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-rw-r--r--share/zoneinfo/europe1460
1 files changed, 757 insertions, 703 deletions
diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/europe b/share/zoneinfo/europe
index ce66e8ab5876..abeba9838641 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/europe
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/europe
@@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
-# @(#)europe 7.38
+# @(#)europe 7.40
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-09-03):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
@@ -16,44 +16,25 @@
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
-# The starred Russian names are dubious. Corrections are welcome!
+# Corrections are welcome!
# std dst
# LMT Local Mean Time
-# LST Local Star Time (Russian ``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'')
# -4:00 AST Atlantic
-# -3:00 WGT+DST Western Greenland*
-# -2:00 MGT+DST Middle Greenland*
-# -1:00 EGT+DST Eastern Greenland*
-# -1:00 ACT+DST Azores and Canaries*
-# -1:00 IST IDT Iceland (no longer used)*
+# -3:00 WGT WGST Western Greenland*
+# -1:00 EGT EGST Eastern Greenland*
# 0:00 GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer
-# 0:00 WET+DST Western Europe
-# 1:00 MET+DST Middle Europe
-# 2:00 EET+DST Eastern Europe
-# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
-# 3:00 TUR+DST Turkey (no longer used)*
-# 4:00 KSK KSD Kuybyshev (was 3:00)*
-# 5:00 ESK ESD Yekaterinburg (was 4:00) (was SSK, SSD)*
-# 6:00 OSK OSD Omsk (was 5:00)*
-# 6:00 NSK NSD Novosibirsk (was 7:00)
-# 7:00 KRSK KRSD Krasnoyarsk (was 6:00)
-# 8:00 ISK ISD Irkutsk (was 7:00)*
-# 9:00 YSK YSD Yakutsk (was 8:00)*
-# 10:00 VSK VSD Vladivostok (was 9:00)*
-# 11:00 MSK MSD Magadan (was 10:00)*
-# 12:00 PSK PSD Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski (was 11:00)*
-# 13:00 ASK ASD Anadyr (was 12:00)*
-#
-# See the `africa' file for Zone naming conventions.
+# 0:00 GMT IST Greenwich, Irish Summer
+# 0:00 WET WEST Western Europe
+# 1:00 CET CEST Central Europe
+# 2:00 EET EEST Eastern Europe
+#
+# See the `africa' file for time zone naming and abbreviation conventions.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).
-# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
-# LST is Local Star Time (``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'').
-
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (December 4, 1994),
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
@@ -74,11 +55,13 @@
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.
+
###############################################################################
# United Kingdom
+# The UK and its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar on 1752-09-14.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (July 6, 1994):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
@@ -99,7 +82,7 @@
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
@@ -134,7 +117,13 @@
# but it met with ridicule and opposition, especially from farming interests.
# One-hour Summer Time was eventually adopted as a wartime measure in 1916.
-# From Arthur David Olson (January 19, 1989):
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
+# The OED Supplement says that the English originally said ``Daylight Saving''
+# when they were debating the adoption of DST in 1908; but by 1916 this
+# term appears only in quotes taken from DST's opponents, whereas the
+# proponents (who eventually won the argument) are quoted as using ``Summer''.
+
+# From Arthur David Olson (1989-01-19):
#
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.
@@ -145,7 +134,7 @@
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-09-03):
#
# Our Government...couldn't...make a decision after the 1989 consultation
# exercise about the UK changing its timezone so it just let things drift
@@ -172,7 +161,7 @@
# an Order in Council (a Statutary Instrument, the SI thing mentioned above)
# to specify the EC specified dates.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 18, 1993):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-18):
#
# My contact in the Ministry of Defence Public Relations department
# accepted the challenge of looking into this and produced the following,
@@ -194,7 +183,13 @@
# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday- Monday so that it will operate from
# Monday, 2nd April.'
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
+# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-06-14):
+# I remember reading in various wartime issues of the London Times the
+# acronym BDST for British Double Summer Time. Look for the published
+# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
+# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
+
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-09-03):
#
# > # Current rules
# > Rule GB-Eire 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 BST
@@ -218,7 +213,7 @@
# summer time completely, noon is when the Sun is overhead, and that should
# be the end of it.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 22, 1993):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-22):
#
# I now have the text of the Summer Time Act 1916, the granddaddy of them all.
# It is headed: `An Act to provide for the Time in Great Britain and Ireland
@@ -251,7 +246,7 @@
# It also confirms the fact that Ireland followed Dublin time back then,
# and 25 minutes behind Greenwich, as Shanks has it, would be correct.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 28, 1993):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-28):
#
# I now have before me, thanks to my learned legal friend Lorna, the text of
# the Time (Ireland) Act 1916.
@@ -274,7 +269,7 @@
# of the 1880 date in Shanks. The little bit of it that is repealed
# also refers solely to Ireland and Dublin Mean Time.
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 29, 1993):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-10-29):
#
# My case is that, with the sole exception of Ireland in 1916 using Dublin
# Mean Time, Summer Time has been uniform throughout the United Kingdom
@@ -443,7 +438,7 @@
# thereby destroying the authority of the Summer Time Order specifying
# summer time in 1968....
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (November 18, 1993)
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1993-11-18)
#
# Here is a revised version of my tabrules file for the perl script I sent
# before. I have personally verified the various Orders back to 1953 and
@@ -608,7 +603,7 @@
# 1993 28 Mar 24 Oct fixed
# 1994 27 Mar 23 Oct fixed
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (August 18, 1994):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-08-18):
# I now have the text of the 7th EC directive on summer time arrangements
# (94/21/EC), which was approved on 30 May....
# The major changes from existing practice are that 1995 will be the last year
@@ -631,7 +626,7 @@
# by the Commission by 1 Jan 96. They have not yet appeared (I asked just
# before Easter).
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (March 28, 1994):
+# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-03-28):
