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<H1 class="no-header">ncurses 3x</H1>
<PRE>
<STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>                                                        <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>




</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> - CRT screen handling and optimization package


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  routines  give  the  user a terminal-independent
       method of updating  character  screens  with  reasonable  optimization.
       This  implementation  is  "new  curses"  (ncurses)  and is the approved
       replacement for 4.4BSD classic curses,  which  has  been  discontinued.
       This describes <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> version 6.1 (patch 20200118).

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library emulates the curses library of System V Release 4
       UNIX, and XPG4 (X/Open Portability Guide) curses  (also  known  as  XSI
       curses).   XSI  stands  for  X/Open  System  Interfaces Extension.  The
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is freely redistributable in source form.   Differences
       from  the SVr4 curses are summarized under the <STRONG>EXTENSIONS</STRONG> and <STRONG>PORTABIL-</STRONG>
       <STRONG>ITY</STRONG> sections below and described in detail  in  the  respective  <STRONG>EXTEN-</STRONG>
       <STRONG>SIONS</STRONG>, <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG> and <STRONG>BUGS</STRONG> sections of individual man pages.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  also provides many useful extensions, i.e., fea-
       tures which cannot be implemented by a simple add-on library but  which
       require access to the internals of the library.

       A  program  using  these  routines  must  be  linked with the <STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>
       option, or (if it  has  been  generated)  with  the  debugging  library
       <STRONG>-lncurses_g</STRONG>.   (Your  system  integrator  may also have installed these
       libraries under the names  <STRONG>-lcurses</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>-lcurses_g</STRONG>.)   The  ncurses_g
       library  generates  trace logs (in a file called 'trace' in the current
       directory) that describe curses  actions.   See  also  the  section  on
       <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> package supports: overall screen, window and pad manipula-
       tion; output to windows and pads; reading terminal input; control  over
       terminal  and  <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  input and output options; environment query rou-
       tines; color manipulation; use of soft label keys;  terminfo  capabili-
       ties; and access to low-level terminal-manipulation routines.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Initialization">Initialization</a></H3><PRE>
       The  library uses the locale which the calling program has initialized.
       That is normally done with <STRONG>setlocale</STRONG>:

           <STRONG>setlocale(LC_ALL,</STRONG> <STRONG>"");</STRONG>

       If the locale is not initialized, the library assumes  that  characters
       are  printable  as in ISO-8859-1, to work with certain legacy programs.
       You should initialize the locale and not rely on  specific  details  of
       the library when the locale has not been setup.

       The  function  <STRONG>initscr</STRONG>  or  <STRONG>newterm</STRONG>  must  be  called to initialize the
       library before any of the other routines that  deal  with  windows  and
       screens  are  used.  The routine <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">endwin(3x)</A></STRONG> must be called before exit-
       ing.

       To get character-at-a-time input  without  echoing  (most  interactive,
       screen  oriented  programs want this), the following sequence should be
       used:

           <STRONG>initscr();</STRONG> <STRONG>cbreak();</STRONG> <STRONG>noecho();</STRONG>

       Most programs would additionally use the sequence:

           <STRONG>nonl();</STRONG>
           <STRONG>intrflush(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>FALSE);</STRONG>
           <STRONG>keypad(stdscr,</STRONG> <STRONG>TRUE);</STRONG>

       Before a <STRONG>curses</STRONG> program is run, the tab stops of the terminal should be
       set  and  its initialization strings, if defined, must be output.  This
       can be done by executing the <STRONG>tput</STRONG> <STRONG>init</STRONG> command after the shell environ-
       ment  variable  <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> has been exported.  <STRONG>tset(1)</STRONG> is usually responsible
       for doing this.  [See <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> for further details.]


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Datatypes">Datatypes</a></H3><PRE>
       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library permits manipulation  of  data  structures,  called
       <EM>windows</EM>,  which  can be thought of as two-dimensional arrays of charac-
       ters representing all or part of a CRT screen.  A default window called
       <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>,  which is the size of the terminal screen, is supplied.  Others
       may be created with <STRONG>newwin</STRONG>.

       Note that <STRONG>curses</STRONG> does not handle overlapping windows,  that's  done  by
       the  <STRONG><A HREF="panel.3x.html">panel(3x)</A></STRONG>  library.   This means that you can either use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> or
       divide the screen into tiled windows and not using <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG> at all.  Mix-
       ing the two will result in unpredictable, and undesired, effects.

       Windows  are referred to by variables declared as <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG>.  These data
       structures are manipulated with routines described here  and  elsewhere
       in  the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> manual pages.  Among those, the most basic routines are
       <STRONG>move</STRONG> and <STRONG>addch</STRONG>.  More general versions of these routines  are  included
       with  names  beginning  with  <STRONG>w</STRONG>, allowing the user to specify a window.
       The routines not beginning with <STRONG>w</STRONG> affect <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.

       After using routines to manipulate a  window,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>  is  called,
       telling  <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  to  make  the user's CRT screen look like <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.  The
       characters in a window are actually  of  type  <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>,  (character  and
       attribute  data) so that other information about the character may also
       be stored with each character.

       Special windows called <EM>pads</EM> may also be manipulated.  These are windows
       which  are not constrained to the size of the screen and whose contents
       need not be completely displayed.  See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG> for  more  informa-
       tion.

       In  addition  to drawing characters on the screen, video attributes and
       colors may be supported, causing the characters  to  show  up  in  such
       modes  as  underlined,  in reverse video, or in color on terminals that
       support such display enhancements.   Line  drawing  characters  may  be
       specified  to  be  output.   On input, <STRONG>curses</STRONG> is also able to translate
       arrow and function keys that transmit escape sequences into single val-
       ues.   The  video attributes, line drawing characters, and input values
       use names, defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>, such  as  <STRONG>A_REVERSE</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ACS_HLINE</STRONG>,  and
       <STRONG>KEY_LEFT</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Environment-variables">Environment variables</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the environment variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> are set, or if the pro-
       gram is executing in a window environment, line and column  information
       in  the  environment  will override information read by <EM>terminfo</EM>.  This
       would affect a program running in an AT&amp;T 630 layer, for example, where
       the size of a screen is changeable (see <STRONG>ENVIRONMENT</STRONG>).

       If  the  environment  variable  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  is defined, any program using
       <STRONG>curses</STRONG> checks for a local terminal definition before  checking  in  the
       standard  place.  For example, if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> is set to <STRONG>att4424</STRONG>, then the com-
       piled terminal definition is found in

           <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.

       (The <STRONG>a</STRONG> is copied from the first letter of <STRONG>att4424</STRONG> to avoid creation  of
       huge  directories.)   However,  if  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  is  set to <STRONG>$HOME/myterms</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>curses</STRONG> first checks

           <STRONG>$HOME/myterms/a/att4424</STRONG>,

       and if that fails, it then checks

           <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo/a/att4424</STRONG>.

       This is useful for developing experimental definitions  or  when  write
       permission in <STRONG>/usr/share/terminfo</STRONG> is not available.

       The integer variables <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> and <STRONG>COLS</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG> and will
       be filled in by <STRONG>initscr</STRONG> with the size of  the  screen.   The  constants
       <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG> and <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG> have the values <STRONG>1</STRONG> and <STRONG>0</STRONG>, respectively.

       The  <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  routines also define the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> <STRONG>*</STRONG> variable <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> which is
       used for certain low-level operations like  clearing  and  redrawing  a
       screen  containing  garbage.  The <STRONG>curscr</STRONG> can be used in only a few rou-
       tines.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-and-Argument-Names">Routine and Argument Names</a></H3><PRE>
       Many <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routines have two or more versions.  The routines  prefixed
       with <STRONG>w</STRONG> require a window argument.  The routines prefixed with <STRONG>p</STRONG> require
       a pad argument.  Those without a prefix generally use <STRONG>stdscr</STRONG>.

       The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mv</STRONG> require a <EM>y</EM> and <EM>x</EM> coordinate to  move  to
       before performing the appropriate action.  The <STRONG>mv</STRONG> routines imply a call
       to <STRONG>move</STRONG> before the call to the other routine.  The coordinate <EM>y</EM>  always
       refers  to  the row (of the window), and <EM>x</EM> always refers to the column.
       The upper left-hand corner is always (0,0), not (1,1).

       The routines prefixed with <STRONG>mvw</STRONG> take both a window argument and <EM>x</EM> and  <EM>y</EM>
       coordinates.   The window argument is always specified before the coor-
       dinates.

       In each case, <EM>win</EM> is the window affected, and <EM>pad</EM> is the pad  affected;
       <EM>win</EM> and <EM>pad</EM> are always pointers to type <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>.

       Option  setting  routines require a Boolean flag <EM>bf</EM> with the value <STRONG>TRUE</STRONG>
       or <STRONG>FALSE</STRONG>; <EM>bf</EM> is always of type <STRONG>bool</STRONG>.  Most of the data  types  used  in
       the  library  routines,  such  as  <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>, <STRONG>SCREEN</STRONG>, <STRONG>bool</STRONG>, and <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> are
       defined in <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>.  Types used for the terminfo  routines  such  as
       <STRONG>TERMINAL</STRONG> are defined in <STRONG>&lt;term.h&gt;</STRONG>.

       This manual page describes functions which may appear in any configura-
       tion of the library.   There  are  two  common  configurations  of  the
       library:

          <EM>ncurses</EM>
               the "normal" library, which handles 8-bit characters.  The nor-
               mal (8-bit) library stores characters combined with  attributes
               in <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> data.

               Attributes  alone (no corresponding character) may be stored in
               <STRONG>chtype</STRONG> or the equivalent <STRONG>attr_t</STRONG> data.  In either case, the data
               is stored in something like an integer.

               Each cell (row and column) in a <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> is stored as a <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>.

          <EM>ncursesw</EM>
               the  so-called  "wide" library, which handles multibyte charac-
               ters (see the section on <STRONG>ALTERNATE</STRONG> <STRONG>CONFIGURATIONS</STRONG>).  The "wide"
               library  includes  all  of the calls from the "normal" library.
               It adds about one third more calls using data types which store
               multibyte characters:

               <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>
                    corresponds to <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>.  However it is a structure, because
                    more data is stored than can fit  into  an  integer.   The
                    characters  are  large  enough  to  require a full integer
                    value - and there may be more than one character per cell.
                    The  video  attributes  and  color  are stored in separate
                    fields of the structure.

                    Each cell (row and column) in a  <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>  is  stored  as  a
                    <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG>.

