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<H1 class="no-header">ncurses 3x</H1>
<PRE>
<STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>                                                        <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>




</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> - CRT screen handling and optimization package


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  routines  give  the  user a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable  optimization.
       This  implementation  is  "new  curses"  (ncurses)  and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been  discontinued.
       This describes <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> version 6.2 (patch 20210109).

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses  (also  known  as  XSI
       curses).   XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
       from   the   SVr4  curses  are  summarized  under  the  <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG>  and
       <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> sections below and described in detail  in  the  respective
       <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG>, <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> and <STRONG>BUGS</STRONG> sections of individual man pages.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  also  provides  many  useful  extensions,  i.e.,
       features which cannot be implemented by a  simple  add-on  library  but
       which require access to the internals of the library.

       A  program  using  these  routines  must  be  linked with the <STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>
       option, or (if it  has  been  generated)  with  the  debugging  library
       <STRONG>-lncurses_g</STRONG>.   (Your  system  integrator  may also have installed these
       libraries under the names  <STRONG>-lcurses</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>-lcurses_g</STRONG>.)   The  ncurses_g
       library  generates  trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses  actions.   See  also  the  section  on
       <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>.

       The   <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>   package   supports:  overall  screen,  window  and  pad
       manipulation; output to  windows  and  pads;  reading  terminal  input;
       control  over terminal and <STRONG>curses</STRONG> input and output options; environment
       query routines; color manipulation; use of soft  label  keys;  terminfo
       capabilities; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Initialization">Initialization</a></H3><PRE>
       The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally done with <STRONG>setlocale</STRONG>:

           <STRONG>setlocale(LC_ALL,</STRONG> <STRONG>"");</STRONG>

       If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
       are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale and not rely on  specific  details  of
       the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The  function  <STRONG>initscr</STRONG>  or  <STRONG>newterm</STRONG>  must  be  called to initialize the
       library before any of the other routines that  deal  with  windows  and
       screens  are  used.   The  routine  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">endwin(3x)</A></STRONG>  must  be  called before
       exiting.

       To get character-at-a-time input  without  echoing  (most  interactive,
       screen  oriented  programs want this), the following sequence should be
       used:

           <STRONG>initscr();</STRONG> <STRONG>cbreak();</STRONG> <STRONG>noecho();</STRONG>

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

           <STRONG>intrflush(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>FALSE);</STRONG>
           <STRONG>keypad(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>TRUE);</STRONG>

       Before a <STRONG>curses</STRONG> program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set  and  its initialization strings, if defined, must be output.  This
       can be done  by  executing  the  <STRONG>tput</STRONG>  <STRONG>init</STRONG>  command  after  the  shell
       environment  variable  <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>  has  been  exported.   <STRONG>tset(1)</STRONG>  is usually
       responsible for doing this.  [See <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> for further details.]


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Datatypes">Datatypes</a></H3><PRE>
       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library permits manipulation  of  data  structures,  called
       <EM>windows</EM>,   which  can  be  thought  of  as  two-dimensional  arrays  of
       characters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default  window
       called  <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>,  which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.
       Others may be created with <STRONG>newwin</STRONG>.

       Note that <STRONG>curses</STRONG> does not handle overlapping windows,  that's  done  by
       the  <STRONG><A HREF="panel.3x.html">panel(3x)</A></STRONG>  library.   This means that you can either use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> or
       divide the screen into tiled windows  and  not  using  <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>  at  all.
       Mixing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows  are referred to by variables declared as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG>.  These data
       structures are manipulated with routines described here  and  elsewhere
       in  the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines are
       <STRONG>move</STRONG> and <STRONG>addch</STRONG>.  More general versions of these routines  are  included
       with  names  beginning  with  <STRONG>w</STRONG>, allowing the user to specify a window.
       The routines not beginning with <STRONG>w</STRONG> affect <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.

       After using routines to manipulate a  window,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>  is  called,
       telling  <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  to  make  the user's CRT screen look like <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.  The
       characters in a window are actually  of  type  <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>,  (character  and
       attribute  data) so that other information about the character may also
       be stored with each character.

       Special windows called <EM>pads</EM> may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which  are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents
       need  not  be  completely  displayed.   See   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>   for   more
       information.

       In  addition  to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
       colors may be supported, causing the characters  to  show  up  in  such
       modes  as  underlined,  in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
       support such display enhancements.   Line  drawing  characters  may  be
       specified  to  be  output.   On input, <STRONG>curses</STRONG> is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that  transmit  escape  sequences  into  single
       values.   The  video  attributes,  line  drawing  characters, and input
       values use names, defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>, such as <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ACS_HLINE</STRONG>,
       and <STRONG>KEY_LEFT</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Environment-variables">Environment variables</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  environment  variables  <STRONG>LINES</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> are set, or if the
       program  is  executing  in  a  window  environment,  line  and   column
       information  in  the  environment  will  override  information  read by
       <EM>terminfo</EM>.  This would affect a program running in an  AT&amp;T  630  layer,
       for   example,   where   the  size  of  a  screen  is  changeable  (see
       <STRONG>ENVIRONMENT</STRONG>).

       If the environment variable <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  is  defined,  any  program  using
       <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  checks  for  a local terminal definition before checking in the
       standard place.  For example, if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>  is  set  to  <STRONG>att4424</STRONG>,  then  the
       compiled terminal definition is found in

           <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.

