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diff --git a/share/zoneinfo/europe b/share/zoneinfo/europe
index 98f46585e6fb..cc08c0c2366f 100644
--- a/share/zoneinfo/europe
+++ b/share/zoneinfo/europe
@@ -1,22 +1,22 @@
-# @(#)europe 7.58
+# @(#)europe 7.71
# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
-# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
-# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
+# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition),
+# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999).
#
-# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
+# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually. Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
-# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990,
-# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
+# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1991,
+# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Other sources occasionally used include:
#
@@ -46,8 +46,7 @@
# 3:00 MSK MSD Moscow
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
-# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
-# Oxford University Press (1980).
+# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-04),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
@@ -74,7 +73,6 @@
###############################################################################
# Britain (United Kingdom) and Ireland (Eire)
-# The UK and its colonies adopted the Gregorian calendar on 1752-09-14.
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-07-06):
#
@@ -102,31 +100,32 @@
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
-# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828);
-# it was popularized in 1840 by Capt. Basil Hall, RN (1788-1844),
-# famed explorer and former Commissioner for Longitude.
+# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
+# and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
-# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847 Sep 22 the
+# (though not all) railways used London time. On 1847-09-22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
-# adopted at all stations; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists most major
+# adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
+# The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
+# and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
# railways as using GMT. By 1855 the vast majority of public
-# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the Great Clock
-# in Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
+# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
+# on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT). The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
-# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880 Aug 2.
+# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880-08-02.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
-# transition date for London, namely 1847 Sep 22. We don't know as much
-# about Dublin, so we use 1880 Aug 2, the legal transition time.
+# transition date for London, namely 1847-12-01. We don't know as much
+# about Dublin, so we use 1880-08-02, the legal transition time.
# From Paul Eggert (1999-01-30):
# Summer Time was first seriously proposed by William Willett (1857-1915),
# a London builder and member of the Royal Astronomical Society
-# who circulated a pamphlet ``Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
+# who circulated a pamphlet ``The Waste of Daylight'' (1907)
# that proposed advancing clocks 20 minutes on each of four Sundays in April,
# and retarding them by the same amount on four Sundays in September.
# A bill was drafted in 1909 and introduced in Parliament several times,
@@ -156,558 +155,22 @@
# time of sunrise and sunset in The Times, when BDST was in effect, and
# if you find a zone reference it will say, "All times B.D.S.T."
-# From Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19):
-# The following list attempts to show the complete history of Summer Time
-# legislation in the United Kingdom, and has quite a bit to say about
-# the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
-#
-# Things that I have not personally seen are marked (???). Things that
-# I haven't seen but Joseph Myers has are marked (jsm). The problem
-# with finding old Orders (rather than Acts) is that nobody seems to
-# keep the actual documents themselves, not even the Government. They
-# get bound into annual volumes, which are published, but by the time
-# this happens the Orders are mainly spent as the years they refer
-# to have come and gone, so they don't get included in the annual
-# volumes.
-#
-# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
-# the dusty old statutes, to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
-# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
-# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter),
-# and to Joseph Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk>, who tracked down the Orders
-# up to 1945, some of the old Acts, and the first five EC Directives.
-#
-# Some definitions:
-#
-# Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales
-# United Kingdom: Great Britain plus Ireland (up to 1922) or Northern
-# Ireland (since 1922)
-# S.I.: Statutory Instrument, the modern name for secondary legislation
-# S.R.&O.: Statutory Rules and Orders, the older name for secondary legislation
-#
-# Unless otherwise specified, Acts and secondary legislation are assumed
-# to apply throughout the United Kingdom, but not to the Isle of Man
-# or the Channel Islands.
-#
-# Some of the Acts and Orders I found in various libraries, and I don't
-# have copies. When I looked at them I was looking for dates and not things
-# like whether they applied to the Bailiwick of Jersey. I will try to
-# check these documents again.
-#
-# ---
-#
-# - The Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880 (43 & 44 Vict. c. 9)
-#
-# Defined Greenwich mean time to be the standard time in Great Britain
-# and Dublin mean time to be the standard time in Ireland, superseding
-# various forms of local mean time.
-#
-# - The Statutory Time Act, 1883 (???)
-#
-# An Act of Tynwald, the Isle of Man Parliament. It appears to have
-# defined the standard time on the Isle of Man as GMT but as I haven't
-# seen it I don't know if it used Greenwich mean time, some other definition,
-# or just said that Isle of Man time would be the same as in Great Britain.
-#
-# - The Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. 5. c. 62)
-#
-# Gives the power, by Order in Council, to extend wartime legislation
-# to the Isle of Man.
-#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 14)
-#
-# Introduced Summer Time for the first time, in Great Britain and Ireland.
-# Specified a one hour offset from GMT (DMT in Ireland), dates of
-# Sunday 21 May and Sunday 1 October and times of 02:00 (GMT/DMT).
-# Gave a power to make Orders in subsequent years, for the duration
-# of the then current war.
-#
-# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 45)
-#
-# This abolished Dublin mean time at 02:00 DMT on Sunday 1 October 1916,
-# bringing the whole of the United Kingdom onto GMT. As Ireland was behind
-# GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct Great Britain had already put the clocks back.
-# Using Paul Eggert's suggestion of IST for Irish Summer Time and the figure
-# derived from Whitman for the offset of IST from GMT (00:34:39) the sequence
-# would have been:
-# Dublin London
-# 02:34:38 IST 02:59:59 BST
-# 02:34:39 IST 02:00:00 GMT
-# 02:59:59 IST 02:25:20 GMT
-# 02:25:21 GMT 02:25:21 GMT
-# with the transition 03:00:00 IST -> 02:00:00 DMT -> 02:25:21 GMT all at once.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382
-#
-# An Order made under the Isle of Man (War Legislation) Act, 1914
-# extending the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man. Dated
-# 23 May 1916, two days after the start of Summer Time, but it says that
-# the Act is deemed to have taken effect in the Isle of Man at the same
-# time as it took effect in the United Kingdom.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 362
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
-# for Summer Time in 1917 of Sunday 8 April to Monday 17 September,
-# both at 02:00 GMT. Note that Summer Time ends on a Monday.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1917, No. 358
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time (Isle of Man) Act, 1916
-# (the thing created by S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382) specifying the same
-# dates of 8 April to 17 September, at 02:00 GMT for the Isle of Man.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 274
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
-# for Summer Time in 1918 of Sunday 24 March to Monday 30 September,
-# both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1918, No. 429
-#
-# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1918 with the same dates and times.
-#
-# - The Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918
-# (8 & 9 Geo. 5. c. 59)
-#
-# This gave power to specify a legal end date for the war just ended,
-# which would affect things like the Summer Time Act, 1916, which applied
-# only in wartime. This date was to be close to the date of formal
-# ratification of the treaty or treaties of peace.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 297
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
-# for Summer Time in 1919 of Sunday 30 March to Monday 29 September,
-# both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1919, No. 366
-#
-# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1919 with the same dates and times.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 giving dates
-# for Summer Time in 1920 of Sunday 28 March to Monday 27 September,
-# both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573
-#
-# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1920 with the same dates and times.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1920, No. 1844
-#
-# An Order modifying both S.R.&O. 1920, No. 458 and S.R.&O. 1920, No. 573 to
-# change the end date for Summer Time from Monday 27 September to
-# Monday 25 October (the time remaining 02:00 GMT). The 1989 Green
-# Paper (Cm 722) says this was done because of a coal strike.
-#
-# - The War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 (10 Geo. 5. c. 5)
-#
-# This extends the power to make Orders under the Summer Time Act, 1916
-# for a period of 12 months after the termination of the war.
-# Came into force on 31 March 1920. Although the war had been over for more
-# than 12 months by then the legal end date had not yet been set.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 363
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
-# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
-# in 1921 of Sunday 3 April to Monday 3 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1921, No. 364
-#
-# The matching Isle of Man Order for 1921 with the same dates and times.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1916 and the War
-# Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920 giving dates for Summer Time
-# in 1921 of Sunday 26 March to Sunday 8 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-# It also mentions the arrangements for defining the legal end date
-# for the late war. An Order was made on 10 August 1921, under the
-# Termination of the Present War (Definition) Act, 1918, setting
-# a date of 31 August 1921. This means the powers of the Summer Time
-# Act, 1916 would finally expire on 31 August 1922.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 290 (???)
-#
-# This is probably the matching Isle of Man Order.
-#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1922 (12 & 13 Geo. 5. c. 22)
-#
-# This specifies an offset of 1 hour and dates of the day after the third
-# Saturday in April, unless that be Easter, in which case it is the day after
-# the second Saturday, and the day after the third Saturday in September.
-# The time is 02:00 GMT. It applied in 1922 and 1923, and longer if Parliament
-# so approved. It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands as well.
-# Came into Force on 20 July 1920. Note the reversion to ending on a Sunday.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1922, No. 1205
-#
-# An Order made under the War Emergency Laws (Continuance) Act, 1920
-# dated 13 October 1922. It revokes (among other things) the Order extending
-# the Summer Time Act, 1916 to the Isle of Man.
-#
-# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1923 (13 & 14 Geo. 5. c. 37)
-#
-# This extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
-# 31 December 1924.
-#
-# - The Expiring Laws Continuance Act, 1924 (15 Geo. 5. c. 1) (jsm)
-#
-# This further extended the Summer Time Act, 1922 (among other things) until
-# 31 December 1925.
-#
-# - The Time Act (Northern Ireland), 1924 (14 & 15 Geo. 5. c. 24 (N.I.))
-#
-# This Act says that while it remains in force, any Act or Order relating
-# to the time for general purposes in Great Britain shall also apply
-# in Northern Ireland, and the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 shall have effect
-# accordingly.
-#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1925 (15 & 16 Geo. 5. c. 64)
-#
-# This makes the 1922 Act permanent, with a change to the end date to the
-# day after the first Saturday in October. Came into force on 7 August 1925.
-#
-# - The Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939 (2 & 3 Geo. 6. c. 62) (???)
-#
-# I haven't seen this one. It presumably gave the Government powers to
-# do all manner of things during the newly started war.
-#
-# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, S.R.&O. 1939, No. 1379
-#
-# These were made under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
-# They change the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 172
-#
-# An Order in Council amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# It changed the start date to the day after the fourth Saturday in February
-# (ie. 25 Feb 1940).
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1940, No. 1883
-#
-# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This continues summer time throughout the year after it starts in 1940.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1941, No. 476
-#
-# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This introduces double summer time, starting at 01:00 GMT on the day after
-# the first Saturday in May and ending at 01:00 GMT on the day after the
-# second Saturday in August, offset another hour from normal summer time,
-# which continues throughout the rest of the year.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1942, No. 506
-#
-# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This changes the start date of Double Summer Time to the day after the first
-# Saturday in April, bringing it forward from May.
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1944, No. 932
-#
-# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This changed the end date of Double Summer Time to the day after the
-# third Saturday in September (ie. 17 September 1944).
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 312
-#
-# Another Order amending the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This changes the start and end dates of Double Summer Time to the
-# day after the first Sunday in April and the day after the second Saturday
-# in July (ie. Mon 2 April to Sun 15 July).
-#
-# I have this quote from Hansard (the official record of the United Kingdom
-# Parliament), Oral Answers, 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60, explaining the
-# unusual start on a Monday:
-#
-# `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
-# Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
-# regarding double summer time.
-#
-# [two other similar questions omitted]
-#
-# Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
-# considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
-# double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
-# maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
-# when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
-# double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
-# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday-Monday so that it will operate from
-# Monday, 2nd April.'
-#
-# - S.R.&O. 1945, No. 1208
-#
-# An Order under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Acts, 1939 and 1940 revoking
-# a long list of things, including the Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939.
-# This meant that Summer Time reverted to being set by the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
-# It was made on 28 September, early enough to end Summer Time on the
-# date defined by the 1925 Act: 7 October.
-#
-# - The Summer Time Act, 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. 6. c. 16)
-#
-# Came into force on 11 March 1947. Amended the Summer Time Acts, 1922 and
-# 1925 to change the dates of Summer Time and to introduce Double Summer Time
-# (although it doesn't give this, or any, name for this period of 2 hour
-# offset from GMT). Dates are given for 1947 only and are: 02:00 GMT Sunday
-# 16 March, 01:00 GMT Sunday 13 April, 01:00 GMT Sunday 10 August, and 02:00
-# Sunday 2 November. It gave a power to make Orders for subsequent years,
-# both to vary the dates and to continue Double Summer Time. It applied
-# to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1948 (S.I. 1948/495)
-#
-# An Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1948 of
-# 14 March and 31 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# Although the 1947 Act had legislated for Double Summer Time, this was
-# not continued after 1947.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1949 (S.I. 1949/373)
-#
-# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1949
-# of 3 April and 30 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1950 (S.I. 1950/518)
-#
-# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1950
-# of 16 April and 22 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1951 (S.I. 1951/430)
-#
-# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1951
-# of 15 April and 21 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1952 (S.I. 1952/451)
-#
-# Another Order made under the Summer Time Act, 1947. Gave dates for 1952
-# of 20 April and 26 October, both at 02:00 GMT.