                    The  <STRONG><A HREF="setcchar.3x.html">setcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>  and  <STRONG><A HREF="getcchar.3x.html">getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>  functions  store and
                    retrieve the data from a <STRONG>cchar_t</STRONG> structure.

               <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG>
                    stores a "wide" character.  Like <STRONG>chtype</STRONG>, this  may  be  an
                    integer.

               <STRONG>wint_t</STRONG>
                    stores  a  <STRONG>wchar_t</STRONG> or <STRONG>WEOF</STRONG> - not the same, though both may
                    have the same size.

               The "wide" library provides new functions which  are  analogous
               to  functions  in the "normal" library.  There is a naming con-
               vention which relates many of the normal/wide variants: a  "_w"
               is  inserted  into  the  name.   For  example,  <STRONG>waddch</STRONG>  becomes
               <STRONG>wadd_wch</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Routine-Name-Index">Routine Name Index</a></H3><PRE>
       The following table lists each <STRONG>curses</STRONG> routine and the name of the  man-
       ual  page  on  which  it  is  described.  Routines flagged with "*" are
       ncurses-specific, not described by XPG4 or present in SVr4.

                    <STRONG>curses</STRONG> Routine Name      Manual Page Name
                    ---------------------------------------------
                    COLOR_PAIR               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    PAIR_NUMBER              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    _nc_free_and_exit        <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _nc_freeall              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_memleaks.3x.html">curs_memleaks(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _nc_tracebits            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _traceattr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _traceattr2              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracechar               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracechtype             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracechtype2            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracedump               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracef                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    _tracemouse              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    add_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    add_wchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    add_wchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addchnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addchstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addnwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    addwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    alloc_pair               <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    assume_default_colors    <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    attr_get                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_off                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_on                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attr_set                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    attroff                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attron                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    attrset                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    baudrate                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    beep                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_beep.3x.html">curs_beep(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgd                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgdset                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgrnd                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    bkgrndset                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    border                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    border_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    box                      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    box_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    can_change_color         <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    cbreak                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    chgat                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clear                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clearok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clrtobot                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    clrtoeol                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    color_content            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    color_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    copywin                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    curs_set                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    curses_version           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    def_prog_mode            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    def_shell_mode           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    define_key               <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    del_curterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delay_output             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    deleteln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delscreen                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    delwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    derwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    doupdate                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    dupwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echo                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echo_wchar               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    echochar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    endwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erase                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erasechar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    erasewchar               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    extended_color_content   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    extended_pair_content    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    extended_slk_color       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    filter                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    find_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    flash                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_beep.3x.html">curs_beep(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    flushinp                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    free_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="new_pair.3x.html">new_pair(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    get_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    get_wstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getattrs                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbegx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getbegy                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getbegyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbkgd                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getbkgrnd                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getcchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">curs_getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getcurx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getcury                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getmaxx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*

                    getmaxy                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getmaxyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getmouse                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getn_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getparx                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getpary                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_legacy.3x.html">curs_legacy(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    getparyx                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getsyx                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    getyx                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getyx.3x.html">curs_getyx(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    halfdelay                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_colors               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_ic                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_il                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    has_key                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    hline                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    hline_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    idcok                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    idlok                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    immedok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    in_wchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inch                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inchnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inchstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    init_color               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    init_extended_color      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    init_extended_pair       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    init_pair                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    initscr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    innstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    innwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_nwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ins_wstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insdelln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insertln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    insstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    instr                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    intrflush                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    inwstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    is_cleared               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_idcok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_idlok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_immedok               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_keypad                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_leaveok               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_linetouched           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    is_nodelay               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_notimeout             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_pad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_scrollok              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_subwin                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_syncok                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_term_resized          <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    is_wintouched            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    isendwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    key_defined              <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    key_name                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    keybound                 <STRONG><A HREF="keybound.3x.html">keybound(3x)</A></STRONG>*

                    keyname                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    keyok                    <STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    keypad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    killchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    killwchar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    leaveok                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    longname                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mcprint                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    meta                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mouse_trafo              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    mouseinterval            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    mousemask                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    move                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_move.3x.html">curs_move(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wchnstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvadd_wchstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddnwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvaddwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvchgat                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvcur                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvdelch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvderwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvget_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvget_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetn_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvgetstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvhline                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvhline_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvin_wchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinnwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_nwstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvins_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinsstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvinwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvprintw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvscanw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvvline                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvvline_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wchnstr           <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwadd_wchstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddnwstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwaddwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    mvwchgat                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwdelch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwget_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwget_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetn_wstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwgetstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwhline                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwhline_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wchnstr            <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwin_wchstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinnwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_nwstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_wch               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwins_wstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinsstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwinwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwprintw                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwscanw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwvline                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    mvwvline_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    napms                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newpad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newterm                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    newwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nl                       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nocbreak                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nodelay                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noecho                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    nofilter                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    nonl                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noqiflush                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    noraw                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    notimeout                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    overlay                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    overwrite                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_overlay.3x.html">curs_overlay(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pair_content             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pechochar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    pnoutrefresh             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    prefresh                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    printw                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    putp                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    putwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    qiflush                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    raw                      <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    redrawwin                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    refresh                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    reset_prog_mode          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    reset_shell_mode         <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    resetty                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    resize_term              <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    resizeterm               <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    restartterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ripoffline               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    savetty                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    scanw                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_dump                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_init                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_restore              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scr_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scr_dump.3x.html">curs_scr_dump(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scrl                     <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scroll                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    scrollok                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    set_curterm              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    set_term                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_initscr.3x.html">curs_initscr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setcchar                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getcchar.3x.html">curs_getcchar(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setscrreg                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setsyx                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_kernel.3x.html">curs_kernel(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setterm                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    setupterm                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    slk_attr_off             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr_on              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attr_set             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attroff              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attron               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_attrset              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_clear                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_color                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_init                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_label                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_noutrefresh          <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_refresh              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_restore              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_set                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    slk_touch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    standend                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    standout                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    start_color              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    subpad                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_pad.3x.html">curs_pad(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    subwin                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    syncok                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    term_attrs               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    termattrs                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    termname                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">curs_termattrs(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetent                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetflag                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetnum                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgetstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tgoto                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetflag                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetnum                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tigetstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    timeout                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tiparm                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    touchline                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    touchwin                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tparm                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tputs                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termcap.3x.html">curs_termcap(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    tputs                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    trace                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    typeahead                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    unctrl                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    unget_wch                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ungetch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    ungetmouse               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    untouchwin               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    use_default_colors       <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    use_env                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    use_extended_names       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">curs_extend(3x)</A></STRONG>*

