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.\"-
.\" Copyright (c) 1997 SigmaSoft, Th. Lockert
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
.\"    must display the following acknowledgement:
.\"      This product includes software developed by SigmaSoft, Th. Lockert.
.\" 4. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
.\"    derived from this software without specific prior written permission
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
.\" OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.
.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
.\" INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT
.\" NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
.\" DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
.\" THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
.\" (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF
.\" THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	$FreeBSD$
.\"	$OpenBSD: cpio.1,v 1.16 2001/05/01 17:58:01 aaron Exp $
.\"
.Dd February 16, 1997
.Dt CPIO 1
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm cpio
.Nd copy file archives in and out
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Fl o
.Op Fl aABcLvzZ
.Op Fl C Ar bytes
.Op Fl F Ar archive
.Op Fl H Ar format
.Op Fl O Ar archive
.No < Ar name-list
.Op No > Ar archive
.Nm
.Fl i
.Op Fl bBcdfmrsStuvzZ6
.Op Fl C Ar bytes
.Op Fl E Ar file
.Op Fl F Ar archive
.Op Fl H Ar format
.Op Fl I Ar archive
.Op Ar pattern ...
.Op No < Ar archive
.Nm
.Fl p
.Op Fl adlLmuv
.Ar destination-directory
.No < Ar name-list
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
command copies files to and from a
.Nm
archive.
.Pp
The options are as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl o
Create an archive.
Reads the list of files to store in the
archive from standard input, and writes the archive on standard
output.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl a
Reset the access times on files that have been copied to the
archive.
.It Fl A
Append to the specified archive.
.It Fl B
Set block size of output to 5120 bytes.
.It Fl c
Use
.Tn ASCII
format for
.Nm
header for portability.
.It Fl C Ar bytes
Set the block size of output to
.Ar bytes .
.It Fl F Ar archive
.It Fl O Ar archive
Use the specified file name as the archive to write to.
.It Fl H Ar format
Write the archive in the specified format.
Recognized formats are:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width sv4cpio -compact
.It Cm bcpio
Old binary
.Nm
format.
.It Cm cpio
Old octal character
.Nm
format.
.It Cm sv4cpio
.Tn SVR4
hex
.Nm
format.
.It Cm tar
Old tar format.
.It Cm ustar
.Tn POSIX
ustar format.
.El
.It Fl L
Follow symbolic links.
.It Fl v
Be verbose about operations.
List filenames as they are written to the archive.
.It Fl z
Compress archive using
.Xr gzip 1
format.
.It Fl Z
Compress archive using
.Xr compress 1
format.
.El
.It Fl i
Restore files from an archive.
Reads the archive file from
standard input and extracts files matching the
.Ar patterns
that were specified on the command line.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl b
Do byte and word swapping after reading in data from the
archive, for restoring archives created on systems with
a different byte order.
.It Fl B
Set the block size of the archive being read to 5120 bytes.
.It Fl c
Expect the archive headers to be in
.Tn ASCII
format.
.It Fl C Ar bytes
Read archive written with a block size of
.Ar bytes .
.It Fl d
Create any intermediate directories as needed during
restore.
.It Fl E Ar file
Read list of file name patterns to extract or list from
.Ar file .
.It Fl f
Restore all files except those matching the
.Ar patterns
given on the command line.
.It Fl F Ar archive , Fl I Ar archive
Use the specified file as the input for the archive.
.It Fl H Ar format
Read an archive of the specified format.
Recognized formats are:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width sv4cpio -compact
.It Cm bcpio
Old binary
.Nm
format.
.It Cm cpio
Old octal character
.Nm
format.
.It Cm sv4cpio
.Tn SVR4
hex
.Nm
format.
.It Cm tar
Old tar format.
.It Cm ustar
.Tn POSIX
ustar format.
.El
.It Fl m
Restore modification times on files.
.It Fl r
Rename restored files interactively.
.It Fl s
Swap bytes after reading data from the archive.
.It Fl S
Swap words after reading data from the archive.
.It Fl t
Only list the contents of the archive, no files or
directories will be created.
.It Fl u
Overwrite files even when the file in the archive is
older than the one that will be overwritten.
.It Fl v
Be verbose about operations.
List filenames as they are copied in from the archive.
.It Fl z
Uncompress archive using
.Xr gzip 1
format.
.It Fl Z
Uncompress archive using
.Xr compress 1
format.
.It Fl 6
Process old-style
.Nm
format archives.
.El
.It Fl p
Copy files from one location to another in a single pass.
The list of files to copy are read from standard input and
written out to a directory relative to the specified
.Ar directory
argument.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl a
Reset the access times on files that have been copied.
.It Fl d
Create any intermediate directories as needed to write
the files at the new location.
.It Fl l
When possible, link files rather than creating an
extra copy.
.It Fl L
Follow symbolic links.
.It Fl m
Restore modification times on files.
.It Fl u
Overwrite files even when the original file being copied is
older than the one that will be overwritten.
.It Fl v
Be verbose about operations.
List filenames as they are copied.
.El
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
.Bl -tag -width TMPDIR
.It Ev TMPDIR
Path in which to store temporary files.
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
The
.Nm
utility will exit with one of the following values:
.Bl -tag -width 2n
.It 0
All files were processed successfully.
.It 1
An error occurred.
.El
.Pp
Whenever
.Nm
cannot create a file or a link when extracting an archive or cannot
find a file while writing an archive, or cannot preserve the user
ID, group ID, file mode, or access and modification times when the
.Fl p
option is specified, a diagnostic message is written to standard
error and a non-zero exit value will be returned, but processing
will continue.
In the case where
.Nm
cannot create a link to a file,
.Nm
will not create a second copy of the file.
.Pp
If the extraction of a file from an archive is prematurely terminated
by a signal or error,
.Nm
may have only partially extracted the file the user wanted.
Additionally, the file modes of extracted files and directories may
have incorrect file bits, and the modification and access times may
be wrong.
.Pp
If the creation of an archive is prematurely terminated by a signal
or error,
.Nm
may have only partially created the archive which may violate the
specific archive format specification.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr pax 1 ,
.Xr tar 1
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Keith Muller
at the University of California, San Diego.
.Sh BUGS
The
.Fl s
and
.Fl S
options are currently not implemented.