       (The  <STRONG>a</STRONG> is copied from the first letter of <STRONG>att4424</STRONG> to avoid creation of
       huge directories.)  However,  if  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  is  set  to  <STRONG>$HOME/myterms</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>curses</STRONG> first checks

           <STRONG>$HOME/myterms/a/att4424</STRONG>,

       and if that fails, it then checks

           <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.

       This  is  useful  for developing experimental definitions or when write
       permission in <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo</STRONG> is not available.

       The integer variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLS</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG> and will
       be  filled  in  by  <STRONG>initscr</STRONG> with the size of the screen.  The constants
       <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG> and <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG> have the values <STRONG>1</STRONG> and <STRONG>0</STRONG>, respectively.

       The <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines also define the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG> variable <STRONG>curscr</STRONG>  which  is
       used  for  certain  low-level  operations like clearing and redrawing a
       screen containing garbage.  The <STRONG>curscr</STRONG>  can  be  used  in  only  a  few
       routines.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-and-Argument-Names">Routine and Argument Names</a></H3><PRE>
       Many  <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines have two or more versions.  The routines prefixed
       with <STRONG>w</STRONG> require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with <STRONG>p</STRONG> require
       a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.

       The  routines  prefixed with <STRONG>mv</STRONG> require a <EM>y</EM> and <EM>x</EM> coordinate to move to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The <STRONG>mv</STRONG> routines imply a call
       to  <STRONG>move</STRONG> before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate <EM>y</EM> always
       refers to the row (of the window), and <EM>x</EM> always refers to  the  column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The  routines prefixed with <STRONG>mvw</STRONG> take both a window argument and <EM>x</EM> and <EM>y</EM>
       coordinates.  The  window  argument  is  always  specified  before  the
       coordinates.

       In  each case, <EM>win</EM> is the window affected, and <EM>pad</EM> is the pad affected;
       <EM>win</EM> and <EM>pad</EM> are always pointers to type <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>.

       Option setting routines require a Boolean flag <EM>bf</EM> with the  value  <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG>
       or  <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG>;  <EM>bf</EM>  is always of type <STRONG>bool</STRONG>.  Most of the data types used in
       the library routines, such as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>,  <STRONG>SCREEN</STRONG>,  <STRONG>bool</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>  are
       defined  in  <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>.   Types used for the terminfo routines such as
       <STRONG>TERMINAL</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;term.h&gt;</STRONG>.

       This  manual  page  describes  functions  which  may  appear   in   any
       configuration  of  the library.  There are two common configurations of
       the library:

          <EM>ncurses</EM>
               the "normal" library,  which  handles  8-bit  characters.   The
               normal   (8-bit)   library   stores  characters  combined  with
               attributes in <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> data.

               Attributes alone (no corresponding character) may be stored  in
               <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> or the equivalent <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> data.  In either case, the data
               is stored in something like an integer.

               Each cell (row and column) in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>.

          <EM>ncursesw</EM>
               the  so-called  "wide"   library,   which   handles   multibyte
               characters  (see the section on <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>).  The
               "wide" library includes all of  the  calls  from  the  "normal"
               library.   It  adds about one third more calls using data types
               which store multibyte characters:

               <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>
                    corresponds to <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>.  However it is a structure, because
                    more  data  is  stored  than can fit into an integer.  The
                    characters are large enough  to  require  a  full  integer
                    value - and there may be more than one character per cell.
                    The video attributes and  color  are  stored  in  separate
                    fields of the structure.

                    Each  cell  (row  and  column)  in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a
                    <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>.

                    The <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">setcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>  and  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>  functions  store  and
                    retrieve the data from a <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> structure.

               <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG>
                    stores  a  "wide"  character.  Like <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>, this may be an
                    integer.

               <STRONG>wint_t</STRONG>
                    stores a <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG> or <STRONG>WEOF</STRONG> - not the same, though  both  may
                    have the same size.

               The  "wide"  library provides new functions which are analogous
               to functions in  the  "normal"  library.   There  is  a  naming
               convention  which  relates  many of the normal/wide variants: a
               "_w" is inserted into the name.  For  example,  <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>  becomes
               <STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-Name-Index">Routine Name Index</a></H3><PRE>
       The  following table lists the <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines provided in the "normal"
       and "wide" libraries and the names of the manual pages  on  which  they
       are  described.   Routines  flagged  with "*" are ncurses-specific, not
       described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                    <STRONG>curses</STRONG> Routine Name      Manual Page Name
                    ---------------------------------------------
                    COLOR_PAIR               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    PAIR_NUMBER              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    add_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    add_wchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    add_wchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addchnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addchstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addnwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    alloc_pair               <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    assume_default_colors    <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    attr_get                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_off                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_on                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_set                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attroff                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attron                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attrset                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    baudrate                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    beep                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_beep.3x.html">curs_beep(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgd                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgdset                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgrnd                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgrndset                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    border                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    border_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    box                      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    box_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    can_change_color         <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    cbreak                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    chgat                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clear                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clearok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clrtobot                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clrtoeol                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    color_content            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    color_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    copywin                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    curs_set                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    curses_trace             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    curses_version           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    def_prog_mode            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    def_shell_mode           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    define_key               <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    del_curterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delay_output             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    deleteln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delscreen                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    derwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    doupdate                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    dupwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echo                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echo_wchar               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echochar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    endwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erase                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erasechar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erasewchar               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    exit_curses              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    exit_terminfo            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    extended_color_content   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    extended_pair_content    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    extended_slk_color       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    filter                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    find_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    flash                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_beep.3x.html">curs_beep(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    flushinp                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    free_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    get_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    get_wstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getattrs                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbegx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getbegy                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getbegyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbkgd                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbkgrnd                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getcchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">curs_getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getcurx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getcury                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getmaxx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getmaxy                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getmaxyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getmouse                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getn_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getparx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getpary                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*

