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+.\" NOTE: changes to the manual page for "top" should be made in the
+.\" file "top.X" and NOT in the file "top.1".
+.nr N %topn%
+.nr D %delay%
+.TH TOP 1 Local
+top \- display and update information about the top cpu processes
+.BI \-d count
+.BI \-s time
+.BI \-o field
+.BI \-U username
+.\" This defines appropriate quote strings for nroff and troff
+.ds lq \&"
+.ds rq \&"
+.if t .ds lq ``
+.if t .ds rq ''
+.\" Just in case these number registers aren't set yet...
+.if \nN==0 .nr N 10
+.if \nD==0 .nr D 5
+displays the top
+.if !\nN==-1 \nN
+processes on the system and periodically updates this information.
+.if \nN==-1 \
+If standard output is an intelligent terminal (see below) then
+as many processes as will fit on the terminal screen are displayed
+by default. Otherwise, a good number of them are shown (around 20).
+Raw cpu percentage is used to rank the processes. If
+is given, then the top
+processes will be displayed instead of the default.
+makes a distinction between terminals that support advanced capabilities
+and those that do not. This
+distinction affects the choice of defaults for certain options. In the
+remainder of this document, an \*(lqintelligent\*(rq terminal is one that
+supports cursor addressing, clear screen, and clear to end of line.
+Conversely, a \*(lqdumb\*(rq terminal is one that does not support such
+features. If the output of
+is redirected to a file, it acts as if it were being run on a dumb
+Show system processes in the display. Normally, system processes such as
+the pager and the swapper are not shown. This option makes them visible.
+Use \*(lqbatch\*(rq mode. In this mode, all input from the terminal is
+ignored. Interrupt characters (such as ^C and ^\e) still have an effect.
+This is the default on a dumb terminal, or when the output is not a terminal.
+Use \*(lqinteractive\*(rq mode. In this mode, any input is immediately
+read for processing. See the section on \*(lqInteractive Mode\*(rq
+for an explanation of
+which keys perform what functions. After the command is processed, the
+screen will immediately be updated, even if the command was not
+understood. This mode is the default when standard output is an
+Do not display idle processes.
+By default, top displays both active and idle processes.
+Use \*(lqnon-interactive\*(rq mode. This is indentical to \*(lqbatch\*(rq
+to -20 so that it will run faster. This can be used when the system is
+being very sluggish to improve the possibility of discovering the problem.
+This option can only be used by root.
+Do not take the time to map uid numbers to usernames. Normally,
+will read as much of the file \*(lq/etc/passwd\*(rq as is necessary to map
+all the user id numbers it encounters into login names. This option
+disables all that, while possibly decreasing execution time. The uid
+numbers are displayed instead of the names.
+.BI \-d count
+displays, then exit. A display is considered to be one update of the
+screen. This option allows the user to select the number of displays he
+wants to see before
+automatically exits. For intelligent terminals, no upper limit
+is set. The default is 1 for dumb terminals.
+.BI \-s time
+Set the delay between screen updates to
+seconds. The default delay between updates is \nD seconds.
+.BI \-o field
+Sort the process display area on the specified field. The field name is
+the name of the column as seen in the output, but in lower case. Likely
+values are \*(lqcpu\*(rq, \*(lqsize\*(rq, \*(lqres\*(rq, and \*(lqtime\*(rq,
+but may vary on different operating systems. Note that
+not all operating systems support this option.
+.BI \-U username
+Show only those processes owned by
+.IR username .
+This option currently only accepts usernames and will not understand
+fields can be specified as \*(lqinfinite\*(rq, indicating that they can
+stretch as far as possible. This is accomplished by using any proper
+prefix of the keywords
+The default for
+on an intelligent terminal is, in fact,
+.BI infinity .
+The environment variable
+is examined for options before the command line is scanned. This enables
+a user to set his or her own defaults. The number of processes to display
+can also be specified in the environment variable
+.BR TOP .
+.BR \-I ,
+.BR \-S ,
+are actually toggles. A second specification of any of these options
+will negate the first. Thus a user who has the environment variable
+set to \*(lq\-I\*(rq may use the command \*(lqtop \-I\*(rq to see idle processes.
+.SH "INTERACTIVE MODE"
+is running in \*(lqinteractive mode\*(rq, it reads commands from the
+terminal and acts upon them accordingly. In this mode, the terminal is
+put in \*(lqCBREAK\*(rq, so that a character will be
+processed as soon as it is typed. Almost always, a key will be
+is between displays; that is, while it is waiting for
+seconds to elapse. If this is the case, the command will be
+processed and the display will be updated immediately thereafter
+(reflecting any changes that the command may have specified). This
+happens even if the command was incorrect. If a key is pressed while
+is in the middle of updating the display, it will finish the update and
+then process the command. Some commands require additional information,
+and the user will be prompted accordingly. While typing this information
+in, the user's erase and kill keys (as set up by the command
+.IR stty )
+are recognized, and a newline terminates the input.
+These commands are currently recognized (^L refers to control-L):
+Redraw the screen.
+.IP "\fBh\fP\ or\ \fB?\fP"
+Display a summary of the commands (help screen).
+Change the number of displays to show (prompt for new number).
+Remember that the next display counts as one, so typing
+show one final display and then immediately exit.
+.B n or #
+Change the number of processes to display (prompt for new number).
+Change the number of seconds to delay between displays
+(prompt for new number).
+Send a signal (\*(lqkill\*(rq by default) to a list of processes. This
+acts similarly to the command
+.IR kill (1)).
+Change the priority (the \*(lqnice\*(rq) of a list of processes.
+This acts similarly to the command
+.IR renice (8)).
+Display only processes owned by a specific username (prompt for username).
+If the username specified is simply \*(lq+\*(rq, then processes belonging
+to all users will be displayed.
+Display a list of system errors (if any) generated by the last
+.BR k ill
+.BR r enice
+Toggle the display of idle processes.
+.SH "THE DISPLAY"
+The actual display varies depending on the specific variant of Unix
+that the machine is running. This description may not exactly match
+what is seen by top running on this particular machine. Differences
+are listed at the end of this manual entry.
+The top few lines of the display show general information
+about the state of the system, including
+the last process id assigned to a process (on most systems),
+the three load averages,
+the current time,
+the number of existing processes,
+the number of processes in each state
+(sleeping, running, starting, zombies, and stopped),
+and a percentage of time spent in each of the processor states
+(user, nice, system, and idle).
+It also includes information about physial and virtual memory allocation.
+The remainder of the screen displays information about individual
+processes. This display is similar in spirit to
+.IR ps (1)
+but it is not exactly the same. PID is the process id, USERNAME is the name
+of the process's owner (if
+is specified, a UID column will be substituted for USERNAME),
+PRI is the current priority of the process,
+NICE is the nice amount (in the range \-20 to 20),
+SIZE is the total size of the process (text, data, and stack),
+RES is the current amount of resident memory (both SIZE and RES are
+given in kilobytes),
+STATE is the current state (one of \*(lqsleep\*(rq, \*(lqWAIT\*(rq,
+\*(lqrun\*(rq, \*(lqidl\*(rq, \*(lqzomb\*(rq, or \*(lqstop\*(rq),
+TIME is the number of system and user cpu seconds that the process has used,
+WCPU, when displayed, is the weighted cpu percentage (this is the same
+.IR ps (1)
+displays as CPU),
+CPU is the raw percentage and is the field that is sorted to determine
+the order of the processes, and
+COMMAND is the name of the command that the process is currently running
+(if the process is swapped out, this column is marked \*(lq<swapped>\*(rq).
+The \*(lqABANDONED\*(rq state (known in the kernel as \*(lqSWAIT\*(rq) was
+abandoned, thus the name. A process should never end up in this state.
+William LeFebvre, EECS Department, Northwestern University
+TOP user-configurable defaults for options.
+/dev/kmem kernel memory
+/dev/mem physical memory
+/etc/passwd used to map uid numbers to user names
+/vmunix system image
+Don't shoot me, but the default for
+has changed once again. So many people were confused by the fact that
+wasn't showing them all the processes that I have decided to make the
+default behavior show idle processes, just like it did in version 2.
+But to appease folks who can't stand that behavior, I have added the
+ability to set \*(lqdefault\*(rq options in the environment variable
+(see the OPTIONS section). Those who want the behavior that version
+3.0 had need only set the environment variable
+The command name for swapped processes should be tracked down, but this
+would make the program run slower.
+.IR ps (1),
+things can change while
+is collecting information for an update. The picture it gives is only a
+close approximation to reality.
+.SH "SEE ALSO"