# The [GB-Eire] end date of 22 October [1995] conflicts with your current rule
# of Oct Sun>=23, and the historical UK formula of Sun after 4th Sat.
# The last time 4th Sun and Sun after 4th Sat differed was in 1989,
@@ -719,18 +714,18 @@ Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
# 1939 end to 1947--irregular, and with double summer time
Rule GB-Eire 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1941 only - May Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1941 1943 - Aug Sun>=9 1:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1942 1944 - Apr Sun>=2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1944 only - Sep Sun>=16 1:00s 1:00 BST
# Double daylight starts on a Monday in 1945--see above.
-Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr 2 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Apr 2 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Jul 15 1:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1945 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Mar 16 2:00s 1:00 BST
-Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 DST
+Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Apr 13 1:00s 2:00 BDST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Aug 10 1:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1947 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 GMT
# So much for double saving time. 1948 and 1949, irregular.
@@ -768,15 +763,15 @@ Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Sep 22
0:00 EU GMT/BST
Zone Europe/Belfast -0:23:40 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
-0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
- -0:25:21 1:00 DST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
+ -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 3:00 # Irish Summer Time
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
0:00 EU GMT/BST
Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
-0:25:21 - DMT 1916 May 21 2:00 # Dublin MT
- -0:25:21 1:00 DST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
- 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6
+ -0:25:21 1:00 IST 1916 Oct 1 3:00
+ 0:00 GB-Eire %s 1921 Dec 6 # independence
0:00 GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25 2:00
0:00 1:00 IST 1946 Oct 6 2:00
0:00 - GMT 1947 Mar 16 2:00
@@ -795,259 +790,278 @@ Zone Europe/Dublin -0:25:21 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
# Common Market, etc.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 " DST"
+Rule EU 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EU 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00u 0 -
Rule EU 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00u 0 -
-Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 " DST"
+Rule EU 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00u 1:00 S
Rule EU 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00u 0 -
# W-Eur differs from EU only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
-Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule W-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule W-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
Rule W-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00s 0 -
Rule W-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
-Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule W-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule W-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 1:00s 0 -
-# Older M-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
-# From 1977 on, M-Eur differs from EU only in that M-Eur uses standard time.
-Rule M-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule M-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule M-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+# Older C-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
+# From 1977 on, C-Eur differs from EU only in that C-Eur uses standard time.
+Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule C-Eur 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule C-Eur 1917 1918 - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1940 only - Apr 1 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says 1941 DST was only from Feb 25 to Oct 5; go with Shanks.
-Rule M-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule M-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule C-Eur 1942 only - Nov 2 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule C-Eur 1943 only - Oct 4 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
-Rule M-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule M-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
-Rule M-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule M-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1944 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1977 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule C-Eur 1977 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1978 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1979 1995 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule C-Eur 1981 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule C-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 -
-Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 D
-Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 K
-Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 D
+Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
+Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
+Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
+Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 MST
+Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
+Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
-# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
+# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (1993-11-12):
# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
-Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 DD
-Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 K
-Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 D
-Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 K
-Rule Russia 1984 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 K
-Rule Russia 1985 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 DS
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Russia 1981 1984 - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Russia 1981 1983 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Russia 1984 max - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
+Rule Russia 1985 max - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone WET 0:00 EU WET%s
-Zone MET 1:00 M-Eur MET%s
-Zone EET 2:00 EU EET%s
+Zone WET 0:00 EU WE%sT
+Zone CET 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT
+Zone MET 1:00 C-Eur ME%sT
+Zone EET 2:00 EU EE%sT
+
+# Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
+# for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
-# Tom Hoffman says that MET is also known as Central European Time
+# From Markus Kuhn <mskuhn@unrza3.dialin.rrze.uni-erlangen.de> (1996-07-12):
+# The official German names ... are
+#
+# Mitteleuropaeische Zeit (MEZ) = UTC+01:00
+# Mitteleuropaeische Sommerzeit (MESZ) = UTC+02:00
+#
+# as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz ueber die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
+# 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
+# I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
+#
+# Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
+# Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"
+# Postfach 3345
+# D-38023 Braunschweig
+# phone: +49 531 592-0
+#
+# ... I received today an answer letter from Dr. Peter Hetzel, head of the PTB
+# department for time and frequency transmission. He explained that the
+# PTB translates MEZ and MESZ into English as
+#
+# Central European Time (CET) = UTC+01:00
+# Central European Summer Time (CEST) = UTC+02:00
-Link MET CET
# Albania
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1940 only - Jun 16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1943 only - Apr 10 3:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1974 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1974 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1975 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1975 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1976 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1976 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1977 only - May 8 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1977 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1978 only - May 6 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1979 only - May 5 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1980 only - May 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1980 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1981 only - Apr 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1981 only - Sep 27 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1982 only - May 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1982 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1983 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1983 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Albania 1984 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
- 1:00 - MET 1940 Jun 16
- 1:00 Albania MET%s 1985 Mar 31 1:00
- 1:00 W-Eur MET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
+ 1:00 Albania CE%sT 1985 Mar 31 1:00
+ 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT
# Andorra
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Andorra 0:06:04 - LMT 1901
0:00 - WET 1946 Sep 30
- 1:00 - MET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1985 Mar 31 2:00
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Austria
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1920 only - Apr 5 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1920 only - Sep 13 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Austria 1946 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Austria 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Austria 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918 Jun 16 3:00
- 1:00 Austria MET%s 1940 Apr 1 2:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Austria MET%s 1981
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Jun 16 3:00
+ 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1940 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Austria CE%sT 1981
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Belarus
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
- 2:31 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1922 Oct
+ 2:30:20 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1922 Oct # Moscow Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Belgium
# Whitman and Shanks disagree; go with Shanks, usually.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# From Whitman:
-Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1919 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
# Shanks gives 1920 Feb 14 23:00s; go with Whitman.
-Rule Belgium 1920 1921 - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1920 1921 - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
Rule Belgium 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1927 Oct 1 2:00s and 1928 Oct 7 2:00s; go with Shanks.