                    getparyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getsyx                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getyx                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    halfdelay                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_colors               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_ic                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_il                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_key                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    has_mouse                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    hline                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    hline_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    idcok                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    idlok                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    immedok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inch                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inchnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inchstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    init_color               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    init_extended_color      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    init_extended_pair       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    init_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    initscr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    innstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    innwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_nwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_wstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insdelln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insertln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    instr                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    intrflush                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inwstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    is_cleared               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_idcok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_idlok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_immedok               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_keypad                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_leaveok               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_linetouched           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    is_nodelay               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_notimeout             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_pad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_scrollok              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_subwin                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_syncok                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_term_resized          <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_wintouched            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    isendwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    key_defined              <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    key_name                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    keybound                 <STRONG><A HREF="keybound.3x.html">keybound(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    keyname                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    keyok                    <STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    keypad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    killchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    killwchar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    leaveok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    longname                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mcprint                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    meta                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mouse_trafo              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    mouseinterval            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    mousemask                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    move                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_move.3x.html">curs_move(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wchnstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wchstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddnwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvchgat                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvcur                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvdelch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvderwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvget_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvget_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetn_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvhline                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvhline_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinnwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_nwstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvprintw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvscanw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvvline                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvvline_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wchnstr           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wchstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddnwstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwchgat                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwdelch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwget_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwget_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetn_wstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    mvwgetnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwhline                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwhline_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wchnstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wchstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinnwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_nwstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwprintw                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwscanw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwvline                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwvline_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    napms                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newpad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newterm                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nl                       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nocbreak                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nodelay                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noecho                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nofilter                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    nonl                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noqiflush                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noraw                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    notimeout                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    overlay                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    overwrite                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pair_content             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pecho_wchar              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    pechochar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pnoutrefresh             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    prefresh                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    printw                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    putp                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    putwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    qiflush                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    raw                      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    redrawwin                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    refresh                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    reset_color_pairs        <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    reset_prog_mode          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    reset_shell_mode         <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    resetty                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    resize_term              <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    resizeterm               <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    restartterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ripoffline               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    savetty                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scanw                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_dump                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_init                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_restore              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    scr_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scrl                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scroll                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scrollok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    set_curterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    set_term                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setcchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">curs_getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setscrreg                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setsyx                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setupterm                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    slk_attr_off             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr_on              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attroff              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attron               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attrset              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_clear                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_color                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_init                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_label                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_noutrefresh          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_refresh              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_restore              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_touch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_wset                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    standend                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    standout                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    start_color              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    subpad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    subwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    syncok                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    term_attrs               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    termattrs                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    termname                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetent                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetflag                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetnum                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgoto                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetflag                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetnum                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    timeout                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tiparm                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    touchline                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    touchwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tparm                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tputs                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tputs                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    trace                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    typeahead                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    unctrl                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    unget_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ungetch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ungetmouse               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    untouchwin               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    use_default_colors       <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    use_env                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    use_extended_names       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    use_legacy_coding        <STRONG><A HREF="legacy_coding.3x.html">legacy_coding(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    use_tioctl               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    vid_attr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vid_puts                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    vidattr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vidputs                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vline                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vline_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vw_printw                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vw_scanw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vwprintw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vwscanw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddnwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_get                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_off                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_on                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattroff                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattron                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattrset                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgd                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgdset                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgrnd                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgrndset               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wborder                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wborder_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wchgat                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclear                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclrtobot                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclrtoeol                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wcolor_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wcursyncup               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wdelch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wdeleteln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wecho_wchar              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wechochar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wenclose                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    werase                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wget_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wget_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetbkgrnd               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetdelay                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetn_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetparent               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetscrreg               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    whline                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    whline_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winchnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winchstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winnwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wins_nwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wins_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    wins_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsdelln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsertln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wmouse_trafo             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wmove                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_move.3x.html">curs_move(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wnoutrefresh             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wprintw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wredrawln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wrefresh                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wresize                  <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wscanw                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wscrl                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsetscrreg               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wstandend                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wstandout                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsyncdown                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsyncup                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wtimeout                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wtouchln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wunctrl                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wvline                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wvline_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>

       Depending on the configuration, additional sets  of  functions  may  be
       available:

          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses memory-leak checking

          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_sp_funcs.3x.html">curs_sp_funcs(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses screen-pointer extension

          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses thread support

          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG> - curses debugging routines


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
       Routines  that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and an integer
       value other than <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As  a  general  rule,  routines  check  for  null  pointers  passed  as
       parameters, and handle this as an error.

       All macros return  the  value  of  the  <STRONG>w</STRONG>  version,  except  <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG>.   The  return  values of
       <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG>  are  undefined
       (i.e.,  these  should  not be used as the right-hand side of assignment
       statements).

       Functions with a "mv" prefix first  perform  a  cursor  movement  using
       <STRONG>wmove</STRONG>, and return an error if the position is outside the window, or if
       the window pointer  is  null.   Most  "mv"-prefixed  functions  (except
       variadic  functions  such  as <STRONG>mvprintw</STRONG>) are provided both as macros and
       functions.

       Routines that return pointers return <STRONG>NULL</STRONG> on error.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a></H2><PRE>
       The following  environment  symbols  are  useful  for  customizing  the
       runtime  behavior of the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library.  The most important ones have
       been already discussed in detail.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-CC-command-character">CC command-character</a></H3><PRE>
       When set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the  <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG>
       capability)  of  the  loaded  terminfo  entries  to  the  value of this
       variable.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       Because this name is also used in development environments to represent
       the C compiler's name, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> ignores it if it does not happen to be a
       single character.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-BAUDRATE">BAUDRATE</a></H3><PRE>
       The  debugging  library  checks  this  environment  variable  when  the
       application  has  redirected  output to a file.  The variable's numeric
       value is used for the baudrate.  If no value  is  found,  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  uses
       9600.  This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that take
       into account costs that depend on baudrate.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-COLUMNS">COLUMNS</a></H3><PRE>
       Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications running in
       a  windowing  environment  usually  are able to obtain the width of the
       window in which they are executing.  If neither the <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG>  value  nor
       the  terminal's  screen  size is available, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses the size which
       may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the <STRONG>cols</STRONG> capability).

       It is important that your  application  use  a  correct  size  for  the
       screen.   This  is  not always possible because your application may be
       running on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About  Window
       Size),  or  because  you  are  temporarily  running  as  another  user.
       However, setting <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> and/or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> overrides the  library's  use  of
       the screen size obtained from the operating system.

       Either  <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG>  or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> symbols may be specified independently.  This
       is  mainly  useful  to  circumvent  legacy  misfeatures   of   terminal
       descriptions,  e.g.,  xterm  which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.
       For best results, <STRONG>lines</STRONG> and <STRONG>cols</STRONG> should not be specified in a  terminal
       description for terminals which are run as emulations.

       Use  the  <STRONG>use_env</STRONG>  function  to disable all use of external environment
       (but not including system calls) to determine the screen size.  Use the
       <STRONG>use_tioctl</STRONG> function to update <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> to match the screen size
       obtained from system calls or the terminal database.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-ESCDELAY">ESCDELAY</a></H3><PRE>
       Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await
       a  character  sequence,  e.g., a function key.  The default value, 1000
       milliseconds, is enough for most uses.  However, it is made a  variable
       to accommodate unusual applications.

       The  most common instance where you may wish to change this value is to
       work with slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the  host  cannot
       read  characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if the
       terminal did not send characters  rapidly  enough.   The  library  will
       still see a timeout.

       Note  that  xterm  mouse  events  are built up from character sequences
       received from the xterm.   If  your  application  makes  heavy  use  of
       multiple-clicking,  you may wish to lengthen this default value because
       the timeout applies to the composed multi-click event as  well  as  the
       individual clicks.

       In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides a
       global variable with the same name.  Portable applications  should  not
       rely  upon  the  presence  of  ESCDELAY in either form, but setting the
       environment variable rather than the global variable  does  not  create
       problems when compiling an application.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-HOME">HOME</a></H3><PRE>
       Tells  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> where your home directory is.  That is where it may read
       and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:

           $HOME/.termcap
           $HOME/.terminfo


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-LINES">LINES</a></H3><PRE>
       Like COLUMNS, specify the height of  the  screen  in  characters.   See
       COLUMNS for a detailed description.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-MOUSE_BUTTONS_123">MOUSE_BUTTONS_123</a></H3><PRE>
       This  applies  only  to  the  OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of
       buttons on the mouse.  OS/2 numbers  a  3-button  mouse  inconsistently
       from other platforms:

           1 = left
           2 = right
           3 = middle.

       This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be three
       numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g.,  123  or  321.   If  it  is  not
       specified, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 132.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS">NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS</a></H3><PRE>
       Override  the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default colors
       are  white-on-black  (see  <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>).   You   may   set   the
       foreground  and  background color values with this environment variable
       by proving a 2-element list: foreground,background.   For  example,  to
       tell  ncurses  to  not  assume  anything  about the colors, set this to
       "-1,-1".  To make it green-on-black, set it  to  "2,0".   Any  positive
       value from zero to the terminfo <STRONG>max_colors</STRONG> value is allowed.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_CONSOLE2">NCURSES_CONSOLE2</a></H3><PRE>
       This applies only to the MinGW port of ncurses.

       The  <STRONG>Console2</STRONG>  program's  handling  of  the  Microsoft Console API call
       <STRONG>CreateConsoleScreenBuffer</STRONG> is defective.  Applications  which  use  this
       will hang.  However, it is possible to simulate the action of this call
       by mapping coordinates, explicitly saving and  restoring  the  original
       screen  contents.   Setting the environment variable <STRONG>NCGDB</STRONG> has the same
       effect.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_GPM_TERMS">NCURSES_GPM_TERMS</a></H3><PRE>
       This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

       If present, the environment variable is a list of one or more  terminal
       names  against which the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable is matched.  Setting
       it to an empty value disables the GPM  interface;  using  the  built-in
       support for xterm, etc.

       If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open GPM
       if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> contains "linux".


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS">NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS</a></H3><PRE>
       <STRONG>Ncurses</STRONG> may use tabs as part of the cursor movement  optimization.   In
       some  cases,  your  terminal driver may not handle these properly.  Set
       this environment variable to disable the feature.  You can also  adjust
       your <STRONG>stty</STRONG> settings to avoid the problem.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE">NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE</a></H3><PRE>
       Some  terminals  use  a  magic-cookie  feature  which  requires special
       handling to  make  highlighting  and  other  video  attributes  display
       properly.   You  can  suppress  the  highlighting  entirely  for  these
       terminals by setting this environment variable.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_PADDING">NCURSES_NO_PADDING</a></H3><PRE>
       Most of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are  written
       for  real  "hardware"  terminals.   Many  people use terminal emulators
       which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based applications.
       Terminal  emulators  can  duplicate  all  of the important aspects of a
       hardware terminal, but they do not  have  the  same  limitations.   The
       chief  limitation  of  a  hardware terminal from the standpoint of your
       application is the management of  dataflow,  i.e.,  timing.   Unless  a
       hardware  terminal  is  interfaced  into a terminal concentrator (which
       does flow control), it (or  your  application)  must  manage  dataflow,
       preventing  overruns.   The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for
       your program to do this by pausing after operations that  the  terminal
       does slowly, such as clearing the display.

       As  a  result,  many  terminal  descriptions (including the vt100) have
       delay times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but  not
       want to pay the performance penalty.

       Set  the  NCURSES_NO_PADDING  environment  variable  to disable all but
       mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used  as  a  part  of  special
       control sequences such as <EM>flash</EM>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_SETBUF">NCURSES_NO_SETBUF</a></H3><PRE>
       This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  enabled  buffered output during terminal initialization.  This
       was done (as in SVr4 curses)  for  performance  reasons.   For  testing
       purposes,  both  of  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> and certain applications, this feature was
       made optional.  Setting the NCURSES_NO_SETBUF variable disabled  output
       buffering,  leaving  the output in the original (usually line buffered)
       mode.

       In the current implementation, ncurses performs its own  buffering  and
       does  not require this workaround.  It does not modify the buffering of
       the standard output.

       The reason for the change was to make the behavior for  interrupts  and
       other   signals   more   robust.    One   drawback   is   that  certain
       nonconventional programs would mix ordinary stdio  calls  with  ncurses
       calls  and (usually) work.  This is no longer possible since ncurses is
       not using the buffered standard output but its own output (to the  same
       file  descriptor).  As a special case, the low-level calls such as <STRONG>putp</STRONG>
       still use the standard output.  But high-level curses calls do not.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS">NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</a></H3><PRE>
       During initialization, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library  checks  for  special  cases
       where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set
       capabilities) described in  the  terminfo  are  known  to  be  missing.
       Specifically,  when  running  in  a  UTF-8  locale,  the  Linux console
       emulator and the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses  checks  the
       <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>  environment  variable  for  these.   For other special cases, you
       should set this environment variable.  Doing this tells ncurses to  use
       Unicode values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.  That
       works for the special cases cited, and is likely to work  for  terminal
       emulators.

       When  setting  this  variable,  you  should  set it to a nonzero value.
       Setting it to zero (or to a nonnumber) disables the special  check  for
       "linux" and "screen".

       As  an  alternative  to the environment variable, ncurses checks for an
       extended terminfo capability <STRONG>U8</STRONG>.  This is a  numeric  capability  which
       can be compiled using <STRONG>tic</STRONG> <STRONG>-x</STRONG>.  For example

          # linux console, if patched to provide working
          # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
          linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                  U8#0, use=linux,

          # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
          xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                  U8#1, use=xterm,

       The  name  "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to be used
       by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_TRACE">NCURSES_TRACE</a></H3><PRE>
       During  initialization,  the  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  debugging  library  checks   the
       NCURSES_TRACE  environment  variable.   If  it is defined, to a numeric
       value, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls the  <STRONG>trace</STRONG>  function,  using  that  value  as  the
       argument.

       The  argument  values,  which  are defined in <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>, provide several
       types  of  information.   When  running  with  traces   enabled,   your
       application will write the file <STRONG>trace</STRONG> to the current directory.

       See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG> for more information.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERM">TERM</a></H3><PRE>
       Denotes  your  terminal  type.   Each terminal type is distinct, though
       many are similar.

       <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find  a
       workable   terminal  description.   Some  of  those  choose  a  popular
       approximation, e.g., "ansi", "vt100", "xterm" rather than an exact fit.
       Not  infrequently,  your  application  will  have  problems  with  that
       approach, e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.

       If you set <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> in your environment, it has no effect on the  operation
       of  the  terminal  emulator.  It only affects the way applications work
       within the terminal.  Likewise, as a general rule (<STRONG>xterm</STRONG> being  a  rare
       exception),  terminal  emulators  which  allow you to specify <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> as a
       parameter or configuration value do not change their behavior to  match
       that setting.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMCAP">TERMCAP</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  has  been  configured  with <EM>termcap</EM> support,
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> will check for a terminal's description in termcap form  if  it
       is not available in the terminfo database.

       The <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> environment variable contains either a terminal description
       (with newlines  stripped  out),  or  a  file  name  telling  where  the
       information denoted by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable exists.  In either
       case, setting it directs <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> to ignore the  usual  place  for  this
       information, e.g., /etc/termcap.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO">TERMINFO</a></H3><PRE>
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  can  be  configured  to read from multiple terminal databases.
       The <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable overrides the location for the  default  terminal
       database.   Terminal  descriptions  (in  terminal format) are stored in
       terminal databases:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Normally these are stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories
           named by the first letter of the terminal names therein.

           This is the scheme used in System V, which legacy Unix systems use,
           and the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable is used by <EM>curses</EM> applications  on  those
           systems to override the default location of the terminal database.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  is  built  to use hashed databases, then each entry in
           this list may be the path of a hashed database file, e.g.,

               /usr/share/terminfo.db

           rather than

               /usr/share/terminfo/

           The hashed database uses less disk-space and  is  a  little  faster
           than  the  directory  tree.   However, some applications assume the
           existence of the directory tree, reading it  directly  rather  than
           using the terminfo library calls.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  is  built  with  a  support  for reading termcap files
           directly, then an entry in this list may be the path of  a  termcap
           file.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable begins with "hex:" or "b64:", <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses
           the remainder of that variable as a compiled terminal  description.
           You might produce the base64 format using <STRONG><A HREF="infocmp.1m.html">infocmp(1m)</A></STRONG>:

               TERMINFO="$(infocmp -0 -Q2 -q)"
               export TERMINFO

           The  compiled description is used if it corresponds to the terminal
           identified by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> variable.

       Setting <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is the simplest, but not the only way to set  location
       of  the  default  terminal  database.   The  complete  list of database
       locations in order follows:

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the last terminal database to which <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> wrote,  if  any,  is
              searched first

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the location specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   $HOME/.terminfo

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   locations listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   one  or  more  locations whose names are configured and compiled
              into the ncurses library, i.e.,

             <STRONG>o</STRONG>   no  default  value  (corresponding   to   the   TERMINFO_DIRS
                 variable)

             <STRONG>o</STRONG>   /usr/share/terminfo (corresponding to the TERMINFO variable)


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO_DIRS">TERMINFO_DIRS</a></H3><PRE>
       Specifies  a  list  of  locations  to search for terminal descriptions.
       Each location in the list is a terminal database as  described  in  the
       section  on  the  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  variable.   The list is separated by colons
       (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       There is no corresponding feature  in  System  V  terminfo;  it  is  an
       extension developed for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMPATH">TERMPATH</a></H3><PRE>
       If  <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG>  does not hold a file name then <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> checks the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG>
       environment variable.  This is a list of filenames separated by  spaces
       or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       If  the  <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG> environment variable is not set, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> looks in the
       files

           /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap,

       in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the  current  user  is the superuser (root), or if the application uses
       setuid or setgid permissions:

           $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ALTERNATE-CONFIGURATIONS">ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS</a></H2><PRE>
       Several  different  configurations  are  possible,  depending  on   the
       configure  script  options used when building <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.  There are a few
       main options whose effects are visible to  the  applications  developer
       using <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>:

       --disable-overwrite
            The standard include for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is as noted in <STRONG>SYNOPSIS</STRONG>:

                <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>

            This  option  is  used to avoid filename conflicts when <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is
            not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>
            is  installed  disabling  overwrite,  it  puts  its  headers  in a
            subdirectory, e.g.,

                <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;ncurses/curses.h&gt;</STRONG>

            It also omits a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow  you  to  use
            <STRONG>-lcurses</STRONG> to build executables.

       --enable-widec
            The   configure   script   renames   the   library   and  (if  the
            <STRONG>--disable-overwrite</STRONG> option is used) puts the  header  files  in  a
            different  subdirectory.   All  of  the  library  names have a "w"
            appended to them, i.e., instead of

                <STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>

            you link with

                <STRONG>-lncursesw</STRONG>

            You must also enable the wide-character  features  in  the  header
            file  when  compiling  for  the  wide-character library to use the
            extended (wide-character) functions.   The  symbol  which  enables
            these features has changed since XSI Curses, Issue 4:

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Originally,  the  wide-character  feature  required the symbol
                <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED</STRONG>  but  that  was  only  valid  for  XPG4
                (1996).

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Later,  that was deemed conflicting with <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> defined
                to 500.

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   As of mid-2018, none of the features  in  this  implementation
                require  a  <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>  feature greater than 600.  However,
                X/Open Curses, Issue 7 (2009) recommends defining it to 700.

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Alternatively,  you  can  enable  the  feature   by   defining
                <STRONG>NCURSES_WIDECHAR</STRONG>  with  the caveat that some other header file
                than <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG> may require a specific value  for  <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>
                (or a system-specific symbol).

            The  <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>  file  which  is  installed  for  the wide-character
            library is designed to be compatible  with  the  normal  library's
            header.   Only  the size of the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure differs, and very
            few applications require more than a pointer to <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>s.

            If  the  headers  are  installed  allowing  overwrite,  the  wide-
            character  library's  headers  should  be installed last, to allow
            applications to be built using either library from the same set of
            headers.

       --with-pthread
            The  configure  script  renames  the  library.  All of the library
            names have a "t"  appended  to  them  (before  any  "w"  added  by
            <STRONG>--enable-widec</STRONG>).

            The global variables such as <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> are replaced by macros to allow
            read-only access.  At the same time, setter-functions are provided
            to  set  these  values.   Some applications (very few) may require
            changes to work with this convention.

       --with-shared

       --with-normal

       --with-debug

       --with-profile
            The shared and normal  (static)  library  names  differ  by  their
            suffixes,  e.g.,  <STRONG>libncurses.so</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>libncurses.a</STRONG>.  The debug and
            profiling libraries add a "_g"  and  a  "_p"  to  the  root  names
            respectively, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses_g.a</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses_p.a</STRONG>.

       --with-termlib
            Low-level  functions  which do not depend upon whether the library
            supports wide-characters, are provided in the tinfo library.

            By doing this, it is possible to share the tinfo  library  between
            wide/normal  configurations  as  well  as  reduce  the size of the
            library when only low-level functions are needed.

            Those functions are described in these pages:

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG> - miscellaneous curses extensions

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> input options

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG> - low-level <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> environment query routines

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> emulation of termcap

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG> - <STRONG>curses</STRONG> interfaces to terminfo database

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG> - miscellaneous <STRONG>curses</STRONG> utility routines

       --with-trace
            The <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function normally resides in the debug library,  but  it
            is  sometimes  useful  to  configure  this  in the shared library.
            Configure scripts should check for the function's existence rather
            than assuming it is always in the debug library.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-FILES">FILES</a></H2><PRE>
       /usr/share/tabset
            directory   containing   initialization  files  for  the  terminal
            capability  database   /usr/share/terminfo   terminal   capability
            database


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG>  and  related  pages whose names begin "curs_" for detailed
       routine descriptions.
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>
       <STRONG><A HREF="user_caps.5.html">user_caps(5)</A></STRONG> for user-defined capabilities


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></H2><PRE>
       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can be compiled with an option (<STRONG>-DUSE_GETCAP</STRONG>)  that
       falls  back  to  the  old-style /etc/termcap file if the terminal setup
       code cannot find a terminfo entry corresponding to <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>.  Use  of  this
       feature  is  not  recommended,  as  it  essentially  includes an entire
       termcap compiler in the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> startup code, at  significant  cost  in
       core and startup cycles.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library includes facilities for capturing mouse events on
       certain terminals (including xterm).   See  the  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>  manual
       page for details.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  includes  facilities  for  responding  to window
       resizing  events,  e.g.,  when  running   in   an   xterm.    See   the
       <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>  and <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details.  In addition,
       the library may be configured with a <STRONG>SIGWINCH</STRONG> handler.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library extends the fixed set of function key  capabilities
       of  terminals by allowing the application designer to define additional
       key sequences at runtime.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>,  and
       <STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  can  exploit the capabilities of terminals which
       implement the ISO-6429 SGR 39 and  SGR  49  controls,  which  allow  an
       application  to  reset  the  terminal  to  its  original foreground and
       background colors.  From the users'  perspective,  the  application  is
       able  to  draw  colored  text  on  a  background  whose  color  is  set
       independently, providing better control over color contrasts.  See  the
       <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  includes  a  function  for directing application
       output  to  a  printer  attached  to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  is intended to be BASE-level conformant with XSI
       Curses.   The  EXTENDED  XSI  Curses  functionality  (including   color
       support) is supported.

       A  small  number  of local differences (that is, individual differences
       between the XSI Curses and <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls) are described in  <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG>
       sections of the library man pages.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Error-checking">Error checking</a></H3><PRE>
       In  many cases, X/Open Curses is vague about error conditions, omitting
       some of the SVr4 documentation.

       Unlike other  implementations,  this  one  checks  parameters  such  as
       pointers  to  WINDOW  structures to ensure they are not null.  The main
       reason for providing this  behavior  is  to  guard  against  programmer
       error.   The  standard interface does not provide a way for the library
       to tell an application which of several possible errors were  detected.
       Relying  on  this  (or  some other) extension will adversely affect the
       portability of curses applications.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Extensions-versus-portability">Extensions versus portability</a></H3><PRE>
       Most of the extensions provided by ncurses have not been  standardized.
       Some  have  been  incorporated  into  other  implementations,  such  as
       PDCurses or NetBSD curses.  Here are a few to consider:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routine <STRONG>has_key</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  routine  <STRONG>slk_attr</STRONG>  is  not  part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routines <STRONG>getmouse</STRONG>, <STRONG>mousemask</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ungetmouse</STRONG>,  <STRONG>mouseinterval</STRONG>,  and
           <STRONG>wenclose</STRONG>  relating  to  mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
           are they present in SVr4.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual  page  for
           details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  routine  <STRONG>mcprint</STRONG>  was  not  present  in  any  previous  curses
           implementation.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routine <STRONG>wresize</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The   WINDOW  structure's  internal  details  can  be  hidden  from
           application programs.  See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG> for  the  discussion  of
           <STRONG>is_scrollok</STRONG>, etc.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   This  implementation  can  be  configured  to  provide  rudimentary
           support for multi-threaded applications.  See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG>  for
           details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   This  implementation  can  also  be  configured to provide a set of
           functions which improve the ability  to  manage  multiple  screens.
           See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_sp_funcs.3x.html">curs_sp_funcs(3x)</A></STRONG> for details.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Padding-differences">Padding differences</a></H3><PRE>
       In  historic  curses  versions, delays embedded in the capabilities <STRONG>cr</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>ind</STRONG>, <STRONG>cub1</STRONG>, <STRONG>ff</STRONG> and <STRONG>tab</STRONG> activated corresponding delay bits  in  the  UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
       bytes.  This  method  is  slightly  more  expensive,  but  narrows  the
       interface  to the UNIX kernel significantly and increases the package's
       portability correspondingly.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Header-files">Header files</a></H3><PRE>
       The header file <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>  automatically  includes  the  header  files
       <STRONG>&lt;stdio.h&gt;</STRONG> and <STRONG>&lt;unctrl.h&gt;</STRONG>.

       X/Open Curses has more to say, but does not finish the story:

           The  inclusion  of &lt;curses.h&gt; may make visible all symbols from the
           headers &lt;stdio.h&gt;, &lt;term.h&gt;, &lt;termios.h&gt;, and &lt;wchar.h&gt;.

       Here is a more complete story:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Starting  with  BSD  curses,  all  implementations  have   included
           &lt;stdio.h&gt;.

           BSD  curses  included  &lt;curses.h&gt;  and  &lt;unctrl.h&gt; from an internal
           header "curses.ext" ("ext" was a short name for <EM>externs</EM>).

           BSD curses used &lt;stdio.h&gt; internally (for <STRONG>printw</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>scanw</STRONG>),  but
           nothing in &lt;curses.h&gt; itself relied upon &lt;stdio.h&gt;.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   SVr2  curses  added <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">newterm(3x)</A></STRONG>, which relies upon &lt;stdio.h&gt;.  That
           is, the function prototype uses <STRONG>FILE</STRONG>.

           SVr4 curses added <STRONG>putwin</STRONG> and <STRONG>getwin</STRONG>, which also use &lt;stdio.h&gt;.

           X/Open Curses documents all three of these functions.

           SVr4 curses and X/Open Curses  do  not  require  the  developer  to
           include  &lt;stdio.h&gt;  before  including  &lt;curses.h&gt;.   Both  document
           curses showing &lt;curses.h&gt; as the only required header.

           As a result, standard &lt;curses.h&gt; will always include &lt;stdio.h&gt;.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open Curses  is  inconsistent  with  respect  to  SVr4  regarding
           &lt;unctrl.h&gt;.

           As   noted  in  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>,  ncurses  includes  &lt;unctrl.h&gt;  from
           &lt;curses.h&gt; (like SVr4).

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open's comments about &lt;term.h&gt; and &lt;termios.h&gt; may refer to HP-UX
           and AIX:

           HP-UX curses includes &lt;term.h&gt; from &lt;curses.h&gt; to declare <STRONG>setupterm</STRONG>
           in curses.h, but ncurses (and Solaris curses) do not.

           AIX curses includes &lt;term.h&gt; and &lt;termios.h&gt;.  Again, ncurses  (and
           Solaris curses) do not.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open  says  that &lt;curses.h&gt; <EM>may</EM> include &lt;term.h&gt;, but there is no
           requirement that it do that.

           Some  programs  use  functions  declared  in  both  &lt;curses.h&gt;  and
           &lt;term.h&gt;,  and  must include both headers in the same module.  Very
           old versions of AIX curses  required  including  &lt;curses.h&gt;  before
           including &lt;term.h&gt;.

           Because  ncurses  header files include the headers needed to define
           datatypes used in the headers, ncurses header files can be included
           in  any  order.  But for portability, you should include &lt;curses.h&gt;
           before &lt;term.h&gt;.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open Curses says <EM>"may</EM> <EM>make</EM> <EM>visible"</EM> because  including  a  header
           file does not necessarily make all symbols in it visible (there are
           ifdef's to consider).

           For instance, in ncurses &lt;wchar.h&gt; <EM>may</EM> be included  if  the  proper
           symbol  is defined, and if ncurses is configured for wide-character
           support.  If the header  is  included,  its  symbols  may  be  made
           visible.   That depends on the value used for <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> feature
           test macro.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open Curses documents one required header,  in  a  special  case:
           &lt;stdarg.h&gt;   before  &lt;curses.h&gt;  to  prototype  the  <STRONG>vw_printw</STRONG>  and
           <STRONG>vw_scanw</STRONG> functions (as  well  as  the  obsolete  the  <STRONG>vwprintw</STRONG>  and
           <STRONG>vwscanw</STRONG> functions).  Each of those uses a <STRONG>va_list</STRONG> parameter.

           The  two  obsolete  functions  were  introduced in SVr3.  The other
           functions were introduced  in  X/Open  Curses.   In  between,  SVr4
           curses  provided  for  the  possibility  that  an application might
           include either &lt;varargs.h&gt; or &lt;stdarg.h&gt;.  Initially, that was done
           by  using  <STRONG>void*</STRONG>  for the <STRONG>va_list</STRONG> parameter.  Later, a special type
           (defined in &lt;stdio.h&gt;) was introduced, to allow for compiler  type-
           checking.  That special type is always available, because &lt;stdio.h&gt;
           is always included by &lt;curses.h&gt;.

           None of the X/Open Curses implementations require an application to
           include  &lt;stdarg.h&gt;  before  &lt;curses.h&gt;  because  they  either have
           allowed for a special type, or (like  ncurses)  include  &lt;stdarg.h&gt;
           directly to provide a portable interface.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
       If  standard  output from a <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard  error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&amp;T System V Release 3 curses.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></H2><PRE>
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                   <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>
</PRE>
<div class="nav">
<ul>
<li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-Initialization">Initialization</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Datatypes">Datatypes</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Environment-variables">Environment variables</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Routine-and-Argument-Names">Routine and Argument Names</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Routine-Name-Index">Routine Name Index</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-CC-command-character">CC command-character</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-BAUDRATE">BAUDRATE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-COLUMNS">COLUMNS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-ESCDELAY">ESCDELAY</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-HOME">HOME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-LINES">LINES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-MOUSE_BUTTONS_123">MOUSE_BUTTONS_123</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS">NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_CONSOLE2">NCURSES_CONSOLE2</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_GPM_TERMS">NCURSES_GPM_TERMS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS">NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE">NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_PADDING">NCURSES_NO_PADDING</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_SETBUF">NCURSES_NO_SETBUF</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS">NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_TRACE">NCURSES_TRACE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERM">TERM</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMCAP">TERMCAP</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMINFO">TERMINFO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMINFO_DIRS">TERMINFO_DIRS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMPATH">TERMPATH</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-ALTERNATE-CONFIGURATIONS">ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-FILES">FILES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-Error-checking">Error checking</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Extensions-versus-portability">Extensions versus portability</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Padding-differences">Padding differences</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Header-files">Header files</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
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