Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
-Comma-separated list of properties to display. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for a list of valid properties. The default list is
-.Sy name ,
-.Sy size ,
-.Sy allocated ,
-.Sy free ,
-.Sy checkpoint ,
-.Sy expandsize ,
-.Sy fragmentation ,
-.Sy capacity ,
-.Sy dedupratio ,
-.Sy health ,
-.Sy altroot .
-.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-Print a timestamp.
-.Pp
-Use modifier
-.Cm d
-for standard date format. See
-.Xr date 1 .
-Use modifier
-.Cm u
-for unixtime
-.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm offline
-.Op Fl t
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Takes the specified physical device offline. While the
-.Ar device
-is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl t
-Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts to its previous
-state.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm online
-.Op Fl e
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Brings the specified physical device online.
-.Pp
-This command is not applicable to spares or cache devices.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl e
-Expand the device to use all available space. If the device is part of a mirror
-or
-.No raidz
-then all devices must be expanded before the new space will become
-available to the pool.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm reguid
-.Ar pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Generates a new unique identifier for the pool. You must ensure that all
-devices in this pool are online and healthy before performing this action.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm remove
-.Op Fl np
-.Ar pool device ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Removes the specified device from the pool.
-This command currently only supports removing hot spares, cache, log
-devices and mirrored top-level vdevs (mirror of leaf devices); but not raidz.
-.Pp
-Removing a top-level vdev reduces the total amount of space in the storage pool.
-The specified device will be evacuated by copying all allocated space from it to
-the other devices in the pool.
-In this case, the
-.Nm zpool Cm remove
-command initiates the removal and returns, while the evacuation continues in
-the background.
-The removal progress can be monitored with
-.Nm zpool Cm status.
-This feature must be enabled to be used, see
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-.Pp
-A mirrored top-level device (log or data) can be removed by specifying the
-top-level mirror for the same.
-Non-log devices or data devices that are part of a mirrored configuration can
-be removed using the
-.Qq Nm Cm detach
-command.
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl n
-Do not actually perform the removal ("no-op").
-Instead, print the estimated amount of memory that will be used by the
-mapping table after the removal completes.
-This is nonzero only for top-level vdevs.
-.El
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl p
-Used in conjunction with the
-.Fl n
-flag, displays numbers as parsable (exact) values.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm remove
-.Fl s
-.Ar pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Stops and cancels an in-progress removal of a top-level vdev.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm reopen
-.Ar pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm replace
-.Op Fl f
-.Ar pool device
-.Op Ar new_device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Replaces
-.Ar old_device
-with
-.Ar new_device .
-This is equivalent to attaching
-.Ar new_device ,
-waiting for it to resilver, and then detaching
-.Ar old_device .
-.Pp
-The size of
-.Ar new_device
-must be greater than or equal to the minimum size
-of all the devices in a mirror or
-.No raidz
-configuration.
-.Pp
-.Ar new_device
-is required if the pool is not redundant. If
-.Ar new_device
-is not specified, it defaults to
-.Ar old_device .
-This form of replacement is useful after an existing disk has failed and has
-been physically replaced. In this case, the new disk may have the same
-.Pa /dev
-path as the old device, even though it is actually a different disk.
-.Tn ZFS
-recognizes this.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl f
-Forces use of
-.Ar new_device ,
-even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
-manner.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm scrub
-.Op Fl s | Fl p
-.Ar pool ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Begins a scrub or resumes a paused scrub.
-The scrub examines all data in the specified pools to verify that it checksums
-correctly.
-For replicated
-.Pq mirror or raidz
-devices, ZFS automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub.
-The
-.Nm zpool Cm status
-command reports the progress of the scrub and summarizes the results of the
-scrub upon completion.
-.Pp
-Scrubbing and resilvering are very similar operations.
-The difference is that resilvering only examines data that ZFS knows to be out
-of date
-.Po
-for example, when attaching a new device to a mirror or replacing an existing
-device
-.Pc ,
-whereas scrubbing examines all data to discover silent errors due to hardware
-faults or disk failure.
-.Pp
-Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS only allows
-one at a time.
-If a scrub is paused, the
-.Nm zpool Cm scrub
-resumes it.
-If a resilver is in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started until the
-resilver completes.
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl s
-Stop scrubbing.
-.El
-.Bl -tag -width Ds
-.It Fl p
-Pause scrubbing.
-Scrub pause state and progress are periodically synced to disk.
-If the system is restarted or pool is exported during a paused scrub,
-even after import, scrub will remain paused until it is resumed.
-Once resumed the scrub will pick up from the place where it was last
-checkpointed to disk.
-To resume a paused scrub issue
-.Nm zpool Cm scrub
-again.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm set
-.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Sets the given property on the specified pool. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section for more information on what properties can be set and acceptable
-values.
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm split
-.Op Fl gLnP
-.Op Fl R Ar altroot
-.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
-.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-.Ar pool newpool
-.Op Ar device ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Splits off one disk from each mirrored top-level
-.No vdev
-in a pool and creates a new pool from the split-off disks. The original pool
-must be made up of one or more mirrors and must not be in the process of
-resilvering. The
-.Cm split
-subcommand chooses the last device in each mirror
-.No vdev
-unless overridden by a device specification on the command line.
-.Pp
-When using a
-.Ar device
-argument,
-.Cm split
-includes the specified device(s) in a new pool and, should any devices remain
-unspecified, assigns the last device in each mirror
-.No vdev
-to that pool, as it does normally. If you are uncertain about the outcome of a
-.Cm split
-command, use the
-.Fl n
-("dry-run") option to ensure your command will have the effect you intend.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl R Ar altroot
-Automatically import the newly created pool after splitting, using the
-specified
-.Ar altroot
-parameter for the new pool's alternate root. See the
-.Sy altroot
-description in the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section, above.
-.It Fl g
-Display vdev GUIDs instead of the normal device names.
-These GUIDs can be used in place of device names for the zpool
-detach/offline/remove/replace commands.
-.It Fl L
-Display real paths for vdevs resolving all symbolic links.
-This can be used to look up the current block device name regardless of the
-.Pa /dev/disk/
-path used to open it.
-.It Fl n
-Displays the configuration that would be created without actually splitting the
-pool. The actual pool split could still fail due to insufficient privileges or
-device status.
-.It Fl o Ar mntopts
-Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
-pool. See
-.Xr zfs 8
-for a description of dataset properties and mount options. Valid only in
-conjunction with the
-.Fl R
-option.
-.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
-Sets the specified property on the new pool. See the
-.Qq Sx Properties
-section, above, for more information on the available pool properties.
-.It Fl P
-Display full paths for vdevs instead of only the last component of
-the path.
-This can be used in conjunction with the
-.Fl L
-flag.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm status
-.Op Fl DgLPvx
-.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-.Op Ar pool
-.Ar ...
-.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no
-.Ar pool
-is specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed. For more
-information on pool and device health, see the
-.Qq Sx Device Failure and Recovery
-section.
-.Pp
-When given an interval, the output is printed every
-.Ar interval
-seconds until
-.Sy Ctrl-C
-is pressed. If
-.Ar count
-is specified, the command exits after
-.Ar count
-reports are printed.
-.Pp
-If a scrub or resilver is in progress, this command reports the percentage
-done and the estimated time to completion. Both of these are only approximate,
-because the amount of data in the pool and the other workloads on the system
-can change.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl D
-Display a histogram of deduplication statistics, showing the allocated
-.Pq physically present on disk
-and referenced
-.Pq logically referenced in the pool
-block counts and sizes by reference count.
-.It Fl g
-Display vdev GUIDs instead of the normal device names.
-These GUIDs can be used in place of device names for the zpool
-detach/offline/remove/replace commands.
-.It Fl L
-Display real paths for vdevs resolving all symbolic links.
-This can be used to look up the current block device name regardless of the
-.Pa /dev/disk/
-path used to open it.
-.It Fl P
-Display full paths for vdevs instead of only the last component of
-the path.
-This can be used in conjunction with the
-.Fl L
-flag.
-.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
-Print a timestamp.
-.Pp
-Use modifier
-.Cm d
-for standard date format. See
-.Xr date 1 .
-Use modifier
-.Cm u
-for unixtime
-.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
-.It Fl v
-Displays verbose data error information, printing out a complete list of all
-data errors since the last complete pool scrub.
-.It Fl x
-Only display status for pools that are exhibiting errors or are otherwise
-unavailable.
-Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format, having non-native
-block size or disabled features will not be included.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm sync
-.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
-.Xc
-Forces all in-core dirty data to be written to the primary pool storage and
-not the ZIL.
-It will also update administrative information including quota reporting.
-Without arguments,
-.Nm zpool Cm sync
-will sync all pools on the system.
-Otherwise, it will only sync the specified
-.Ar pool .
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm upgrade
-.Op Fl v
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Displays pools which do not have all supported features enabled and pools
-formatted using a legacy
-.Tn ZFS
-version number.
-These pools can continue to be used, but some features may not be available.
-Use
-.Nm Cm upgrade Fl a
-to enable all features on all pools.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl v
-Displays legacy
-.Tn ZFS
-versions supported by the current software.
-See
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-for a description of feature flags features supported by the current software.
-.El
-.It Xo
-.Nm
-.Cm upgrade
-.Op Fl V Ar version
-.Fl a | Ar pool ...
-.Xc
-.Pp
-Enables all supported features on the given pool.
-Once this is done, the pool will no longer be accessible on systems that do
-not support feature flags.
-See
-.Xr zpool-features 7
-for details on compatibility with systems that support feature flags, but do
-not support all features enabled on the pool.
-.Bl -tag -width indent
-.It Fl a
-Enables all supported features on all pools.
-.It Fl V Ar version
-Upgrade to the specified legacy version. If the
-.Fl V
-flag is specified, no features will be enabled on the pool.
-This option can only be used to increase version number up to the last
-supported legacy version number.
-.El
-.El
-.Sh EXIT STATUS
-The following exit values are returned:
-.Bl -tag -offset 2n -width 2n
-.It 0
-Successful completion.
-.It 1
-An error occurred.
-.It 2
-Invalid command line options were specified.
-.El
-.Sh ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
-.Bl -tag -width "ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_FOLLOW_LINKS"
-.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_GUID
-Cause
-.Nm zpool
-subcommands to output vdev guids by default.
-This behavior is identical to the
-.Nm zpool status -g
-command line option.
-.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_FOLLOW_LINKS
-Cause
-.Nm zpool
-subcommands to follow links for vdev names by default.
-This behavior is identical to the
-.Nm zpool status -L
-command line option.
-.It Ev ZPOOL_VDEV_NAME_PATH
-Cause
-.Nm zpool
-subcommands to output full vdev path names by default.
-This behavior is identical to the
-.Nm zpool status -P
-command line option.
-.El
-.Sh EXAMPLES
-.Bl -tag -width 0n
-.It Sy Example 1 No Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command creates a pool with a single
-.No raidz
-root
-.No vdev
-that consists of six disks.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create tank raidz da0 da1 da2 da3 da4 da5
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 2 No Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mirror
-contains two disks.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create tank mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 3 No Creating a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool by Using Partitions
-.Pp
-The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two GPT partitions.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create tank da0p3 da1p3
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 4 No Creating a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool by Using Files
-.Pp
-The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files. While not
-recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental purposes.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 5 No Adding a Mirror to a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool
-.Em tank ,
-assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional space
-is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool add tank mirror da2 da3
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 6 No Listing Available Tn ZFS No Storage Pools
-.Pp
-The following command lists all available pools on the system.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool list
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-pool 2.70T 473G 2.24T 33% - 17% 1.00x ONLINE -
-test 1.98G 89.5K 1.98G 48% - 0% 1.00x ONLINE -
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 7 No Listing All Properties for a Pool
-.Pp
-The following command lists all the properties for a pool.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool get all pool
-pool size 2.70T -
-pool capacity 17% -
-pool altroot - default
-pool health ONLINE -
-pool guid 2501120270416322443 default
-pool version 28 default
-pool bootfs pool/root local
-pool delegation on default
-pool autoreplace off default
-pool cachefile - default
-pool failmode wait default
-pool listsnapshots off default
-pool autoexpand off default
-pool dedupditto 0 default
-pool dedupratio 1.00x -
-pool free 2.24T -
-pool allocated 473G -
-pool readonly off -
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 8 No Destroying a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command destroys the pool
-.Qq Em tank
-and any datasets contained within.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool destroy -f tank
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 9 No Exporting a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command exports the devices in pool
-.Em tank
-so that they can be relocated or later imported.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool export tank
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 10 No Importing a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
-.Pp
-The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool
-.Qq Em tank
-for use on the system.
-.Pp
-The results from this command are similar to the following:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool import
-
- pool: tank
- id: 15451357997522795478
- state: ONLINE
-action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.
-config:
-
- tank ONLINE
- mirror ONLINE
- da0 ONLINE
- da1 ONLINE
-.Ed
-.It Xo
-.Sy Example 11
-Upgrading All
-.Tn ZFS
-Storage Pools to the Current Version
-.Xc
-.Pp
-The following command upgrades all
-.Tn ZFS
-Storage pools to the current version of
-the software.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool upgrade -a
-This system is currently running ZFS pool version 28.
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 12 No Managing Hot Spares
-.Pp
-The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create tank mirror da0 da1 spare da2
-.Ed
-.Pp
-If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded
-state. The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool replace tank da0 da2
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is
-made available should another device fails. The hot spare can be permanently
-removed from the pool using the following command:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool remove tank da2
-.Ed
-.It Xo
-.Sy Example 13
-Creating a
-.Tn ZFS
-Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
-.Xc
-.Pp
-The following command creates a
-.Tn ZFS
-storage pool consisting of two, two-way
-mirrors and mirrored log devices:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool create pool mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3 log mirror da4 da5
-.Ed
-.It Sy Example 14 No Adding Cache Devices to a Tn ZFS No Pool
-.Pp
-The following command adds two disks for use as cache devices to a
-.Tn ZFS
-storage pool:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool add pool cache da2 da3
-.Ed
-.Pp
-Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from main memory.
-Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over an hour for
-them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
-.Cm iostat
-subcommand as follows:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool iostat -v pool 5
-.Ed
-.It Xo
-.Sy Example 15
-Displaying expanded space on a device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-The following command dipslays the detailed information for the
-.Em data
-pool.
-This pool is comprised of a single
-.Em raidz
-vdev where one of its
-devices increased its capacity by 10GB.
-In this example, the pool will not
-be able to utilized this extra capacity until all the devices under the
-.Em raidz
-vdev have been expanded.
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool list -v data
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE FRAG EXPANDSZ CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-data 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G 48% - 61% 1.00x ONLINE -
- raidz1 23.9G 14.6G 9.30G 48% -
- ada0 - - - - -
- ada1 - - - - 10G
- ada2 - - - - -
-.Ed
-.It Xo
-.Sy Example 16
-Removing a Mirrored top-level (Log or Data) Device
-.Xc
-.Pp
-The following commands remove the mirrored log device
-.Sy mirror-2
-and mirrored top-level data device
-.Sy mirror-1 .
-.Pp
-Given this configuration:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
- pool: tank
- state: ONLINE
- scrub: none requested
- config:
-
- NAME STATE READ WRITE CKSUM
- tank ONLINE 0 0 0
- mirror-0 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da0 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da1 ONLINE 0 0 0
- mirror-1 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da2 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da3 ONLINE 0 0 0
- logs
- mirror-2 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da4 ONLINE 0 0 0
- da5 ONLINE 0 0 0
-.Ed
-.Pp
-The command to remove the mirrored log
-.Em mirror-2
-is:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool remove tank mirror-2
-.Ed
-.Pp
-The command to remove the mirrored data
-.Em mirror-1
-is:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool remove tank mirror-1
-.Ed
-.It Xo
-.Sy Example 17
-Recovering a Faulted
-.Tn ZFS
-Pool
-.Xc
-.Pp
-If a pool is faulted but recoverable, a message indicating this state is
-provided by
-.Qq Nm Cm status
-if the pool was cached (see the
-.Fl c Ar cachefile
-argument above), or as part of the error output from a failed
-.Qq Nm Cm import
-of the pool.
-.Pp
-Recover a cached pool with the
-.Qq Nm Cm clear
-command:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool clear -F data
-Pool data returned to its state as of Tue Sep 08 13:23:35 2009.
-Discarded approximately 29 seconds of transactions.
-.Ed
-.Pp
-If the pool configuration was not cached, use
-.Qq Nm Cm import
-with the recovery mode flag:
-.Bd -literal -offset 2n
-.Li # Ic zpool import -F data
-Pool data returned to its state as of Tue Sep 08 13:23:35 2009.
-Discarded approximately 29 seconds of transactions.
-.Ed
-.El
-.Sh SEE ALSO
-.Xr zpool-features 7 ,
-.Xr zfs 8 ,
-.Xr zfsd 8
-.Sh HISTORY
-The
-.Nm
-utility first appeared in
-.Fx 7.0 .
-.Sh AUTHORS
-This manual page is a
-.Xr mdoc 7
-reimplementation of the
-.Tn OpenSolaris
-manual page
-.Em zpool(1M) ,
-modified and customized for
-.Fx
-and licensed under the Common Development and Distribution License
-.Pq Tn CDDL .
-.Pp
-The
-.Xr mdoc 7
-implementation of this manual page was initially written by
-.An Martin Matuska Aq mm@FreeBSD.org .