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@@ -1,7 +1,6 @@
-<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN">
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- * Copyright (c) 1998-2005,2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
+ * Copyright (c) 1998-2017,2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
* *
* Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a *
* copy of this software and associated documentation files (the *
@@ -27,158 +26,231 @@
* sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written *
* authorization. *
****************************************************************************
- * @Id: curs_pad.3x,v 1.17 2010/12/04 18:41:07 tom Exp @
+ * @Id: curs_pad.3x,v 1.25 2018/07/28 22:20:54 tom Exp @
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<BODY>
-<H1>curs_pad 3x</H1>
-<HR>
+<H1 class="no-header">curs_pad 3x</H1>
<PRE>
-<!-- Manpage converted by man2html 3.0.1 -->
-<STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
+<STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
-</PRE>
-<H2>NAME</H2><PRE>
- <STRONG>newpad</STRONG>, <STRONG>subpad</STRONG>, <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>, <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>, <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>,
- <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG> - create and display <STRONG>curses</STRONG> pads
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
+ <STRONG>newpad</STRONG>, <STRONG>subpad</STRONG>, <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>, <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>, <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>, <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG> - create
+ and display <STRONG>curses</STRONG> pads
-</PRE>
-<H2>SYNOPSIS</H2><PRE>
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
<STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>
- <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*newpad(int</STRONG> <STRONG>nlines,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>ncols);</STRONG>
- <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*subpad(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*orig,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>nlines,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>ncols,</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>begin_y,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>begin_x);</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>prefresh(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*pad,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pminrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pmincol,</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>sminrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smincol,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smaxrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smaxcol);</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pnoutrefresh(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*pad,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pminrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pmincol,</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>sminrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smincol,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smaxrow,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>smaxcol);</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pechochar(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*pad,</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
- <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pecho_wchar(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*pad,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> <STRONG>*wch);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*newpad(int</STRONG> <EM>nlines</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>ncols</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*subpad(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>orig</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>nlines</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>ncols</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>begin</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG><EM>y</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>begin</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG><EM>x</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>prefresh(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pad</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>pminrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>pmincol</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>sminrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smincol</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smaxrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smaxcol</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pnoutrefresh(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pad</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>pminrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>pmincol</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>sminrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smincol</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smaxrow</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <EM>smaxcol</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pechochar(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pad</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <EM>ch</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>pecho_wchar(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>pad</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG><EM>wch</EM><STRONG>);</STRONG>
-</PRE>
-<H2>DESCRIPTION</H2><PRE>
- The <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> routine creates and returns a pointer to a new
- pad data structure with the given number of lines, <EM>nlines</EM>,
- and columns, <EM>ncols</EM>. A pad is like a window, except that
- it is not restricted by the screen size, and is not neces-
- sarily associated with a particular part of the screen.
- Pads can be used when a large window is needed, and only a
- part of the window will be on the screen at one time. Au-
- tomatic refreshes of pads (e.g., from scrolling or echoing
- of input) do not occur. It is not legal to call <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG>
- with a <EM>pad</EM> as an argument; the routines <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> or
- <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG> should be called instead. Note that these
- routines require additional parameters to specify the part
- of the pad to be displayed and the location on the screen
- to be used for the display.
-
- The <STRONG>subpad</STRONG> routine creates and returns a pointer to a sub-
- window within a pad with the given number of lines,
- <EM>nlines</EM>, and columns, <EM>ncols</EM>. Unlike <STRONG>subwin</STRONG>, which uses
- screen coordinates, the window is at position (<EM>begin</EM>_<EM>x</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG>
- <EM>begin</EM>_<EM>y</EM>) on the pad. The window is made in the middle of
- the window <EM>orig</EM>, so that changes made to one window affect
- both windows. During the use of this routine, it will of-
- ten be necessary to call <STRONG>touchwin</STRONG> or <STRONG>touchline</STRONG> on <EM>orig</EM> be-
- fore calling <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>.
-
- The <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG> routines are analogous to
- <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>wnoutrefresh</STRONG> except that they relate to pads
- instead of windows. The additional parameters are needed
- to indicate what part of the pad and screen are involved.
- The <EM>pminrow</EM> and <EM>pmincol</EM> parameters specify the upper left-
- hand corner of the rectangle to be displayed in the pad.
- The <EM>sminrow</EM>, <EM>smincol</EM>, <EM>smaxrow</EM>, and <EM>smaxcol</EM> parameters
- specify the edges of the rectangle to be displayed on the
- screen. The lower right-hand corner of the rectangle to
- be displayed in the pad is calculated from the screen co-
- ordinates, since the rectangles must be the same size.
- Both rectangles must be entirely contained within their
- respective structures. Negative values of <EM>pminrow</EM>, <EM>pmin-</EM>
- <EM>col</EM>, <EM>sminrow</EM>, or <EM>smincol</EM> are treated as if they were zero.
-
- The <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG> routine is functionally equivalent to a call
- to <STRONG>addch</STRONG> followed by a call to <STRONG>refresh</STRONG>, a call to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>
- followed by a call to <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG>, or a call to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> fol-
- lowed by a call to <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>. The knowledge that only a
- single character is being output is taken into considera-
- tion and, for non-control characters, a considerable per-
- formance gain might be seen by using these routines in-
- stead of their equivalents. In the case of <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>, the
- last location of the pad on the screen is reused for the
- arguments to <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>.
-
- The <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG> function is the analogous wide-character
- form of <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>. It outputs one character to a pad and
- immediately refreshes the pad. It does this by a call to
- <STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG> followed by a call to <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>.
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-newpad">newpad</a></H3><PRE>
+ The <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> routine creates and returns a pointer to a new pad data
+ structure with the given number of lines, <EM>nlines</EM>, and columns, <EM>ncols</EM>.
+ A pad is like a window, except that it is not restricted by the screen
+ size, and is not necessarily associated with a particular part of the
+ screen. Pads can be used when a large window is needed, and only a
+ part of the window will be on the screen at one time. Automatic re-
+ freshes of pads (e.g., from scrolling or echoing of input) do not oc-
+ cur.
-</PRE>
-<H2>RETURN VALUE</H2><PRE>
- Routines that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure
- and <STRONG>OK</STRONG> (SVr4 only specifies "an integer value other than
- <STRONG>ERR</STRONG>") upon successful completion.
+ It is not legal to call <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG> with a <EM>pad</EM> as an argument; the rou-
+ tines <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> or <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG> should be called instead. Note that
+ these routines require additional parameters to specify the part of the
+ pad to be displayed and the location on the screen to be used for the
+ display.
- Routines that return pointers return <STRONG>NULL</STRONG> on error, and
- set <STRONG>errno</STRONG> to <STRONG>ENOMEM</STRONG>.
- X/Open does not define any error conditions. In this im-
- plementation
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-subpad">subpad</a></H3><PRE>
+ The <STRONG>subpad</STRONG> routine creates and returns a pointer to a subwindow within
+ a pad with the given number of lines, <EM>nlines</EM>, and columns, <EM>ncols</EM>. Un-
+ like <STRONG>subwin</STRONG>, which uses screen coordinates, the window is at position
+ (<EM>begin</EM>_<EM>x</EM><STRONG>,</STRONG> <EM>begin</EM>_<EM>y</EM>) on the pad. The window is made in the middle of the
+ window <EM>orig</EM>, so that changes made to one window affect both windows.
+ During the use of this routine, it will often be necessary to call
+ <STRONG>touchwin</STRONG> or <STRONG>touchline</STRONG> on <EM>orig</EM> before calling <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>.
- <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>
- return an error if the window pointer is null,
- or if the window is not really a pad or if the
- area to refresh extends off-screen or if the
- minimum coordinates are greater than the maxi-
- mum.
- <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>
- returns an error if the window is not really a
- pad, and the associated call to <STRONG>wechochar</STRONG> re-
- turns an error.
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-prefresh_-pnoutrefresh">prefresh, pnoutrefresh</a></H3><PRE>
+ The <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG> routines are analogous to <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG> and
+ <STRONG>wnoutrefresh</STRONG> except that they relate to pads instead of windows. The
+ additional parameters are needed to indicate what part of the pad and
+ screen are involved.
- <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG>
- returns an error if the window is not really a
- pad, and the associated call to <STRONG>wecho_wchar</STRONG>
- returns an error.
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> The <EM>pminrow</EM> and <EM>pmincol</EM> parameters specify the upper left-hand cor-
+ ner of the rectangle to be displayed in the pad.
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> The <EM>sminrow</EM>, <EM>smincol</EM>, <EM>smaxrow</EM>, and <EM>smaxcol</EM> parameters specify the
+ edges of the rectangle to be displayed on the screen.
-</PRE>
-<H2>NOTES</H2><PRE>
+ The lower right-hand corner of the rectangle to be displayed in the pad
+ is calculated from the screen coordinates, since the rectangles must be
+ the same size. Both rectangles must be entirely contained within their
+ respective structures. Negative values of <EM>pminrow</EM>, <EM>pmincol</EM>, <EM>sminrow</EM>,
+ or <EM>smincol</EM> are treated as if they were zero.
+
+
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-pechochar">pechochar</a></H3><PRE>
+ The <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG> routine is functionally equivalent to a call to <STRONG>addch</STRONG>
+ followed by a call to <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>, a call to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> followed by a call
+ to <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG>, or a call to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> followed by a call to <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>. The
+ knowledge that only a single character is being output is taken into
+ consideration and, for non-control characters, a considerable perfor-
+ mance gain might be seen by using these routines instead of their
+ equivalents. In the case of <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>, the last location of the pad on
+ the screen is reused for the arguments to <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG>.
+
+
+</PRE><H3><a name="h3-pecho_wchar">pecho_wchar</a></H3><PRE>
+ The <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG> function is the analogous wide-character form of <STRONG>pe-</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>chochar</STRONG>. It outputs one character to a pad and immediately refreshes
+ the pad. It does this by a call to <STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG> followed by a call to <STRONG>pre-</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>fresh</STRONG>.
