Diffstat (limited to 'man/curs_inopts.3x')
1 files changed, 117 insertions, 52 deletions
diff --git a/man/curs_inopts.3x b/man/curs_inopts.3x
index 2e637ce30b64..214edd748edc 100644
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2012,2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
+.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2018,2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a *
.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the *
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
.\" authorization. *
-.\" $Id: curs_inopts.3x,v 1.18 2013/07/20 19:42:02 tom Exp $
+.\" $Id: curs_inopts.3x,v 1.28 2019/01/20 20:39:35 tom Exp $
.TH curs_inopts 3X ""
.ie \n(.g .ds `` \(lq
.el .ds `` ``
@@ -92,122 +92,184 @@
\fBint typeahead(int fd);\fR
+The \fBncurses\fP library provides several functions which let an application
+change the way input from the terminal is handled.
+Some are global, applying to all windows.
+Others apply only to a specific window.
+Window-specific settings are not automatically applied to new or derived
+An application must apply these to each window, if the same behavior
Normally, the tty driver buffers typed characters until a newline or carriage
-return is typed. The \fBcbreak\fR routine disables line buffering and
+return is typed.
+The \fBcbreak\fR routine disables line buffering and
erase/kill character-processing (interrupt and flow control characters are
unaffected), making characters typed by the user immediately available to the
-program. The \fBnocbreak\fR routine returns the terminal to normal (cooked)
+The \fBnocbreak\fR routine returns the terminal to normal (cooked)
Initially the terminal may or may not be in \fBcbreak\fR mode, as the mode is
inherited; therefore, a program should call \fBcbreak\fR or \fBnocbreak\fR
-explicitly. Most interactive programs using \fBcurses\fR set the \fBcbreak\fR
-mode. Note that \fBcbreak\fR overrides \fBraw\fR.
+Most interactive programs using \fBcurses\fR set the \fBcbreak\fR
+Note that \fBcbreak\fR overrides \fBraw\fR.
[See \fBcurs_getch\fR(3X) for a
discussion of how these routines interact with \fBecho\fR and \fBnoecho\fR.]
The \fBecho\fR and \fBnoecho\fR routines control whether characters typed by
-the user are echoed by \fBgetch\fR as they are typed. Echoing by the tty
+the user are echoed by \fBgetch\fR(3X) as they are typed.
+Echoing by the tty
driver is always disabled, but initially \fBgetch\fR is in echo mode, so
-characters typed are echoed. Authors of most interactive programs prefer to do
+characters typed are echoed.
+Authors of most interactive programs prefer to do
their own echoing in a controlled area of the screen, or not to echo at all, so
they disable echoing by calling \fBnoecho\fR.
[See \fBcurs_getch\fR(3X) for a
discussion of how these routines interact with \fBcbreak\fR and
The \fBhalfdelay\fR routine is used for half-delay mode, which is similar to
\fBcbreak\fR mode in that characters typed by the user are immediately
-available to the program. However, after blocking for \fItenths\fR tenths of
-seconds, ERR is returned if nothing has been typed. The value of \fBtenths\fR
-must be a number between 1 and 255. Use \fBnocbreak\fR to leave half-delay
+available to the program.
+However, after blocking for \fItenths\fR tenths of
+seconds, \fBERR\fP is returned if nothing has been typed.
+The value of \fItenths\fR
+must be a number between 1 and 255.
+Use \fBnocbreak\fR to leave half-delay
-If the \fBintrflush\fR option is enabled, (\fIbf\fR is \fBTRUE\fR), when an
-interrupt key is pressed on the keyboard (interrupt, break, quit) all output in
+If the \fBintrflush\fR option is enabled (\fIbf\fR is \fBTRUE\fR), and an
+interrupt key is pressed on the keyboard (interrupt, break, quit), all output in
the tty driver queue will be flushed, giving the effect of faster response to
the interrupt, but causing \fBcurses\fR to have the wrong idea of what is on
-the screen. Disabling (\fIbf\fR is \fBFALSE\fR), the option prevents the
-flush. The default for the option is inherited from the tty driver settings.
+Disabling the option (\fIbf\fR is \fBFALSE\fR) prevents the
+The default for the option is inherited from the tty driver settings.
The window argument is ignored.
-The \fBkeypad\fR option enables the keypad of the user's terminal. If
+The \fBkeypad\fR option enables the keypad of the user's terminal.
enabled (\fIbf\fR is \fBTRUE\fR), the user can press a function key
-(such as an arrow key) and \fBwgetch\fR returns a single value
-representing the function key, as in \fBKEY_LEFT\fR. If disabled
+(such as an arrow key) and \fBwgetch\fR(3X) returns a single value
+representing the function key, as in \fBKEY_LEFT\fR.
(\fIbf\fR is \fBFALSE\fR), \fBcurses\fR does not treat function keys
specially and the program has to interpret the escape sequences
-itself. If the keypad in the terminal can be turned on (made to
+If the keypad in the terminal can be turned on (made to
transmit) and off (made to work locally), turning on this option
-causes the terminal keypad to be turned on when \fBwgetch\fR is
-called. The default value for keypad is false.
+causes the terminal keypad to be turned on when \fBwgetch\fR(3X) is
+The default value for keypad is \fBFALSE\fP.
Initially, whether the terminal returns 7 or 8 significant bits on
-input depends on the control mode of the tty driver [see termio(7)].
+input depends on the control mode of the tty driver [see \fBtermios\fP(3)].
To force 8 bits to be returned, invoke \fBmeta\fR(\fIwin\fR,
\fBTRUE\fR); this is equivalent, under POSIX, to setting the CS8 flag
-on the terminal. To force 7 bits to be returned, invoke
+on the terminal.
+To force 7 bits to be returned, invoke
\fBmeta\fR(\fIwin\fR, \fBFALSE\fR); this is equivalent, under POSIX,
-to setting the CS7 flag on the terminal. The window argument,
-\fIwin\fR, is always ignored. If the terminfo capabilities \fBsmm\fR
+to setting the CS7 flag on the terminal.
+The window argument,
+\fIwin\fR, is always ignored.
+If the terminfo capabilities \fBsmm\fR
(meta_on) and \fBrmm\fR (meta_off) are defined for the terminal,
\fBsmm\fR is sent to the terminal when \fBmeta\fR(\fIwin\fR,
\fBTRUE\fR) is called and \fBrmm\fR is sent when \fBmeta\fR(\fIwin\fR,
\fBFALSE\fR) is called.
The \fBnodelay\fR option causes \fBgetch\fR to be a non-blocking call.
-If no input is ready, \fBgetch\fR returns \fBERR\fR. If disabled
+If no input is ready, \fBgetch\fR returns \fBERR\fR.
(\fIbf\fR is \fBFALSE\fR), \fBgetch\fR waits until a key is pressed.
-While interpreting an input escape sequence, \fBwgetch\fR sets a timer
-while waiting for the next character. If \fBnotimeout(\fR\fIwin\fR,
-\fBTRUE\fR) is called, then \fBwgetch\fR does not set a timer. The
+While interpreting an input escape sequence, \fBwgetch\fR(3X) sets a timer
+while waiting for the next character.
+\fBTRUE\fR) is called, then \fBwgetch\fR does not set a timer.
purpose of the timeout is to differentiate between sequences received
from a function key and those typed by a user.
The \fBraw\fR and \fBnoraw\fR routines place the terminal into or out of raw
-mode. Raw mode is similar to \fBcbreak\fR mode, in that characters typed are
-immediately passed through to the user program. The differences are that in
+Raw mode is similar to \fBcbreak\fR mode, in that characters typed are
+immediately passed through to the user program.
+The differences are that in
raw mode, the interrupt, quit, suspend, and flow control characters are all
-passed through uninterpreted, instead of generating a signal. The behavior of
+passed through uninterpreted, instead of generating a signal.
+The behavior of
the BREAK key depends on other bits in the tty driver that are not set by
When the \fBnoqiflush\fR routine is used, normal flush of input and
output queues associated with the \fBINTR\fR, \fBQUIT\fR and
-\fBSUSP\fR characters will not be done [see termio(7)]. When
+\fBSUSP\fR characters will not be done [see \fBtermios\fP(3)].
\fBqiflush\fR is called, the queues will be flushed when these control
-characters are read. You may want to call \fBnoqiflush()\fR in a signal
+characters are read.
+You may want to call \fBnoqiflush\fR in a signal
handler if you want output to continue as though the interrupt
had not occurred, after the handler exits.
The \fBtimeout\fR and \fBwtimeout\fR routines set blocking or
-non-blocking read for a given window. If \fIdelay\fR is negative,
+non-blocking read for a given window.
+If \fIdelay\fR is negative,
blocking read is used (i.e., waits indefinitely for
-input). If \fIdelay\fR is zero, then non-blocking read is used
-(i.e., read returns \fBERR\fR if no input is waiting). If
+If \fIdelay\fR is zero, then non-blocking read is used
+(i.e., read returns \fBERR\fR if no input is waiting).
\fIdelay\fR is positive, then read blocks for \fIdelay\fR
milliseconds, and returns \fBERR\fR if there is still no input.
Hence, these routines provide the same functionality as \fBnodelay\fR,
plus the additional capability of being able to block for only
\fIdelay\fR milliseconds (where \fIdelay\fR is positive).
The \fBcurses\fR library does \*(``line-breakout optimization\*(''
by looking for typeahead periodically while updating the screen.
If input is found, and it is coming from a tty,
the current update is postponed until
-\fBrefresh\fR or \fBdoupdate\fR is called again.
+\fBrefresh\fR(3X) or \fBdoupdate\fR is called again.
This allows faster response to commands typed in advance.
Normally, the input FILE
pointer passed to \fBnewterm\fR, or \fBstdin\fR in the case that
\fBinitscr\fR was used, will be used to do this typeahead checking.
The \fBtypeahead\fR routine specifies that the file descriptor
-\fIfd\fR is to be used to check for typeahead instead. If \fIfd\fR is
+\fIfd\fR is to be used to check for typeahead instead.
+If \fIfd\fR is
\-1, then no typeahead checking is done.
.SH RETURN VALUE
-All routines that return an integer return \fBERR\fR upon failure and OK (SVr4
-specifies only "an integer value other than \fBERR\fR") upon successful
-completion, unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine descriptions.
+All routines that return an integer return \fBERR\fR upon failure and \fBOK\fP
+(SVr4 specifies only \*(``an integer value other than \fBERR\fR\*('')
+upon successful completion,
+unless otherwise noted in the preceding routine descriptions.
X/Open does not define any error conditions.
In this implementation,
@@ -225,27 +287,29 @@ These functions are described in the XSI Curses standard, Issue 4.
The ncurses library obeys the XPG4 standard and the historical practice of the
AT&T curses implementations, in that the echo bit is cleared when curses
-initializes the terminal state. BSD curses differed from this slightly; it
+initializes the terminal state.
+BSD curses differed from this slightly; it
left the echo bit on at initialization, but the BSD \fBraw\fR call turned it
-off as a side-effect. For best portability, set echo or noecho explicitly
+off as a side-effect.
+For best portability, set echo or noecho explicitly
just after initialization, even if your program remains in cooked mode.
When \fBkeypad\fP is first enabled,
ncurses loads the key-definitions for the current terminal description.
If the terminal description includes extended string capabilities,
-e.g., from using the \fB\-x\fP option of @TIC@,
+e.g., from using the \fB\-x\fP option of \fB@TIC@\fP,
then ncurses also defines keys for the capabilities whose names
-begin with "k".
+begin with \*(``k\*(''.
The corresponding keycodes are generated and (depending on previous
loads of terminal descriptions) may differ from one execution of a
program to the next.
The generated keycodes are recognized by the \fBkeyname\fP function
-(which will then return a name beginning with "k" denoting the
-terminfo capability name rather than "K", used for curses key-names).
+(which will then return a name beginning with \*(``k\*('' denoting the
+terminfo capability name rather than \*(``K\*('', used for curses key-names).
On the other hand, an application can use \fBdefine_key\fP to establish
a specific keycode for a given string.
This makes it possible for an application to check for an extended
-capability's presence with \fItigetstr\fP,
+capability's presence with \fBtigetstr\fP,
and reassign the keycode to match its own needs.
Low-level applications can use \fBtigetstr\fP to obtain the definition
@@ -271,8 +335,9 @@ Note that \fBecho\fR, \fBnoecho\fR, \fBhalfdelay\fR, \fBintrflush\fR,
\fBqiflush\fR, \fBtimeout\fR, and \fBwtimeout\fR may be macros.
The \fBnoraw\fR and \fBnocbreak\fR calls follow historical practice in that
-they attempt to restore to normal (`cooked') mode from raw and cbreak modes
-respectively. Mixing raw/noraw and cbreak/nocbreak calls leads to tty driver
+they attempt to restore to normal (\*(``cooked\*('') mode
+from raw and cbreak modes respectively.
+Mixing raw/noraw and cbreak/nocbreak calls leads to tty driver
control states that are hard to predict or understand; it is not recommended.
.SH SEE ALSO
@@ -280,4 +345,4 @@ control states that are hard to predict or understand; it is not recommended.