aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/bin/cp/cp.1
blob: 080c3c5868996012b100b1aebf284729da35b4ed (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
.\"-
.\" Copyright (c) 1989, 1990, 1993, 1994
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" This code is derived from software contributed to Berkeley by
.\" the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	@(#)cp.1	8.3 (Berkeley) 4/18/94
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd July 23, 2002
.Dt CP 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm cp
.Nd copy files
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Oo
.Fl R
.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
.Oc
.Op Fl f | i | n
.Op Fl pv
.Ar source_file target_file
.Nm
.Oo
.Fl R
.Op Fl H | Fl L | Fl P
.Oc
.Op Fl f | i | n
.Op Fl pv
.Ar source_file ... target_directory
.Sh DESCRIPTION
In the first synopsis form, the
.Nm
utility copies the contents of the
.Ar source_file
to the
.Ar target_file .
In the second synopsis form,
the contents of each named
.Ar source_file
is copied to the destination
.Ar target_directory .
The names of the files themselves are not changed.
If
.Nm
detects an attempt to copy a file to itself, the copy will fail.
.Pp
The following options are available:
.Bl -tag -width flag
.It Fl H
If the
.Fl R
option is specified, symbolic links on the command line are followed.
(Symbolic links encountered in the tree traversal are not followed.)
.It Fl L
If the
.Fl R
option is specified, all symbolic links are followed.
.It Fl P
If the
.Fl R
option is specified, no symbolic links are followed.
This is the default.
.It Fl R
If
.Ar source_file
designates a directory,
.Nm
copies the directory and the entire subtree connected at that point.
This option also causes symbolic links to be copied, rather than
indirected through, and for
.Nm
to create special files rather than copying them as normal files.
Created directories have the same mode as the corresponding source
directory, unmodified by the process' umask.
.Pp
Note that
.Nm
copies hard linked files as separate files.
If you need to preserve hard links, consider using
.Xr tar 1 ,
.Xr cpio 1 ,
or
.Xr pax 1
instead.
.It Fl f
For each existing destination pathname, remove it and
create a new file, without prompting for confirmation
regardless of its permissions.
(The
.Fl f
option overrides any previous
.Fl i
or
.Fl n
options.)
.It Fl i
Cause
.Nm
to write a prompt to the standard error output before copying a file
that would overwrite an existing file.
If the response from the standard input begins with the character
.Sq Li y
or
.Sq Li Y ,
the file copy is attempted.
(The
.Fl i
option overrides any previous
.Fl f
or
.Fl n
options.)
.It Fl n
Do not overwrite an existing file.
(The
.Fl n
option overrides any previous
.Fl f
or
.Fl i
options.)
.It Fl p
Cause
.Nm
to preserve the following attributes of each source
file in the copy: modification time, access time,
file flags, file mode, user ID, and group ID, as allowed by permissions.
.Pp
If the user ID and group ID cannot be preserved, no error message
is displayed and the exit value is not altered.
.Pp
If the source file has its set-user-ID bit on and the user ID cannot
be preserved, the set-user-ID bit is not preserved
in the copy's permissions.
If the source file has its set-group-ID bit on and the group ID cannot
be preserved, the set-group-ID bit is not preserved
in the copy's permissions.
If the source file has both its set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits on,
and either the user ID or group ID cannot be preserved, neither
the set-user-ID nor set-group-ID bits are preserved in the copy's
permissions.
.It Fl v
Cause
.Nm
to be verbose, showing files as they are copied.
.El
.Pp
For each destination file that already exists, its contents are
overwritten if permissions allow.
Its mode, user ID, and group
ID are unchanged unless the
.Fl p
option was specified.
.Pp
In the second synopsis form,
.Ar target_directory
must exist unless there is only one named
.Ar source_file
which is a directory and the
.Fl R
flag is specified.
.Pp
If the destination file does not exist, the mode of the source file is
used as modified by the file mode creation mask
.Pf ( Ic umask ,
see
.Xr csh 1 ) .
If the source file has its set-user-ID bit on, that bit is removed
unless both the source file and the destination file are owned by the
same user.
If the source file has its set-group-ID bit on, that bit is removed
unless both the source file and the destination file are in the same
group and the user is a member of that group.
If both the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are set, all of the above
conditions must be fulfilled or both bits are removed.
.Pp
Appropriate permissions are required for file creation or overwriting.
.Pp
Symbolic links are always followed unless the
.Fl R
flag is set, in which case symbolic links are not followed, by default.
The
.Fl H
or
.Fl L
flags (in conjunction with the
.Fl R
flag) cause symbolic links to be followed as described above.
The
.Fl H ,
.Fl L
and
.Fl P
options are ignored unless the
.Fl R
option is specified.
In addition, these options override each other and the
command's actions are determined by the last one specified.
.Pp
If
.Nm
receives a
.Dv SIGINFO
(see the
.Cm status
argument for
.Xr stty 1 )
signal, the current input and output file and the percentage complete
will be written to the standard output.
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
.Ex -std
.Sh COMPATIBILITY
Historic versions of the
.Nm
utility had a
.Fl r
option.
This implementation supports that option, however, its use is strongly
discouraged, as it does not correctly copy special files, symbolic links
or fifo's.
.Pp
The
.Fl v
and
.Fl n
options are non-standard and their use in scripts is not recommended.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr mv 1 ,
.Xr rcp 1 ,
.Xr umask 2 ,
.Xr fts 3 ,
.Xr symlink 7
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Nm
command is expected to be
.St -p1003.2
compatible.
.Sh HISTORY
A
.Nm
command appeared in
.At v1 .