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.\"***************************************************************************
.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2005,2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.              *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a  *
.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the            *
.\" "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including      *
.\" without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,      *
.\" distribute, distribute with modifications, sublicense, and/or sell       *
.\" copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is    *
.\" furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:                 *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included  *
.\" in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.                   *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS  *
.\" OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF               *
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.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE ABOVE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,   *
.\" DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR    *
.\" OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR    *
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.\" holders shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the     *
.\" sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written       *
.\" authorization.                                                           *
.\"***************************************************************************
.\"
.\" $Id: curs_util.3x,v 1.21 2006/08/26 14:17:48 tom Exp $
.TH curs_util 3X ""
.na
.hy 0
.SH NAME
\fBdelay_output\fR,
\fBfilter\fR,
\fBflushinp\fR,
\fBgetwin\fR,
\fBkey_name\fR,
\fBkeyname\fR,
\fBnofilter\fR,
\fBputwin\fR,
\fBunctrl\fR,
\fBuse_env\fR,
\fBwunctrl\fR - miscellaneous \fBcurses\fR utility routines
.ad
.hy
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fB#include <curses.h>\fR
.sp
\fBchar *unctrl(chtype c);\fR
.br
\fBchar *wunctrl(cchar_t *c);\fR
.br
\fBchar *keyname(int c);\fR
.br
\fBchar *key_name(wchar_t w);\fR
.br
\fBvoid filter(void);\fR
.br
\fBvoid nofilter(void);\fR
.br
\fBvoid use_env(bool f);\fR
.br
\fBint putwin(WINDOW *win, FILE *filep);\fR
.br
\fBWINDOW *getwin(FILE *filep);\fR
.br
\fBint delay_output(int ms);\fR
.br
\fBint flushinp(void);\fR
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBunctrl\fR routine returns a character string which is a printable
representation of the character \fIc\fR, ignoring attributes.
Control characters are displayed in the \fB^\fR\fIX\fR notation.
Printing characters are displayed as is.
The corresponding \fBwunctrl\fR returns a printable representation of
a wide-character.
.PP
The \fBkeyname\fR routine returns a character string corresponding to the key \fIc\fR.
Control characters are displayed in the \fB^\fR\fIX\fR notation.
Values above 128 are either meta characters, shown in the \fBM-\fR\fIX\fR notation,
or the names of function keys, or null.
The corresponding \fBkey_name\fR returns a character string corresponding
to the wide-character value \fIw\fR.
The two functions do not return the same set of strings;
the latter returns null where the former would display a meta character.
.PP
The \fBfilter\fR routine, if used, must be called before \fBinitscr\fR or
\fBnewterm\fR are called.  The effect is that, during those calls, \fBLINES\fR
is set to 1; the capabilities \fBclear\fR, \fBcup\fR, \fBcud\fR, \fBcud1\fR,
\fBcuu1\fR, \fBcuu\fR, \fBvpa\fR are disabled; and the \fBhome\fR string is
set to the value of \fBcr\fR.
.PP
The \fBnofilter\fP routine cancels the effect of a preceding \fBfilter\fP
call.
That allows the caller to initialize a screen on a different device,
using a different value of \fB$TERM\fP.
The limitation arises because the \fBfilter\fP routine modifies the
in-memory copy of the terminal information.
.PP
The \fBuse_env\fR routine, if used, is called before \fBinitscr\fR or
\fBnewterm\fR are called.  When called with \fBFALSE\fR as an
argument, the values of \fBlines\fR and \fBcolumns\fR specified in the
\fIterminfo\fR database will be used, even if environment variables
\fBLINES\fR and \fBCOLUMNS\fR (used by default) are set, or if
\fBcurses\fR is running in a window (in which case default behavior
would be to use the window size if \fBLINES\fR and \fBCOLUMNS\fR are
not set).
Note that setting \fBLINES\fR or \fBCOLUMNS\fR overrides the
corresponding size which may be obtained from the operating system.
.PP
The \fBputwin\fR routine writes all data associated with window \fIwin\fR into
the file to which \fIfilep\fR points.  This information can be later retrieved
using the \fBgetwin\fR function.
.PP
The \fBgetwin\fR routine reads window related data stored in the file by
\fBputwin\fR.  The routine then creates and initializes a new window using that
data.  It returns a pointer to the new window.
.PP
The \fBdelay_output\fR routine inserts an \fIms\fR millisecond pause
in output.  This routine should not be used extensively because
padding characters are used rather than a CPU pause.
If no padding character is specified, this uses \fBnapms\fR to perform the delay.
.PP
The \fBflushinp\fR routine throws away any typeahead that has been typed by the
user and has not yet been read by the program.
.SH RETURN VALUE
Except for \fBflushinp\fR, routines that return an integer return \fBERR\fR
upon failure and \fBOK\fR (SVr4 specifies only "an integer value other than
\fBERR\fR") upon successful completion.
.PP
Routines that return pointers return \fBNULL\fR on error.
.PP
X/Open does not define any error conditions.
In this implementation
.RS
.TP 5
\fBflushinp\fR
returns an error if the terminal was not initialized.
.TP 5
\fBputwin\fP
returns an error if the associated \fBfwrite\fP calls return an error.
.RE
.SH PORTABILITY
The XSI Curses standard, Issue 4 describes these functions.
It states that \fBunctrl\fR and \fBwunctrl\fR will return a null pointer if
unsuccessful, but does not define any error conditions.
.PP
The SVr4 documentation describes the action of \fBfilter\fR only in the vaguest
terms.  The description here is adapted from the XSI Curses standard (which
erroneously fails to describe the disabling of \fBcuu\fR).
.PP
The strings returned by \fBunctrl\fR in this implementation are determined
at compile time,
showing C1 controls from the upper-128 codes with a `~' prefix rather than `^'.
Other implementations have different conventions.
For example, they may show both sets of control characters with `^',
and strip the parameter to 7 bits.
Or they may ignore C1 controls and treat all of the upper-1280 codes as
printable.
This implementation uses 8 bits but does not modify the string to reflect
locale.
The \fBuse_legacy_coding\fP function allows the caller to
change the output of \fBunctrl\fP.
.PP
The \fBkeyname\fP function may return the names of user-defined
string capabilities which are defined in the terminfo entry via the \fB-x\fP
option of \fBtic\fP.
This implementation automatically assigns at run-time keycodes to 
user-defined strings which begin with "k".
The keycodes start at KEY_MAX, but are not guaranteed to be 
the same value for different runs because user-defined codes are
merged from all terminal descriptions which have been loaded.
.PP
The \fBnofilter\fP routine is specific to ncurses.
It was not supported on Version 7, BSD or System V implementations.
It is recommended that any code depending on ncurses extensions
be conditioned using NCURSES_VERSION.
.SH SEE ALSO
\fBuse_legacy_coding\fR(3),
\fBcurses\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_initscr\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_kernel\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_scr_dump\fR(3X).
.\"#
.\"# The following sets edit modes for GNU EMACS
.\"# Local Variables:
.\"# mode:nroff
.\"# fill-column:79
.\"# End: