aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff log msg author committer range
path: root/bin/ed/ed.1
blob: e9a318080b39071bcf74237e91891c13adc184df (plain) (blame)
 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984  .TH ED 1 "21 May 1993" .SH NAME ed, red \- text editor .SH SYNOPSIS ed [-] [-sx] [-p \fIstring\fR] [\fIfile\fR] .LP red [-] [-sx] [-p \fIstring\fR] [\fIfile\fR] .SH DESCRIPTION .B ed is a line-oriented text editor. It is used to create, display, modify and otherwise manipulate text files. .B red is a restricted .BR ed : it can only edit files in the current directory and cannot execute shell commands. If invoked with a .I file argument, then a copy of .I file is read into the editor's buffer. Changes are made to this copy and not directly to .I file itself. Upon quitting .BR ed , any changes not explicitly saved with a .I w' command are lost. Editing is done in two distinct modes: .I command and .IR input . When first invoked, .B ed is in command mode. In this mode commands are read from the standard input and executed to manipulate the contents of the editor buffer. A typical command might look like: .sp .RS ,s/\fIold\fR/\fInew\fR/g .RE .sp which replaces all occurences of the string .I old with .IR new . When an input command, such as .I a' (append), .I i' (insert) or .I c' (change), is given, .B ed enters input mode. This is the primary means of adding text to a file. In this mode, no commands are available; instead, the standard input is written directly to the editor buffer. Lines consist of text up to and including a .IR newline character. Input mode is terminated by entering a single period (\fI.\fR) on a line. All .B ed commands operate on whole lines or ranges of lines; e.g., the .I d' command deletes lines; the .I m' command moves lines, and so on. It is possible to modify only a portion of a line by means of replacement, as in the example above. However even here, the .I s' command is applied to whole lines at a time. In general, .B ed commands consist of zero or more line addresses, followed by a single character command and possibly additional parameters; i.e., commands have the structure: .sp .RS .I [address [,address]]command[parameters] .RE .sp The address(es) indicate the line or range of lines to be affected by the command. If fewer addresses are given than the command accepts, then default addresses are supplied. .SS OPTIONS .TP 8 -s Suppresses diagnostics. This should be used if .BR ed 's standard input is from a script. .TP 8 -x Prompts for an encryption key to be used in subsequent reads and writes (see the .I x' command). .TP 8 .RI \-p \ string Specifies a command prompt. This may be toggled on and off with the .I P' command. .TP 8 .I file Specifies the name of a file to read. If .I file is prefixed with a bang (!), then it is interpreted as a shell command. In this case, what is read is the standard output of .I file executed via .IR sh (1). To read a file whose name begins with a bang, prefix the name with a backslash (\\). The default filename is set to .I file only if it is not prefixed with a bang. .SS LINE ADDRESSING An address represents the number of line in the buffer. .B ed maintains a .I current address which is typically supplied to commands as the default address when none is specified. When a file is first read, the current address is set to the last line of the file. In general, the current address is set to the last line affected by a command. A line address is constructed from one of the bases in the list below, optionally followed by a numeric offset. The offset may include any combination of digits, operators (i.e., .IR + , .I - and .IR ^ ) and whitespace. Addresses are read from left to right, and their values are computed relative to the current address. One exception to the rule that addresses represent line numbers is the address .I 0 (zero). This means "before the first line," and is legal wherever it makes sense. An address range is two addresses separated either by a comma or semi-colon. The value of the first address in a range cannot exceed the value of the the second. If an .IR n- tuple of addresses is given where .I n > 2, then the corresponding range is determined by the last two addresses in the .IR n- tuple. If only one address is expected, then the last address is used. Each address in a comma-delimited range is interpreted relative to the current address. In a semi-colon-delimited range, the first address is used to set the current address, and the second address is interpreted relative to the first. The following address symbols are recognized. .TP 8 \fR.\fR The current line (address) in the buffer. .TP 8 $The last line in the buffer. .TP 8 n The .IR n th, line in the buffer where .I n is a number in the range .I [0,$]. .TP 8 - or ^ The previous line. This is equivalent to .I -1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect. .TP 8 -\fIn\fR or ^\fIn\fR The .IR n th previous line, where .I n is a non-negative number. .TP 8 + The next line. This is equivalent to .I +1 and may be repeated with cumulative effect. .TP 8 +\fIn\fR or whitespace\fIn\fR The .IR n th next line, where .I n is a non-negative number. .I whitespace followed by a number .I n is interpreted as .IR +n . .TP 8 , \fRor\fB % The first through last lines in the buffer. This is equivalent to the address range .I 1,$. .TP 8 ; The current through last lines in the buffer. This is equivalent to the address range .I .,$. .TP 8 .RI / re/ The next line containing the regular expression .IR re . The search wraps to the beginning of the buffer and continues down to the current line, if necessary. // repeats the last search. .TP 8 .RI ? re? The previous line containing the regular expression .IR re . The search wraps to the end of the buffer and continues up to the current line, if necessary. ?? repeats the last search. .TP 8 .RI \' lc The line previously marked by a .I k' (mark) command, where .I lc is a lower case letter. .SS REGULAR EXPRESSIONS Regular expressions are patterns used in selecting text. For example, the .B ed command .sp .RS g/\fIstring\fR/ .RE .sp prints all lines containing .IR string . Regular expressions are also used by the .I s' command for selecting old text to be replaced with new. In addition to a specifying string literals, regular expressions can represent classes of strings. Strings thus represented are said to be matched by the corresponding regular expression. If it is possible for a regular expression to match several strings in a line, then the left-most longest match is the one selected. The following symbols are used in constructing regular expressions: .TP 8 c Any character .I c not listed below, including {', '}', (', )', <' and >', matches itself. .TP 8 \fR\e\fIc\fR Any backslash-escaped character .IR c , except for {', '}', (', )', <' and >', matches itself. .TP 8 \fR.\fR Matches any single character. .TP 8 .I [char-class] Matches any single character in .IR char-class . To include a ]' in .IR char-class , it must be the first character. A range of characters may be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a -', e.g., a-z' specifies the lower case characters. The following literal expressions can also be used in .I char-class to specify sets of characters: .sp \ \ [:alnum:]\ \ [:cntrl:]\ \ [:lower:]\ \ [:space:] .PD 0 \ \ [:alpha:]\ \ [:digit:]\ \ [:print:]\ \ [:upper:] .PD 0 \ \ [:blank:]\ \ [:graph:]\ \ [:punct:]\ \ [:xdigit:] .sp If -' appears as the first or last character of .IR char-class , then it matches itself. All other characters in .I char-class match themselves. .sp Patterns in .I char-class of the form: .sp \ \ [.\fIcol-elm\fR.] or, .PD 0 \ \ [=\fIcol-elm\fR=] .sp where .I col-elm is a .I collating element are interpreted according to .IR locale (5) (not currently supported). See .IR regex (3) for an explanation of these constructs. .TP 8 [^\fIchar-class\fR] Matches any single character, other than newline, not in .IR char-class . .IR char-class is defined as above. .TP 8 ^ If ^' is the first character of a regular expression, then it anchors the regular expression to the beginning of a line. Otherwise, it matches itself. .TP 8 $If $' is the last character of a regular expression, it anchors the regular expression to the end of a line. Otherwise, it matches itself. .TP 8 \fR\e<\fR Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately following it to the beginning of a word. (This may not be available) .TP 8 \fR\e>\fR Anchors the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately following it to the end of a word. (This may not be available) .TP 8 \fR\e(\fIre\fR\e)\fR Defines a subexpression .IR re . Subexpressions may be nested. A subsequent backreference of the form \fI\en'\fR, where .I n is a number in the range [1,9], expands to the text matched by the .IR n th subexpression. For example, the regular expression \e(.*\e)\e1' matches any string consisting of identical adjacent substrings. Subexpressions are ordered relative to their left delimiter. .TP 8 * Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding it zero or more times. If '*' is the first character of a regular expression or subexpression, then it matches itself. The *' operator sometimes yields unexpected results. For example, the regular expression b*' matches the beginning of the string abbb' (as opposed to the substring bbb'), since a null match is the only left-most match. .TP 8 \fR\e{\fIn,m\fR\e}\fR or \fR\e{\fIn,\fR\e}\fR or \fR\e{\fIn\fR\e}\fR Matches the single character regular expression or subexpression immediately preceding it at least .I n and at most .I m times. If .I m is omitted, then it matches at least .I n times. If the comma is also omitted, then it matches exactly .I n times. .LP Additional regular expression operators may be defined depending on the particular .IR regex (3) implementation. .SS COMMANDS All .B ed commands are single characters, though some require additonal parameters. If a command's parameters extend over several lines, then each line except for the last must be terminated with a backslash (\\). In general, at most one command is allowed per line. However, most commands accept a print suffix, which is any of .I p' (print), .I l' (list) , or .I n' (enumerate), to print the last line affected by the command. An interrupt (typically ^C) has the effect of aborting the current command and returning the editor to command mode. .B ed recognizes the following commands. The commands are shown together with the default address or address range supplied if none is specified (in parenthesis). .TP 8 (.)a Appends text to the buffer after the addressed line. Text is entered in input mode. The current address is set to last line entered. .TP 8 (.,.)c Changes lines in the buffer. The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer, and text is appended in their place. Text is entered in input mode. The current address is set to last line entered. .TP 8 (.,.)d Deletes the addressed lines from the buffer. If there is a line after the deleted range, then the current address is set to this line. Otherwise the current address is set to the line before the deleted range. .TP 8 .RI e \ file Edits .IR file , and sets the default filename. If .I file is not specified, then the default filename is used. Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the new file is read. The current address is set to the last line read. .TP 8 .RI e \ !command Edits the standard output of .IR !command' , executed as described below. The default filename is unchanged. Any lines in the buffer are deleted before the output of .I command is read. The current address is set to the last line read. .TP 8 .RI E \ file Edits .I file unconditionally. This is similar to the .I e command, except that unwritten changes are discarded without warning. The current address is set to the last line read. .TP 8 .RI f \ file Sets the default filename to .IR file . If .I file is not specified, then the default unescaped filename is printed. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)g /re/command-list Applies .I command-list to each of the addressed lines matching a regular expression .IR re . The current address is set to the line currently matched before .I command-list is executed. At the end of the .I g' command, the current address is set to the last line affected by .IR command-list . Each command in .I command-list must be on a separate line, and every line except for the last must be terminated by a backslash (\\). Any commands are allowed, except for .IR g' , .IR G' , .IR v' , and .IR V' . A newline alone in .I command-list is equivalent to a .I p' command. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)G /re/ Interactively edits the addressed lines matching a regular expression .IR re. For each matching line, the line is printed, the current address is set, and the user is prompted to enter a .IR command-list . At the end of the .I G' command, the current address is set to the last line affected by (the last) .IR command-list . The format of .I command-list is the same as that of the .I g' command. A newline alone acts as a null command list. A single &' repeats the last non-null command list. .TP 8 H Toggles the printing of error explanations. By default, explanations are not printed. It is recommended that ed scripts begin with this command to aid in debugging. .TP 8 h Prints an explanation of the last error. .TP 8 (.)i Inserts text in the buffer before the current line. Text is entered in input mode. The current address is set to the last line entered. .TP 8 (.,.+1)j Joins the addressed lines. The addressed lines are deleted from the buffer and replaced by a single line containing their joined text. The current address is set to the resultant line. .TP 8 .RI (.)k lc Marks a line with a lower case letter .IR lc . The line can then be addressed as .I 'lc (i.e., a single quote followed by .I lc ) in subsequent commands. The mark is not cleared until the line is deleted or otherwise modified. .TP 8 (.,.)l Prints the addressed lines unambiguously. The current address is set to the last line printed. .TP 8 (.,.)m(.) Moves lines in the buffer. The addressed lines are moved to after the right-hand destination address, which may be the address .IR 0 (zero). The current address is set to the last line moved. .TP 8 (.,.)n Prints the addressed lines along with their line numbers. The current address is set to the last line printed. .TP 8 (.,.)p Prints the addressed lines. The current address is set to the last line printed. .TP 8 P Toggles the command prompt on and off. Unless a prompt was specified by with command-line option \fI-p string\fR, the command prompt is by default turned off. .TP 8 q Quits ed. .TP 8 Q Quits ed unconditionally. This is similar to the .I q command, except that unwritten changes are discarded without warning. .TP 8 .RI ($)r \ file Reads .I file to after the addressed line. If .I file is not specified, then the default filename is used. If there was no default filename prior to the command, then the default filename is set to .IR file . Otherwise, the default filename is unchanged. The current address is set to the last line read. .TP 8 .RI ($)r \ !command Reads to after the addressed line the standard output of .IR !command' , executed as described below. The default filename is unchanged. The current address is set to the last line read. .HP .RI (.,.)s /re/replacement/ .PD 0 .HP .RI (.,.)s /re/replacement/\fRg\fR .HP .RI (.,.)s /re/replacement/n .br Replaces text in the addressed lines matching a regular expression .I re with .IR replacement . By default, only the first match in each line is replaced. The .I g' (global) suffix causes every match to be replaced. The .I n' suffix, where .I n is a postive number, causes only the .IR n th match to be replaced. It is an error if no substitutions are performed on any of the addressed lines. The current address is set the last line affected. .I re and .I replacement may be delimited by any character other than space and newline. If one or two of the last delimiters is omitted, then the last line affected is printed as though the print suffix .I p' were specified. An unescaped &' in .I replacement is replaced by the currently matched text. The character sequence \fI\em'\fR, where .I m is a number in the range [1,9], is replaced by the .IR m th backreference expression of the matched text. If .I replacement consists of a single %', then .I replacement from the last substitution is used. Newlines may be embedded in .I replacement if they are escaped with a backslash (\\). .TP 8 (.,.)s Repeats the last substitution. This form of the .I s' command may be suffixed with any combination of the characters .IR r' , .IR g' , and .IR p' . The .I r' suffix causes the regular expression of the last search to be used instead of the that of the last substitution. The .I g' suffix toggles the global suffix of the last substitution. The .I p' suffix toggles the print suffix of the last substitution The current address is set to the last line affected. .TP 8 (.,.)t(.) Copies (i.e., transfers) the addressed lines to after the right-hand destination address, which may be the address .IR 0 (zero). The current address is set to the last line copied. .TP 8 u Undoes the last command and restores the current address to what it was before the command. The global commands .IR g' , .IR G' , .IR v' , and .IR V' . are treated as a single command by undo. .I u' is its own inverse. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)v /pat/command-list Applies .I command-list to each of the addressed lines not matching a regular expression .IR re . This is similar to the .I g' command. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)V /re/ Interactively edits the addressed lines not matching a regular expression .IR re. This is similar to the .I G' command. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)w \ file Writes the addressed lines to .IR file . Any previous contents of .I file is lost without warning. If there is no default filename, then the default filename is set to .IR file, otherwise it is unchanged. If no filename is specified, then the default filename is used. The current address is unchanged. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)wq \ file Writes the addressed lines to .IR file , and then executes a .I q' command. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)w \ !command Writes the addressed lines to the standard input of .IR !command' , executed as described below. The default filename and current address are unchanged. .TP 8 .RI (1,$)W \ file Appends the addressed lines to the end of .IR file . This is similar to the .I w' command, expect that the previous contents of file is not clobbered. The current address is unchanged. .TP 8 x Prompts for an encryption key which is used in subsequent reads and writes. If a newline alone is entered as the key, then encryption is turned off. Otherwise, echoing is disabled while a key is read. Encryption/decryption is done using the bdes(1) algorithm. .TP 8 .RI (.+1)z n Scrolls .I n lines at a time starting at addressed line. If .I n is not specified, then the current window size is used. The current address is set to the last line printed. .TP 8 .RI ! command Executes .I command via .IR sh (1). If the first character of .I command is !', then it is replaced by text of the previous .IR !command' . .B ed does not process .I command for backslash (\\) escapes. However, an unescaped .I %' is replaced by the default filename. When the shell returns from execution, a !' is printed to the standard output. The current line is unchanged. .TP 8 .RI (.,.)! command Replaces the addressed lines with the output of .I !command' as described above. The current address is set to the last line read. .TP 8 (\$)= Prints the line number of the addressed line. .TP 8 (.+1)newline Prints the addressed line, and sets the current address to that line. .SH FILES .TP 20 /tmp/ed.* Buffer file .PD 0 .TP 20 ed.hup The file to which .B ed attempts to write the buffer if the terminal hangs up. .SH SEE ALSO .IR vi (1), .IR sed (1), .IR regex (3), .IR bdes (1), .IR sh (1). USD:12-13 B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger, .I Software Tools in Pascal , Addison-Wesley, 1981. .SH LIMITATIONS .B ed processes .I file arguments for backslash escapes, i.e., in a filename, any characters preceded by a backslash (\\) are interpreted literally. If a text (non-binary) file is not terminated by a newline character, then .B ed appends one on reading/writing it. In the case of a binary file, .B ed does not append a newline on reading/writing. per line overhead: 4 ints .SH DIAGNOSTICS When an error occurs, .B ed prints a ?' and either returns to command mode or exits if its input is from a script. An explanation of the last error can be printed with the .I h' (help) command. Since the .I g' (global) command masks any errors from failed searches and substitutions, it can be used to perform conditional operations in scripts; e.g., .sp .RS g/\fIold\fR/s//\fInew\fR/ .RE .sp replaces any occurrences of .I old with .IR new . If the .I u' (undo) command occurs in a global command list, then the command list is executed only once. If diagnostics are not disabled, attempting to quit .B ed or edit another file before writing a modified buffer results in an error. If the command is entered a second time, it succeeds, but any changes to the buffer are lost. `