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.TH ED 1 "21 May 1993"
.SH NAME
ed, red \- text editor
.SH SYNOPSIS
ed [-] [-sx] [-p \fIstring\fR] [\fIfile\fR]
.LP
red [-] [-sx] [-p \fIstring\fR] [\fIfile\fR]
.SH DESCRIPTION
.B ed
is a line-oriented text editor.
It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text
files.
.B red
is a restricted
.BR ed :
it can only edit files in the current
directory and cannot execute shell commands.

If invoked with a
.I file
argument, then a copy of
.I file
is read into the editor's buffer.
Changes are made to this copy and not directly to
.I file
itself.
Upon quitting
.BR ed ,
any changes not explicitly saved  with a
.I `w'
command are lost.

Editing is done in two distinct modes:
.I command
and
.IR input .
When first invoked,
.B ed
is in command mode.
In this mode commands are read from the standard input and
executed to manipulate the contents of the editor buffer.
A typical command might look like:
.sp
.RS
,s/\fIold\fR/\fInew\fR/g
.RE
.sp
which replaces all occurences of the string
.I old
with
.IR new .

When an input command, such as
.I `a'
(append),
.I `i'
(insert) or
.I `c'
(change), is given,
.B ed
enters input mode.  This is the primary means
of adding text to a file.
In this mode, no commands are available;
instead, the standard input is written
directly to the editor buffer.  Lines consist of text up to and
including a
.IR newline
character.
Input mode is terminated by
entering a single period  (\fI.\fR) on a line.

All
.B ed
commands operate on whole lines or ranges of lines; e.g.,
the
.I `d'
command deletes lines; the
.I `m'
command moves lines, and so on.
It is possible to modify only a portion of a line by means of replacement,
as in the example above.  However even here, the
.I `s'
command is applied to whole lines at a time.

In general,
.B ed
commands consist of zero or more line addresses, followed by a single
character command and possibly additional parameters; i.e.,
commands have the structure:
.sp
.RS
.I [address [,address]]command[parameters]
.RE
.sp
The address(es) indicate the line or range of lines to be affected by the
command.  If fewer addresses are given than the command accepts, then
default addresses are supplied.

.SS OPTIONS
.TP 8
-s
Suppresses diagnostics. This should be used if
.BR ed 's
standard input is from a script.

.TP 8
-x
Prompts for an encryption key to be used in subsequent reads and writes
(see the
.I `x'
command).

.TP 8
.RI \-p \ string
Specifies a command prompt.  This may be toggled on and off with the
.I `P'
command.

.TP 8
.I file
Specifies the name of a file to read.  If
.I file
is prefixed with a
bang (!), then it is interpreted as a shell command.  In this case,
what is read is
the standard output of
.I file
executed via
.IR sh (1).
To read a file whose name begins with a bang, prefix the
name with a backslash (\\).
The default filename is set to
.I file
only if it is not prefixed with a bang.

.SS LINE ADDRESSING
An address represents the number of line in the buffer.
.B ed
maintains a
.I current address
which is
typically supplied to commands as the default address when none is specified.
When a file is first read,  the current address is set to the last line
of the file.  In general, the current address is set to the last line
affected by a command.

A line address is
constructed from one of the bases in the list below, optionally followed
by a numeric offset.  The offset may include any combination
of digits, operators (i.e.,
.IR + ,
.I -
and
.IR ^ )
and whitespace.
Addresses are read from left to right, and their values are computed
relative to the current address.

One exception to the rule that addresses represent line numbers is the
address
.I 0
(zero).
This means "before the first line,"
and is legal wherever it makes sense.

An address range is two addresses separated either by a comma or
semi-colon. The value of the first address in a range cannot exceed the
value of the the second.  If an
.IR n- tuple
of addresses is given where
.I n > 2,
then the corresponding range is determined by the last two addresses
in the
.IR n- tuple.
If only one address is expected, then the last
address is used.

Each address in a comma-delimited range is interpreted relative to the
current address.  In a semi-colon-delimited range, the first address is
used to set the current address, and the second address is interpreted
relative to the first.

The following address symbols are recognized.

.TP 8
\fR.\fR
The current line (address) in the buffer.

.TP 8
$
The last line in the buffer.

.TP 8
n
The
.IR n th,
line in the buffer
where
.I n
is a number in the range
.I [0,$].

.TP 8
- or ^
The previous line.
This is equivalent to
.I -1
and may be repeated with cumulative effect.

.TP 8
-\fIn\fR or ^\fIn\fR
The
.IR n th
previous line, where
.I n
is a non-negative number.

.TP 8
+
The
next line.
This is equivalent to
.I +1
and may be repeated with cumulative effect.

.TP 8
+\fIn\fR or whitespace\fIn\fR
The
.IR n th
next line, where
.I n
is a non-negative number.
.I whitespace
followed by a number
.I n
is interpreted as
.IR +n .

.TP 8
, \fRor\fB %
The first through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to
the address range
.I 1,$.

.TP 8
;
The
current through last lines in the buffer.  This is equivalent to
the address range
.I .,$.

.TP 8
.RI / re/
The
next line containing the regular expression
.IR re .
The search wraps to the beginning of the buffer and continues down to the
current line, if necessary.
// repeats the last search.

.TP 8
.RI ? re?
The
previous line containing the regular expression
.IR re .
The search wraps to the end of the buffer and continues up to the
current line, if necessary.
?? repeats the last search.

.TP 8
.RI \' lc
The
line previously marked by a
.I `k'
(mark) command, where
.I lc
is a lower case letter.

.SS REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting text.
For example, the
.B ed
command
.sp
.RS
g/\fIstring\fR/
.RE
.sp
prints all lines containing
.IR string .
Regular expressions are also
used by the
.I `s'
command for selecting old text to be replaced with new.

In addition to a specifying string literals, regular expressions can
represent
classes of strings.  Strings thus represented are said to be matched
by the corresponding regular expression.
If it is possible for a regular expression
to match several strings in a line, then the left-most longest match is
the one selected.

The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions:

.TP 8
c
Any character
.I c
not listed below, including `{', '}', `(', `)', `<' and `>',
matches itself.

.TP 8
\fR\e\fIc\fR
Any backslash-escaped character
.IR c ,
except for `{', '}', `(', `)', `<' and `>',
matches itself.

.TP 8
\fR.\fR
Matches any single character.

.TP 8
.I [char-class]
Matches any single character in
.IR char-class .
To include a  `]'
in
.IR char-class ,
it must be the first character.
A range of characters may be specified by separating the end characters
of the range with a `-', e.g., `a-z' specifies the lower case characters.
The following literal expressions can also be used in
.I char-class
to specify sets of characters:
.sp
\ \ [:alnum:]\ \ [:cntrl:]\ \ [:lower:]\ \ [:space:]
.PD 0
\ \ [:alpha:]\ \ [:digit:]\ \ [:print:]\ \ [:upper:]
.PD 0
\ \ [:blank:]\ \ [:graph:]\ \ [:punct:]\ \ [:xdigit:]
.sp
If `-' appears as the first or last
character of
.IR char-class ,
then it matches itself.
All other characters in
.I char-class
match themselves.
.sp
Patterns in
.I char-class
of the form:
.sp
\ \ [.\fIcol-elm\fR.] or,
.PD 0
\ \ [=\fIcol-elm\fR=]
.sp
where
.I col-elm
is a
.I collating element
are interpreted according to
.IR locale (5)
(not currently supported).
See
.IR regex (3)
for an explanation of these constructs.

.TP 8
[^\fIchar-class\fR]
Matches any single character, other than newline, not in
.IR char-class .
.IR char-class
is defined
as above.

.TP 8
^
If `^' is the first character of a regular expression, then it
anchors the regular expression to the beginning of a line.
Otherwise, it matches itself.

.TP 8
$
If `$' is the last character of a regular expression, it
anchors the regular expression to the end of a line.
Otherwise, it matches itself.