Rule Belgium 1922 1928 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1929 only - Apr 21 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1929 1938 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1930 only - Apr 13 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1931 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1932 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1933 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1934 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1935 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1936 only - Apr 19 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says 1937 Apr 18 2:00s; go with Shanks.
-Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1937 only - Apr 4 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says 1938 Apr 10 2:00s; go with Shanks.
-Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1938 only - Mar 27 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Belgium 1939 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1939 only - Nov 19 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1945 only - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Belgium 1946 only - May 19 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Belgium 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:20 - LMT 1880
- 0:17 - BST 1892 May 1 12:00
+ 0:17:20 - BMT 1892 May 1 12:00 # Brussels MT
0:00 - WET 1914 Aug 4
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1919 Mar 1 23:00
- 0:00 Belgium WET%s 1940 Feb 24 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Belgium MET%s 1977
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Mar 1 23:00
+ 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 Feb 24 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Bosnia and Herzegovina
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Sarajevo 1:13:40 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1983
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1983
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Bulgaria
-# Part switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1915 Nov 14;
-# the rest switched on 1920 Sep 17.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
-Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Bulg 1980 1982 - Apr Sat<=7 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Bulg 1980 only - Sep 29 1:00 0 -
Rule Bulg 1981 only - Sep 27 2:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
- 1:57 - TST 1894 Nov 30
+ 1:56:56 - IMT 1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
2:00 - EET 1942 Nov 2 3:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 3:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 3:00
2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
- 2:00 Bulg EET%s 1982 Sep 26 2:00
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Croatia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Zagreb 1:03:52 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1983
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1983
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Czech Republic
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1584-01-17.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1946 only - May 6 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Czech 1947 only - Apr 20 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Czech 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Czech 1949 only - Apr 9 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
- 0:58 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
- 1:00 Czech MET%s 1979
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:57:44 - PMT 1891 Oct # Prague Mean Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 17 2:00s
+ 1:00 Czech CE%sT 1979
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Denmark
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
-Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1940 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Denmark 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1945 only - Aug 15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1946 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1946 only - Sep 1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1947 only - May 4 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1947 only - Aug 10 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Denmark 1948 only - May 9 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways
# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks.
@@ -1055,45 +1069,43 @@ Rule Denmark 1948 only - Aug 8 2:00s 0 -
# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen 0:50:20 - LMT 1890
- 0:50 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time
- 1:00 Denmark MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Denmark MET%s 1980
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:50:20 - CMT 1894 Apr # Copenhagen Mean Time
+ 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Denmark CE%sT 1980
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Faeroe -0:27:04 - LMT 1908 Jan 11 # Torshavn
0:00 - WET 1981
- 0:00 EU WET%s
+ 0:00 EU WE%sT
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
- -2:00 - MGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
- -2:00 M-Eur MGT%s 1981 Mar 29
- -1:00 M-Eur EGT%s
+ -2:00 - CGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
+ -2:00 C-Eur CG%sT 1981 Mar 29
+ -1:00 C-Eur EG%sT
Zone America/Godthab -3:26:56 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
-3:00 - WGT 1980 Apr 6 2:00
- -3:00 M-Eur WGT%s
+ -3:00 C-Eur WG%sT
Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28
-4:00 - AST
# Estonia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
-#
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
- 1:39 - LST 1918 Feb
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1919 Jul
- 1:39 - LST 1921 May
+ 1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1919 Jul
+ 1:39:00 - TMT 1921 May
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 6
- 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 15
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Sep 22
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 3:00 - MOST 1941 Sep 15 # Moscow Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Sep 22
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Finland
+# See Sweden for when the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
#
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
@@ -1104,61 +1116,64 @@ Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
# Go with Strang instead.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Finland 1942 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Finland 1942 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
- 1:40 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
- 2:00 Finland EET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00
- 2:00 EU EET%s
+ 1:39:52 - HMT 1921 May # Helsinki Mean Time
+ 2:00 Finland EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# France
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
+# French Revolutionary calendar used 1792-09-22 - 1805-12-31.
+#
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
-Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1917 only - Mar 24 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1918 only - Mar 9 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1920 only - Oct 23 23:00s 0 -
-Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1921 only - Oct 25 23:00s 0 -
-Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1922 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1923 only - May 26 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1925 only - Apr 4 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1930 only - Apr 12 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1933 only - Mar 25 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule France 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
-Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
-Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 1:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1942 only - Mar 8 0:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule France 1943 only - Nov 4 3:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
+Rule France 1941 only - May 5 0:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1941 only - Oct 6 1:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1942 only - Mar 8 0:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1943 only - Mar 29 2:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1943 only - Nov 4 3:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1944 only - Apr 3 2:00 2:00 DS
+Rule France 1944 only - Oct 8 1:00 1:00 S
+Rule France 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 2:00 DS
Rule France 1945 only - Sep 16 3:00 0 -
-Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule France 1976 only - Mar 28 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1976 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
@@ -1167,113 +1182,112 @@ Rule France 1976 only - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Paris 0:09:21 - LMT 1891 Mar 15 0:01
0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
- 0:00 France WET%s 1940 Jun 14
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug 25
- 0:00 France WET%s 1945 Sep 16 3:00
- 1:00 France MET%s 1977
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:00 France WE%sT 1940 Jun 14
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 25
+ 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+ 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Germany
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Germany 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Germany 1945 only - May 24 2:00 2:00 DS
+Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 24 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1948 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule Germany 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Germany 1947 only - May 11 2:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Germany 1947 only - Jun 29 3:00 1:00 S
+Rule Germany 1948 only - Apr 18 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Germany 1949 only - Apr 10 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Berlin 0:53:28 - LMT 1893 Apr
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Germany MET%s 1980
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Germany CE%sT 1980
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Gibraltar
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar -0:21:24 - LMT 1880 Aug 2
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1957 Apr 14 2:00
- 1:00 - MET 1982
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1982
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Greece
-# They adopted the Julian calendar in 1846.
-# Part switched to the Gregorian calendar on 1916 Jul 28.
-# The rest switched on 1920 Mar 18.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks.
-Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1932 only - Jul 7 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1932 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks.
-Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1941 only - Apr 7 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule Greece 1942 only - Nov 2 3:00 0 -
-Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1943 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1943 only - Oct 4 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks.
-Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1952 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1952 only - Nov 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1975 only - Apr 12 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1975 only - Nov 26 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1976 only - Apr 11 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1976 only - Oct 10 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1977 only - Sep 26 2:00s 0 -
Rule Greece 1978 only - Sep 24 4:00 0 -
-Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1979 only - Apr 1 9:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1979 only - Sep 29 2:00 0 -
-Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Greece 1980 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Greece 1980 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
- 1:35 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
- 2:00 Greece EET%s 1941 Apr 30
- 1:00 Greece MET%s 1944 Apr 4
- 2:00 Greece EET%s 1981
- # Shanks says they switched to M-Eur in 1981;
+ 1:34:52 - AMT 1916 Jul 28 0:01 # Athens MT
+ 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1941 Apr 30
+ 1:00 Greece CE%sT 1944 Apr 4
+ 2:00 Greece EE%sT 1981
+ # Shanks says they switched to C-Eur in 1981;
# go with EU intead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
- 2:00 EU EET%s
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Hungary
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1587-11-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1919 only - Apr 15 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1919 only - Sep 15 3:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1920 only - Apr 5 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1920 only - Sep 30 3:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1945 only - May 1 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1945 only - Nov 3 0:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1946 only - Mar 31 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1946 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=4 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Hungary 1950 only - Apr 17 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1950 only - Oct 23 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - May 23 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1954 1955 - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1956 only - Jun Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1956 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1957 only - Jun Sun>=1 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1957 only - Sep lastSun 3:00 0 -
-Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Hungary 1980 only - Apr 6 1:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918
- 1:00 Hungary MET%s 1941 Apr 6 2:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 1 23:00
- 1:00 Hungary MET%s 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918
+ 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1941 Apr 6 2:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 1 23:00
+ 1:00 Hungary CE%sT 1980 Sep 28 2:00s
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Iceland
#
-# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (November 6, 1993):
+# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (1993-11-06):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
-# (December 5, 1993):
+# (1993-12-05):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
@@ -1287,7 +1301,7 @@ Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland. The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
-# (December 10, 1993):
+# (1993-12-10):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
@@ -1295,46 +1309,47 @@ Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
# (old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
-# might mean something else (???). The Gregorian calendar was not introduced
-# in Iceland until 1700.
+# might mean something else (???).
#
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (December 9, 1993):
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-12-09):
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
# Reykavik was -1:28 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1917 only - Oct 21 1:00 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1918 only - Nov 16 1:00 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1939 only - Apr 29 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1939 only - Nov 29 2:00 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1940 only - Feb 25 2:00 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1940 only - Nov 3 2:00 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1941 only - Mar 2 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1941 only - Nov 2 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1942 only - Mar 8 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1942 only - Oct 25 1:00s 0 -
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
-Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
-Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1943 1946 - Mar Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Iceland 1943 1948 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
-Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 D
+Rule Iceland 1947 1967 - Apr Sun>=1 1:00s 1:00 S
# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
-Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 S
-Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 S
+Rule Iceland 1949 only - Oct 30 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1950 1966 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00s 0 -
+Rule Iceland 1967 only - Oct 29 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
- -1:28 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time
- -1:00 Iceland I%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
+ -1:27:48 - RMT 1908 # Reykjavik Mean Time?
+ -1:00 Iceland IS%sT 1968 Apr 7 1:00s
0:00 - GMT
# Italy
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
+#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri
-# <URL:http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html> (see `FP' below),
-# taken from a publication of the Italian National Electrotechnical Institute.
+# <URL:http://pisolo.cstv.to.cnr.it/toi/uk/ienitlt.html> (1996-03-14) (`FP'
+# below), taken from an Italian National Electrotechnical Institute publication.
# When the three sources disagree, guess who's right, as follows:
#
# year FP Shanks (S) Whitman (W) Go with:
@@ -1348,186 +1363,180 @@ Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
# 10-04 10-04 24:00 10-04 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1920 03-20 03-20 24:00 03-20 00:00 FP & S
# 09-18 09-18 24:00 10-01 01:00 FP; guess 24:00s
-# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see M-Eur)
+# 1944 04-02 04-03 02:00 S (see C-Eur)
# 09-16 10-02 03:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1945 09-14 09-16 24:00 FP; guess 24:00s
# 1970 05-21 05-31 00:00 S
# 09-20 09-27 00:00 S
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1916 only - Jun 3 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1917 only - Apr 1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1917 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1918 only - Mar 10 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1918 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1919 only - Mar 2 0:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Italy 1920 only - Mar 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1920 only - Sep 19 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1940 only - Jun 15 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1944 only - Sep 17 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1945 only - Sep 15 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1946 only - Mar 17 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1946 only - Oct 6 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1947 only - Mar 16 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1947 only - Oct 5 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1948 only - Feb 29 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1948 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1966 1968 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1966 1969 - Sep Sun>=22 0:00 0 -
-Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1969 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Italy 1970 only - May 31 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1970 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1971 1972 - May Sun>=22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1971 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
Rule Italy 1972 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1973 only - Jun 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1973 1974 - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1974 only - May 26 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Italy 1975 only - Jun 1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1975 1977 - Sep lastSun 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Italy 1976 only - May 30 0:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Italy 1977 1979 - May Sun>=22 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Italy 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Italy 1979 only - Sep 30 0:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Rome 0:49:56 - LMT 1866 Sep 22
