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-rw-r--r--europe186
1 files changed, 132 insertions, 54 deletions
diff --git a/europe b/europe
index 5dc03976dbf5..361b396c026d 100644
--- a/europe
+++ b/europe
@@ -821,11 +821,16 @@ Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
# Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00. Go with the BEV,
# and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
+# From Alois Triendl (2019-07-22):
+# In 1946 the end of DST was on Monday, 7 October 1946, at 3:00 am.
+# Shanks had this right. Source: Die Weltpresse, 5. Oktober 1946, page 5.
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
-Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Austria 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Austria 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1980 only - Apr 6 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -875,15 +880,35 @@ Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
# Belgium
#
-# From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
+# From Michael Deckers (2019-08-25):
+# The exposition in the web page
+# https://www.bestor.be/wiki/index.php/Voyager_dans_le_temps._L%E2%80%99introduction_de_la_norme_de_Greenwich_en_Belgique
+# gives several contemporary sources from which one can conclude that
+# the switch in Europe/Brussels on 1892-05-01 was from 00:17:30 to 00:00:00.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
+# This quote helps explain the late-1914 situation:
+# In early November 1914, the Germans imposed the time zone used in central
+# Europe and forced the inhabitants to set their watches and public clocks
+# sixty minutes ahead. Many were reluctant to accept "German time" and
+# continued to use "Belgian time" among themselves. Reflecting the spirit of
+# resistance that arose in the population, a song made fun of this change....
+# The song ended:
+# Putting your clock forward
+# Will but hasten the happy hour
+# When we kick out the Boches!
+# See: Pluvinage G. Brussels on German time. Cahiers Bruxellois -
+# Brusselse Cahiers. 2014;XLVI(1E):15-38.
+# https://www.cairn.info/revue-cahiers-bruxellois-2014-1E-page-15.htm
+#
+# Entries from 1914 through 1917 are taken from "De tijd in België"
+# <https://www.astro.oma.be/GENERAL/INFO/nli001a.html>.
# Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
# Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
# Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
# (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
# pp 8-9.
-# LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
-# Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.
-# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for these references.
+# Thanks to Pascal Delmoitie for the 1918/1991 references.
# The 1918 rules are listed for completeness; they apply to unoccupied Belgium.
# Assume Brussels switched to WET in 1918 when the armistice took effect.
#
@@ -928,7 +953,7 @@ Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME STDOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
- 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
+ 0:17:30 - BMT 1892 May 1 00:17:30
0:00 - WET 1914 Nov 8
1:00 - CET 1916 May 1 0:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Nov 11 11:00u
@@ -1627,6 +1652,13 @@ Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28 - LMT 1908
# advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
# Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
#
+# From Alois Triendl (2019-07-02):
+# I spent 6 Euros to buy two archive copies of Il Messaggero, a Roman paper,
+# for 1 and 2 April 1944. The edition of 2 April has this note: "Tonight at 2
+# am, put forward the clock by one hour. Remember that in the night between
+# today and Monday the 'ora legale' will come in force again." That makes it
+# clear that in Rome the change was on Monday, 3 April 1944 at 2 am.
+#
# From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
# Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
# for the Kingdom of Italy. This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
@@ -1774,15 +1806,10 @@ Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:34 - LMT 1880
# From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
# Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.
-# From Alois Treindl (2013-09-18):
-# http://www.eliechtensteinensia.li/LIJ/1978/1938-1978/1941.pdf
-# ... confirms on p. 6 that Liechtenstein followed Switzerland in 1941 and 1942.
-# I ... translate only the last two paragraphs:
-# ... during second world war, in the years 1941 and 1942, Liechtenstein
-# introduced daylight saving time, adapting to Switzerland. From 1943 on
-# central European time was in force throughout the year.
-# From a report of the duke's government to the high council,
-# regarding the introduction of a time law, of 31 May 1977.
+# From Alois Treindl (2019-07-04):
+# I was able to access the online archive of the Vaduz paper Vaterland ...
+# I could confirm from the paper that Liechtenstein did in fact follow
+# the same DST in 1941 and 1942 as Switzerland did.
Link Europe/Zurich Europe/Vaduz
@@ -2490,6 +2517,12 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# Europe/Kaliningrad covers...
# 39 RU-KGD Kaliningrad Oblast
+# From Paul Eggert (2019-07-25):
+# Although Shanks lists 1945-01-01 as the date for transition from
+# +01/+02 to +02/+03, more likely this is a placeholder. Guess that
+# the transition occurred at 1945-04-10 00:00, which is about when
+# Königsberg surrendered to Soviet troops. (Thanks to Alois Triendl.)
+
# From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
# The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
@@ -2506,8 +2539,8 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# Moscow on 1991-11-03, switched to Moscow-1 on 1992-01-19.
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
- 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
- 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 10
+ 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1946 Apr 7
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 2:00s
3:00 - +03 2014 Oct 26 2:00s
@@ -3650,20 +3683,75 @@ Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
# Turkey
+# From Alois Treindl (2019-08-12):
+# http://www.astrolojidergisi.com/yazsaati.htm has researched the time zone
+# history of Turkey, based on newspaper archives and official documents.
+# From Paul Eggert (2019-08-28):
+# That source (Oya Vulaş, "Türkiye'de Yaz Saati Uygulamaları")
+# is used for 1940/1972, where it seems more reliable than our other
+# sources.
+
+# From Kıvanç Yazan (2019-08-12):
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14539.pdf#page=24
+# 1973-06-03 01:00 -> 02:00, 1973-11-04 02:00 -> 01:00
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/14829.pdf#page=1
+# 1974-03-31 02:00 -> 03:00, 1974-11-03 02:00 -> 01:00
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15161.pdf#page=1
+# 1975-03-22 02:00 -> 03:00, 1975-11-02 02:00 -> 01:00
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15535_1.pdf#page=1
+# 1976-03-21 02:00 -> 03:00, 1976-10-31 02:00 -> 01:00
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/15778.pdf#page=5
+# 1977-04-03 02:00 -> 03:00, 1977-10-16 02:00 -> 01:00,
+# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
+# 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
+# 1979-04-01 02:00 -> 03:00 (not applied, see below)
+# 1979-10-14 02:00 -> 01:00 (not applied, see below)
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16245.pdf#page=17
+# This cancels the previous decision, and repeats it only for 1978.
+# 1978-04-02 02:00 -> 03:00, 1978-10-15 02:00 -> 01:00
+# (not applied due to standard TZ change below)
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/16331.pdf#page=3
+# This decision changes the default longitude for Turkish time zone from 30
+# degrees East to 45 degrees East. This means a standard TZ change, from +2
+# to +3. This is published & applied on 1978-06-29. At that time, Turkey was
+# already on summer time (already on 45E). Hence, this new law just meant an
+# "continuous summer time". Note that this was reversed in a few years.
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18119_1.pdf#page=1
+# 1983-07-31 02:00 -> 03:00 (note that this jumps TZ to +4)
+# 1983-10-02 02:00 -> 01:00 (back to +3)
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18561.pdf (page 1 and 34)
+# At this time, Turkey is still on +3 with no spring-forward on early
+# 1984. This decision is published on 10/31/1984. Page 1 declares
+# the decision of reverting the "default longitude change". So the
+# standard time should go back to +3 (30E). And page 34 explains when
+# that will happen: 1984-11-01 02:00 -> 01:00. You can think of this
+# as "end of continuous summer time, change of standard time zone".
+#
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/18713.pdf#page=1
+# 1985-04-20 01:00 -> 02:00, 1985-09-28 02:00 -> 01:00
+
# From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
# 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
# no exceptions.
# 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
# Here are official papers:
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf - page 2 for 1986
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf - page 4 for 1987
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf - page 15 for 1988
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf - page 6 for 1989
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf - page 1 for overriding 1994
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf - page 1 for 1996, 1997
-# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf - page 10 for 1998 - 2000
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf#page=2 for 1986
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf#page=4 for 1987
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf#page=15 for 1988
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf#page=6 for 1989
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf#page=1 for 1990 - 1992
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf#page=15 for 1993 - 1995
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf#page=1 for overriding 1994
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf#page=1 for 1996, 1997
+# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/23286.pdf#page=10 for 1998 - 2000
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2001/03/20010324.htm#2 - for 2001
# http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2002/03/20020316.htm#2 - for 2002-2006
# From Paul Eggert (2016-09-25):
@@ -3747,46 +3835,36 @@ Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 6 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
-# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1;
-# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
-Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1947 1951 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+# DST for 15 months; unusual but we'll let it pass.
Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1963 only - Oct 30 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1973 1976 - Oct Sun>=31 2:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
-Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 22 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1976 only - Mar 21 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Oct Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1978 only - Jun 29 0:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 2:00 0 -
+Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 1:00s 0 -
Rule Turkey 1986 1993 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1986 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule Turkey 1994 only - Mar 20 1:00s 1:00 S
@@ -3795,8 +3873,8 @@ Rule Turkey 1996 2006 - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME STDOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
- 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
- 3:00 Turkey +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
+ 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Jun 29
+ 3:00 Turkey +03/+04 1984 Nov 1 2:00
2:00 Turkey EE%sT 2007
2:00 EU EE%sT 2011 Mar 27 1:00u
2:00 - EET 2011 Mar 28 1:00u