aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/cddl/contrib/opensolaris/cmd/zpool/zpool.8
blob: 6aa4e5a5f4b901eb96e1b2d5ee1c31315f242cc0 (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
1039
1040
1041
1042
1043
1044
1045
1046
1047
1048
1049
1050
1051
1052
1053
1054
1055
1056
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
1062
1063
1064
1065
1066
1067
1068
1069
1070
1071
1072
1073
1074
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
1080
1081
1082
1083
1084
1085
1086
1087
1088
1089
1090
1091
1092
1093
1094
1095
1096
1097
1098
1099
1100
1101
1102
1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
1108
1109
1110
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
1116
1117
1118
1119
1120
1121
1122
1123
1124
1125
1126
1127
1128
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
1135
1136
1137
1138
1139
1140
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
1146
1147
1148
1149
1150
1151
1152
1153
1154
1155
1156
1157
1158
1159
1160
1161
1162
1163
1164
1165
1166
1167
1168
1169
1170
1171
1172
1173
1174
1175
1176
1177
1178
1179
1180
1181
1182
1183
1184
1185
1186
1187
1188
1189
1190
1191
1192
1193
1194
1195
1196
1197
1198
1199
1200
1201
1202
1203
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
1210
1211
1212
1213
1214
1215
1216
1217
1218
1219
1220
1221
1222
1223
1224
1225
1226
1227
1228
1229
1230
1231
1232
1233
1234
1235
1236
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
1243
1244
1245
1246
1247
1248
1249
1250
1251
1252
1253
1254
1255
1256
1257
1258
1259
1260
1261
1262
1263
1264
1265
1266
1267
1268
1269
1270
1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
1276
1277
1278
1279
1280
1281
1282
1283
1284
1285
1286
1287
1288
1289
1290
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
1297
1298
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
1305
1306
1307
1308
1309
1310
1311
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
1324
1325
1326
1327
1328
1329
1330
1331
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
1341
1342
1343
1344
1345
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
1353
1354
1355
1356
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
1383
1384
1385
1386
1387
1388
1389
1390
1391
1392
1393
1394
1395
1396
1397
1398
1399
1400
1401
1402
1403
1404
1405
1406
1407
1408
1409
1410
1411
1412
1413
1414
1415
1416
1417
1418
1419
1420
1421
1422
1423
1424
1425
1426
1427
1428
1429
1430
1431
1432
1433
1434
1435
1436
1437
1438
1439
1440
1441
1442
1443
1444
1445
1446
1447
1448
1449
1450
1451
1452
1453
1454
1455
1456
1457
1458
1459
1460
1461
1462
1463
1464
1465
1466
1467
1468
1469
1470
1471
1472
1473
1474
1475
1476
1477
1478
1479
1480
1481
1482
1483
1484
1485
1486
1487
1488
1489
1490
1491
1492
1493
1494
1495
1496
1497
1498
1499
1500
1501
1502
1503
1504
1505
1506
1507
1508
1509
1510
1511
1512
1513
1514
1515
1516
1517
1518
1519
1520
1521
1522
1523
1524
1525
1526
1527
1528
1529
1530
1531
1532
1533
1534
1535
1536
1537
1538
1539
1540
1541
1542
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
1551
1552
1553
1554
1555
1556
1557
1558
1559
1560
1561
1562
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
1569
1570
1571
1572
1573
1574
1575
1576
1577
1578
1579
1580
1581
1582
1583
1584
1585
1586
1587
1588
1589
1590
1591
1592
1593
1594
1595
1596
1597
1598
1599
1600
1601
1602
1603
1604
1605
1606
1607
1608
1609
1610
1611
1612
1613
1614
1615
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
1622
1623
1624
1625
1626
1627
1628
1629
1630
1631
1632
1633
1634
1635
1636
1637
1638
1639
1640
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
1652
1653
1654
1655
1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
1670
1671
1672
1673
1674
1675
1676
1677
1678
1679
1680
1681
1682
1683
1684
1685
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
1691
1692
1693
1694
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
1701
1702
1703
1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
1709
1710
1711
1712
1713
1714
1715
1716
1717
1718
1719
1720
1721
1722
1723
1724
1725
1726
1727
1728
1729
1730
1731
1732
1733
1734
1735
1736
1737
1738
1739
1740
1741
1742
1743
1744
1745
1746
1747
1748
1749
1750
1751
1752
1753
1754
1755
1756
1757
1758
1759
1760
1761
1762
1763
1764
1765
1766
1767
1768
1769
1770
1771
1772
1773
1774
1775
1776
1777
1778
1779
1780
1781
1782
1783
1784
1785
1786
1787
1788
1789
1790
1791
1792
1793
1794
1795
1796
1797
1798
1799
1800
1801
1802
1803
1804
1805
1806
1807
1808
1809
1810
1811
1812
1813
1814
1815
1816
1817
1818
1819
1820
1821
1822
1823
1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841
1842
1843
1844
1845
1846
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
1857
1858
1859
1860
1861
1862
1863
1864
1865
1866
1867
1868
1869
1870
1871
1872
1873
1874
1875
1876
1877
1878
1879
1880
1881
1882
1883
1884
1885
1886
1887
1888
1889
1890
1891
1892
1893
1894
1895
1896
1897
1898
1899
1900
1901
1902
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
1911
1912
1913
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945
1946
1947
1948
1949
1950
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
2053
2054
2055
2056
2057
2058
2059
2060
2061
2062
2063
2064
2065
2066
2067
2068
2069
2070
2071
2072
2073
2074
2075
2076
2077
2078
2079
2080
2081
2082
2083
2084
2085
2086
2087
2088
2089
2090
2091
2092
2093
2094
2095
2096
2097
2098
2099
2100
2101
2102
2103
2104
2105
2106
2107
2108
2109
2110
2111
2112
2113
2114
2115
2116
2117
2118
2119
2120
2121
2122
2123
2124
2125
2126
2127
2128
2129
2130
2131
2132
2133
2134
2135
2136
2137
2138
2139
2140
2141
2142
2143
2144
2145
2146
2147
2148
2149
2150
2151
2152
2153
2154
2155
2156
2157
2158
2159
2160
2161
2162
2163
2164
2165
2166
2167
2168
2169
2170
2171
2172
2173
2174
2175
2176
2177
2178
2179
2180
2181
2182
2183
2184
2185
2186
2187
2188
2189
2190
2191
2192
2193
2194
2195
2196
2197
2198
2199
2200
2201
2202
2203
2204
2205
2206
2207
2208
2209
2210
2211
2212
2213
2214
2215
2216
2217
2218
2219
2220
2221
2222
2223
2224
2225
2226
2227
2228
2229
2230
2231
2232
2233
2234
2235
2236
2237
2238
2239
2240
2241
2242
2243
2244
2245
2246
2247
2248
2249
2250
2251
2252
2253
2254
2255
2256
2257
2258
2259
2260
2261
2262
2263
2264
2265
2266
2267
2268
2269
2270
2271
2272
2273
2274
2275
2276
2277
2278
2279
2280
2281
2282
2283
2284
2285
2286
2287
2288
2289
2290
2291
2292
2293
2294
2295
2296
2297
2298
2299
2300
2301
2302
2303
2304
2305
2306
2307
2308
2309
2310
2311
2312
2313
2314
2315
2316
2317
2318
2319
2320
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
'\" te
.\" Copyright (c) 2012, Martin Matuska <mm@FreeBSD.org>.
.\" Copyright (c) 2013-2014, Xin Li <delphij@FreeBSD.org>.
.\" All Rights Reserved.
.\"
.\" The contents of this file are subject to the terms of the
.\" Common Development and Distribution License (the "License").
.\" You may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
.\"
.\" You can obtain a copy of the license at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE
.\" or http://www.opensolaris.org/os/licensing.
.\" See the License for the specific language governing permissions
.\" and limitations under the License.
.\"
.\" When distributing Covered Code, include this CDDL HEADER in each
.\" file and include the License file at usr/src/OPENSOLARIS.LICENSE.
.\" If applicable, add the following below this CDDL HEADER, with the
.\" fields enclosed by brackets "[]" replaced with your own identifying
.\" information: Portions Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2010, Sun Microsystems, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright (c) 2011, Justin T. Gibbs <gibbs@FreeBSD.org>
.\" Copyright (c) 2012, Glen Barber <gjb@FreeBSD.org>
.\" Copyright (c) 2012, 2017 by Delphix. All Rights Reserved.
.\" Copyright 2017 Nexenta Systems, Inc.
.\" Copyright (c) 2017 Datto Inc.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd November 7, 2019
.Dt ZPOOL 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm zpool
.Nd configures ZFS storage pools
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Op Fl \&?
.Nm
.Cm add
.Op Fl fn
.Ar pool vdev ...
.Nm
.Cm attach
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool device new_device
.Nm
.Cm checkpoint
.Op Fl d, -discard
.Ar pool
.Nm
.Cm clear
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Ar pool
.Op Ar device
.Nm
.Cm create
.Op Fl fnd
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl t Ar tempname
.Ar pool vdev ...
.Nm
.Cm destroy
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool
.Nm
.Cm detach
.Ar pool device
.Nm
.Cm export
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool ...
.Nm
.Cm get
.Op Fl Hp
.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Ar all | property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Ar pool ...
.Nm
.Cm history
.Op Fl il
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl m
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Fl a
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl m
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl t
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Ar pool | id
.Op Ar newpool
.Nm
.Cm initialize
.Op Fl cs
.Ar pool
.Op Ar device Ns ...
.Nm
.Cm iostat
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Fl v
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Nm
.Cm labelclear
.Op Fl f
.Ar device
.Nm
.Cm list
.Op Fl Hpv
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Op Ar inverval Op Ar count
.Nm
.Cm offline
.Op Fl t
.Ar pool device ...
.Nm
.Cm online
.Op Fl e
.Ar pool device ...
.Nm
.Cm reguid
.Ar pool
.Nm
.Cm remove
.Op Fl np
.Ar pool device ...
.Nm
.Cm remove
.Fl s
.Ar pool
.Nm
.Cm reopen
.Ar pool
.Nm
.Cm replace
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool device
.Op Ar new_device
.Nm
.Cm scrub
.Op Fl s | Fl p
.Ar pool ...
.Nm
.Cm set
.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value pool
.Nm
.Cm split
.Op Fl n
.Op Fl R Ar altroot
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar pool newpool
.Op Ar device ...
.Nm
.Cm status
.Op Fl Dvx
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Nm
.Cm sync
.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
.Nm
.Cm upgrade
.Op Fl v
.Nm
.Cm upgrade
.Op Fl V Ar version
.Fl a | Ar pool ...
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
command configures
.Tn ZFS
storage pools. A storage pool is a collection of devices that provides physical
storage and data replication for
.Tn ZFS
datasets.
.Pp
All datasets within a storage pool share the same space. See
.Xr zfs 8
for information on managing datasets.
.Ss Virtual Devices (vdevs)
A
.Qq virtual device
.Pq No vdev
describes a single device or a collection of devices organized according to
certain performance and fault characteristics. The following virtual devices
are supported:
.Bl -tag -width "XXXXXX"
.It Sy disk
A block device, typically located under
.Pa /dev .
.Tn ZFS
can use individual slices or partitions, though the recommended mode of
operation is to use whole disks. A disk can be specified by a full path to the
device or the
.Xr geom 4
provider name. When given a whole disk,
.Tn ZFS
automatically labels the disk, if necessary.
.It Sy file
A regular file. The use of files as a backing store is strongly discouraged. It
is designed primarily for experimental purposes, as the fault tolerance of a
file is only as good the file system of which it is a part. A file must be
specified by a full path.
.It Sy mirror
A mirror of two or more devices. Data is replicated in an identical fashion
across all components of a mirror. A mirror with
.Em N
disks of size
.Em X
can hold
.Em X
bytes and can withstand
.Pq Em N-1
devices failing before data integrity is compromised.
.It Sy raidz
(or
.Sy raidz1 raidz2 raidz3 ) .
A variation on
.Sy RAID-5
that allows for better distribution of parity and eliminates the
.Qq Sy RAID-5
write hole (in which data and parity become inconsistent after a power loss).
Data and parity is striped across all disks within a
.No raidz
group.
.Pp
A
.No raidz
group can have single-, double- , or triple parity, meaning that the
.No raidz
group can sustain one, two, or three failures, respectively, without
losing any data. The
.Sy raidz1 No vdev
type specifies a single-parity
.No raidz
group; the
.Sy raidz2 No vdev
type specifies a double-parity
.No raidz
group; and the
.Sy raidz3 No vdev
type specifies a triple-parity
.No raidz
group. The
.Sy raidz No vdev
type is an alias for
.Sy raidz1 .
.Pp
A
.No raidz
group with
.Em N
disks of size
.Em X
with
.Em P
parity disks can hold approximately
.Sm off
.Pq Em N-P
*X
.Sm on
bytes and can withstand
.Em P
device(s) failing before data integrity is compromised. The minimum number of
devices in a
.No raidz
group is one more than the number of parity disks. The
recommended number is between 3 and 9 to help increase performance.
.It Sy spare
A special
.No pseudo- Ns No vdev
which keeps track of available hot spares for a pool.
For more information, see the
.Qq Sx Hot Spares
section.
.It Sy log
A separate-intent log device. If more than one log device is specified, then
writes are load-balanced between devices. Log devices can be mirrored. However,
.No raidz
.No vdev
types are not supported for the intent log. For more information,
see the
.Qq Sx Intent Log
section.
.It Sy cache
A device used to cache storage pool data. A cache device cannot be configured
as a mirror or
.No raidz
group. For more information, see the
.Qq Sx Cache Devices
section.
.El
.Pp
Virtual devices cannot be nested, so a mirror or
.No raidz
virtual device can only
contain files or disks. Mirrors of mirrors (or other combinations) are not
allowed.
.Pp
A pool can have any number of virtual devices at the top of the configuration
(known as
.Qq root
.No vdev Ns s).
Data is dynamically distributed across all top-level devices to balance data
among devices. As new virtual devices are added,
.Tn ZFS
automatically places data on the newly available devices.
.Pp
Virtual devices are specified one at a time on the command line, separated by
whitespace. The keywords
.Qq mirror
and
.Qq raidz
are used to distinguish where a group ends and another begins. For example, the
following creates two root
.No vdev Ns s,
each a mirror of two disks:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create mypool mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3
.Ed
.Ss Device Failure and Recovery
.Tn ZFS
supports a rich set of mechanisms for handling device failure and data
corruption. All metadata and data is checksummed, and
.Tn ZFS
automatically repairs bad data from a good copy when corruption is detected.
.Pp
In order to take advantage of these features, a pool must make use of some form
of redundancy, using either mirrored or
.No raidz
groups. While
.Tn ZFS
supports running in a non-redundant configuration, where each root
.No vdev
is simply a disk or file, this is strongly discouraged. A single case of bit
corruption can render some or all of your data unavailable.
.Pp
A pool's health status is described by one of three states: online, degraded,
or faulted. An online pool has all devices operating normally. A degraded pool
is one in which one or more devices have failed, but the data is still
available due to a redundant configuration. A faulted pool has corrupted
metadata, or one or more faulted devices, and insufficient replicas to continue
functioning.
.Pp
The health of the top-level
.No vdev ,
such as mirror or
.No raidz
device, is
potentially impacted by the state of its associated
.No vdev Ns s,
or component devices. A top-level
.No vdev
or component device is in one of the following states:
.Bl -tag -width "DEGRADED"
.It Sy DEGRADED
One or more top-level
.No vdev Ns s
is in the degraded state because one or more
component devices are offline. Sufficient replicas exist to continue
functioning.
.Pp
One or more component devices is in the degraded or faulted state, but
sufficient replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions
are as follows:
.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
.It
The number of checksum errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is
degraded as an indication that something may be wrong.
.Tn ZFS
continues to use the device as necessary.
.It
The number of
.Tn I/O
errors exceeds acceptable levels. The device could not be
marked as faulted because there are insufficient replicas to continue
functioning.
.El
.It Sy FAULTED
One or more top-level
.No vdev Ns s
is in the faulted state because one or more
component devices are offline. Insufficient replicas exist to continue
functioning.
.Pp
One or more component devices is in the faulted state, and insufficient
replicas exist to continue functioning. The underlying conditions are as
follows:
.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
.It
The device could be opened, but the contents did not match expected values.
.It
The number of
.Tn I/O
errors exceeds acceptable levels and the device is faulted to
prevent further use of the device.
.El
.It Sy OFFLINE
The device was explicitly taken offline by the
.Qq Nm Cm offline
command.
.It Sy ONLINE
The device is online and functioning.
.It Sy REMOVED
The device was physically removed while the system was running. Device removal
detection is hardware-dependent and may not be supported on all platforms.
.It Sy UNAVAIL
The device could not be opened. If a pool is imported when a device was
unavailable, then the device will be identified by a unique identifier instead
of its path since the path was never correct in the first place.
.El
.Pp
If a device is removed and later reattached to the system,
.Tn ZFS
attempts to put the device online automatically. Device attach detection is
hardware-dependent and might not be supported on all platforms.
.Ss Hot Spares
.Tn ZFS
allows devices to be associated with pools as
.Qq hot spares .
These devices are not actively used in the pool, but when an active device
fails, it is automatically replaced by a hot spare. To create a pool with hot
spares, specify a
.Qq spare
.No vdev
with any number of devices. For example,
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create pool mirror da0 da1 spare da2 da3
.Ed
.Pp
Spares can be shared across multiple pools, and can be added with the
.Qq Nm Cm add
command and removed with the
.Qq Nm Cm remove
command. Once a spare replacement is initiated, a new "spare"
.No vdev
is created
within the configuration that will remain there until the original device is
replaced. At this point, the hot spare becomes available again if another
device fails.
.Pp
If a pool has a shared spare that is currently being used, the pool can not be
exported since other pools may use this shared spare, which may lead to
potential data corruption.
.Pp
Shared spares add some risk.
If the pools are imported on different hosts, and both pools suffer a device
failure at the same time, both could attempt to use the spare at the same time.
This may not be detected, resulting in data corruption.
.Pp
An in-progress spare replacement can be cancelled by detaching the hot spare.
If the original faulted device is detached, then the hot spare assumes its
place in the configuration, and is removed from the spare list of all active
pools.
.Pp
Spares cannot replace log devices.
.Pp
This feature requires a userland helper.
FreeBSD provides
.Xr zfsd 8
for this purpose.
It must be manually enabled by adding
.Va zfsd_enable="YES"
to
.Pa /etc/rc.conf .
.Ss Intent Log
The
.Tn ZFS
Intent Log
.Pq Tn ZIL
satisfies
.Tn POSIX
requirements for synchronous transactions. For instance, databases often
require their transactions to be on stable storage devices when returning from
a system call.
.Tn NFS
and other applications can also use
.Xr fsync 2
to ensure data stability. By default, the intent log is allocated from blocks
within the main pool. However, it might be possible to get better performance
using separate intent log devices such as
.Tn NVRAM
or a dedicated disk. For example:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create pool da0 da1 log da2
.Ed
.Pp
Multiple log devices can also be specified, and they can be mirrored. See the
.Sx EXAMPLES
section for an example of mirroring multiple log devices.
.Pp
Log devices can be added, replaced, attached, detached, imported and exported
as part of the larger pool.
Mirrored devices can be removed by specifying the top-level mirror vdev.
.Ss Cache devices
Devices can be added to a storage pool as "cache devices." These devices
provide an additional layer of caching between main memory and disk. For
read-heavy workloads, where the working set size is much larger than what can
be cached in main memory, using cache devices allow much more of this working
set to be served from low latency media. Using cache devices provides the
greatest performance improvement for random read-workloads of mostly static
content.
.Pp
To create a pool with cache devices, specify a "cache"
.No vdev
with any number of devices. For example:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create pool da0 da1 cache da2 da3
.Ed
.Pp
Cache devices cannot be mirrored or part of a
.No raidz
configuration. If a read
error is encountered on a cache device, that read
.Tn I/O
is reissued to the original storage pool device, which might be part of a
mirrored or
.No raidz
configuration.
.Pp
The content of the cache devices is considered volatile, as is the case with
other system caches.
.Ss Pool checkpoint
Before starting critical procedures that include destructive actions (e.g
.Nm zfs Cm destroy
), an administrator can checkpoint the pool's state and in the case of a
mistake or failure, rewind the entire pool back to the checkpoint.
Otherwise, the checkpoint can be discarded when the procedure has completed
successfully.
.Pp
A pool checkpoint can be thought of as a pool-wide snapshot and should be used
with care as it contains every part of the pool's state, from properties to vdev
configuration.
Thus, while a pool has a checkpoint certain operations are not allowed.
Specifically, vdev removal/attach/detach, mirror splitting, and
changing the pool's guid.
Adding a new vdev is supported but in the case of a rewind it will have to be
added again.
Finally, users of this feature should keep in mind that scrubs in a pool that
has a checkpoint do not repair checkpointed data.
.Pp
To create a checkpoint for a pool:
.Bd -literal
# zpool checkpoint pool
.Ed
.Pp
To later rewind to its checkpointed state, you need to first export it and
then rewind it during import:
.Bd -literal
# zpool export pool
# zpool import --rewind-to-checkpoint pool
.Ed
.Pp
To discard the checkpoint from a pool:
.Bd -literal
# zpool checkpoint -d pool
.Ed
.Pp
Dataset reservations (controlled by the
.Nm reservation
or
.Nm refreservation
zfs properties) may be unenforceable while a checkpoint exists, because the
checkpoint is allowed to consume the dataset's reservation.
Finally, data that is part of the checkpoint but has been freed in the
current state of the pool won't be scanned during a scrub.
.Ss Properties
Each pool has several properties associated with it. Some properties are
read-only statistics while others are configurable and change the behavior of
the pool. The following are read-only properties:
.Bl -tag -width "dedupratio"
.It Sy allocated
Amount of storage space used within the pool.
.It Sy capacity
Percentage of pool space used. This property can also be referred to by its
shortened column name, "cap".
.It Sy dedupratio
The deduplication ratio specified for a pool, expressed as a multiplier.
For example, a
.Sy dedupratio
value of 1.76 indicates that 1.76 units of data were stored but only 1 unit of disk space was actually consumed. See
.Xr zfs 8
for a description of the deduplication feature.
.It Sy expandsize
Amount of uninitialized space within the pool or device that can be used to
increase the total capacity of the pool.
Uninitialized space consists of
any space on an EFI labeled vdev which has not been brought online
.Pq i.e. zpool online -e .
This space occurs when a LUN is dynamically expanded.
.It Sy fragmentation
The amount of fragmentation in the pool.
.It Sy free
Number of blocks within the pool that are not allocated.
.It Sy freeing
After a file system or snapshot is destroyed, the space it was using is
returned to the pool asynchronously.
.Sy freeing
is the amount of space remaining to be reclaimed.
Over time
.Sy freeing
will decrease while
.Sy free
increases.
.It Sy guid
A unique identifier for the pool.
.It Sy health
The current health of the pool. Health can be
.Qq Sy ONLINE ,
.Qq Sy DEGRADED ,
.Qq Sy FAULTED ,
.Qq Sy OFFLINE ,
.Qq Sy REMOVED ,
or
.Qq Sy UNAVAIL .
.It Sy size
Total size of the storage pool.
.It Sy unsupported@ Ns Ar feature_guid
Information about unsupported features that are enabled on the pool.
See
.Xr zpool-features 7
for details.
.El
.Pp
The space usage properties report actual physical space available to the
storage pool. The physical space can be different from the total amount of
space that any contained datasets can actually use. The amount of space used in
a
.No raidz
configuration depends on the characteristics of the data being written.
In addition,
.Tn ZFS
reserves some space for internal accounting that the
.Xr zfs 8
command takes into account, but the
.Xr zpool 8
command does not. For non-full pools of a reasonable size, these effects should
be invisible. For small pools, or pools that are close to being completely
full, these discrepancies may become more noticeable.
.Pp
The following property can be set at creation time and import time:
.Bl -tag -width 2n
.It Sy altroot
Alternate root directory. If set, this directory is prepended to any mount
points within the pool. This can be used when examining an unknown pool where
the mount points cannot be trusted, or in an alternate boot environment, where
the typical paths are not valid.
.Sy altroot
is not a persistent property. It is valid only while the system is up.
Setting
.Sy altroot
defaults to using
.Cm cachefile=none ,
though this may be overridden using an explicit setting.
.El
.Pp
The following property can only be set at import time:
.Bl -tag -width 2n
.It Sy readonly Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
If set to
.Cm on ,
pool will be imported in read-only mode with the following restrictions:
.Bl -bullet -offset 2n
.It
Synchronous data in the intent log will not be accessible
.It
Properties of the pool can not be changed
.It
Datasets of this pool can only be mounted read-only
.It
To write to a read-only pool, a export and import of the pool is required.
.El
.Pp
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy rdonly .
.El
.Pp
The following properties can be set at creation time and import time, and later
changed with the
.Ic zpool set
command:
.Bl -tag -width 2n
.It Sy autoexpand Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
Controls automatic pool expansion when the underlying LUN is grown. If set to
.Qq Cm on ,
the pool will be resized according to the size of the expanded
device. If the device is part of a mirror or
.No raidz
then all devices within that
.No mirror/ Ns No raidz
group must be expanded before the new space is made available to
the pool. The default behavior is
.Qq off .
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name,
.Sy expand .
.It Sy autoreplace Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
Controls automatic device replacement. If set to
.Qq Cm off ,
device replacement must be initiated by the administrator by using the
.Qq Nm Cm replace
command. If set to
.Qq Cm on ,
any new device, found in the same
physical location as a device that previously belonged to the pool, is
automatically formatted and replaced. The default behavior is
.Qq Cm off .
This property can also be referred to by its shortened column name, "replace".
.It Sy bootfs Ns = Ns Ar pool Ns / Ns Ar dataset
Identifies the default bootable dataset for the root pool. This property is
expected to be set mainly by the installation and upgrade programs.
.It Sy cachefile Ns = Ns Ar path No | Cm none
Controls the location of where the pool configuration is cached. Discovering
all pools on system startup requires a cached copy of the configuration data
that is stored on the root file system. All pools in this cache are
automatically imported when the system boots. Some environments, such as
install and clustering, need to cache this information in a different location
so that pools are not automatically imported. Setting this property caches the
pool configuration in a different location that can later be imported with
.Qq Nm Cm import Fl c .
Setting it to the special value
.Qq Cm none
creates a temporary pool that is never cached, and the special value
.Cm ''
(empty string) uses the default location.
.It Sy comment Ns = Ns Ar text
A text string consisting of printable ASCII characters that will be stored
such that it is available even if the pool becomes faulted.
An administrator can provide additional information about a pool using this
property.
.It Sy dedupditto Ns = Ns Ar number
Threshold for the number of block ditto copies. If the reference count for a
deduplicated block increases above this number, a new ditto copy of this block
is automatically stored. Default setting is
.Cm 0
which causes no ditto copies to be created for deduplicated blocks.
The miniumum legal nonzero setting is 100.
.It Sy delegation Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
Controls whether a non-privileged user is granted access based on the dataset
permissions defined on the dataset. See
.Xr zfs 8
for more information on
.Tn ZFS
delegated administration.
.It Sy failmode Ns = Ns Cm wait No | Cm continue No | Cm panic
Controls the system behavior in the event of catastrophic pool failure. This
condition is typically a result of a loss of connectivity to the underlying
storage device(s) or a failure of all devices within the pool. The behavior of
such an event is determined as follows:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Sy wait
Blocks all
.Tn I/O
access until the device connectivity is recovered and the errors are cleared.
This is the default behavior.
.It Sy continue
Returns
.Em EIO
to any new write
.Tn I/O
requests but allows reads to any of the remaining healthy devices. Any write
requests that have yet to be committed to disk would be blocked.
.It Sy panic
Prints out a message to the console and generates a system crash dump.
.El
.It Sy feature@ Ns Ar feature_name Ns = Ns Sy enabled
The value of this property is the current state of
.Ar feature_name .
The only valid value when setting this property is
.Sy enabled
which moves
.Ar feature_name
to the enabled state.
See
.Xr zpool-features 7
for details on feature states.
.It Sy listsnapshots Ns = Ns Cm on No | Cm off
Controls whether information about snapshots associated with this pool is
output when
.Qq Nm zfs Cm list
is run without the
.Fl t
option. The default value is
.Cm off .
This property can also be referred to by its shortened name,
.Sy listsnaps .
.It Sy multihost Ns = Ns Sy on No | Sy off
Controls whether a pool activity check should be performed during
.Nm zpool Cm import .
When a pool is determined to be active it cannot be imported, even with the
.Fl f
option.
This property is intended to be used in failover configurations
where multiple hosts have access to a pool on shared storage.
.Pp
Multihost provides protection on import only.
It does not protect against an
individual device being used in multiple pools, regardless of the type of vdev.
See the discussion under
.Sy zpool create.
.Pp
When this property is on, periodic writes to storage occur to show the pool is
in use.
See
.Sy vfs.zfs.multihost_interval
sysctl.
In order to enable this property each host must set a unique hostid.
The default value is
.Sy off .
.It Sy version Ns = Ns Ar version
The current on-disk version of the pool. This can be increased, but never
decreased. The preferred method of updating pools is with the
.Qq Nm Cm upgrade
command, though this property can be used when a specific version is needed
for backwards compatibility.
Once feature flags is enabled on a pool this property will no longer have a
value.
.El
.Sh SUBCOMMANDS
All subcommands that modify state are logged persistently to the pool in their
original form.
.Pp
The
.Nm
command provides subcommands to create and destroy storage pools, add capacity
to storage pools, and provide information about the storage pools. The following
subcommands are supported:
.Bl -tag -width 2n
.It Xo
.Nm
.Op Fl \&?
.Xc
.Pp
Displays a help message.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm add
.Op Fl fn
.Ar pool vdev ...
.Xc
.Pp
Adds the specified virtual devices to the given pool. The
.No vdev
specification is described in the
.Qq Sx Virtual Devices
section. The behavior of the
.Fl f
option, and the device checks performed are described in the
.Qq Nm Cm create
subcommand.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar vdev ,
even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be used without actually adding the
.Ar vdev Ns s.
The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or device
sharing.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm attach
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool device new_device
.Xc
.Pp
Attaches
.Ar new_device
to an existing
.Sy zpool
device. The existing device cannot be part of a
.No raidz
configuration. If
.Ar device
is not currently part of a mirrored configuration,
.Ar device
automatically transforms into a two-way mirror of
.Ar device No and Ar new_device .
If
.Ar device
is part of a two-way mirror, attaching
.Ar new_device
creates a three-way mirror, and so on. In either case,
.Ar new_device
begins to resilver immediately.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar new_device ,
even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
manner.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm checkpoint
.Op Fl d, -discard
.Ar pool
.Xc
Checkpoints the current state of
.Ar pool
, which can be later restored by
.Nm zpool Cm import --rewind-to-checkpoint .
The existence of a checkpoint in a pool prohibits the following
.Nm zpool
commands:
.Cm remove ,
.Cm attach ,
.Cm detach ,
.Cm split ,
and
.Cm reguid .
In addition, it may break reservation boundaries if the pool lacks free
space.
The
.Nm zpool Cm status
command indicates the existence of a checkpoint or the progress of discarding a
checkpoint from a pool.
The
.Nm zpool Cm list
command reports how much space the checkpoint takes from the pool.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl d, -discard
Discards an existing checkpoint from
.Ar pool .
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm clear
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Ar pool
.Op Ar device
.Xc
.Pp
Clears device errors in a pool.
If no arguments are specified, all device errors within the pool are cleared.
If one or more devices is specified, only those errors associated with the
specified device or devices are cleared.
If multihost is enabled, and the pool has been suspended, this will not
resume I/O.
While the pool was suspended, it may have been imported on
another host, and resuming I/O could result in pool damage.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl F
Initiates recovery mode for an unopenable pool. Attempts to discard the last
few transactions in the pool to return it to an openable state. Not all damaged
pools can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
discarded transactions is irretrievably lost.
.It Fl n
Used in combination with the
.Fl F
flag. Check whether discarding transactions would make the pool openable, but
do not actually discard any transactions.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm create
.Op Fl fnd
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl m Ar mountpoint
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl t Ar tempname
.Ar pool vdev ...
.Xc
.Pp
Creates a new storage pool containing the virtual devices specified on the
command line. The pool name must begin with a letter, and can only contain
alphanumeric characters as well as underscore ("_"), dash ("-"), and period
("."). The pool names "mirror", "raidz", "spare" and "log" are reserved, as are
names beginning with the pattern "c[0-9]". The
.No vdev
specification is described in the
.Qq Sx Virtual Devices
section.
.Pp
The command attempts to verify that each device specified is accessible and not
currently in use by another subsystem.
However this check is not robust enough
to detect simultaneous attempts to use a new device in different pools, even if
.Sy multihost
is
.Sy enabled.
The
administrator must ensure that simultaneous invocations of any combination of
.Sy zpool replace ,
.Sy zpool create ,
.Sy zpool add ,
or
.Sy zpool labelclear ,
do not refer to the same device.
Using the same device in two pools will
result in pool corruption.
.Pp
There are some uses, such as being currently mounted, or specified as the
dedicated dump device, that prevents a device from ever being used by ZFS.
Other uses, such as having a preexisting UFS file system, can be overridden
with the
.Fl f
option.
.Pp
The command also checks that the replication strategy for the pool is
consistent. An attempt to combine redundant and non-redundant storage in a
single pool, or to mix disks and files, results in an error unless
.Fl f
is specified. The use of differently sized devices within a single
.No raidz
or mirror group is also flagged as an error unless
.Fl f
is specified.
.Pp
Unless the
.Fl R
option is specified, the default mount point is
.Qq Pa /pool .
The mount point must not exist or must be empty, or else the
root dataset cannot be mounted. This can be overridden with the
.Fl m
option.
.Pp
By default all supported features are enabled on the new pool unless the
.Fl d
option is specified.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar vdev Ns s,
even if they appear in use or specify a conflicting replication level.
Not all devices can be overridden in this manner.
.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be used without actually creating the
pool. The actual pool creation can still fail due to insufficient privileges or
device sharing.
.It Fl d
Do not enable any features on the new pool.
Individual features can be enabled by setting their corresponding properties
to
.Sy enabled
with the
.Fl o
option.
See
.Xr zpool-features 7
for details about feature properties.
.It Xo
.Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Xc
Sets the given pool properties. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for a list of valid properties that can be set.
.It Xo
.Fl O
.Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Op Fl O Ar file-system-property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Xc
Sets the given file system properties in the root file system of the pool. See
.Xr zfs 8 Properties
for a list of valid properties that
can be set.
.It Fl R Ar root
Equivalent to
.Qq Fl o Cm cachefile=none,altroot= Ns Pa root
.It Fl m Ar mountpoint
Sets the mount point for the root dataset. The default mount point is
.Qq Pa /pool
or
.Qq Cm altroot Ns Pa /pool
if
.Sy altroot
is specified. The mount point must be an absolute path,
.Qq Cm legacy ,
or
.Qq Cm none .
For more information on dataset mount points, see
.Xr zfs 8 .
.It Fl t Ar tempname
Sets the in-core pool name to
.Pa tempname
while the on-disk name will be the name specified as the pool name
.Pa pool .
This will set the default
.Sy cachefile
property to
.Sy none .
This is intended to handle name space collisions when creating pools
for other systems, such as virtual machines or physical machines
whose pools live on network block devices.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm destroy
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool
.Xc
.Pp
Destroys the given pool, freeing up any devices for other use. This command
tries to unmount any active datasets before destroying the pool.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forces any active datasets contained within the pool to be unmounted.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm detach
.Ar pool device
.Xc
.Pp
Detaches
.Ar device
from a mirror. The operation is refused if there are no other valid replicas
of the data.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm export
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool ...
.Xc
.Pp
Exports the given pools from the system. All devices are marked as exported,
but are still considered in use by other subsystems. The devices can be moved
between systems (even those of different endianness) and imported as long as a
sufficient number of devices are present.
.Pp
Before exporting the pool, all datasets within the pool are unmounted. A pool
can not be exported if it has a shared spare that is currently being used.
.Pp
For pools to be portable, you must give the
.Nm
command whole disks, not just slices, so that
.Tn ZFS
can label the disks with portable
.Sy EFI
labels. Otherwise, disk drivers on platforms of different endianness will not
recognize the disks.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forcefully unmount all datasets, using the
.Qq Nm unmount Fl f
command.
.Pp
This command will forcefully export the pool even if it has a shared spare that
is currently being used. This may lead to potential data corruption.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm get
.Op Fl Hp
.Op Fl o Ar field Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Ar all | property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Ar pool ...
.Xc
.Pp
Retrieves the given list of properties (or all properties if
.Qq Cm all
is used) for the specified storage pool(s). These properties are displayed with
the following fields:
.Bl -column -offset indent "property"
.It name Ta Name of storage pool
.It property Ta Property name
.It value Ta Property value
.It source Ta Property source, either 'default' or 'local'.
.El
.Pp
See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.It Fl H
Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
instead of arbitrary space.
.It Fl p
Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
.It Fl o Ar field
A comma-separated list of columns to display.
.Sy name Ns , Ns
.Sy property Ns , Ns
.Sy value Ns , Ns
.Sy source
is the default value.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm history
.Op Fl il
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Xc
.Pp
Displays the command history of the specified pools or all pools if no pool is
specified.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl i
Displays internally logged
.Tn ZFS
events in addition to user initiated events.
.It Fl l
Displays log records in long format, which in addition to standard format
includes, the user name, the hostname, and the zone in which the operation was
performed.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Xc
.Pp
Lists pools available to import. If the
.Fl d
option is not specified, this command searches for devices in
.Qq Pa /dev .
The
.Fl d
option can be specified multiple times, and all directories are searched. If
the device appears to be part of an exported pool, this command displays a
summary of the pool with the name of the pool, a numeric identifier, as well as
the
.No vdev
layout and current health of the device for each device or file.
Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
.Qq Nm Cm destroy
command, are not listed unless the
.Fl D
option is specified.
.Pp
The numeric identifier is unique, and can be used instead of the pool name when
multiple exported pools of the same name are available.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl c Ar cachefile
Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Qq Sy cachefile
pool property. This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
Searches for devices or files in
.Ar dir .
The
.Fl d
option can be specified multiple times.
.It Fl D
Lists destroyed pools only.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl m
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Fl a
.Xc
.Pp
Imports all pools found in the search directories. Identical to the previous
command, except that all pools with a sufficient number of devices available
are imported. Destroyed pools, pools that were previously destroyed with the
.Qq Nm Cm destroy
command, will not be imported unless the
.Fl D
option is specified.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl o Ar mntopts
Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
pool. See
.Xr zfs 8
for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.It Fl c Ar cachefile
Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Qq Sy cachefile
pool property. This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
Searches for devices or files in
.Ar dir .
The
.Fl d
option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
.Fl c
option.
.It Fl D
Imports destroyed pools only. The
.Fl f
option is also required.
.It Fl f
Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
.It Fl m
Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
.It Fl N
Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
.It Fl R Ar root
Sets the
.Qq Sy cachefile
property to
.Qq Cm none
and the
.Qq Sy altroot
property to
.Qq Ar root
.It Fl F
Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the
pool is importable or already imported.
.It Fl n
Used with the
.Fl F
recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more
details about pool recovery mode, see the
.Fl F
option, above.
.It Fl a
Searches for and imports all pools found.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm import
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar ...
.Op Fl d Ar dir | Fl c Ar cachefile
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl m
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl R Ar root
.Op Fl t
.Op Fl F Op Fl n
.Ar pool | id
.Op Ar newpool
.Xc
.Pp
Imports a specific pool. A pool can be identified by its name or the numeric
identifier. If
.Ar newpool
is specified, the pool is imported using the name
.Ar newpool .
Otherwise, it is imported with the same name as its exported name.
.Pp
If a device is removed from a system without running
.Qq Nm Cm export
first, the device appears as potentially active. It cannot be determined if
this was a failed export, or whether the device is really in use from another
host. To import a pool in this state, the
.Fl f
option is required.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl o Ar mntopts
Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
pool. See
.Xr zfs 8
for a description of dataset properties and mount options.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property on the imported pool. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for more information on the available pool properties.
.It Fl c Ar cachefile
Reads configuration from the given
.Ar cachefile
that was created with the
.Qq Sy cachefile
pool property. This
.Ar cachefile
is used instead of searching for devices.
.It Fl d Ar dir
Searches for devices or files in
.Ar dir .
The
.Fl d
option can be specified multiple times. This option is incompatible with the
.Fl c
option.
.It Fl D
Imports destroyed pools only. The
.Fl f
option is also required.
.It Fl f
Forces import, even if the pool appears to be potentially active.
.It Fl m
Allows a pool to import when there is a missing log device. Recent transactions
can be lost because the log device will be discarded.
.It Fl N
Import the pool without mounting any file systems.
.It Fl R Ar root
Equivalent to
.Qq Fl o Cm cachefile=none,altroot= Ns Pa root
.It Fl t
Used with
.Ar newpool .
Specifies that
.Ar newpool
is temporary.
Temporary pool names last until export.
Ensures that the original pool name will be used in all label updates and
therefore is retained upon export.
Will also set
.Sy cachefile
property to
.Sy none
when not explicitly specified.
.It Fl F
Recovery mode for a non-importable pool. Attempt to return the pool to an
importable state by discarding the last few transactions. Not all damaged pools
can be recovered by using this option. If successful, the data from the
discarded transactions is irretrievably lost. This option is ignored if the
pool is importable or already imported.
.It Fl n
Used with the
.Fl F
recovery option. Determines whether a non-importable pool can be made
importable again, but does not actually perform the pool recovery. For more
details about pool recovery mode, see the
.Fl F
option, above.
.It Fl -rewind-to-checkpoint
Rewinds pool to the checkpointed state.
Once the pool is imported with this flag there is no way to undo the rewind.
All changes and data that were written after the checkpoint are lost!
The only exception is when the
.Sy readonly
mounting option is enabled.
In this case, the checkpointed state of the pool is opened and an
administrator can see how the pool would look like if they were
to fully rewind.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm initialize
.Op Fl cs
.Ar pool
.Op Ar device Ns ...
.Xc
Begins initializing by writing to all unallocated regions on the specified
devices, or all eligible devices in the pool if no individual devices are
specified.
Only leaf data or log devices may be initialized.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl c, -cancel
Cancel initializing on the specified devices, or all eligible devices if none
are specified.
If one or more target devices are invalid or are not currently being
initialized, the command will fail and no cancellation will occur on any device.
.It Fl s -suspend
Suspend initializing on the specified devices, or all eligible devices if none
are specified.
If one or more target devices are invalid or are not currently being
initialized, the command will fail and no suspension will occur on any device.
Initializing can then be resumed by running
.Nm zpool Cm initialize
with no flags on the relevant target devices.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm iostat
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Fl v
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Xc
.Pp
Displays
.Tn I/O
statistics for the given pools. When given an interval, the statistics are
printed every
.Ar interval
seconds until
.Sy Ctrl-C
is pressed. If no
.Ar pools
are specified, statistics for every pool in the system is shown. If
.Ar count
is specified, the command exits after
.Ar count
reports are printed.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
Print a timestamp.
.Pp
Use modifier
.Cm d
for standard date format. See
.Xr date 1 .
Use modifier
.Cm u
for unixtime
.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
.It Fl v
Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual
.No vdev Ns s
within the pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm labelclear
.Op Fl f
.Ar device
.Xc
.Pp
Removes
.Tn ZFS
label information from the specified
.Ar device .
The
.Ar device
must not be part of an active pool configuration.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Treat exported or foreign devices as inactive.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm list
.Op Fl Hpv
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Op Ar inverval Op Ar count
.Xc
.Pp
Lists the given pools along with a health status and space usage. If no
.Ar pools
are specified, all pools in the system are listed.
.Pp
When given an interval, the output is printed every
.Ar interval
seconds until
.Sy Ctrl-C
is pressed. If
.Ar count
is specified, the command exits after
.Ar count
reports are printed.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
Print a timestamp.
.Pp
Use modifier
.Cm d
for standard date format. See
.Xr date 1 .
Use modifier
.Cm u
for unixtime
.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
.It Fl H
Scripted mode. Do not display headers, and separate fields by a single tab
instead of arbitrary space.
.It Fl p
Display numbers in parsable (exact) values.
.It Fl v
Verbose statistics. Reports usage statistics for individual
.Em vdevs
within
the pool, in addition to the pool-wide statistics.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns Op , Ns Ar ...
Comma-separated list of properties to display. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for a list of valid properties. The default list is
.Sy name ,
.Sy size ,
.Sy allocated ,
.Sy free ,
.Sy checkpoint ,
.Sy expandsize ,
.Sy fragmentation ,
.Sy capacity  ,
.Sy dedupratio ,
.Sy health ,
.Sy altroot .
.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
Print a timestamp.
.Pp
Use modifier
.Cm d
for standard date format. See
.Xr date 1 .
Use modifier
.Cm u
for unixtime
.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm offline
.Op Fl t
.Ar pool device ...
.Xc
.Pp
Takes the specified physical device offline. While the
.Ar device
is offline, no attempt is made to read or write to the device.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl t
Temporary. Upon reboot, the specified physical device reverts to its previous
state.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm online
.Op Fl e
.Ar pool device ...
.Xc
.Pp
Brings the specified physical device online.
.Pp
This command is not applicable to spares or cache devices.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl e
Expand the device to use all available space. If the device is part of a mirror
or
.No raidz
then all devices must be expanded before the new space will become
available to the pool.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm reguid
.Ar pool
.Xc
.Pp
Generates a new unique identifier for the pool.  You must ensure that all
devices in this pool are online and healthy before performing this action.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm remove
.Op Fl np
.Ar pool device ...
.Xc
.Pp
Removes the specified device from the pool.
This command currently only supports removing hot spares, cache, log
devices and mirrored top-level vdevs (mirror of leaf devices); but not raidz.
.Pp
Removing a top-level vdev reduces the total amount of space in the storage pool.
The specified device will be evacuated by copying all allocated space from it to
the other devices in the pool.
In this case, the
.Nm zpool Cm remove
command initiates the removal and returns, while the evacuation continues in
the background.
The removal progress can be monitored with
.Nm zpool Cm status.
This feature must be enabled to be used, see
.Xr zpool-features 5
.Pp
A mirrored top-level device (log or data) can be removed by specifying the
top-level mirror for the same.
Non-log devices or data devices that are part of a mirrored configuration can
be removed using the
.Qq Nm Cm detach
command.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl n
Do not actually perform the removal ("no-op").
Instead, print the estimated amount of memory that will be used by the
mapping table after the removal completes.
This is nonzero only for top-level vdevs.
.El
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl p
Used in conjunction with the
.Fl n
flag, displays numbers as parsable (exact) values.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm remove
.Fl s
.Ar pool
.Xc
.Pp
Stops and cancels an in-progress removal of a top-level vdev.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm reopen
.Ar pool
.Xc
.Pp
Reopen all the vdevs associated with the pool.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm replace
.Op Fl f
.Ar pool device
.Op Ar new_device
.Xc
.Pp
Replaces
.Ar old_device
with
.Ar new_device .
This is equivalent to attaching
.Ar new_device ,
waiting for it to resilver, and then detaching
.Ar old_device .
.Pp
The size of
.Ar new_device
must be greater than or equal to the minimum size
of all the devices in a mirror or
.No raidz
configuration.
.Pp
.Ar new_device
is required if the pool is not redundant. If
.Ar new_device
is not specified, it defaults to
.Ar old_device .
This form of replacement is useful after an existing disk has failed and has
been physically replaced. In this case, the new disk may have the same
.Pa /dev
path as the old device, even though it is actually a different disk.
.Tn ZFS
recognizes this.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl f
Forces use of
.Ar new_device ,
even if its appears to be in use. Not all devices can be overridden in this
manner.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm scrub
.Op Fl s | Fl p
.Ar pool ...
.Xc
.Pp
Begins a scrub or resumes a paused scrub.
The scrub examines all data in the specified pools to verify that it checksums
correctly.
For replicated
.Pq mirror or raidz
devices, ZFS automatically repairs any damage discovered during the scrub.
The
.Nm zpool Cm status
command reports the progress of the scrub and summarizes the results of the
scrub upon completion.
.Pp
Scrubbing and resilvering are very similar operations.
The difference is that resilvering only examines data that ZFS knows to be out
of date
.Po
for example, when attaching a new device to a mirror or replacing an existing
device
.Pc ,
whereas scrubbing examines all data to discover silent errors due to hardware
faults or disk failure.
.Pp
Because scrubbing and resilvering are I/O-intensive operations, ZFS only allows
one at a time.
If a scrub is paused, the
.Nm zpool Cm scrub
resumes it.
If a resilver is in progress, ZFS does not allow a scrub to be started until the
resilver completes.
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl s
Stop scrubbing.
.El
.Bl -tag -width Ds
.It Fl p
Pause scrubbing.
Scrub pause state and progress are periodically synced to disk.
If the system is restarted or pool is exported during a paused scrub,
even after import, scrub will remain paused until it is resumed.
Once resumed the scrub will pick up from the place where it was last
checkpointed to disk.
To resume a paused scrub issue
.Nm zpool Cm scrub
again.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm set
.Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value pool
.Xc
.Pp
Sets the given property on the specified pool. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section for more information on what properties can be set and acceptable
values.
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm split
.Op Fl n
.Op Fl R Ar altroot
.Op Fl o Ar mntopts
.Op Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
.Ar pool newpool
.Op Ar device ...
.Xc
.Pp
Splits off one disk from each mirrored top-level
.No vdev
in a pool and creates a new pool from the split-off disks. The original pool
must be made up of one or more mirrors and must not be in the process of
resilvering. The
.Cm split
subcommand chooses the last device in each mirror
.No vdev
unless overridden by a device specification on the command line.
.Pp
When using a
.Ar device
argument,
.Cm split
includes the specified device(s) in a new pool and, should any devices remain
unspecified, assigns the last device in each mirror
.No vdev
to that pool, as it does normally. If you are uncertain about the outcome of a
.Cm split
command, use the
.Fl n
("dry-run") option to ensure your command will have the effect you intend.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl R Ar altroot
Automatically import the newly created pool after splitting, using the
specified
.Ar altroot
parameter for the new pool's alternate root. See the
.Sy altroot
description in the
.Qq Sx Properties
section, above.
.It Fl n
Displays the configuration that would be created without actually splitting the
pool. The actual pool split could still fail due to insufficient privileges or
device status.
.It Fl o Ar mntopts
Comma-separated list of mount options to use when mounting datasets within the
pool. See
.Xr zfs 8
for a description of dataset properties and mount options. Valid only in
conjunction with the
.Fl R
option.
.It Fl o Ar property Ns = Ns Ar value
Sets the specified property on the new pool. See the
.Qq Sx Properties
section, above, for more information on the available pool properties.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm status
.Op Fl Dvx
.Op Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
.Op Ar pool
.Ar ...
.Op Ar interval Op Ar count
.Xc
.Pp
Displays the detailed health status for the given pools. If no
.Ar pool
is specified, then the status of each pool in the system is displayed. For more
information on pool and device health, see the
.Qq Sx Device Failure and Recovery
section.
.Pp
When given an interval, the output is printed every
.Ar interval
seconds until
.Sy Ctrl-C
is pressed. If
.Ar count
is specified, the command exits after
.Ar count
reports are printed.
.Pp
If a scrub or resilver is in progress, this command reports the percentage
done and the estimated time to completion. Both of these are only approximate,
because the amount of data in the pool and the other workloads on the system
can change.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl D
Display a histogram of deduplication statistics, showing the allocated
.Pq physically present on disk
and referenced
.Pq logically referenced in the pool
block counts and sizes by reference count.
.It Fl T Cm d Ns | Ns Cm u
Print a timestamp.
.Pp
Use modifier
.Cm d
for standard date format. See
.Xr date 1 .
Use modifier
.Cm u
for unixtime
.Pq equals Qq Ic date +%s .
.It Fl v
Displays verbose data error information, printing out a complete list of all
data errors since the last complete pool scrub.
.It Fl x
Only display status for pools that are exhibiting errors or are otherwise
unavailable.
Warnings about pools not using the latest on-disk format, having non-native
block size or disabled features will not be included.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm sync
.Oo Ar pool Oc Ns ...
.Xc
Forces all in-core dirty data to be written to the primary pool storage and
not the ZIL.
It will also update administrative information including quota reporting.
Without arguments,
.Nm zpool Cm sync
will sync all pools on the system.
Otherwise, it will only sync the specified
.Ar pool .
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm upgrade
.Op Fl v
.Xc
.Pp
Displays pools which do not have all supported features enabled and pools
formatted using a legacy
.Tn ZFS
version number.
These pools can continue to be used, but some features may not be available.
Use
.Nm Cm upgrade Fl a
to enable all features on all pools.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl v
Displays legacy
.Tn ZFS
versions supported by the current software.
See
.Xr zpool-features 7
for a description of feature flags features supported by the current software.
.El
.It Xo
.Nm
.Cm upgrade
.Op Fl V Ar version
.Fl a | Ar pool ...
.Xc
.Pp
Enables all supported features on the given pool.
Once this is done, the pool will no longer be accessible on systems that do
not support feature flags.
See
.Xr zpool-features 7
for details on compatibility with systems that support feature flags, but do
not support all features enabled on the pool.
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Fl a
Enables all supported features on all pools.
.It Fl V Ar version
Upgrade to the specified legacy version. If the
.Fl V
flag is specified, no features will be enabled on the pool.
This option can only be used to increase version number up to the last
supported legacy version number.
.El
.El
.Sh EXIT STATUS
The following exit values are returned:
.Bl -tag -offset 2n -width 2n
.It 0
Successful completion.
.It 1
An error occurred.
.It 2
Invalid command line options were specified.
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
.Bl -tag -width 0n
.It Sy Example 1 No Creating a RAID-Z Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command creates a pool with a single
.No raidz
root
.No vdev
that consists of six disks.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create tank raidz da0 da1 da2 da3 da4 da5
.Ed
.It Sy Example 2 No Creating a Mirrored Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command creates a pool with two mirrors, where each mirror
contains two disks.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create tank mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3
.Ed
.It Sy Example 3 No Creating a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool by Using Partitions
.Pp
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using two GPT partitions.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create tank da0p3 da1p3
.Ed
.It Sy Example 4 No Creating a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool by Using Files
.Pp
The following command creates an unmirrored pool using files. While not
recommended, a pool based on files can be useful for experimental purposes.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create tank /path/to/file/a /path/to/file/b
.Ed
.It Sy Example 5 No Adding a Mirror to a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command adds two mirrored disks to the pool
.Em tank ,
assuming the pool is already made up of two-way mirrors. The additional space
is immediately available to any datasets within the pool.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool add tank mirror da2 da3
.Ed
.It Sy Example 6 No Listing Available Tn ZFS No Storage Pools
.Pp
The following command lists all available pools on the system.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool list
NAME   SIZE  ALLOC   FREE   FRAG  EXPANDSZ    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
pool  2.70T   473G  2.24T    33%         -    17%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
test  1.98G  89.5K  1.98G    48%         -     0%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
.Ed
.It Sy Example 7 No Listing All Properties for a Pool
.Pp
The following command lists all the properties for a pool.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool get all pool
pool  size           2.70T       -
pool  capacity       17%         -
pool  altroot        -           default
pool  health         ONLINE      -
pool  guid           2501120270416322443  default
pool  version        28          default
pool  bootfs         pool/root   local
pool  delegation     on          default
pool  autoreplace    off         default
pool  cachefile      -           default
pool  failmode       wait        default
pool  listsnapshots  off         default
pool  autoexpand     off         default
pool  dedupditto     0           default
pool  dedupratio     1.00x       -
pool  free           2.24T       -
pool  allocated      473G        -
pool  readonly       off         -
.Ed
.It Sy Example 8 No Destroying a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command destroys the pool
.Qq Em tank
and any datasets contained within.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool destroy -f tank
.Ed
.It Sy Example 9 No Exporting a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command exports the devices in pool
.Em tank
so that they can be relocated or later imported.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool export tank
.Ed
.It Sy Example 10 No Importing a Tn ZFS No Storage Pool
.Pp
The following command displays available pools, and then imports the pool
.Qq Em tank
for use on the system.
.Pp
The results from this command are similar to the following:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool import

  pool: tank
    id: 15451357997522795478
 state: ONLINE
action: The pool can be imported using its name or numeric identifier.
config:

        tank        ONLINE
          mirror    ONLINE
               da0  ONLINE
               da1  ONLINE
.Ed
.It Xo
.Sy Example 11
Upgrading All
.Tn ZFS
Storage Pools to the Current Version
.Xc
.Pp
The following command upgrades all
.Tn ZFS
Storage pools to the current version of
the software.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool upgrade -a
This system is currently running ZFS pool version 28.
.Ed
.It Sy Example 12 No Managing Hot Spares
.Pp
The following command creates a new pool with an available hot spare:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create tank mirror da0 da1 spare da2
.Ed
.Pp
If one of the disks were to fail, the pool would be reduced to the degraded
state. The failed device can be replaced using the following command:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool replace tank da0 da2
.Ed
.Pp
Once the data has been resilvered, the spare is automatically removed and is
made available should another device fails. The hot spare can be permanently
removed from the pool using the following command:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool remove tank da2
.Ed
.It Xo
.Sy Example 13
Creating a
.Tn ZFS
Pool with Mirrored Separate Intent Logs
.Xc
.Pp
The following command creates a
.Tn ZFS
storage pool consisting of two, two-way
mirrors and mirrored log devices:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool create pool mirror da0 da1 mirror da2 da3 log mirror da4 da5
.Ed
.It Sy Example 14 No Adding Cache Devices to a Tn ZFS No Pool
.Pp
The following command adds two disks for use as cache devices to a
.Tn ZFS
storage pool:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool add pool cache da2 da3
.Ed
.Pp
Once added, the cache devices gradually fill with content from main memory.
Depending on the size of your cache devices, it could take over an hour for
them to fill. Capacity and reads can be monitored using the
.Cm iostat
subcommand as follows:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool iostat -v pool 5
.Ed
.It Xo
.Sy Example 15
Displaying expanded space on a device
.Xc
.Pp
The following command dipslays the detailed information for the
.Em data
pool.
This pool is comprised of a single
.Em raidz
vdev where one of its
devices increased its capacity by 10GB.
In this example, the pool will not
be able to utilized this extra capacity until all the devices under the
.Em raidz
vdev have been expanded.
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool list -v data
NAME       SIZE  ALLOC   FREE   FRAG  EXPANDSZ    CAP  DEDUP  HEALTH  ALTROOT
data      23.9G  14.6G  9.30G    48%         -    61%  1.00x  ONLINE  -
  raidz1  23.9G  14.6G  9.30G    48%         -
    ada0      -      -      -      -         -
    ada1      -      -      -      -       10G
    ada2      -      -      -      -         -
.Ed
.It Xo
.Sy Example 16
Removing a Mirrored top-level (Log or Data) Device
.Xc
.Pp
The following commands remove the mirrored log device
.Sy mirror-2
and mirrored top-level data device
.Sy mirror-1 .
.Pp
Given this configuration:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
   pool: tank
  state: ONLINE
  scrub: none requested
 config:

         NAME        STATE     READ WRITE CKSUM
         tank        ONLINE       0     0     0
           mirror-0  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da0  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da1  ONLINE       0     0     0
           mirror-1  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da2  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da3  ONLINE       0     0     0
         logs
           mirror-2  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da4  ONLINE       0     0     0
                da5  ONLINE       0     0     0
.Ed
.Pp
The command to remove the mirrored log
.Em mirror-2
is:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool remove tank mirror-2
.Ed
.Pp
The command to remove the mirrored data
.Em mirror-1
is:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool remove tank mirror-1
.Ed
.It Xo
.Sy Example 17
Recovering a Faulted
.Tn ZFS
Pool
.Xc
.Pp
If a pool is faulted but recoverable, a message indicating this state is
provided by
.Qq Nm Cm status
if the pool was cached (see the
.Fl c Ar cachefile
argument above), or as part of the error output from a failed
.Qq Nm Cm import
of the pool.
.Pp
Recover a cached pool with the
.Qq Nm Cm clear
command:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool clear -F data
Pool data returned to its state as of Tue Sep 08 13:23:35 2009.
Discarded approximately 29 seconds of transactions.
.Ed
.Pp
If the pool configuration was not cached, use
.Qq Nm Cm import
with the recovery mode flag:
.Bd -literal -offset 2n
.Li # Ic zpool import -F data
Pool data returned to its state as of Tue Sep 08 13:23:35 2009.
Discarded approximately 29 seconds of transactions.
.Ed
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr zpool-features 7 ,
.Xr zfs 8 ,
.Xr zfsd 8
.Sh AUTHORS
This manual page is a
.Xr mdoc 7
reimplementation of the
.Tn OpenSolaris
manual page
.Em zpool(1M) ,
modified and customized for
.Fx
and licensed under the Common Development and Distribution License
.Pq Tn CDDL .
.Pp
The
.Xr mdoc 7
implementation of this manual page was initially written by
.An Martin Matuska Aq mm@FreeBSD.org .