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+.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2004,2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
+.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a *
+.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the *
+.\" "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including *
+.\" without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, *
+.\" distribute, distribute with modifications, sublicense, and/or sell *
+.\" copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is *
+.\" furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: *
+.\" The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included *
+.\" in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. *
+.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS *
+.\" OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF *
+.\" MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. *
+.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE ABOVE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, *
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+.\" OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR *
+.\" THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. *
+.\" Except as contained in this notice, the name(s) of the above copyright *
+.\" holders shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the *
+.\" sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written *
+.\" authorization. *
+.\" $Id: curs_color.3x,v 1.28 2005/12/18 00:00:37 tom Exp $
+.TH curs_color 3X ""
+\fBCOLOR_PAIR\fR - \fBcurses\fR color manipulation routines
+\fB# include <curses.h>\fR
+\fBint init_pair(short pair, short f, short b);\fR
+\fBint init_color(short color, short r, short g, short b);\fR
+\fBint color_content(short color, short *r, short *g, short *b);\fR
+\fBint pair_content(short pair, short *f, short *b);\fR
+\fBcurses\fR support color attributes on terminals with that capability. To
+use these routines \fBstart_color\fR must be called, usually right after
+\fBinitscr\fR. Colors are always used in pairs (referred to as color-pairs).
+A color-pair consists of a foreground color (for characters) and a background
+color (for the blank field on which the characters are displayed). A
+programmer initializes a color-pair with the routine \fBinit_pair\fR. After it
+has been initialized, \fBCOLOR_PAIR\fR(\fIn\fR), a macro defined in
+\fB<curses.h>\fR, can be used as a new video attribute.
+If a terminal is capable of redefining colors, the programmer can use the
+routine \fBinit_color\fR to change the definition of a color. The routines
+\fBhas_colors\fR and \fBcan_change_color\fR return \fBTRUE\fR or \fBFALSE\fR,
+depending on whether the terminal has color capabilities and whether the
+programmer can change the colors. The routine \fBcolor_content\fR allows a
+programmer to extract the amounts of red, green, and blue components in an
+initialized color. The routine \fBpair_content\fR allows a programmer to find
+out how a given color-pair is currently defined.
+.SS Routine Descriptions
+The \fBstart_color\fR routine requires no arguments. It must be
+called if the programmer wants to use colors, and before any other
+color manipulation routine is called. It is good practice to call
+this routine right after \fBinitscr\fR. \fBstart_color\fR initializes
+eight basic colors (black, red, green, yellow, blue, magenta, cyan,
+and white), and two global variables, \fBCOLORS\fR and
+\fBCOLOR_PAIRS\fR (respectively defining the maximum number of colors
+and color-pairs the terminal can support). It also restores the
+colors on the terminal to the values they had when the terminal was
+just turned on.
+The \fBinit_pair\fR routine changes the definition of a color-pair. It takes
+three arguments: the number of the color-pair to be changed, the foreground
+color number, and the background color number.
+For portable applications:
+The value of the first argument
+must be between \fB1\fR and \fBCOLOR_PAIRS-1\fR.
+The value of the second and
+third arguments must be between 0 and \fBCOLORS\fR.
+Color pair 0 is assumed to be white on black,
+but is actually whatever the terminal implements before color is initialized.
+It cannot be modified by the application.
+If the color-pair was previously
+initialized, the screen is refreshed and all occurrences of that color-pair
+are changed to the new definition.
+As an extension, ncurses allows you to set color pair 0 via
+the \fBassume_default_colors\fR routine, or to specify the use of
+default colors (color number \fB-1\fR) if you first invoke the
+The \fBinit_color\fR routine changes the definition of a color. It takes four
+arguments: the number of the color to be changed followed by three RGB values
+(for the amounts of red, green, and blue components). The value of the first
+argument must be between \fB0\fR and \fBCOLORS\fR. (See the section
+\fBColors\fR for the default color index.) Each of the last three arguments
+must be a value between 0 and 1000. When \fBinit_color\fR is used, all
+occurrences of that color on the screen immediately change to the new
+The \fBhas_colors\fR routine requires no arguments. It returns \fBTRUE\fR if
+the terminal can manipulate colors; otherwise, it returns \fBFALSE\fR. This
+routine facilitates writing terminal-independent programs. For example, a
+programmer can use it to decide whether to use color or some other video
+The \fBcan_change_color\fR routine requires no arguments. It returns
+\fBTRUE\fR if the terminal supports colors and can change their definitions;
+other, it returns \fBFALSE\fR. This routine facilitates writing
+The \fBcolor_content\fR routine gives programmers a way to find the intensity
+of the red, green, and blue (RGB) components in a color. It requires four
+arguments: the color number, and three addresses of \fBshort\fRs for storing
+the information about the amounts of red, green, and blue components in the
+given color. The value of the first argument must be between 0 and
+\fBCOLORS\fR. The values that are stored at the addresses pointed to by the
+last three arguments are between 0 (no component) and 1000 (maximum amount of
+The \fBpair_content\fR routine allows programmers to find out what colors a
+given color-pair consists of. It requires three arguments: the color-pair
+number, and two addresses of \fBshort\fRs for storing the foreground and the
+background color numbers. The value of the first argument must be between 1
+and \fBCOLOR_PAIRS-1\fR. The values that are stored at the addresses pointed
+to by the second and third arguments are between 0 and \fBCOLORS\fR.
+In \fB<curses.h>\fR the following macros are defined. These are the default
+colors. \fBcurses\fR also assumes that \fBCOLOR_BLACK\fR is the default
+background color for all terminals.
+.SH RETURN VALUE
+The routines \fBcan_change_color()\fR and \fBhas_colors()\fR return \fBTRUE\fR
+All other routines return the integer \fBERR\fR upon failure and an \fBOK\fR
+(SVr4 specifies only "an integer value other than \fBERR\fR") upon successful
+X/Open defines no error conditions.
+This implementation will return \fBERR\fR on attempts to
+use color values outside the range 0 to COLORS-1
+(except for the default colors extension),
+or use color pairs outside the range 0 to COLOR_PAIR-1.
+Color values used in \fBinit_color\fP must be in the range 0 to 1000.
+An error is returned from all functions
+if the terminal has not been initialized.
+An error is returned from secondary functions such as \fBinit_pair\fP
+if \fBstart_color\fP was not called.
+returns an error if the terminal does not support
+this feature, e.g., if the \fIinitialize_color\fP capability is absent
+from the terminal description.
+returns an error
+If the color table cannot be allocated.
+In the \fIncurses\fR implementation, there is a separate color activation flag,
+color palette, color pairs table, and associated COLORS and COLOR_PAIRS counts
+for each screen; the \fBstart_color\fR function only affects the current
+screen. The SVr4/XSI interface is not really designed with this in mind, and
+historical implementations may use a single shared color palette.
+Note that setting an implicit background color via a color pair affects only
+character cells that a character write operation explicitly touches. To change
+the background color used when parts of a window are blanked by erasing or
+scrolling operations, see \fBcurs_bkgd\fR(3X).
+Several caveats apply on 386 and 486 machines with VGA-compatible graphics:
+COLOR_YELLOW is actually brown. To get yellow, use COLOR_YELLOW combined with
+the \fBA_BOLD\fR attribute.
+The A_BLINK attribute should in theory cause the background to go bright. This
+often fails to work, and even some cards for which it mostly works (such as the
+Paradise and compatibles) do the wrong thing when you try to set a bright
+"yellow" background (you get a blinking yellow foreground instead).
+Color RGB values are not settable.
+This implementation satisfies XSI Curses's minimum maximums
+for \fBCOLORS\fR and \fBCOLOR_PAIRS\fR.
+The \fBinit_pair\fP routine accepts negative values of foreground
+and background color to support the \fBuse_default_colors\fP extension,
+but only if that routine has been first invoked.
+The assumption that \fBCOLOR_BLACK\fR is the default
+background color for all terminals can be modified using the
+This implementation checks the pointers,
+e.g., for the values returned by
+\fBcolor_content\fP and \fBpair_content\fP,
+and will treat those as optional parameters when null.
+.SH SEE ALSO
+.\"# The following sets edit modes for GNU EMACS
+.\"# Local Variables: