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+.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2006,2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. *
+.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a *
+.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the *
+.\" "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including *
+.\" without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, *
+.\" distribute, distribute with modifications, sublicense, and/or sell *
+.\" copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is *
+.\" furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions: *
+.\" The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included *
+.\" in all copies or substantial portions of the Software. *
+.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS *
+.\" OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF *
+.\" MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. *
+.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE ABOVE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, *
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+.\" OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR *
+.\" THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE. *
+.\" Except as contained in this notice, the name(s) of the above copyright *
+.\" holders shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the *
+.\" sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written *
+.\" authorization. *
+.\" $Id: curs_util.3x,v 1.25 2007/05/26 21:44:42 tom Exp $
+.TH curs_util 3X ""
+\fBwunctrl\fR - miscellaneous \fBcurses\fR utility routines
+\fBchar *unctrl(chtype c);\fR
+\fBwchar_t *wunctrl(cchar_t *c);\fR
+\fBchar *keyname(int c);\fR
+\fBchar *key_name(wchar_t w);\fR
+\fBvoid use_env(bool f);\fR
+\fBint putwin(WINDOW *win, FILE *filep);\fR
+\fBWINDOW *getwin(FILE *filep);\fR
+\fBint delay_output(int ms);\fR
+The \fBunctrl\fR routine returns a character string which is a printable
+representation of the character \fIc\fR, ignoring attributes.
+Control characters are displayed in the \fB^\fR\fIX\fR notation.
+Printing characters are displayed as is.
+The corresponding \fBwunctrl\fR returns a printable representation of
+The \fBkeyname\fR routine returns a character string corresponding to the key \fIc\fR.
+Control characters are displayed in the \fB^\fR\fIX\fR notation.
+Values above 128 are either meta characters, shown in the \fBM-\fR\fIX\fR notation,
+or the names of function keys, or null.
+The corresponding \fBkey_name\fR returns a character string corresponding
+to the wide-character value \fIw\fR.
+The two functions do not return the same set of strings;
+the latter returns null where the former would display a meta character.
+The \fBfilter\fR routine, if used, must be called before \fBinitscr\fR or
+\fBnewterm\fR are called. The effect is that, during those calls, \fBLINES\fR
+is set to 1; the capabilities \fBclear\fR, \fBcup\fR, \fBcud\fR, \fBcud1\fR,
+\fBcuu1\fR, \fBcuu\fR, \fBvpa\fR are disabled; and the \fBhome\fR string is
+set to the value of \fBcr\fR.
+The \fBnofilter\fP routine cancels the effect of a preceding \fBfilter\fP
+That allows the caller to initialize a screen on a different device,
+using a different value of \fB$TERM\fP.
+The limitation arises because the \fBfilter\fP routine modifies the
+in-memory copy of the terminal information.
+The \fBuse_env\fR routine, if used, is called before \fBinitscr\fR or
+\fBnewterm\fR are called. When called with \fBFALSE\fR as an
+argument, the values of \fBlines\fR and \fBcolumns\fR specified in the
+\fIterminfo\fR database will be used, even if environment variables
+\fBLINES\fR and \fBCOLUMNS\fR (used by default) are set, or if
+\fBcurses\fR is running in a window (in which case default behavior
+would be to use the window size if \fBLINES\fR and \fBCOLUMNS\fR are
+Note that setting \fBLINES\fR or \fBCOLUMNS\fR overrides the
+corresponding size which may be obtained from the operating system.
+The \fBputwin\fR routine writes all data associated with window \fIwin\fR into
+the file to which \fIfilep\fR points. This information can be later retrieved
+using the \fBgetwin\fR function.
+The \fBgetwin\fR routine reads window related data stored in the file by
+\fBputwin\fR. The routine then creates and initializes a new window using that
+data. It returns a pointer to the new window.
+The \fBdelay_output\fR routine inserts an \fIms\fR millisecond pause
+in output. This routine should not be used extensively because
+padding characters are used rather than a CPU pause.
+If no padding character is specified, this uses \fBnapms\fR to perform the delay.
+The \fBflushinp\fR routine throws away any typeahead that has been typed by the
+user and has not yet been read by the program.
+.SH RETURN VALUE
+Except for \fBflushinp\fR, routines that return an integer return \fBERR\fR
+upon failure and \fBOK\fR (SVr4 specifies only "an integer value other than
+\fBERR\fR") upon successful completion.
+Routines that return pointers return \fBNULL\fR on error.
+X/Open does not define any error conditions.
+In this implementation
+returns an error if the terminal was not initialized.
+returns an error if the associated \fBfwrite\fP calls return an error.
+The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions.
+It states that \fBunctrl\fR and \fBwunctrl\fR will return a null pointer if
+unsuccessful, but does not define any error conditions.
+This implementation checks for three cases:
+the parameter is a 7-bit US-ASCII code.
+This is the case that X/Open Curses documented.
+the parameter is in the range 128-159, i.e., a C1 control code.
+If \fBuse_legacy_coding\fP has been called with a \fB2\fP parameter,
+\fBunctrl\fP returns the parameter, i.e., a one-character string with
+the parameter as the first character.
+Otherwise, it returns ``~@'', ``~A'', etc., analogous to ``^@'', ``^A'', C0 controls.
+X/Open Curses does not document whether \fBunctrl\fP can be called before
+This implementation permits that,
+and returns the ``~@'', etc., values in that case.
+parameter values outside the 0 to 255 range.
+\fBunctrl\fP returns a null pointer.
+The SVr4 documentation describes the action of \fBfilter\fR only in the vaguest
+terms. The description here is adapted from the XSI Curses standard (which
+erroneously fails to describe the disabling of \fBcuu\fR).
+The strings returned by \fBunctrl\fR in this implementation are determined
+at compile time,
+showing C1 controls from the upper-128 codes with a `~' prefix rather than `^'.
+Other implementations have different conventions.
+For example, they may show both sets of control characters with `^',
+and strip the parameter to 7 bits.
+Or they may ignore C1 controls and treat all of the upper-128 codes as
+This implementation uses 8 bits but does not modify the string to reflect
+The \fBuse_legacy_coding\fP function allows the caller to
+change the output of \fBunctrl\fP.
+Likewise, the \fBmeta\fP function allows the caller to change the
+output of \fBkeyname\fP, i.e.,
+it determines whether to use the `M-' prefix
+for ``meta'' keys (codes in the range 128 to 255).
+Both \fBuse_legacy_coding\fP and \fBmeta\fP succeed only after
+curses is initialized.
+X/Open Curses does not document the treatment of codes 128 to 159.
+When treating them as ``meta'' keys
+(or if \fBkeyname\fP is called before initializing curses),
+this implementation returns strings ``M-^@'', ``M-^A'', etc.
+The \fBkeyname\fP function may return the names of user-defined
+string capabilities which are defined in the terminfo entry via the \fB-x\fP
+option of \fBtic\fP.
+This implementation automatically assigns at run-time keycodes to
+user-defined strings which begin with "k".
+The keycodes start at KEY_MAX, but are not guaranteed to be
+the same value for different runs because user-defined codes are
+merged from all terminal descriptions which have been loaded.
+The \fBnofilter\fP routine is specific to ncurses.
+It was not supported on Version 7, BSD or System V implementations.
+It is recommended that any code depending on ncurses extensions
+be conditioned using NCURSES_VERSION.
+.SH SEE ALSO
+.\"# The following sets edit modes for GNU EMACS
+.\"# Local Variables: