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<H1 class="no-header">curs_addch 3x</H1>
<PRE>
<STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>                                                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>




</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>addch</STRONG>, <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvaddch</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvwaddch</STRONG>, <STRONG>echochar</STRONG>, <STRONG>wechochar</STRONG> - add a character
       (with attributes) to a <STRONG>curses</STRONG> window, then advance the cursor


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>

       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>addch(const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>waddch(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*win,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>mvaddch(int</STRONG> <STRONG>y,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>x,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>mvwaddch(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*win,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>y,</STRONG> <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>x,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>echochar(const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>
       <STRONG>int</STRONG> <STRONG>wechochar(WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*win,</STRONG> <STRONG>const</STRONG> <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> <STRONG>ch);</STRONG>


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>

</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Adding-characters">Adding characters</a></H3><PRE>
       The <STRONG>addch</STRONG>, <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvaddch</STRONG> and <STRONG>mvwaddch</STRONG> routines put the  character  <EM>ch</EM>
       into  the  given  window  at its current window position, which is then
       advanced.  They are  analogous  to  <STRONG>putchar(3)</STRONG>  in  <STRONG>stdio(3)</STRONG>.   If  the
       advance is at the right margin:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The cursor automatically wraps to the beginning of the next line.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   At  the  bottom of the current scrolling region, and if <STRONG>scrollok</STRONG> is
           enabled, the scrolling region is scrolled up one line.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If <STRONG>scrollok</STRONG> is not enabled, writing a character at the lower  right
           margin  succeeds.   However, an error is returned because it is not
           possible to wrap to a new line

       If <EM>ch</EM> is a tab, newline, carriage return or backspace,  the  cursor  is
       moved appropriately within the window:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Backspace  moves the cursor one character left; at the left edge of
           a window it does nothing.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Carriage return moves the cursor to the window left margin  on  the
           current line.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Newline  does  a <STRONG>clrtoeol</STRONG>, then moves the cursor to the window left
           margin on the next line, scrolling the window if on the last line.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Tabs are considered to be at every eighth column.  The tab interval
           may be altered by setting the <STRONG>TABSIZE</STRONG> variable.

       If  <EM>ch</EM>  is  any  other  control  character, it is drawn in <STRONG>^</STRONG><EM>X</EM> notation.
       Calling <STRONG>winch</STRONG> after adding a control  character  does  not  return  the
       character  itself, but instead returns the ^-representation of the con-
       trol character.

       Video attributes can be combined with a character  argument  passed  to
       <STRONG>addch</STRONG>  or  related  functions by logical-ORing them into the character.
       (Thus, text, including attributes, can be  copied  from  one  place  to
       another using <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">inch(3x)</A></STRONG> and <STRONG>addch</STRONG>.)  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG> page for val-
       ues of predefined video attribute constants that can be usefully  OR'ed
       into characters.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Echoing-characters">Echoing characters</a></H3><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>echochar</STRONG>  and <STRONG>wechochar</STRONG> routines are equivalent to a call to <STRONG>addch</STRONG>
       followed by a call to <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>, or a call to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>  followed  by  a
       call  to <STRONG>wrefresh</STRONG>.  The knowledge that only a single character is being
       output is used and, for non-control characters, a considerable  perfor-
       mance gain may be seen by using these routines instead of their equiva-
       lents.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Line-Graphics">Line Graphics</a></H3><PRE>
       The following variables may be used to add line drawing  characters  to
       the  screen  with  routines of the <STRONG>addch</STRONG> family.  The default character
       listed below is used if the <STRONG>acsc</STRONG> capability does not define a terminal-
       specific  replacement  for it, or if the terminal and locale configura-
       tion requires Unicode but the library is unable to use Unicode.

       The names are taken from VT100 nomenclature.