.TP 8
\fR\e<\fR
Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression
immediately following it to the beginning of a word.
(This may not be available)

.TP 8
\fR\e>\fR
Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression
immediately following it to the end of a word.
(This may not be available)

.TP 8
\fR\e(\fIre\fR\e)\fR
Defines a subexpression
.IR re .
Subexpressions may be nested.
A subsequent backreference of the form \fI`\en'\fR, where
.I n
is a number in the range [1,9], expands to the text matched by the
.IR n th
subexpression.
For example, the regular expression `\e(.*\e)\e1' matches any string
consisting of identical adjacent substrings.
Subexpressions are ordered relative to
their left delimiter.

.TP 8
*
Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression
immediately preceding it zero or more times.  If '*' is the first
character of a regular expression or subexpression, then it matches
itself.  The `*' operator sometimes yields unexpected results.
For example, the regular expression `b*' matches the beginning of
the string `abbb' (as opposed to the substring `bbb'), since a null match
is the only left-most match.

.TP 8
\fR\e{\fIn,m\fR\e}\fR or \fR\e{\fIn,\fR\e}\fR or \fR\e{\fIn\fR\e}\fR
Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression
immediately preceding it at least
.I n
and at most
.I m
times.
If
.I m
is omitted, then it matches at least
.I n
times.
If the comma is also omitted, then it matches exactly
.I n
times.

.LP
Additional regular expression operators may be defined depending on the
particular
.IR regex (3)
implementation.

.SS COMMANDS
All
.B ed
commands are single characters, though some require additonal parameters.
If a command's parameters extend over several lines, then
each line except for the last
must be terminated with a backslash (\\).

In general, at most one command is allowed per line.
However, most commands accept a print suffix, which is any of
.I `p'
(print),
.I `l'
(list) ,
or
.I `n'
(enumerate),
to print the last line affected by the command.

An interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect of aborting the current command
and returning the editor to command mode.

.B ed
recognizes the following commands.  The commands are shown together with
the default address or address range supplied if none is
specified (in parenthesis).

.TP 8
(.)a
Appends text to the buffer after the addressed line.
Text is entered in input mode.
The current address is set to last line entered.

.TP 8
(.,.)c
Changes lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are deleted
from the buffer, and text is appended in their place.
Text is entered in input mode.
The current address is set to last line entered.

.TP 8
(.,.)d
Deletes the addressed lines from the buffer.
If there is a line after the deleted range, then the current address is set
to this line. Otherwise the current address is set to the line
before the deleted range.

.TP 8
.RI e \ file
Edits
.IR file ,
and sets the default filename.
If
.I file
is not specified, then the  default filename is used.
Any lines in the buffer are deleted before
the new file is read.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.TP 8
.RI e \ !command
Edits the standard output of
.IR `!command' ,
executed as described below.
The default filename is unchanged.
Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the output of
.I command
is read.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.TP 8
.RI E \ file
Edits
.I file
unconditionally.
This is similar to the
.I e
command,
except that unwritten changes are discarded without warning.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.TP 8
.RI f \ file
Sets the default filename to
.IR file .
If
.I file
is not specified, then the default unescaped filename is printed.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)g /re/command-list
Applies
.I command-list
to each of the addressed lines matching a regular expression
.IR re .
The current address is set to the
line currently matched before
.I command-list
is executed.
At the end of the
.I `g'
command, the current address is set to the last line affected by
.IR command-list .

Each command in
.I command-list
must be on a separate line,
and every line except for the last must be terminated by a backslash
(\\).
Any commands are allowed, except for
.IR `g' ,
.IR `G' ,
.IR `v' ,
and
.IR `V' .
A newline alone in
.I command-list
is equivalent to a 
.I `p'
command.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)G /re/
Interactively edits the addressed lines matching a regular expression
.IR re.
For each matching line,
the line is printed,
the current address is set,
and the user is prompted to enter a 
.IR command-list .
At the end of the
.I `G'
command, the current address
is set to the last line affected by (the last)
.IR command-list .

The format of
.I command-list
is the same as that of the
.I `g'
command.  A newline alone acts as a null command list.
A single `&' repeats the last non-null command list.

.TP 8
H
Toggles the printing of error explanations.
By default, explanations are not printed.
It is recommended that ed scripts begin with this command to
aid in debugging.

.TP 8
h
Prints an explanation of the last error.

.TP 8
(.)i
Inserts text in the buffer before the current line.
Text is entered in input mode.
The current address is set to the last line entered.

.TP 8
(.,.+1)j
Joins the addressed lines.  The addressed lines are
deleted from the buffer and replaced by a single
line containing their joined text.
The current address is set to the resultant line.

.TP 8
.RI (.)k lc
Marks a line with a lower case letter
.IR lc .
The  line can then be addressed as
.I 'lc
(i.e., a single quote followed by
.I lc
) in subsequent commands.  The mark is not cleared until the line is
deleted or otherwise modified.

.TP 8
(.,.)l
Prints the addressed lines unambiguously.
The current address is set to the last line
printed.

.TP 8
(.,.)m(.)
Moves lines in the buffer.  The addressed lines are moved to after the
right-hand destination address, which may be the address
.IR 0
(zero).
The current address is set to the
last line moved.

.TP 8
(.,.)n
Prints the addressed lines along with
their line numbers.  The current address is set to the last line
printed.

.TP 8
(.,.)p
Prints the addressed lines. The current address is set to the last line
printed.

.TP 8
P
Toggles the command prompt on and off.
Unless a prompt was specified by with command-line option
\fI-p string\fR, the command prompt is by default turned off.

.TP 8
q
Quits ed.

.TP 8
Q
Quits ed unconditionally.
This is similar to the
.I q
command,
except that unwritten changes are discarded without warning.

.TP 8
.RI ($)r \ file
Reads
.I file
to after the addressed line.  If
.I file
is not specified, then the default
filename is used.  If there was no default filename prior to the command,
then the default filename is set to
.IR file .
Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.TP 8
.RI ($)r \ !command
Reads
to after the addressed line
the standard output of
.IR `!command' ,
executed as described below.
The default filename is unchanged.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.HP
.RI (.,.)s /re/replacement/
.PD 0
.HP
.RI (.,.)s  /re/replacement/\fRg\fR
.HP
.RI (.,.)s  /re/replacement/n
.br
Replaces text in the addressed lines
matching a regular expression
.I re
with
.IR replacement .
By default, only the first match in each line is replaced.
The
.I `g'
(global) suffix causes every match to be replaced.
The
.I `n'
suffix, where
.I n
is a postive number, causes only the
.IR n th
match to be replaced.
It is an error if no substitutions are performed on any of the addressed
lines.
The current address is set the last line affected.

.I re
and
.I replacement
may be delimited by any character other than space and newline.
If one or two of the last delimiters is omitted, then the last line
affected is printed as though the print suffix
.I `p'
were specified.


An unescaped `&' in
.I replacement
is replaced by the currently matched text.
The character sequence
\fI`\em'\fR,
where
.I m
is a number in the range [1,9], is replaced by the
.IR m th
backreference expression of the matched text.
If
.I replacement
consists of a single `%', then
.I replacement
from the last substitution is used.
Newlines may be embedded in
.I replacement
if they are escaped with a backslash (\\).

.TP 8
(.,.)s
Repeats the last substitution.
This form of the
.I `s'
command may be suffixed with
any combination of the characters
.IR `r' ,
.IR `g' ,
and
.IR `p' .
The
.I `r'
suffix causes
the regular expression of the last search to be used instead of the
that of the last substitution.
The
.I `g'
suffix toggles the global suffix of the last substitution.
The
.I `p'
suffix toggles the print suffix of the last substitution
The current address is set to the last line affected.

.TP 8
(.,.)t(.)
Copies (i.e., transfers) the addressed lines to after the right-hand
destination address, which may be the address
.IR 0
(zero).
The current address is set to the last line
copied.

.TP 8
u
Undoes the last command and restores the current address
to what it was before the command.
The global commands
.IR `g' ,
.IR `G' ,
.IR `v' ,
and
.IR `V' .
are treated as a single command by undo.
.I `u'
is its own inverse.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)v /pat/command-list
Applies
.I command-list
to each of the addressed lines not matching a regular expression
.IR re .
This is similar to the
.I `g'
command.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)V /re/
Interactively edits the addressed lines not matching a regular expression
.IR re.
This is similar to the
.I `G'
command.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)w \ file
Writes the addressed lines to
.IR file .
Any previous contents of
.I file
is lost without warning.
If there is no default filename, then the default filename is set to
.IR file,
otherwise it is unchanged.  If no filename is specified, then the default
filename is used.
The current address is unchanged.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)wq \ file
Writes the addressed lines to
.IR file ,
and then executes a
.I `q'
command.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)w \ !command
Writes the addressed lines to the standard input of
.IR `!command' ,
executed as described below.
The default filename and current address are unchanged.

.TP 8
.RI (1,$)W \ file
Appends the addressed lines to the end of
.IR file .
This is similar to the
.I `w'
command, expect that the previous contents of file is not clobbered.
The current address is unchanged.

.TP 8
x
Prompts for an encryption key which is used in subsequent reads and
writes.  If a newline alone is entered as the key, then encryption is
turned off.  Otherwise, echoing is disabled while a key is read.
Encryption/decryption is done using the bdes(1) algorithm.

.TP 8
.RI (.+1)z n
Scrolls
.I n
lines at a time starting at addressed line.  If
.I n
is not specified, then the current window size is used.
The current address is set to the last line printed.

.TP 8
.RI ! command
Executes
.I command
via
.IR sh (1).
If the first character of
.I command
is `!', then it is replaced by text of the
previous
.IR `!command' .
.B ed
does not process
.I command
for backslash (\\) escapes.
However, an unescaped
.I `%'
is replaced by the default filename.
When the shell returns from execution, a `!'
is printed to the standard output.
The current line is unchanged.

.TP 8
.RI (.,.)! command
Replaces the addressed lines with the output of
.I `!command'
as described above.
The current address is set to the last line read.

.TP 8
($)=
Prints the line number of the addressed line.

.TP 8
(.+1)newline
Prints the addressed line, and sets the current address to
that line.

.SH FILES
.TP 20
/tmp/ed.*
Buffer file
.PD 0
.TP 20
ed.hup
The file to which
.B ed
attempts to write the  buffer if the terminal hangs up.

.SH SEE ALSO

.IR vi (1),
.IR sed (1),
.IR regex (3),
.IR bdes (1),
.IR sh (1).

USD:12-13

B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger,
.I Software Tools in Pascal ,
Addison-Wesley, 1981.

.SH LIMITATIONS
.B ed
processes
.I file
arguments for backslash escapes, i.e.,  in a filename,
any characters preceded by a backslash (\\) are
interpreted literally.

If a text (non-binary) file is not terminated by a newline character,
then
.B ed
appends one on reading/writing it.  In the case of a binary file,
.B ed
does not append a newline on reading/writing.

per line overhead: 4 ints

.SH DIAGNOSTICS
When an error occurs,
.B ed
prints a `?' and either returns to command mode
or exits if its input is from a script.
An explanation of the last error can be
printed with the
.I `h'
(help) command.

Since the 
.I `g'
(global) command  masks any errors from failed searches and substitutions,
it can be used to perform conditional operations in scripts; e.g.,
.sp
.RS
g/\fIold\fR/s//\fInew\fR/
.RE
.sp
replaces any occurrences of
.I old
with
.IR new .
If the
.I `u'
(undo) command occurs in a global command list, then
the command list is executed only once.

If diagnostics are not disabled, attempting to quit
.B ed
or edit another file before writing a modified buffer
results in an error.
If the command is entered a second time, it succeeds,
but any changes to the buffer are lost.