-#
-# This is the last of this run of Orders, so for 1953 things reverted
-# to the 1922 and 1925 Acts.
-#
-# - The Interpretation Act (Northern Ireland), 1954 (1954 c. 33 (N.I.)) (???)
-#
-# I presume that section 39 of this Act is similar to section 9 of the
-# Interpretation Act, 1978 (listed below) in specifying GMT as the
-# legal time in Northern Ireland, replacing the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/71)
-#
-# Specified dates of 26 March and 29 October (02:00 GMT) for 1961
-#
-# - Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (S.I. 1961/2465)
-#
-# Specified dates of 25 March to 28 October (02:00 GMT) for 1962.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/81)
-#
-# Specified dates of 31 March to 27 October (02:00 GMT) for 1963.
-#
-# - Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (S.I. 1963/2101)
-#
-# Specified dates of 22 March to 25 October (02:00 GMT) for 1964.
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1964 (S.I. 1964/1201)
-#
-# Specified dates for three years (all 02:00 GMT):
-# 1965: 21 March to 24 October
-# 1966: 20 March to 23 October
-# 1967: 19 March to 29 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1967 (S.I. 1967/1148)
-# - Summer Time Order, 1968 (S.I. 1968/117)
-#
-# The first of these specifies dates for 1968 of 18 February for the United
-# Kingdom but 7 April for the Isle of Man, both ending on 27 October,
-# all at 02:00 GMT. The second Order changes the Isle of Man start date
-# to 18 February to match the United Kingdom.
-#
-# - The British Standard Time Act 1968 (1968 c. 45)
-#
-# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
-# the year. It expired at 02:00 GMT on 31 October 1971, as specified in the
-# Act, as Parliament did not move to make this experment permanent.
-# It applied to the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands.
-#
-# Interestingly, it says baldly `This Act shall come into force on
-# 27 October 1968', without giving a time. As S1 of the Act merely
-# stated that `The time for general purposes in the United Kingdom
-# (to be known as British standard time) shall be one hour in
-# advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year; ...' you could
-# possibly argue that the start time of BStandardT was 00:00 1968-10-27,
-# especially as the Act repealed the Summer Time Acts 1916--1947 in toto,
-# thereby destroying the authority of the Summer Time Order specifying
-# summer time in 1968.
-#
-# - The Manx Time Act 1968
-#
-# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
-# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
-#
-# - The Summer Time Act 1972 (1972 c. 6)
-#
-# This specified a reversion to normal Summer Time behaviour with a start
-# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
-# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
-# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
-# 1 hour. It gives the power to make Orders to vary these dates and
-# times. This Act is still in force and is the legal authority for
-# implementing the EC Directives in the United Kingdom.
-#
-# - The Interpretation Act 1978 (1978 c. 30)
-#
-# Section 9 of this Act replaces section 1 of the Statutes (Definition of
-# Time) Act, 1880 with very similar wording maintaining GMT as the legal
-# time in Great Britain. This does not apply in Northern Ireland (it
-# has its own Interpretation Act listed above).
-#
-# - Council Directive of 22 July 1980 on summertime arrangements (80/737/EEC)
-#
-# The first of the European Directives on Summer Time. It specified start
-# dates for 1981 and 1982. No agreement had been reached on end dates.
-# Only dates were given, there was no rule like `last Sunday in March'.
-# The main change for the United Kingdom was a move to a 01:00 GMT change
-# time. The dates:
-# 1981: 29 March
-# 1982: 28 March
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
-#
-# Specified dates for 1981 and 1982, with the start dates as in the
-# EC Directive and all times 01:00 GMT:
-# 1981: 29 March to 25 October
-# 1982: 28 March to 24 October
-#
-# - Second Council Directive of 10 June 1982 on summertime arrangements
-# (82/399/EEC)
-#
-# The next European Directive. Specified dates for three years, 1983 to 1985.
-# Agreement still hadn't been reached on a common end date, and wouldn't
-# be until 1994 with the appeareance of the seventh Directive with a common
-# date for 1996 and beyond, but this time the Directive gave two sets of
-# end dates. The start date was specified by rule: the last Sunday in March.
-# All times were 01:00 GMT. The end dates were given without rule, as:
-# 1983: 25 September or 23 October
-# 1984: 30 September or 28 october
-# 1985: 29 September or 27 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
-#
-# Implemented the second EC Directive, using the October end dates.
-# 1983: 27 March to 23 October
-# 1984: 25 March to 28 october
-# 1985: 31 March to 27 October
-#
-# - Third Council Directive of 12 December 1984 on summertime arrangements
-# (84/634/EEC)
-#
-# Specified start dates of the last Sunday in March and two sets of end
-# dates, last Sunday in September and fourth Sunday in October, all at
-# 01:00 GMT. The end dates were also specified as dates:
-# 1986: 28 September or 26 October
-# 1987: 27 September or 25 October
-# 1988: 25 September or 23 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
-#
-# Implemented the third EC Directive, using the October end dates.
-# 1986: 30 March to 26 October
-# 1987: 29 March to 25 October
-# 1988: 27 March to 23 October
-#
-# - Council Directive of 20 December 1985 amending Directive 84/634/EEC
-# on summertime arrangements (85/582/EEC)
-#
-# This was to do with the accession of Spain and Portugal to the EEC.
-# The previous directve had used wording like `Member States belonging
-# to the zero (Greenwich) time zone' when refering to the different
-# sets of end dates. Portugal was in that time zone but was not going
-# to follow the United Kingdom and Ireland dates, so the text was reworded
-# without any change to the dates themselves.
-#
-# - Fourth Council Directive of 22 December 1987 on summertime arrangements
-# (88/14/EEC)
-#
-# This Directive covered only a single year: 1989. My guess is that
-# this was because 1989 was one of the years when the historic United Kingdom
-# end date of the Sunday after the fourth Saturday in October differed from
-# the rule in the previous Directive of the fourth Sunday in October.
-# All times are 01:00 GMT. No rule was specified, specific dates were given:
-# 1989: 26 March to 24 September or 29 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
-#
-# Implemented the dates of 26 March to 29 October for 1989.
-#
-# - Fifth Council Directive of 21 December 1988 on summertime arrangements
-# (89/47/EEC)
-#
-# Covered the three years 1990 to 1992. All times are 01:00 GMT. Gave both
-# rules (last Sunday in March, last Sunday in September or fourth Sunday
-# in October) and specific dates:
-# 1990: 25 March to 30 September or 28 October
-# 1991: 31 March to 29 September or 27 October
-# 1992: 29 March to 27 September or 25 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
-#
-# Implemented the fifth Directive using the October end dates.
-#
-# - Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC of 26 March 1992 on summertime
-# arrangements
-#
-# Covered the two years 1993 and 1994. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specified
-# both rules (same as the fifth Directive) and specific dates:
-# 1993: 28 March to 26 September or 24 October
-# 1994: 27 March to 25 September or 23 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
-#
-# Implemented the sixth Directive using the October end dates.
-#
-# - Seventh Directive 94/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
-# of 30 May 1994 on summer-time arrangements
-#
-# Covered the three years 1995 to 1997. Agreement had finally been reached
-# on a common end date, to start in 1996. Both rules and dates were given.
-# The rules were the same last Sunday in March to last Sunday in September
-# or fourth Sunday in October for 1995, with the end rule changing to the
-# last Sunday in October for 1996 and 1997. The year 1995 was another of
-# the tricky ones where the EC and traditional United Kingdom rules differed
-# but this time the UK changed on the fourth Sunday, 22 October, earlier
-# than usual. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specific dates were also given:
-# 1995: 26 March to 24 September or 22 October
-# 1996: 31 March to 27 October
-# 1997: 30 March to 26 October
-#
-# - Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
-#
-# Implements the seventh Directive using the October end date in 1995.
-# Applies also to the Bailiwick of Guernsey but not to the Bailiwick of
-# Jersey or the Isle of Man, which have their own (unspecified) legislation
-# on the subject.
-#
-# - Eighth Directive 97/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
-# of 22 July 1997 on summer-time arrangements
-#
-# Covers four years: 1998 to 2001. All times are 01:00 GMT. Specifies both
-# rules, last Sunday in March and last Sunday in October, and specific dates:
-# 1998: 29 March to 25 October
-# 1999: 28 March to 31 October
-# 2000: 26 March to 29 October
-# 2001: 25 March to 28 October
-#
-# <a href="http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si1997/97298201.htm">
-# - Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
-# </a>
-#
-# Implements the eighth Directive. Has the same text about the Isle of Man,
-# Guernsey and Jersey as the 1994 Order.
+# From Joseph S. Myers (1999-09-02):
+# ... some military cables (WO 219/4100 - this is a copy from the
+# main SHAEF archives held in the US National Archives, SHAEF/5252/8/516)
+# agree that the usage is BDST (this appears in a message dated 17 Feb 1945).
+
+# Howse writes (p 157) `DBST'; let's assume this is a typo.
-# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@hermes.cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06):
+# Peter Ilieve <peter@aldie.co.uk> (1998-04-19) described at length
+# the history of summer time legislation in the United Kingdom.
+# Since 1998 Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> has been updating
+# and extending this list, which can be found in
+# <a href="http://student.cusu.cam.ac.uk/~jsm28/british-time/">
+# History of legal time in Britain
+# </a> (2000-02-12).
+
+# From Joseph S. Myers <jsm28@cam.ac.uk> (1998-01-06):
#
# The legal time in the UK outside of summer time is definitely GMT, not UTC;
# see Lord Tanlaw's speech
@@ -715,19 +178,11 @@
# (Lords Hansard 11 June 1997 columns 964 to 976)
# </a>.
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-06-12):
+# From Paul Eggert (2000-02-17):
#
-# The date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
-# Consultation Document'' (Cm 722, 1989) table is a transcription error;
-# 20 April was an Easter Sunday. Shanks has 13 April, the correct date.
-# Also, the table is not quite right for 1925 through 1938; the correct rules
-# (which Shanks uses) are given in the Summer Time Acts of 1922 and 1925.
-# Shanks and the UK Government paper disagree about the Apr 1956 transition;
-# since we have no other data, and since Shanks was correct in the other
-# points of disagreement about London, we'll believe Shanks for now.
-# Also, for lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
+# For lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
-# Given Peter Ilieve's comments, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
+# Given Ilieve and Myers's data, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
# * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight saving time until
# 1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
@@ -739,16 +194,33 @@
# Actually, that date saw the usual switch to summer time.
# Standard time was not changed until 1968-10-27 (the clocks didn't change).
#
-# The following claims by Shanks are possible though doubtful;
-# we'll ignore them for now.
+# Here is another incorrect claim by Shanks:
# * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
# to daylight saving time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
# conform with Great Britain.
+# S.R.&O. 1916, No. 382 and HO 45/10811/312364 (quoted above) say otherwise.
+#
+# The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful;
+# we'll ignore it for now.
# * Dublin's 1971-10-31 switch was at 02:00, even though London's was 03:00.
#
#
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks.
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-03-28):
+# Clive Feather (<news:859845706.26043.0@office.demon.net>, 1997-03-31)
+# reports that Folkestone (Cheriton) Shuttle Terminal uses Concession Time
+# (CT), equivalent to French civil time.
+# Julian Hill (<news:36118128.5A14@virgin.net>, 1998-09-30) reports that
+# trains between Dollands Moor (the freight facility next door)
+# and Frethun run in CT.
+# My admittedly uninformed guess is that the terminal has two authorities,
+# the French concession operators and the British civil authorities,
+# and that the time depends on who you're talking to.
+# If, say, the British police were called to the station for some reason,
+# I would expect the official police report to use GMT/BST and not CET/CEST.
+# This is a borderline case, but for now let's stick to GMT/BST.
+
# From an anonymous contributor (1996-06-02):
# The law governing time in Ireland is under Statutory Instrument SI 395/94,
# which gives force to European Union 7th Council Directive # 94/21/EC.
@@ -779,8 +251,8 @@ Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Apr 3 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1921 only - Oct 3 2:00s 0 GMT
# S.R.&O. 1922, No. 264
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Mar 26 2:00s 1:00 BST
-# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule GB-Eire 1922 only - Oct 8 2:00s 0 GMT
+# The Summer Time Act, 1922
Rule GB-Eire 1923 only - Apr Sun>=16 2:00s 1:00 BST
Rule GB-Eire 1923 1924 - Sep Sun>=16 2:00s 0 GMT
Rule GB-Eire 1924 only - Apr Sun>=9 2:00s 1:00 BST
@@ -868,7 +340,7 @@ Rule GB-Eire 1990 1995 - Oct Sun>=22 1:00u 0 GMT
# See EU for rules starting in 1996.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Sep 22
+Zone Europe/London -0:01:15 - LMT 1847 Dec 1
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1968 Oct 27
1:00 - BST 1971 Oct 31 2:00u
0:00 GB-Eire %s 1996
@@ -949,14 +421,11 @@ Rule E-Eur 1996 max - Oct lastSun 0:00 0 -
Rule Russia 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 MST # Moscow Summer Time
Rule Russia 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 MMT # Moscow Mean Time
Rule Russia 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 MDST # Moscow Double Summer Time
-Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 MST
+Rule Russia 1918 only - Sep 16 1:00 1:00 MST
Rule Russia 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 MDST
Rule Russia 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 -
Rule Russia 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 S
-# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
-# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (1993-11-12):
-# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
Rule Russia 1921 only - Mar 20 23:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Russia 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Russia 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
@@ -1039,7 +508,6 @@ Rule Albania 1984 only - Apr 1 0:00 1:00 S
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tirane 1:19:20 - LMT 1914
1:00 - CET 1940 Jun 16
-# The following transition is from Shanks's 4th edition (1995).
1:00 Albania CE%sT 1984 Jul
1:00 EU CE%sT
@@ -1069,17 +537,17 @@ Zone Europe/Vienna 1:05:20 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Belarus
-# Transitions before 1991 are from Shanks (1995).
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Minsk 1:50:16 - LMT 1880
1:50 - MMT 1924 May 2 # Minsk Mean Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jun 28
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Jul 3
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 2:00s
+ 2:00 - EET 1992 Mar 29 0:00s
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1992 Sep 27 0:00s
2:00 Russia EE%sT
# Belgium
@@ -1150,6 +618,12 @@ Zone Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 - LMT 1880
# see Yugoslavia
# Bulgaria
+#
+# From Plamen Simenov <P.Simeonov@cnsys.bg> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
+# A document of Government of Bulgaria (No.94/1997) says:
+# EET --> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
+# EETDST --> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
+#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Mar 31 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Bulg 1979 only - Oct 1 1:00 0 -
@@ -1164,13 +638,13 @@ Zone Europe/Sofia 1:33:16 - LMT 1880
2:00 - EET 1979 Mar 31 23:00
2:00 Bulg EE%sT 1982 Sep 26 2:00
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
- 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Croatia
# see Yugosloavia
# Czech Republic
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1584-01-17.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Czech 1945 only - Apr 8 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Czech 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
@@ -1187,7 +661,6 @@ Zone Europe/Prague 0:57:44 - LMT 1850
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Denmark, Faeroe Islands, and Greenland
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - May 14 23:00 1:00 S
Rule Denmark 1916 only - Sep 30 23:00 0 -
@@ -1265,6 +738,20 @@ Zone America/Thule -4:35:08 - LMT 1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik
# for their standard and summer times. He says no, they use "suveaeg"
# (summer time) and "talveaeg" (winter time).
+# From <a href="http://www.baltictimes.com/">The Baltic Times</a> (1999-09-09)
+# via Steffen Thorsen:
+# This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
+# a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
+# But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
+# Union are still unclear. In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
+# for all member states until 2001. Brussels has yet to decide what to do
+# after that.
+
+# From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
+# Regulation no. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
+# no. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
+# the year round. The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
1:39:00 - TMT 1918 Feb # Tallinn Mean Time
@@ -1276,10 +763,10 @@ Zone Europe/Tallinn 1:39:00 - LMT 1880
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep 24 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998 Sep 22
- 2:00 EU EE%sT
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT 1999 Nov 1
+ 2:00 - EET
# Finland
-# See Sweden for when the Gregorian calendar was adopted.
#
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
@@ -1299,12 +786,8 @@ Zone Europe/Helsinki 1:39:52 - LMT 1878 May 31
2:00 EU EE%sT
# France
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
-# French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
-# and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
#
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
-# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule France 1916 only - Jun 14 23:00s 1:00 S
Rule France 1916 1919 - Oct Sun>=1 23:00s 0 -
@@ -1392,7 +875,6 @@ Rule Germany 1945 only - May 31 3:00 2:00 M # Midsummer
Rule Germany 1945 only - Sep 23 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Germany 1945 only - Nov 18 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1946 only - Apr 14 2:00s 1:00 S
-# Shanks gives 1946-10-06; go with the PTB.
Rule Germany 1946 only - Oct 7 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1947 1949 - Oct Sun>=1 2:00s 0 -
Rule Germany 1947 only - Apr 6 2:00s 1:00 S
@@ -1451,7 +933,6 @@ Zone Europe/Athens 1:34:52 - LMT 1895 Sep 14
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Hungary
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1587-11-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Apr 1 3:00 1:00 S
Rule Hungary 1918 only - Sep 29 3:00 0 -
@@ -1510,10 +991,10 @@ Zone Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 - LMT 1890 Oct
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???).
#
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-12-09):
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-10-29):
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
-# Reykavik was -1:28 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
+# Reykavik was 21W57 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Iceland 1917 1918 - Feb 19 23:00 1:00 S
@@ -1543,7 +1024,6 @@ Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:27:24 - LMT 1837
0:00 - GMT
# Italy
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-06):
# For Italian DST we have three sources: Shanks, Whitman, and F. Pollastri
@@ -1655,6 +1135,12 @@ Link Europe/Rome Europe/San_Marino
# 1997-01-21 on transition to Summer time ... established the same order of
# daylight savings time settings as in the States of the European Union.
+# From Andrei Ivanov (2000-03-06):
+# This year Latvia will not switch to Daylight Savings Time (as specified in
+# <a href="http://www.lv-laiks.lv/wwwraksti/2000/071072/vd4.htm">
+# The Regulations of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Rep. of Latvia of
+# 29-Feb-2000 (#79)</a>, in Latvian for subscribers only).
+
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Mar lastSun 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Latvia 1989 1996 - Sep lastSun 2:00s 0 -
@@ -1668,12 +1154,11 @@ Zone Europe/Riga 1:36:24 - LMT 1880
2:00 - EET 1940 Aug 5
3:00 - MSK 1941 Jul
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct 13
- # Shanks says 1944-08-08, but
- # Riga fell to the Red Army on 1944-10-13.
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun 2:00s
2:00 1:00 EEST 1989 Sep lastSun 2:00s
2:00 Latvia EE%sT 1997 Jan 21
- 2:00 EU EE%sT
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT 2000 Feb 29
+ 2:00 - EET
# Liechtenstein
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -1682,6 +1167,24 @@ Zone Europe/Vaduz 0:38:04 - LMT 1894 Jun
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Lithuania
+
+# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
+# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
+# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
+
+# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07):
+# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
+# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
+
+# From <a href="http://www.elta.lt/">ELTA</a> No. 972 (2582) (1999-09-29),
+# via Steffen Thorsen:
+# Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
+# to be valid here starting from October 31,
+# as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
+# The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
+# motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
+# already done by Estonia.
+
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
1:24:00 - WMT 1917 # Warsaw Mean Time
@@ -1695,14 +1198,8 @@ Zone Europe/Vilnius 1:41:16 - LMT 1880
2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1998
2:00 - EET 1998 Mar 29 1:00u
- 1:00 EU CE%sT
-# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
-# IATA SSIM (1992/1996) says Lithuania uses W-Eur rules, but since it is
-# known to be wrong about Estonia and Latvia, assume it's wrong here too.
-
-# From Marius Gedminas <mgedmin@pub.osf.lt> (1998-08-07):
-# I would like to inform that in this year Lithuanian time zone
-# (Europe/Vilnius) was changed.
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT 1999 Oct 31 1:00u
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
@@ -1761,11 +1258,28 @@ Zone Europe/Malta 0:58:04 - LMT 1893 Nov 2 # Valletta
# Moldova
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
-Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT
+Zone Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 - LMT 1880
+ 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
+ 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+ 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1990 May 6
+ 2:00 - EET 1991
+ 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
+# See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
+Zone Europe/Tiraspol 1:58:32 - LMT 1880
+ 1:55 - CMT 1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
+ 1:44:24 - BMT 1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
+ 2:00 Romania EE%sT 1940 Aug 15
+ 2:00 1:00 EEST 1941 Jul 17
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Aug 24
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
+ 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD
# Monaco
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21.
@@ -1780,7 +1294,7 @@ Zone Europe/Monaco 0:29:32 - LMT 1891 Mar 15
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-# Shanks gives 1916 May 1 0:00 and 1916 Oct 1 0:00; go with Whitman.
+# Shanks gives 1916 Apr 30 24:00 and 1916 Oct 1 00:00; go with Whitman.
Rule Neth 1916 only - May 1 2:00s 1:00 NST # Netherlands Summer Time
Rule Neth 1916 only - Oct 2 2:00s 0 AMT # Amsterdam Mean Time
Rule Neth 1917 only - Apr 16 2:00s 1:00 NST
@@ -1806,7 +1320,6 @@ Rule Neth 1937 1939 - Oct Sun>=2 2:00s 0 -
Rule Neth 1938 1939 - May 15 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1945 only - Apr 2 2:00s 1:00 S
Rule Neth 1945 only - May 20 2:00s 0 -
-# Before 1937, Shanks says just `0:20'; we use Whitman's more precise figure.
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May
0:19:28 Neth %s 1937 Jul
@@ -1816,7 +1329,6 @@ Zone Europe/Amsterdam 0:19:28 - LMT 1892 May
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Norway
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1700-03-01.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
Rule Norway 1916 only - May 22 1:00 1:00 S
@@ -1872,16 +1384,26 @@ Zone Europe/Warsaw 1:24:00 - LMT 1880
1:00 Poland CE%sT 1940 Jun 23 2:00
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
1:00 Poland CE%sT 1977 Apr 3 1:00
- 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT
+ 1:00 W-Eur CE%sT 1999
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) gives EU rules, but the _The Warsaw Voice_
-# <a href="http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml">
-# http://www.contact.waw.pl/voice/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24)
+# <a href="http://www.warsawvoice.com.pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml">
+# http://www.warsawvoice.com/pl/v361/NewsInBrief.shtml (1995-09-24)
# </a>
# says the autumn 1995 switch was at 02:00.
# Stick with W-Eur for now.
+#
+# From Marcin.Kasperski@softax.com.pl (1999-06-10):
+# According to my colleagues someone recently decided, that Poland would
+# follow European Union regulations, so - I think - the matter is not
+# worth further discussion.
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-06-10):
+# Kasperski also writes that the government futzed with the rules in 1997
+# or 1998 but he doesn't remember the details. Assume they switched to
+# EU rules in 1999.
+ 1:00 EU CE%sT
# Portugal
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
#
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (1992-11-12):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
@@ -1986,6 +1508,14 @@ Zone Atlantic/Madeira -1:07:36 - LMT 1884 # Funchal
0:00 EU WE%sT
# Romania
+#
+# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
+# <a href="http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html">
+# Nine O'clock</a> (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
+# 04:00 local time in fall 1998. For lack of better info,
+# assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
+# the same year as Bulgaria.
+#
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
Rule Romania 1932 only - May 21 0:00s 1:00 S
Rule Romania 1932 1939 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00s 0 -
@@ -2002,24 +1532,16 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
2:00 Romania EE%sT 1981 Mar 29 2:00s
2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1991
2:00 Romania EE%sT 1994
- 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1997
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
# Russia
-# From Chris Carrier <72157.3334@CompuServe.COM> (1996-12-02):
-# On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an ``Eternal Calendar''
-# with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week.
-# On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the
-# Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it
-# reverted to the 7-day week. With the 6-day week the usual days
-# off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month.
-# (Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_)
-#
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
-# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations,
-# and (unless otherwise specified) guessed what happened after 1991.
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12):
+# Except for Moscow after 1919-07-01, I invented the time zone abbreviations.
# Moscow time zone abbreviations after 1919-07-01, and Moscow rules after 1991,
-# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks and the IATA.
+# are from Andrey A. Chernov. The rest is from Shanks, except we follow
+# Chernov's report that 1992 DST transitions were Sat 23:00, not Sun 02:00s.
#
# From Andrey A. Chernov <ache@nagual.ru> (1996-10-04):
# `MSK' and `MSD' were born and used initially on Moscow computers with
@@ -2035,97 +1557,83 @@ Zone Europe/Bucharest 1:44:24 - LMT 1891 Oct
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kaliningrad 1:22:00 - LMT 1893 Apr
1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1945
- 2:00 Poland CET 1946
+ 2:00 Poland CE%sT 1946
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 - EET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1994
-# IATA SSIM (1994-02) says Kaliningrad is at UTC+2; guess 1994 change.
2:00 Russia EE%sT
Zone Europe/Moscow 2:30:20 - LMT 1880
- 2:30:20 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:30 - MMT 1916 Jul 3 # Moscow Mean Time
+ 2:30:48 Russia %s 1919 Jul 1 2:00
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1922 Oct
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 2:00 - EET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 2:00 Russia EE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
3:00 Russia MSK/MSD
-Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 3:00 - KUYT 1957 Mar # Kuybyshev Time
- 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 3:00 1:00 KUYST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 3:00 - SAMT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Samara Time
- 4:00 Russia SAM%sT
-Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:34 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 4:00 - SVET 1957 Mar # Sverdlovsk Time
+Zone Europe/Samara 3:20:36 - LMT 1919 Jul 1 2:00
+ 3:00 - KUYT 1930 Jun 21 # Kuybyshev
+ 4:00 Russia KUY%sT 1989 Mar 26 2:00s
+ 3:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 2:00 Russia KUY%sT 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
+ 3:00 - KUYT 1991 Oct 20 3:00
+ 4:00 Russia SAM%sT # Samara Time
+Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg 4:02:24 - LMT 1919 Jul 15 4:00
+ 4:00 - SVET 1930 Jun 21 # Sverdlovsk Time
5:00 Russia SVE%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 4:00 1:00 SVEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 4:00 - SVET 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 4:00 Russia SVE%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
5:00 Russia YEK%sT # Yekaterinburg Time
-Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 5:00 - OMST 1957 Mar # Omsk Time
+Zone Asia/Omsk 4:53:36 - LMT 1919 Nov 14
+ 5:00 - OMST 1930 Jun 21 # Omsk TIme
6:00 Russia OMS%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 5:00 1:00 OMSST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 5:00 - OMST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 5:00 Russia OMS%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
6:00 Russia OMS%sT
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (1994-06-29):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
-Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 6:00 - NOVT 1957 Mar # Novosibirsk Time
+Zone Asia/Novosibirsk 5:31:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 14 6:00
+ 6:00 - NOVT 1930 Jun 21 # Novosibirsk Time
7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 NOVST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 6:00 - NOVT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1994 Mar 27 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 NOVST 1994 Sep 25 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia NOV%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia NOV%sT 1993 May 23 # says Shanks
6:00 Russia NOV%sT
-Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 6:00 - KRAT 1957 Mar # Krasnoyarsk Time
+Zone Asia/Krasnoyarsk 6:11:20 - LMT 1920 Jan 6
+ 6:00 - KRAT 1930 Jun 21 # Krasnoyarsk Time
7:00 Russia KRA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 6:00 1:00 KRAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 6:00 - KRAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 6:00 Russia KRA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
7:00 Russia KRA%sT
Zone Asia/Irkutsk 6:57:20 - LMT 1880
- 6:57:20 - IMT 1924 May 2 # Irkutsk Mean Time
- 7:00 - IRKT 1957 Mar # Irkutsk Time
+ 6:57:20 - IMT 1920 Jan 25 # Irkutsk Mean Time
+ 7:00 - IRKT 1930 Jun 21 # Irkutsk Time
8:00 Russia IRK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 7:00 1:00 IRKST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 7:00 - IRKT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 7:00 Russia IRK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
8:00 Russia IRK%sT
-Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 8:00 - YAKT 1957 Mar # Yakutsk Time
+Zone Asia/Yakutsk 8:38:40 - LMT 1919 Dec 15
+ 8:00 - YAKT 1930 Jun 21 # Yakutsk Time
9:00 Russia YAK%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 8:00 1:00 YAKST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 8:00 - YAKT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 8:00 Russia YAK%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
9:00 Russia YAK%sT
-Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1880
- 8:47:44 - VMT 1924 May 2 # Vladivostok MT
- 9:00 - VLAT 1957 Mar # Vladivostok Time
+Zone Asia/Vladivostok 8:47:44 - LMT 1922 Nov 15
+ 9:00 - VLAT 1930 Jun 21 # Vladivostok Time
10:00 Russia VLA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 9:00 1:00 VLAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 9:00 - VLAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 9:00 Russia VLA%sST 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
10:00 Russia VLA%sT
Zone Asia/Magadan 10:03:12 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 10:00 - MAGT 1957 Mar # Magadan Time
+ 10:00 - MAGT 1930 Jun 21 # Magadan Time
11:00 Russia MAG%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 10:00 1:00 MAGST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 10:00 - MAGT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 10:00 Russia MAG%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
11:00 Russia MAG%sT
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
-Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 11:00 - PETT 1957 Mar # P-K Time
+Zone Asia/Kamchatka 10:34:36 - LMT 1922 Nov 10
+ 11:00 - PETT 1930 Jun 21 # P-K Time
12:00 Russia PET%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 11:00 1:00 PETST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 11:00 - PETT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 11:00 Russia PET%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
12:00 Russia PET%sT
Zone Asia/Anadyr 11:49:56 - LMT 1924 May 2
- 12:00 - ANAT 1957 Mar # Anadyr Time
- 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 12:00 1:00 ANAST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
- 12:00 - ANAT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
- 13:00 Russia ANA%sT
+ 12:00 - ANAT 1930 Jun 21 # Anadyr Time
+ 13:00 Russia ANA%sT 1982 Apr 1 0:00s
+ 12:00 Russia ANA%sT 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
+ 11:00 Russia ANA%sT 1992 Jan 19 2:00s
+ 12:00 Russia ANA%sT
# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
@@ -2134,7 +1642,6 @@ Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
# see Yugoslavia
# Spain
-# Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-10-15.
# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
Rule Spain 1917 only - May 5 23:00s 1:00 S
@@ -2205,32 +1712,6 @@ Zone Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 - LMT 1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
# Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.
# Sweden
-
-# From: msb@sq.com (Mark Brader)
-# <a href="news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com">
-# Subject: Re: Gregorian reform -- a part of locale?
-# </a>
-# Date: 1996-07-06
-#
-# In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian. Sweden
-# decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
-# those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
-# year after 1696 would be in 1744 -- putting the whole country on a calendar
-# different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
-#
-# However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
-# they did, after all, have a leap year that year. And one in 1708. In 1712
-# they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
-# year!...
-#
-# Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
-# getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
-#
-# (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
-# produced the following references to support it: "Tiderakning och historia"
-# by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tiderakning och
-# kalendervasen" by Lars-Olof Lode'n (no date was given).)
-
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
1:12:12 - SMT 1900 Jan 1 1:00 # Stockholm MT
@@ -2240,9 +1721,7 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
1:00 EU CE%sT
# Switzerland
-# The Gregorian calendar was introduced gradually in Switzerland,
-# by omitting leap years during 1583-1812.
-# From Howse (1988), p 82:
+# From Howse:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously. Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
@@ -2250,7 +1729,7 @@ Zone Europe/Stockholm 1:12:12 - LMT 1878 May 31
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
Rule Swiss 1940 only - Nov 2 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Swiss 1940 only - Dec 31 0:00 0 -
-# From Shanks (1991):
+# From Shanks:
Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - May Sun>=1 2:00 1:00 S
Rule Swiss 1941 1942 - Oct Sun>=1 0:00 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
@@ -2273,7 +1752,6 @@ Rule Turkey 1922 only - Oct 8 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1924 only - May 13 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1924 1925 - Oct 1 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1925 only - May 1 0:00 1:00 S
-# Shanks omits the first two transitions in 1940; go with Whitman.
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Jun 30 0:00 1:00 S
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Oct 5 0:00 0 -
Rule Turkey 1940 only - Dec 1 0:00 1:00 S
@@ -2324,53 +1802,61 @@ Zone Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 - LMT 1880
Link Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul # Istanbul is in both continents.
# Ukraine
-# Rule NAME FROM TO TYPE IN ON AT SAVE LETTER/S
-Rule Ukraine 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 UST # Ukrainian Summer Time
-Rule Ukraine 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 KMT # Kiev Mean Time
-Rule Ukraine 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 UDST # Ukrainian Double Summer Time
-Rule Ukraine 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 UST
-Rule Ukraine 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 UDST
-Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 UST
-Rule Ukraine 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 KMT
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 UST
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 UDST
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 UST
-Rule Ukraine 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 KMT
-Rule Crimea 1917 only - Jul 1 23:00 1:00 CST # Crimean Summer Time
-Rule Crimea 1917 only - Dec 28 0:00 0 NMT # Nikolayev Mean Time
-Rule Crimea 1918 only - May 31 22:00 2:00 CDST # Crimean Double Summer Time
-Rule Crimea 1918 only - Sep 17 0:00 1:00 CST
-Rule Crimea 1919 only - May 31 23:00 2:00 CDST
-Rule Crimea 1919 only - Jul 1 2:00 1:00 CST
-Rule Crimea 1919 only - Aug 16 0:00 0 NMT
-Rule Crimea 1921 only - Feb 14 23:00 1:00 CST
-Rule Crimea 1921 only - Mar 21 23:00 2:00 CDST
-Rule Crimea 1921 only - Sep 1 0:00 1:00 CST
-Rule Crimea 1921 only - Oct 1 0:00 0 NMT
-Rule Crimea 1996 only - Mar lastSun 0:00u 1:00 -
-Rule Crimea 1996 only - Oct lastSun 0:00u 0 -
# Zone NAME GMTOFF RULES FORMAT [UNTIL]
+# Most of Ukraine since 1970 has been like Kiev.
Zone Europe/Kiev 2:02:04 - LMT 1880
- 2:02:04 Ukraine %s 1924 May 2
+ 2:02:04 - KMT 1924 May 2 # Kiev Mean Time
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990 Jul 17
- 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1996
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Sep 20
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Nov 6
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1992
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
2:00 EU EE%sT
+# Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
+Zone Europe/Uzhgorod 1:29:12 - LMT 1890 Oct
+ 1:00 - CET 1940
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Oct
+ 1:00 1:00 CEST 1944 Oct 26
+ 1:00 - CET 1945 Jun 29
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
+ 1:00 - CET 1991 Mar 31 3:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1992
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
+# Zaporozh'ye and eastern Lugansk oblasts observed DST 1990/1991.
+# Zaporozh'ye has an apostrophe, but Posix file names can't have apostrophes.
+Zone Europe/Zaporozhye 2:20:40 - LMT 1880
+ 2:20 - CUT 1924 May 2 # Central Ukraine T
+ 2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Aug 25
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1943 Oct 25
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1995
+ 2:00 EU EE%sT
+# Central Crimea used Moscow time 1994/1997.
Zone Europe/Simferopol 2:16:24 - LMT 1880
- 2:08:00 Crimea %s 1924 May 2
+ 2:16 - SMT 1924 May 2 # Simferopol Mean T
2:00 - EET 1930 Jun 21
- 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1991 Mar 31 2:00s
- 2:00 1:00 EEST 1991 Sep 29 2:00s
-# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-10-21):
-# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that most of Crimea switched
+ 3:00 - MSK 1941 Nov
+ 1:00 C-Eur CE%sT 1944 Apr 13
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1990
+ 3:00 - MSK 1990 Jul 1 2:00
+ 2:00 - EET 1992
+# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-11-12):
+# The _Economist_ (1994-05-28, p 45) reports that central Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January 1994 elections.
-# For now, guess it changed Feb 1.
- 2:00 C-Eur EE%sT 1994 Feb
+# Shanks says ``date of change uncertain'', but implies that it happened
+# sometime between the 1994 DST switches. For now, guess it changed in May.
+ 2:00 E-Eur EE%sT 1994 May
# From IATA SSIM (1994/1997), which also says that Kerch is still like Kiev.
- 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996
+ 3:00 E-Eur MSK/MSD 1996 Mar 31 3:00s
+ 3:00 1:00 MSD 1996 Oct 27 3:00s
# IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Crimea switched to EET/EEST.
# Assume it happened in March by not changing the clocks.
- 3:00 Crimea MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
+ 3:00 Russia MSK/MSD 1997 Mar lastSun 1:00u
2:00 EU EE%sT
# Yugoslavia