       <STRONG>ACS</STRONG>            <STRONG>ACS</STRONG>       <STRONG>acsc</STRONG>   <STRONG>Glyph</STRONG>
       <STRONG>Name</STRONG>           <STRONG>Default</STRONG>   <STRONG>char</STRONG>   <STRONG>Name</STRONG>
       ---------------------------------------------------------
       ACS_BLOCK      #         0      solid square block
       ACS_BOARD      #         h      board of squares
       ACS_BTEE       +         v      bottom tee
       ACS_BULLET     o         ~      bullet
       ACS_CKBOARD    :         a      checker board (stipple)
       ACS_DARROW     v         .      arrow pointing down
       ACS_DEGREE     '         f      degree symbol
       ACS_DIAMOND    +         `      diamond
       ACS_GEQUAL     &gt;         &gt;      greater-than-or-equal-to
       ACS_HLINE      -         q      horizontal line
       ACS_LANTERN    #         i      lantern symbol
       ACS_LARROW     &lt;         ,      arrow pointing left
       ACS_LEQUAL     &lt;         y      less-than-or-equal-to
       ACS_LLCORNER   +         m      lower left-hand corner
       ACS_LRCORNER   +         j      lower right-hand corner
       ACS_LTEE       +         t      left tee
       ACS_NEQUAL     !         |      not-equal
       ACS_PI         *         {      greek pi
       ACS_PLMINUS    #         g      plus/minus
       ACS_PLUS       +         n      plus
       ACS_RARROW     &gt;         +      arrow pointing right
       ACS_RTEE       +         u      right tee
       ACS_S1         -         o      scan line 1
       ACS_S3         -         p      scan line 3
       ACS_S7         -         r      scan line 7
       ACS_S9         _         s      scan line 9
       ACS_STERLING   f         }      pound-sterling symbol
       ACS_TTEE       +         w      top tee
       ACS_UARROW     ^         -      arrow pointing up
       ACS_ULCORNER   +         l      upper left-hand corner
       ACS_URCORNER   +         k      upper right-hand corner
       ACS_VLINE      |         x      vertical line


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
       All routines return the integer <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and <STRONG>OK</STRONG> on success (the
       SVr4  manuals specify only "an integer value other than <STRONG>ERR</STRONG>") upon suc-
       cessful completion, unless otherwise noted  in  the  preceding  routine
       descriptions.

       Functions  with  a  "mv"  prefix  first perform a cursor movement using
       <STRONG>wmove</STRONG>, and return an error if the position is outside the window, or if
       the window pointer is null.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
       Note that <STRONG>addch</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvaddch</STRONG>, <STRONG>mvwaddch</STRONG>, and <STRONG>echochar</STRONG> may be macros.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
       All  these functions are described in the XSI Curses standard, Issue 4.
       The defaults specified for forms-drawing characters apply in the  POSIX
       locale.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-ACS-Symbols">ACS Symbols</a></H3><PRE>
       X/Open Curses states that the <EM>ACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG> definitions are <STRONG>char</STRONG> constants.  For
       the wide-character implementation (see <STRONG>curs_add_wch</STRONG>), there are  analo-
       gous  <EM>WACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG>  definitions which are <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> constants.  Some implementa-
       tions are problematic:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Some implementations define the ACS symbols to a constant (such  as
           Solaris), while others define those to entries in an array.

           This  implementation uses an array <STRONG>acs_map</STRONG>, as done in SVr4 curses.
           NetBSD also uses an array, actually named <STRONG>_acs_char</STRONG>, with a <STRONG>#define</STRONG>
           for compatibility.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   HPUX curses equates some of the <EM>ACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG> symbols to the analogous <EM>WACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG>
           symbols as if the <EM>ACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG> symbols were wide  characters.   The  misde-
           fined  symbols  are the arrows and other symbols which are not used
           for line-drawing.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open Curses (issues 2 through 7) has a  typographical  error  for
           the ACS_LANTERN symbol, equating its "VT100+ Character" to <STRONG>I</STRONG> (capi-
           tal I), while the header files for  SVr4  curses  and  the  various
           implementations use <STRONG>i</STRONG> (lowercase).

           None  of the terminal descriptions on Unix platforms use uppercase-
           I, except for Solaris (i.e., <EM>screen</EM>'s terminal description,  appar-
           ently based on the X/Open documentation around 1995).  On the other
           hand, the terminal description <EM>gs6300</EM> (AT&amp;T PC6300 with EMOTS  Ter-
           minal Emulator) uses lowercase-i.

       Some  ACS  symbols  (ACS_S3,  ACS_S7,  ACS_LEQUAL,  ACS_GEQUAL, ACS_PI,
       ACS_NEQUAL, ACS_STERLING) were not documented in any publicly  released
       System  V.   However,  many  publicly  available terminfos include <STRONG>acsc</STRONG>
       strings in which their key characters (pryz{|})  are  embedded,  and  a
       second-hand  list  of  their  character descriptions has come to light.
       The ACS-prefixed names for them were invented for <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>.

       The <EM>displayed</EM> values for the <EM>ACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG> and <EM>WACS</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG> constants depend on

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the library configuration, i.e., <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> versus <STRONG>ncursesw</STRONG>, where the
           latter  is  capable  of displaying Unicode while the former is not,
           and

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   whether the <EM>locale</EM> uses UTF-8 encoding.

       In certain cases, the terminal is unable to display line-drawing  char-
       acters except by using UTF-8 (see the discussion of <STRONG>NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</STRONG>
       in <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>).


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Character-Set">Character Set</a></H3><PRE>
       X/Open Curses assumes that the parameter passed to  <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>  contains  a
       single  character.   As  discussed in <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>, that character may
       have been more than eight bits in an SVr3 or SVr4  implementation,  but
       in  the  X/Open Curses model, the details are not given.  The important
       distinction between SVr4 curses and X/Open Curses is that the non-char-
       acter information (attributes and color) was separated from the charac-
       ter information which is packed in a <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> to pass to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>.

       In this implementation,  <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>  holds  an  eight-bit  character.   But
       ncurses  allows  multibyte  characters  to be passed in a succession of
       calls to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>.  The other implementations do not do this; a  call  to
       <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>  passes  exactly  one  character which may be rendered as one or
       more cells on the screen depending on whether it is printable.

       Depending on the locale settings, ncurses will inspect the byte  passed
       in  each  call  to <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>, and check if the latest call will continue a
       multibyte sequence.  When a character is <EM>complete</EM>, ncurses displays the
       character and moves to the next position in the screen.

       If  the  calling  application  interrupts  the succession of bytes in a
       multibyte character by moving the current location (e.g., using <STRONG>wmove</STRONG>),
       ncurses discards the partially built character, starting over again.

       For  portability to other implementations, do not rely upon this behav-
       ior:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   check if a character can be represented as a  single  byte  in  the
           current locale before attempting call <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>, and

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   call <STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG> for characters which cannot be handled by <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TABSIZE">TABSIZE</a></H3><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>TABSIZE</STRONG>  variable  is  implemented  in  SVr4 and other versions of
       curses, but is not part of X/Open curses  (see  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>  for
       more details).

       If <EM>ch</EM> is a carriage return, the cursor is moved to the beginning of the
       current row of the window.  This is true of other implementations,  but
       is not documented.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG>curs_out-</STRONG>
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">opts(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG>putc(3)</STRONG>.

       Comparable functions  in  the  wide-character  (ncursesw)  library  are
       described in <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>.



                                                                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
</PRE>
<div class="nav">
<ul>
<li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-Adding-characters">Adding characters</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Echoing-characters">Echoing characters</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Line-Graphics">Line Graphics</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-ACS-Symbols">ACS Symbols</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Character-Set">Character Set</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TABSIZE">TABSIZE</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
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