- 0:50 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time
- 1:00 Italy MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Jul
- 1:00 Italy MET%s 1980
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:49:56 - RMT 1893 Nov # Rome Mean Time
+ 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul
+ 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1980
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
Link Europe/Rome Europe/Vatican
Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# Latvia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
- 1:36 - LST 1918 Apr 15 2:00
- 1:36 M-Eur LST%s 1919 Apr 1 2:00
- 1:36 1:00 "LST DST" 1919 May 22 3:00
- 1:36 - LST 1926 May 11
+ 1:36:24 - RMT 1918 Apr 15 2:00 #Riga Mean Time
+ 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1918 Sep 16 3:00 #Latvian Summer
+ 1:36:24 - RMT 1919 Apr 1 2:00
+ 1:36:24 1:00 LST 1919 May 22 3:00
+ 1:36:24 - RMT 1926 May 11
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
- 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug 8
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 3:00 - MOST 1941 Jul # Moscow Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 8
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Liechtenstein
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun
- 1:00 - MET 1981
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1981
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Lithuania
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
- 1:24 - LST 1917 # Kaunas
- 1:36 - LST 1919 Oct 10
- 1:00 - MET 1920 Jul 12
+ 1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
+ 1:35:36 - KMT 1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
+ 1:00 - CET 1920 Jul 12
2:00 - EET 1920 Oct 9
- 1:00 - MET 1940 Aug 3
- 3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 24
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Aug
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 1:00 - CET 1940 Aug 3
+ 3:00 - MOST 1941 Jun 24 # Moscow Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1916 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1917 only - Apr 28 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1917 only - Sep 17 1:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1918 only - Apr Mon>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1918 only - Sep Mon>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1919 only - Mar 1 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1919 only - Oct 5 3:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1920 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1920 only - Oct 24 2:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1921 only - Mar 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1921 only - Oct 26 2:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1922 only - Mar 25 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1922 only - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1923 only - Apr 21 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1923 only - Oct Sun>=2 2:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1924 only - Mar 29 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Lux 1924 1928 - Oct Sun>=2 1:00 0 -
-Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Lux 1925 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Lux 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Lux 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Lux 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00 1:00 S
+Rule Lux 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg 0:24:36 - LMT 1904 Jun
- 1:00 Lux MET%s 1918 Nov 25
- 0:00 Lux WET%s 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
- 0:00 Belgium WET%s 1940 May 14 3:00
- 1:00 M-Eur WET%s 1944 Sep 18 3:00
- 1:00 Belgium MET%s 1977
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 Lux CE%sT 1918 Nov 25
+ 0:00 Lux WE%sT 1929 Oct 6 2:00s
+ 0:00 Belgium WE%sT 1940 May 14 3:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur WE%sT 1944 Sep 18 3:00
+ 1:00 Belgium CE%sT 1977
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Macedonia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Skopje 1:25:44 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1983
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1983
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Malta
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1973 only - Mar 31 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1973 only - Sep 29 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1974 only - Apr 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1974 only - Sep 16 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1975 1979 - Apr Sun>=15 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Malta 1975 1980 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00 0 -
-Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Malta 1980 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta
- 1:00 Italy MET%s 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
- 1:00 Italy MET%s 1973 Mar 31
- 1:00 Malta MET%s 1981
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1942 Nov 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00s
+ 1:00 Italy CE%sT 1973 Mar 31
+ 1:00 Malta CE%sT 1981
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Moldova
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1919 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1924 May 2
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s # Moscow Time
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Monaco
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
0:09:21 - PMT 1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
- 0:00 France WET%s 1945 Sep 16 3:00
- 1:00 France MET%s 1977
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:00 France WE%sT 1945 Sep 16 3:00
+ 1:00 France CE%sT 1977
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Netherlands
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Shanks gives 1916 May 1 0:00 and 1916 Oct 1 0:00; go with Whitman.
-Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST
-Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT
+Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
+Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1917 only - Sep 17 2:00s 0 AMT
# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks.
@@ -1535,7 +1544,7 @@ Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Apr Mon>=1 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1918 1921 - Sep Mon>=24 2:00s 0 AMT
Rule Neth 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 NST
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
-Rule Neth 1922 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
+Rule Neth 1922 1936 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 AMT
Rule Neth 1923 only - Jun 1 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1924 only - Mar 30 2:00s 1:00 NST
# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
@@ -1545,363 +1554,399 @@ Rule Neth 1926 1931 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1932 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1933 1936 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
Rule Neth 1937 only - May 22 2:00s 1:00 NST
+Rule Neth 1937 only - Jul 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks.
-Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 NST
-Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 -
# Before 1937, Shanks says just `0:20'; we use Whitman's more precise figure.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May
0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul
- 0:20 Neth %s 1940 May 16 0:40
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Neth MET%s 1977
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:20 Neth NE%sT 1940 May 16 0:40
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Neth CE%sT 1977
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Norway
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
-Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1916 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
# Shanks omits the following transition; go with Whitman.
-Rule Norway 1935 only - Aug 11 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1935 only - Aug 11 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman says DST observed until 1942 Nov 1, then 1943 Mar 29 - Oct 4,
# 1944 Apr 3 - Oct 2, and 1945 Apr 1 - Oct 1; go with Shanks after 1940.
-Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1945 only - Oct 1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1959 1964 - Mar Sun>=15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Norway 1959 1965 - Sep Sun>=15 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Norway 1965 only - Apr 25 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Oslo 0:43:00 - LMT 1895
- 1:00 Norway MET%s 1940 Aug 10 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 Apr 2 2:00
- 1:00 Norway MET%s 1980
- 1:00 EU MET%s
-# Svalbard is like Europe/Oslo.
+ 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1940 Aug 10 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 Apr 2 2:00
+ 1:00 Norway CE%sT 1980
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
+#
+# Svalbard
+Link Europe/Oslo Arctic/Longyearbyen
#
+# Jan Mayen
# From Whitman:
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen -1:00 - EGT
# Poland
-# Austrian and German Poland switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
-# on 1582 Oct 15. Russian Poland switched on 1918 Jan 14.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Poland 1918 1919 - Sep 16 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1919 only - Apr 15 2:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks.
Rule Poland 1944 only - Oct 4 2:00 0 -
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks.
-Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1945 only - Apr 29 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1945 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1946 only - Apr 14 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1946 only - Sep 7 0:00 0 -
-Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1947 only - May 4 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1947 1948 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1948 only - Apr 18 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
-Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1957 only - Jun 2 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1957 1958 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
-Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1958 only - Mar 30 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Poland 1959 only - May 31 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1959 1961 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00s 0 -
-Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Poland 1960 only - Apr 3 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Poland 1961 1964 - May Sun>=25 1:00s 1:00 S
Rule Poland 1962 1964 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
- 1:24 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1918 Sep 16 3:00
- 2:00 Poland EET%s 1922 Jun
- 1:00 Poland MET%s 1940 Jun 23 2:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1944 Oct
- 1:00 Poland MET%s 1977 Apr 3 1:00
- 1:00 W-Eur MET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 1:24:00 - WMT 1915 Aug 5 # Warsaw Mean Time
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1918 Sep 16 3:00
+ 2:00 Poland EE%sT 1922 Jun
+ 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
+ 1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00
+ 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT
# Portugal
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1916 only - Jun 17 23:00 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule Port 1916 only - Nov 1 1:00 0 -
-Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1917 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1917 1921 - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1918 only - Mar 1 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1919 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1920 only - Feb 29 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1921 only - Feb 28 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1924 only - Oct 14 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1931 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks.
Rule Port 1931 1932 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1932 only - Apr 2 23:00s 1:00 S
# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman.
-Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1934 only - Apr 7 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks.
Rule Port 1934 1938 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
-Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1935 only - Mar 30 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1936 only - Apr 18 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks.
-Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1937 only - Apr 3 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1938 only - Mar 26 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule Port 1939 only - Nov 18 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1940 only - Feb 24 23:00s 1:00 S
# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule Port 1940 1941 - Oct 5 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1941 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1942 1945 - Mar Sat>=8 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1942 only - Apr 25 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1942 only - Aug 15 22:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1942 1945 - Oct Sat>=24 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1943 only - Apr 17 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1943 1945 - Aug Sat>=25 22:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1944 1945 - Apr Sat>=21 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Port 1946 only - Apr Sat>=1 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1946 only - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1947 1949 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks.
-Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1951 1965 - Apr Sun>=1 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1951 1965 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1977 only - Mar 27 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1977 only - Sep 25 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1978 1979 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Port 1978 only - Oct 1 0:00s 0 -
Rule Port 1979 1982 - Sep lastSun 1:00s 0 -
-Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Port 1980 only - Mar lastSun 0:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 1:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Port 1983 only - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Lisbon -0:36:32 - LMT 1884
- -0:37 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time
- 0:00 Port WET%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
- 1:00 - MET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
- 0:00 Port WET%s 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
- 0:00 EU WET%s 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
-# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (November 12, 1992):
+ -0:36:32 - LMT 1911 May 24 # Lisbon Mean Time
+ 0:00 Port WE%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00
+ 1:00 - CET 1976 Sep 26 1:00
+ 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
- 1:00 EU MET%s 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
+ 0:00 EU WE%sT 1992 Sep 27 1:00s
# Martin Bruckmann <martin@ua.pt> (1996-02-29) reports via Peter Ilieve
# that Portugal is reverting to 0:00 by not moving its clocks this spring.
# The new Prime Minister was fed up with getting up in the dark in the winter.
- 0:00 1:00 "WET DST" 1996 Oct 27 1:00u
- 0:00 EU WET%s
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT 1996 Mar 31 1:00u
+ 0:00 EU WE%sT
# We don't know what happened to Madeira or the Azores,
# so we'll just use Shanks for now.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Azores -1:42:40 - LMT 1884 # Ponta Delgada
-1:55 - HMT 1911 May 24 # Horta Mean Time
- -2:00 Port ACT%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
- -1:00 - ACT 1977 Mar 27
- -1:00 - ACT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
- -1:00 W-Eur ACT%s
+ -2:00 Port AZO%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Azores Time
+ -1:00 Port AZO%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+ -1:00 W-Eur AZO%sT
Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
-1:08 - FMT 1911 May 24 # Funchal Mean Time
- -1:00 Port ACT%s 1966 Apr 3 2:00
- 0:00 - WET 1977 Mar 27
- 0:00 Port WET%s 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
- 0:00 EU WET%s
+ -1:00 Port MAD%sT 1966 Apr 3 2:00 # Madeira Time
+ 0:00 Port WE%sT 1983 Sep 25 1:00s
+ 0:00 EU WE%sT
# Romania
-# Catholic Romania switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on
-# on 1919 Mar 18. Greek Orthodox Romania switched on 1920 Mar 18.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
-Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1933 1939 - Apr Sun>=2 0:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Romania 1979 only - May 27 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1979 only - Sep lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Romania 1980 only - Apr 5 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1980 only - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
- 1:44 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
- 2:00 Romania EET%s 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+ 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
# Russia
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
-# Moscow and Novosibirsk time zone names, and Moscow rules after 1991,
-# are from Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su>.
-# I invented the other time zone names, and (unless otherwise specified)
+# From Shanks (1991):
+# In 1929 the Soviet Union instituted a 5 day week; in 1932 it instituted
+# a 6 day week; on 1940-06-27 it returned to the Gregorian week.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-09-03):
+# Moscow rules after 1991 are from Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su>.
+# I invented the time zone names, and (unless otherwise specified)
# guessed what happened after 1991; the clocks were chaotic, and we know little.
# The rest is from Shanks.
#
-# From Shanks (1991):
-# Western Russia switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
-# on 1918 Jan 14. Eastern Russia switched on 1920 Mar 18.
-# In 1929 the Soviet Union instituted a 5 day week; in 1932 it instituted
-# a 6 day week; on 1940 Jun 27 it returned to the Gregorian week.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
- 2:31 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1922 Oct
+ 2:30:20 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1922 Oct # Moscow TIme
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2:00 - EET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 3:00 Russia MS%s
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT
Zone Europe/Kuybyshev 3:20:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 3:00 - KSK 1957 Mar
- 4:00 Russia KS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 3:00 1:00 KSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 3:00 - KSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 4:00 Russia KS%s
+ 3:00 - KUYT 1957 Mar # Kuybyshev Time
+ 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 3:00 1:00 KUYST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 3:00 - KUYT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 4:00 Russia KUY%sT
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:34 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 4:00 - SSK 1957 Mar
- 5:00 Russia SS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 4:00 1:00 SSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 4:00 - SSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 5:00 Russia ES%s # name change from Sverdlovsk
+ 4:00 - SVET 1957 Mar # Sverdlovsk Time
+ 5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 4:00 1:00 SVEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 4:00 - SVET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time
Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 5:00 - OSK 1957 Mar
- 6:00 Russia OS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 5:00 1:00 OSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 5:00 - OSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 6:00 Russia OS%s
-# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (June 29, 1994):
+ 5:00 - OMST 1957 Mar # Omsk Time
+ 6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 5:00 1:00 OMSST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 5:00 - OMST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia OMS%sT
+# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 6:00 - NSK 1957 Mar
- 7:00 Russia NS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 NSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 6:00 - NSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 7:00 Russia NS%s 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 NSD 1994 Sep 25 2:00s
- 6:00 Russia NS%s
+ 6:00 - NOVT 1957 Mar # Novosibirsk TIme
+ 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 NOVST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 6:00 - NOVT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 NOVST 1994 Sep 25 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia NOV%sT
Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 6:00 - KRSK 1957 Mar
- 7:00 Russia KRS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 KRSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 6:00 - KRSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 7:00 Russia KRS%s
+ 6:00 - KRAT 1957 Mar # Krasnoyarsk Time
+ 7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 6:00 1:00 KRAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 6:00 - KRAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia KRA%sT
Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
- 6:57 - LST 1924 May 2
- 7:00 - ISK 1957 Mar
- 8:00 Russia IS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 7:00 1:00 ISD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 7:00 - ISK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 8:00 Russia IS%s
+ 6:57:20 - IMT 1924 May 2 # Irkutsk Mean Time
+ 7:00 - IRKT 1957 Mar # Irkutsk Time
+ 8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 7:00 1:00 IRKST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 7:00 - IRKT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 8:00 Russia IRK%sT
Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 8:00 - YSK 1957 Mar
- 9:00 Russia YS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 8:00 1:00 YSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 8:00 - YSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 9:00 Russia YS%s
+ 8:00 - YAKT 1957 Mar # Yakutsk Time
+ 9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 8:00 1:00 YAKST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 8:00 - YAKT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 9:00 Russia YAK%sT
Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1880
- 8:48 - LST 1924 May 2
- 9:00 - VSK 1957 Mar
- 10:00 Russia VS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 9:00 1:00 VSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 9:00 - VSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 10:00 Russia VS%s
+ 8:47:44 - VMT 1924 May 2 # Vladivostok MT
+ 9:00 - VLAT 1957 Mar # Vladivostok Time
+ 10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 9:00 1:00 VLAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 9:00 - VLAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 10:00 Russia VLA%sT
Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 10:00 - MSK 1957 Mar
- 11:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 10:00 1:00 MSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 10:00 - MSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 11:00 Russia MS%s
+ 10:00 - MAGT 1957 Mar # Magadan Time
+ 11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 10:00 1:00 MAGST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 10:00 - MAGT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 11:00 Russia MAG%sT
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 11:00 - PSK 1957 Mar
- 12:00 Russia PS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 11:00 1:00 PSD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 11:00 - PSK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 12:00 Russia PS%s
+ 11:00 - PETT 1957 Mar # P-K Time
+ 12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 11:00 1:00 PETST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 11:00 - PETT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 12:00 Russia PET%sT
Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 12:00 - ASK 1957 Mar
- 13:00 Russia AS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 12:00 1:00 ASD 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 12:00 - ASK 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 13:00 Russia AS%s
+ 12:00 - ANAT 1957 Mar # Anadyr Time
+ 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 12:00 1:00 ANAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 12:00 - ANAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 13:00 Russia ANA%sT
# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
# Slovenia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Ljubljana 0:58:04 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1983
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1983
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Spain
+# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
-Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1917 1919 - Oct 6 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1918 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1919 only - Apr 5 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks.
-Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1924 only - Apr 16 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule Spain 1924 only - Oct 4 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1926 only - Apr 17 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks.
Rule Spain 1926 1929 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1927 only - Apr 9 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1928 only - Apr 14 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1929 only - Apr 20 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks.
-Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1937 only - May 22 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1937 1939 - Oct Sat>=1 23:00s 0 -
-Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1938 only - Mar 22 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1939 only - Apr 15 23:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1940 only - Mar 16 23:00s 1:00 S
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
-Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1942 only - May 2 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Spain 1942 only - Sep 1 22:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1943 1946 - Apr Sat>=13 22:00s 2:00 DS
+Rule Spain 1943 only - Oct 3 22:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1944 only - Oct 10 22:00s 1:00 S
+Rule Spain 1945 only - Sep 30 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1946 only - Sep 30 0:00 0 -
-Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1949 only - Apr 30 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1949 only - Sep 30 1:00 0 -
-Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Apr Sat>=13 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1974 1975 - Oct Sun>=1 1:00 0 -
-Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1976 only - Mar 27 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1976 1977 - Sep lastSun 1:00 0 -
-Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Spain 1977 1978 - Apr 2 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Spain 1978 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
+# The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978.
+Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Jun 3 12:00 1:00 S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1967 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Jun 24 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1974 only - Sep 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule SpainAfrica 1976 1977 - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1976 only - Aug 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule SpainAfrica 1977 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
+Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule SpainAfrica 1978 only - Aug 4 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Madrid -0:14:44 - LMT 1901
- 0:00 Spain WET%s 1946 Sep 30
- 1:00 Spain MET%s 1979
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1946 Sep 30
+ 1:00 Spain CE%sT 1979
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
+Zone Africa/Ceuta -0:21:16 - LMT 1901
+ 0:00 - WET 1918 May 6 23:00
+ 0:00 1:00 WEST 1918 Oct 7 23:00
+ 0:00 - WET 1924
+ 0:00 Spain WE%sT 1929
+ 0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
+ 1:00 - CET 1986
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
- -1:00 - ACT 1946 Sep 30 1:00
+ -1:00 - CANT 1946 Sep 30 1:00 # Canaries Time
0:00 - WET 1980 Apr 6 0:00s
- 0:00 1:00 "WET DST" 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
- 0:00 EU WET%s
+ 0:00 1:00 WEST 1980 Sep 28 0:00s
+ 0:00 EU WE%sT
# Sweden
+
+# From: msb@sq.com (Mark Brader) <URL:news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com>:
+#
+# In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian. Sweden
+# decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
+# those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
+# year after 1696 would be in 1744 -- putting the whole country on a calendar
+# different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
+#
+# However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
+# they did, after all, have a leap year that year. And one in 1708. In 1712
+# they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
+# year!...
+#
+# Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
+# getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
+#
+# (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
+# produced the following references to support it: "Tiderakning och historia"
+# by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tiderakning och
+# kalendervasen" by Lars-Olof Lode'n (no date was given).)
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
- 1:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT
- 1:00 - MET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1916 Sep 30 23:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1980
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT
+ 1:00 - CET 1916 Apr 14 23:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1916 Sep 30 23:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1980
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Switzerland
# From Howse (1988), p 82:
@@ -1910,121 +1955,130 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
-Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
# From Shanks (1991):
-Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Zurich 0:34:08 - LMT 1848 Sep 12
- 0:30 - SST 1894 Jun # Swiss Standard Time
- 1:00 Swiss MET%s 1981
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 0:29:44 - BMT 1894 Jun # Bern Mean Time
+ 1:00 Swiss CE%sT 1981
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Turkey
-# European Turkey switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1908.
-# Asian Turkey switched in 1914.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1916 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1916 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1920 only - Mar 28 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1920 only - Oct 25 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1921 only - Apr 3 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1921 only - Oct 3 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1922 only - Mar 26 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks.
-Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
# Shanks omits the first two transitions in 1940; go with Whitman.
-Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1941 only - Sep 21 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1942 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule Turkey 1942 only - Nov 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1945 only - Apr 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1945 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1946 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1946 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1947 1948 - Apr Sun>=16 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1947 1950 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1949 only - Apr 10 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1950 only - Apr 19 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1951 only - Apr 22 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1951 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1962 only - Jul 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1962 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1964 only - May 15 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1964 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - May Sun>=2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1970 1972 - Oct Sun>=2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1973 only - Jun 3 1:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1973 only - Nov 4 3:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1974 only - Mar 31 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1974 only - Nov 3 5:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1975 only - Mar 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1975 1976 - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1976 only - Jun 1 0:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1977 1978 - Apr Sun>=1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1977 only - Oct 16 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1979 1980 - Apr Sun>=1 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1979 1982 - Oct Mon>=11 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1981 1982 - Mar lastSun 3:00 1:00 S
+Rule Turkey 1983 only - Jul 31 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1983 only - Oct 2 0:00 0 -
-Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 " DST"
+Rule Turkey 1985 only - Apr 20 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1985 only - Sep 28 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
- 1:57 - OMT 1910 Oct # Ottoman Mean Time
- 2:00 Turkey EET%s 1978 Oct 15
- 3:00 Turkey TUR%s 1985 Apr 20
- 2:00 Turkey EET%s 1986
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 1:56:56 - IMT 1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
+ 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1978 Oct 15
+ 3:00 Turkey TR%sT 1985 Apr 20 # Turkey Time
+ 2:00 Turkey EE%sT 1986
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
# Ukraine
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 " DDST"
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 " DST"
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
+Rule Ukraine 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 UST # Ukrainian Summer Time
+Rule Ukraine 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 KMT # Kiev Mean TIme
+Rule Ukraine 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 UDST # Ukrainian Double Summer Time
+Rule Ukraine 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 UST
+Rule Ukraine 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 UDST
+Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 UST
+Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 KMT
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 UST
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 UDST
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 UST
+Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 KMT
+Rule Crimea 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 CST # Crimean Summer Time
+Rule Crimea 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 NMT # Nikolayev Mean Time
+Rule Crimea 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 CDST # Crimean Double Summer Time
+Rule Crimea 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 CST
+Rule Crimea 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 CDST
+Rule Crimea 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 CST
+Rule Crimea 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 NMT
+Rule Crimea 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 CST
+Rule Crimea 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 CDST
+Rule Crimea 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 CST
+Rule Crimea 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 NMT
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
- 2:02 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
- 2:02 Ukraine LST%s 1924 May 2
+ 2:02:04 Ukraine %s 1924 May 2
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1990 Jul 17
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s
-# This may change to `EU' soon.
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1990 Jul 17 # Moscow Time
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT
Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
- 2:08 Russia LST%s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
- 2:08 Ukraine LST%s 1924 May 2
+ 2:08:00 Crimea %s 1924 May 2
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MS%s 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 "EET DST" 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1994-05-28):
# Today's _Economist_ (p 45) reports that Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January elections.
# For now, we'll guess that there was a 2-hour leap forward on March 27.
- 2:00 M-Eur EET%s 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
- 3:00 Russia MS%s
+ 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MOS%sT
# Yugoslavia
-# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
- 1:00 - MET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
- 1:00 M-Eur MET%s 1945 May 8 2:00s
- 1:00 1:00 "MET DST" 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
- 1:00 - MET 1983
- 1:00 EU MET%s
+ 1:00 - CET 1941 Apr 18 23:00
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945 May 8 2:00s
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1945 Sep 16 2:00s
+ 1:00 - CET 1983
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
###############################################################################
@@ -2094,7 +2148,7 @@ Zone Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 - LMT 1884
# INTERNET : dik@cwi.nl
# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax
-# From Bob Devine (January 28, 1988):
+# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978. Change at midnight.