+
+
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
+ Routines that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and <STRONG>OK</STRONG> (SVr4
+ only specifies "an integer value other than <STRONG>ERR</STRONG>") upon successful com-
+ pletion.
+
+ Routines that return pointers return <STRONG>NULL</STRONG> on error, and set <STRONG>errno</STRONG> to
+ <STRONG>ENOMEM</STRONG>.
+
+ X/Open does not define any error conditions. In this implementation
+
+ <STRONG>prefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>
+ return an error if the window pointer is null, or if the window
+ is not really a pad or if the area to refresh extends off-
+ screen or if the minimum coordinates are greater than the maxi-
+ mum.
+
+ <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG>
+ returns an error if the window is not really a pad, and the as-
+ sociated call to <STRONG>wechochar</STRONG> returns an error.
+
+ <STRONG>pecho_wchar</STRONG>
+ returns an error if the window is not really a pad, and the as-
+ sociated call to <STRONG>wecho_wchar</STRONG> returns an error.
+
+
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
Note that <STRONG>pechochar</STRONG> may be a macro.
-</PRE>
-<H2>PORTABILITY</H2><PRE>
- The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these func-
- tions.
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
+ BSD curses has no <EM>pad</EM> feature.
+ SVr2 curses (1986) provided the <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> and related functions, document-
+ ing them in a single line each. SVr3 (1987) provided more extensive
+ documentation.
-</PRE>
-<H2>SEE ALSO</H2><PRE>
- <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG>curs_add-</STRONG>
- <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">ch(3x)</A></STRONG>.
+ The documentation does not explain the term <EM>pad</EM>. However, the Apollo
+ <EM>Aegis</EM> workstation operating system supported a graphical <EM>pad</EM> feature:
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> These graphical pads could be much larger than the computer's dis-
+ play.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> The read-only output from a command could be scrolled back to in-
+ spect, and select text from the pad.
+
+ The two uses may be related.
+
+ The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions, without
+ significant change from the SVr3 documentation. It describes no error
+ conditions. The behavior of <STRONG>subpad</STRONG> if the parent window is not a pad
+ is undocumented, and is not checked by the vendor Unix implementations:
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> SVr4 curses sets a flag in the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure in <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> which
+ tells if the window is a <EM>pad</EM>.
+
+ However, it uses this information only in <STRONG>waddch</STRONG> (to decide if it
+ should call <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG>) and <STRONG>wscrl</STRONG> (to avoid scrolling a pad), and
+ does not check in <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG> to ensure that the pad is refreshed
+ properly.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> Solaris X/Open Curses checks if a window is a pad in <STRONG>wnoutrefresh</STRONG>,
+ returning <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> in that case.
+
+ However, it only sets the flag for subwindows if the parent window
+ is a pad. Its <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> function does not set this information. Con-
+ sequently, the check will never fail.
+
+ It makes no comparable check in <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>, though interestingly
+ enough, a comment in the source code states that the lack of a
+ check was an MKS extension.
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> NetBSD 7 curses sets a flag in the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure for <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> and
+ <STRONG>subpad</STRONG>, using this to help with the distinction between <STRONG>wnoutre-</STRONG>
+ <STRONG>fresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG>.
+
+ It does not check for the case where a subwindow is created in a
+ pad using <STRONG>subwin</STRONG> or <STRONG>derwin</STRONG>.
+
+ The <STRONG>dupwin</STRONG> function returns a regular window when duplicating a
+ pad. Likewise, <STRONG>getwin</STRONG> always returns a window, even if the saved
+ data was from a pad.
+
+ This implementation
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> sets a flag in the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure for <STRONG>newpad</STRONG> and <STRONG>subpad</STRONG>,
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> allows a <STRONG>subwin</STRONG> or <STRONG>derwin</STRONG> call to succeed having a pad parent by
+ forcing the subwindow to be a pad,
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> checks in both <STRONG>wnoutrefresh</STRONG> and <STRONG>pnoutrefresh</STRONG> to ensure that pads
+ and windows are handled distinctly, and
+
+ <STRONG>o</STRONG> ensures that <STRONG>dupwin</STRONG> and <STRONG>getwin</STRONG> treat pads versus windows consis-
+ tently.
+
+
+</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
+ <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>.
- <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
+ <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
</PRE>
-<HR>
-<ADDRESS>
-Man(1) output converted with
-<a href="http://www.oac.uci.edu/indiv/ehood/man2html.html">man2html</a>
-</ADDRESS>
+<div class="nav">
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
+<ul>
+<li><a href="#h3-newpad">newpad</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-subpad">subpad</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-prefresh_-pnoutrefresh">prefresh, pnoutrefresh</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-pechochar">pechochar</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h3-pecho_wchar">pecho_wchar</a></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><a href="#h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></li>
+<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
+</ul>
+</div>
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