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.\"***************************************************************************
.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2001,2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.              *
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.\" furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:                 *
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.\"***************************************************************************
.\"
.\" $Id: curs_refresh.3x,v 1.12 2005/05/15 16:18:49 tom Exp $
.TH curs_refresh 3X ""
.na
.hy 0
.SH NAME
\fBdoupdate\fR,
\fBredrawwin\fR,
\fBrefresh\fR,
\fBwnoutrefresh\fR,
\fBwredrawln\fR,
\fBwrefresh\fR - refresh \fBcurses\fR windows and lines
.ad
.hy
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fB#include <curses.h>\fR
.sp
\fBint refresh(void);\fR
.br
\fBint wrefresh(WINDOW *win);\fR
.br
\fBint wnoutrefresh(WINDOW *win);\fR
.br
\fBint doupdate(void);\fR
.br
\fBint redrawwin(WINDOW *win);\fR
.br
\fBint wredrawln(WINDOW *win, int beg_line, int num_lines);\fR
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBrefresh\fR and \fBwrefresh\fR routines (or \fBwnoutrefresh\fR and
\fBdoupdate\fR) must be called to get actual output to the terminal, as other
routines merely manipulate data structures.
The routine \fBwrefresh\fR copies
the named window to the physical terminal screen, taking into account what is
already there to do optimizations.
The \fBrefresh\fR routine is the
same, using \fBstdscr\fR as the default window.
Unless \fBleaveok\fR has been
enabled, the physical cursor of the terminal is left at the location of the
cursor for that window.
.PP
The \fBwnoutrefresh\fR and \fBdoupdate\fR routines allow multiple updates with
more efficiency than \fBwrefresh\fR alone.
In addition to all the window
structures, \fBcurses\fR keeps two data structures representing the terminal
screen: a physical screen, describing what is actually on the screen, and a
virtual screen, describing what the programmer wants to have on the screen.
.PP
The routine \fBwrefresh\fR works by first calling \fBwnoutrefresh\fR, which
copies the named window to the virtual screen, and then calling \fBdoupdate\fR,
which compares the virtual screen to the physical screen and does the actual
update.
If the programmer wishes to output several windows at once, a series
of calls to \fBwrefresh\fR results in alternating calls to \fBwnoutrefresh\fR
and \fBdoupdate\fR, causing several bursts of output to the screen.
By first
calling \fBwnoutrefresh\fR for each window, it is then possible to call
\fBdoupdate\fR once, resulting in only one burst of output, with fewer total
characters transmitted and less CPU time used.
If the \fIwin\fR argument to
\fBwrefresh\fR is the global variable \fBcurscr\fR, the screen is immediately
cleared and repainted from scratch.
.PP
The phrase "copies the named window to the virtual screen" above is ambiguous.
What actually happens is that all \fItouched\fR (changed) lines in the window
are copied to the virtual screen.
This affects programs that use overlapping
windows; it means that if two windows overlap, you can refresh them in either
order and the overlap region will be modified only when it is explicitly
changed.
(But see the section on \fBPORTABILITY\fR below for a warning about
exploiting this behavior.)
.PP
The \fBwredrawln\fR routine indicates to \fBcurses\fR that some screen lines
are corrupted and should be thrown away before anything is written over them.
It touches the indicated lines (marking them changed).
The routine \fBredrawwin\fR() touches the entire window.
.SH RETURN VALUE
Routines that return an integer return \fBERR\fR upon failure, and \fBOK\fR
(SVr4 only specifies "an integer value other than \fBERR\fR") upon successful
completion.
.PP
X/Open does not define any error conditions.
In this implementation
.RS
.TP 5
\fBwnoutrefresh\fP
returns an error
if the window pointer is null, or
if the window is really a pad.
.TP 5
\fBwredrawln\fP
returns an error
if the associated call to \fBtouchln\fP returns an error.
.RE
.SH NOTES
Note that \fBrefresh\fR and \fBredrawwin\fR may be macros.
.SH PORTABILITY
The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions.
.PP
Whether \fBwnoutrefresh()\fR copies to the virtual screen the entire contents
of a window or just its changed portions has never been well-documented in
historic curses versions (including SVr4).
It might be unwise to rely on
either behavior in programs that might have to be linked with other curses
implementations.
Instead, you can do an explicit \fBtouchwin()\fR before the
\fBwnoutrefresh()\fR call to guarantee an entire-contents copy anywhere.
.SH SEE ALSO
\fBcurses\fR(3X), \fBcurs_outopts\fR(3X)
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