                    use_legacy_coding        <STRONG><A HREF="legacy_coding.3x.html">legacy_coding(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    use_tioctl               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    vid_attr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vid_puts                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vidattr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vidputs                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">curs_terminfo(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vline                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vline_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vw_printw                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vw_scanw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vwprintw                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    vwscanw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wchnstr             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wadd_wchstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wchstr.3x.html">curs_add_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddchnstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddchstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addchstr.3x.html">curs_addchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddnwstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addstr.3x.html">curs_addstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    waddwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addwstr.3x.html">curs_addwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_get                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_off                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_on                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattr_set                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattroff                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattron                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wattrset                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgd                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgdset                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgd.3x.html">curs_bkgd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgrnd                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wbkgrndset               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wborder                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wborder_set              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wchgat                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclear                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclrtobot                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wclrtoeol                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wcolor_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wcursyncup               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wdelch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_delch.3x.html">curs_delch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wdeleteln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wecho_wchar              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_add_wch.3x.html">curs_add_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wechochar                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_addch.3x.html">curs_addch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wenclose                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    werase                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_clear.3x.html">curs_clear(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wget_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wch.3x.html">curs_get_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wget_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetbkgrnd               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_bkgrnd.3x.html">curs_bkgrnd(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetdelay                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetn_wstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_get_wstr.3x.html">curs_get_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wgetparent               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetscrreg               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wgetstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getstr.3x.html">curs_getstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    whline                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    whline_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wch                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wch.3x.html">curs_in_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wchnstr              <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    win_wchstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_in_wchstr.3x.html">curs_in_wchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winch                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inch.3x.html">curs_inch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winchnstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winchstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inchstr.3x.html">curs_inchstr(3x)</A></STRONG>

                    winnstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winnwstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wins_nwstr               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wins_wch                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wch.3x.html">curs_ins_wch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wins_wstr                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_ins_wstr.3x.html">curs_ins_wstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsch                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insch.3x.html">curs_insch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsdelln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsertln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_deleteln.3x.html">curs_deleteln(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsnstr                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winsstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_insstr.3x.html">curs_insstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winstr                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_instr.3x.html">curs_instr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    winwstr                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inwstr.3x.html">curs_inwstr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wmouse_trafo             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wmove                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_move.3x.html">curs_move(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wnoutrefresh             <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wprintw                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_printw.3x.html">curs_printw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wredrawln                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wrefresh                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">curs_refresh(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wresize                  <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG>*
                    wscanw                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scanw.3x.html">curs_scanw(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wscrl                    <STRONG><A HREF="curs_scroll.3x.html">curs_scroll(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsetscrreg               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_outopts.3x.html">curs_outopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wstandend                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wstandout                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_attr.3x.html">curs_attr(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsyncdown                <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wsyncup                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_window.3x.html">curs_window(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wtimeout                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_inopts.3x.html">curs_inopts(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wtouchln                 <STRONG><A HREF="curs_touch.3x.html">curs_touch(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wunctrl                  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_util.3x.html">curs_util(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wvline                   <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border.3x.html">curs_border(3x)</A></STRONG>
                    wvline_set               <STRONG><A HREF="curs_border_set.3x.html">curs_border_set(3x)</A></STRONG>


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></H2><PRE>
       Routines that return an integer return <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon failure and an  integer
       value other than <STRONG>ERR</STRONG> upon successful completion, unless otherwise noted
       in the routine descriptions.

       As a general rule, routines check for null pointers passed  as  parame-
       ters, and handle this as an error.

       All  macros  return  the  value  of  the  <STRONG>w</STRONG>  version, except <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>, <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG>.   The  return  values  of
       <STRONG>setscrreg</STRONG>,  <STRONG>wsetscrreg</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getyx</STRONG>,  <STRONG>getbegyx</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>getmaxyx</STRONG> are undefined
       (i.e., these should not be used as the right-hand  side  of  assignment
       statements).

       Routines that return pointers return <STRONG>NULL</STRONG> on error.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a></H2><PRE>
       The  following  environment symbols are useful for customizing the run-
       time behavior of the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library.  The  most  important  ones  have
       been already discussed in detail.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-CC-command-character">CC command-character</a></H3><PRE>
       When  set, change occurrences of the command_character (i.e., the <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG>
       capability) of the loaded terminfo entries to the value of  this  vari-
       able.  Very few terminfo entries provide this feature.

       Because this name is also used in development environments to represent
       the C compiler's name, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> ignores it if it does not happen to be a
       single character.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-BAUDRATE">BAUDRATE</a></H3><PRE>
       The  debugging library checks this environment variable when the appli-
       cation has redirected output to a file.  The variable's  numeric  value
       is  used  for  the  baudrate.  If no value is found, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 9600.
       This allows testers to construct repeatable test-cases that  take  into
       account costs that depend on baudrate.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-COLUMNS">COLUMNS</a></H3><PRE>
       Specify the width of the screen in characters.  Applications running in
       a windowing environment usually are able to obtain  the  width  of  the
       window  in  which they are executing.  If neither the <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> value nor
       the terminal's screen size is available, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses  the  size  which
       may be specified in the terminfo database (i.e., the <STRONG>cols</STRONG> capability).

       It  is  important  that  your  application  use  a correct size for the
       screen.  This is not always possible because your  application  may  be
       running  on a host which does not honor NAWS (Negotiations About Window
       Size), or because you are temporarily running as  another  user.   How-
       ever,  setting  <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> and/or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> overrides the library's use of the
       screen size obtained from the operating system.

       Either <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> symbols may be specified  independently.   This
       is  mainly useful to circumvent legacy misfeatures of terminal descrip-
       tions, e.g., xterm which commonly specifies a 65 line screen.  For best
       results,  <STRONG>lines</STRONG> and <STRONG>cols</STRONG> should not be specified in a terminal descrip-
       tion for terminals which are run as emulations.

       Use the <STRONG>use_env</STRONG> function to disable all  use  of  external  environment
       (but not including system calls) to determine the screen size.  Use the
       <STRONG>use_tioctl</STRONG> function to update <STRONG>COLUMNS</STRONG> or <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> to match the screen size
       obtained from system calls or the terminal database.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-ESCDELAY">ESCDELAY</a></H3><PRE>
       Specifies the total time, in milliseconds, for which ncurses will await
       a character sequence, e.g., a function key.  The  default  value,  1000
       milliseconds,  is enough for most uses.  However, it is made a variable
       to accommodate unusual applications.

       The most common instance where you may wish to change this value is  to
       work  with  slow hosts, e.g., running on a network.  If the host cannot
       read characters rapidly enough, it will have the same effect as if  the
       terminal  did  not  send  characters  rapidly enough.  The library will
       still see a timeout.

       Note that xterm mouse events are  built  up  from  character  sequences
       received from the xterm.  If your application makes heavy use of multi-
       ple-clicking, you may wish to lengthen this default value  because  the
       timeout  applies to the composed multi-click event as well as the indi-
       vidual clicks.

       In addition to the environment variable, this implementation provides a
       global  variable  with the same name.  Portable applications should not
       rely upon the presence of ESCDELAY in  either  form,  but  setting  the
       environment  variable  rather  than the global variable does not create
       problems when compiling an application.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-HOME">HOME</a></H3><PRE>
       Tells <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> where your home directory is.  That is where it may  read
       and write auxiliary terminal descriptions:

           $HOME/.termcap
           $HOME/.terminfo


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-LINES">LINES</a></H3><PRE>
       Like COLUMNS, specify the height of the screen in characters.  See COL-
       UMNS for a detailed description.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-MOUSE_BUTTONS_123">MOUSE_BUTTONS_123</a></H3><PRE>
       This applies only to the OS/2 EMX port.  It specifies the order of but-
       tons  on  the mouse.  OS/2 numbers a 3-button mouse inconsistently from
       other platforms:

           1 = left
           2 = right
           3 = middle.

       This variable lets you customize the mouse.  The variable must be three
       numeric digits 1-3 in any order, e.g., 123 or 321.  If it is not speci-
       fied, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses 132.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS">NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS</a></H3><PRE>
       Override the compiled-in assumption that the terminal's default  colors
       are  white-on-black  (see  <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">default_colors(3x)</A></STRONG>).   You may set the fore-
       ground and background color values with this  environment  variable  by
       proving  a 2-element list: foreground,background.  For example, to tell
       ncurses to not assume anything about the colors, set this  to  "-1,-1".
       To  make  it  green-on-black, set it to "2,0".  Any positive value from
       zero to the terminfo <STRONG>max_colors</STRONG> value is allowed.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_CONSOLE2">NCURSES_CONSOLE2</a></H3><PRE>
       This applies only to the MinGW port of ncurses.

       The <STRONG>Console2</STRONG> program's handling of the Microsoft Console API call  <STRONG>Cre-</STRONG>
       <STRONG>ateConsoleScreenBuffer</STRONG>  is defective.  Applications which use this will
       hang.  However, it is possible to simulate the action of this  call  by
       mapping  coordinates,  explicitly  saving  and  restoring  the original
       screen contents.  Setting the environment variable <STRONG>NCGDB</STRONG> has  the  same
       effect.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_GPM_TERMS">NCURSES_GPM_TERMS</a></H3><PRE>
       This applies only to ncurses configured to use the GPM interface.

       If  present, the environment variable is a list of one or more terminal
       names against which the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable is matched.   Setting
       it  to  an  empty  value disables the GPM interface; using the built-in
       support for xterm, etc.

       If the environment variable is absent, ncurses will attempt to open GPM
       if <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> contains "linux".


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS">NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS</a></H3><PRE>
       <STRONG>Ncurses</STRONG>  may  use tabs as part of the cursor movement optimization.  In
       some cases, your terminal driver may not handle  these  properly.   Set
       this  environment variable to disable the feature.  You can also adjust
       your <STRONG>stty</STRONG> settings to avoid the problem.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE">NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE</a></H3><PRE>
       Some terminals use a magic-cookie feature which requires  special  han-
       dling to make highlighting and other video attributes display properly.
       You can suppress the highlighting entirely for these terminals by  set-
       ting this environment variable.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_PADDING">NCURSES_NO_PADDING</a></H3><PRE>
       Most  of the terminal descriptions in the terminfo database are written
       for real "hardware" terminals.   Many  people  use  terminal  emulators
       which run in a windowing environment and use curses-based applications.
       Terminal emulators can duplicate all of  the  important  aspects  of  a
       hardware  terminal,  but  they  do  not have the same limitations.  The
       chief limitation of a hardware terminal from  the  standpoint  of  your
       application  is  the  management  of  dataflow, i.e., timing.  Unless a
       hardware terminal is interfaced into  a  terminal  concentrator  (which
       does flow control), it (or your application) must manage dataflow, pre-
       venting overruns.  The cheapest solution (no hardware cost) is for your
       program  to  do this by pausing after operations that the terminal does
       slowly, such as clearing the display.

       As a result, many terminal  descriptions  (including  the  vt100)  have
       delay  times embedded.  You may wish to use these descriptions, but not
       want to pay the performance penalty.

       Set the NCURSES_NO_PADDING environment  variable  to  disable  all  but
       mandatory padding.  Mandatory padding is used as a part of special con-
       trol sequences such as <EM>flash</EM>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_SETBUF">NCURSES_NO_SETBUF</a></H3><PRE>
       This setting is obsolete.  Before changes

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   started with 5.9 patch 20120825 and

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   continued though 5.9 patch 20130126

       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> enabled buffered output during terminal  initialization.   This
       was done (as in SVr4 curses) for performance reasons.  For testing pur-
       poses, both of <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> and certain applications, this feature was  made
       optional.   Setting  the  NCURSES_NO_SETBUF  variable  disabled  output
       buffering, leaving the output in the original (usually  line  buffered)
       mode.

       In  the  current implementation, ncurses performs its own buffering and
       does not require this workaround.  It does not modify the buffering  of
       the standard output.

       The  reason  for the change was to make the behavior for interrupts and
       other signals more robust.  One drawback  is  that  certain  nonconven-
       tional  programs  would mix ordinary stdio calls with ncurses calls and
       (usually) work.  This is no longer possible since ncurses is not  using
       the  buffered  standard  output  but  its  own output (to the same file
       descriptor).  As a special case, the low-level calls such as <STRONG>putp</STRONG> still
       use the standard output.  But high-level curses calls do not.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS">NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</a></H3><PRE>
       During  initialization,  the  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library checks for special cases
       where VT100 line-drawing (and the corresponding alternate character set
       capabilities)  described  in  the  terminfo  are  known  to be missing.
       Specifically, when running in a UTF-8 locale, the Linux console  emula-
       tor  and  the GNU screen program ignore these.  Ncurses checks the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>
       environment variable for these.  For other special  cases,  you  should
       set this environment variable.  Doing this tells ncurses to use Unicode
       values which correspond to the VT100 line-drawing glyphs.   That  works
       for  the special cases cited, and is likely to work for terminal emula-
       tors.

       When setting this variable, you should set it to a nonzero value.  Set-
       ting  it  to  zero  (or  to a nonnumber) disables the special check for
       "linux" and "screen".

       As an alternative to the environment variable, ncurses  checks  for  an
       extended  terminfo  capability  <STRONG>U8</STRONG>.  This is a numeric capability which
       can be compiled using <STRONG>tic</STRONG> <STRONG>-x</STRONG>.  For example

          # linux console, if patched to provide working
          # VT100 shift-in/shift-out, with corresponding font.
          linux-vt100|linux console with VT100 line-graphics,
                  U8#0, use=linux,

          # uxterm with vt100Graphics resource set to false
          xterm-utf8|xterm relying on UTF-8 line-graphics,
                  U8#1, use=xterm,

       The name "U8" is chosen to be two characters, to permit it to  be  used
       by applications that use ncurses' termcap interface.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-NCURSES_TRACE">NCURSES_TRACE</a></H3><PRE>
       During   initialization,  the  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  debugging  library  checks  the
       NCURSES_TRACE environment variable.  If it is  defined,  to  a  numeric
       value,  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls the <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function, using that value as the argu-
       ment.

       The argument values, which are defined  in  <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>,  provide  several
       types  of information.  When running with traces enabled, your applica-
       tion will write the file <STRONG>trace</STRONG> to the current directory.

       See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_trace.3x.html">curs_trace(3x)</A></STRONG> for more information.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERM">TERM</a></H3><PRE>
       Denotes your terminal type.  Each terminal  type  is  distinct,  though
       many are similar.

       <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>  is commonly set by terminal emulators to help applications find a
       workable terminal description.  Some of those choose a popular approxi-
       mation,  e.g.,  "ansi", "vt100", "xterm" rather than an exact fit.  Not
       infrequently, your application will have problems with  that  approach,
       e.g., incorrect function-key definitions.

       If  you set <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> in your environment, it has no effect on the operation
       of the terminal emulator.  It only affects the  way  applications  work
       within  the  terminal.  Likewise, as a general rule (<STRONG>xterm</STRONG> being a rare
       exception), terminal emulators which allow you to  specify  <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>  as  a
       parameter  or configuration value do not change their behavior to match
       that setting.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMCAP">TERMCAP</a></H3><PRE>
       If the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  has  been  configured  with  <EM>termcap</EM>  support,
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  will  check for a terminal's description in termcap form if it
       is not available in the terminfo database.

       The <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> environment variable contains either a terminal description
       (with newlines stripped out), or a file name telling where the informa-
       tion denoted by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> environment variable exists.  In either  case,
       setting  it directs <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> to ignore the usual place for this informa-
       tion, e.g., /etc/termcap.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO">TERMINFO</a></H3><PRE>
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> can be configured to read  from  multiple  terminal  databases.
       The  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG>  variable overrides the location for the default terminal
       database.  Terminal descriptions (in terminal  format)  are  stored  in
       terminal databases:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Normally these are stored in a directory tree, using subdirectories
           named by the first letter of the terminal names therein.

           This is the scheme used in System V, which legacy Unix systems use,
           and  the  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable is used by <EM>curses</EM> applications on those
           systems to override the default location of the terminal database.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built to use hashed databases,  then  each  entry  in
           this list may be the path of a hashed database file, e.g.,

               /usr/share/terminfo.db

           rather than

               /usr/share/terminfo/

           The  hashed  database  uses  less disk-space and is a little faster
           than the directory tree.  However,  some  applications  assume  the
           existence  of  the  directory tree, reading it directly rather than
           using the terminfo library calls.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is built  with  a  support  for  reading  termcap  files
           directly,  then  an entry in this list may be the path of a termcap
           file.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable begins with "hex:" or "b64:", <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> uses
           the  remainder of that variable as a compiled terminal description.
           You might produce the base64 format using <STRONG><A HREF="infocmp.1m.html">infocmp(1m)</A></STRONG>:

               TERMINFO="$(infocmp -0 -Q2 -q)"
               export TERMINFO

           The compiled description is used if it corresponds to the  terminal
           identified by the <STRONG>TERM</STRONG> variable.

       Setting  <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> is the simplest, but not the only way to set location
       of the default terminal database.  The complete list of database  loca-
       tions in order follows:

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the  last  terminal  database to which <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> wrote, if any, is
              searched first

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the location specified by the TERMINFO environment variable

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   $HOME/.terminfo

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   locations listed in the TERMINFO_DIRS environment variable

          <STRONG>o</STRONG>   one or more locations whose names are  configured  and  compiled
              into the ncurses library, i.e.,

             <STRONG>o</STRONG>   /usr/local/ncurses/share/terminfo:/usr/share/terminfo (corre-
                 sponding to the TERMINFO_DIRS variable)

             <STRONG>o</STRONG>   /usr/share/terminfo (corresponding to the TERMINFO variable)


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMINFO_DIRS">TERMINFO_DIRS</a></H3><PRE>
       Specifies a list of locations  to  search  for  terminal  descriptions.
       Each  location  in  the list is a terminal database as described in the
       section on the <STRONG>TERMINFO</STRONG> variable.  The  list  is  separated  by  colons
       (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       There is no corresponding feature in System V terminfo; it is an exten-
       sion developed for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-TERMPATH">TERMPATH</a></H3><PRE>
       If <STRONG>TERMCAP</STRONG> does not hold a file name then <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> checks  the  <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG>
       environment  variable.  This is a list of filenames separated by spaces
       or colons (i.e., ":") on Unix, semicolons on OS/2 EMX.

       If the <STRONG>TERMPATH</STRONG> environment variable is not set, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> looks  in  the
       files

           /etc/termcap, /usr/share/misc/termcap and $HOME/.termcap,

       in that order.

       The library may be configured to disregard the following variables when
       the current user is the superuser (root), or if  the  application  uses
       setuid or setgid permissions:

           $TERMINFO, $TERMINFO_DIRS, $TERMPATH, as well as $HOME.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-ALTERNATE-CONFIGURATIONS">ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS</a></H2><PRE>
       Several different configurations are possible, depending on the config-
       ure script options used when building <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>.  There are  a  few  main
       options  whose  effects are visible to the applications developer using
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>:

       --disable-overwrite
            The standard include for <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> is as noted in <STRONG>SYNOPSIS</STRONG>:

                <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>

            This option is used to avoid filename conflicts  when  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  is
            not the main implementation of curses of the computer.  If <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>
            is installed disabling overwrite, it puts its headers in a  subdi-
            rectory, e.g.,

                <STRONG>#include</STRONG> <STRONG>&lt;ncurses/curses.h&gt;</STRONG>

            It  also  omits  a  symbolic  link  which  would  allow you to use
            <STRONG>-lcurses</STRONG> to build executables.

       --enable-widec
            The configure script  renames  the  library  and  (if  the  <STRONG>--dis-</STRONG>
            <STRONG>able-overwrite</STRONG>  option is used) puts the header files in a differ-
            ent subdirectory.  All of the library names have a "w" appended to
            them, i.e., instead of

                <STRONG>-lncurses</STRONG>

            you link with

                <STRONG>-lncursesw</STRONG>

            You  must  also  enable  the wide-character features in the header
            file when compiling for the  wide-character  library  to  use  the
            extended  (wide-character)  functions.   The  symbol which enables
            these features has changed since XSI Curses, Issue 4:

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Originally, the wide-character  feature  required  the  symbol
                <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE_EXTENDED</STRONG>  but  that  was  only  valid  for  XPG4
                (1996).

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Later, that was deemed conflicting with <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>  defined
                to 500.

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   As  of  mid-2018,  none of the features in this implementation
                require a <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG> feature greater  than  600.   However,
                X/Open Curses, Issue 7 (2009) recommends defining it to 700.

            <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Alternatively,   you   can  enable  the  feature  by  defining
                <STRONG>NCURSES_WIDECHAR</STRONG> with the caveat that some other  header  file
                than  <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>  may require a specific value for <STRONG>_XOPEN_SOURCE</STRONG>
                (or a system-specific symbol).

            The <STRONG>curses.h</STRONG>  file  which  is  installed  for  the  wide-character
            library  is  designed  to  be compatible with the normal library's
            header.  Only the size of the <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG> structure differs,  and  very
            few applications require more than a pointer to <STRONG>WINDOW</STRONG>s.

            If  the headers are installed allowing overwrite, the wide-charac-
            ter library's headers should be installed last, to allow  applica-
            tions  to be built using either library from the same set of head-
            ers.

       --with-pthread
            The configure script renames the  library.   All  of  the  library
            names  have  a  "t"  appended  to  them  (before  any "w" added by
            <STRONG>--enable-widec</STRONG>).

            The global variables such as <STRONG>LINES</STRONG> are replaced by macros to allow
            read-only access.  At the same time, setter-functions are provided
            to set these values.  Some applications  (very  few)  may  require
            changes to work with this convention.

       --with-shared

       --with-normal

       --with-debug

       --with-profile
            The  shared and normal (static) library names differ by their suf-
            fixes, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses.so</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses.a</STRONG>.  The debug  and  pro-
            filing  libraries  add a "_g" and a "_p" to the root names respec-
            tively, e.g., <STRONG>libncurses_g.a</STRONG> and <STRONG>libncurses_p.a</STRONG>.

       --with-trace
            The <STRONG>trace</STRONG> function normally resides in the debug library,  but  it
            is sometimes useful to configure this in the shared library.  Con-
            figure scripts should check for the  function's  existence  rather
            than assuming it is always in the debug library.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-FILES">FILES</a></H2><PRE>
       /usr/share/tabset
            directory  containing  initialization files for the terminal capa-
            bility database /usr/share/terminfo terminal capability database


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG> and related pages whose names begin  "curs_"  for  detailed
       routine descriptions.
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">curs_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>
       <STRONG><A HREF="user_caps.5.html">user_caps(5)</A></STRONG> for user-defined capabilities


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></H2><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can be compiled with an option (<STRONG>-DUSE_GETCAP</STRONG>) that
       falls back to the old-style /etc/termcap file  if  the  terminal  setup
       code  cannot  find a terminfo entry corresponding to <STRONG>TERM</STRONG>.  Use of this
       feature is not recommended, as it essentially includes an entire  term-
       cap  compiler  in the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> startup code, at significant cost in core
       and startup cycles.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for capturing mouse  events  on
       certain  terminals  (including  xterm).   See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual
       page for details.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes facilities for responding to window resiz-
       ing events, e.g., when running in an xterm.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="resizeterm.3x.html">resizeterm(3x)</A></STRONG> and
       <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details.  In addition, the library may  be
       configured with a <STRONG>SIGWINCH</STRONG> handler.

       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library extends the fixed set of function key capabilities
       of terminals by allowing the application designer to define  additional
       key  sequences at runtime.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="define_key.3x.html">define_key(3x)</A></STRONG> <STRONG><A HREF="key_defined.3x.html">key_defined(3x)</A></STRONG>, and
       <STRONG><A HREF="keyok.3x.html">keyok(3x)</A></STRONG> manual pages for details.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library can exploit the  capabilities  of  terminals  which
       implement  the  ISO-6429  SGR  39  and  SGR 49 controls, which allow an
       application to reset the terminal to its original foreground and  back-
       ground colors.  From the users' perspective, the application is able to
       draw colored text on a background whose  color  is  set  independently,
       providing  better  control  over color contrasts.  See the <STRONG>default_col-</STRONG>
       <STRONG><A HREF="default_colors.3x.html">ors(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library includes a function for directing application  out-
       put   to   a   printer  attached  to  the  terminal  device.   See  the
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></H2><PRE>
       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library is intended to be BASE-level  conformant  with  XSI
       Curses.   The  EXTENDED  XSI Curses functionality (including color sup-
       port) is supported.

       A small number of local differences (that  is,  individual  differences
       between  the XSI Curses and <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> calls) are described in <STRONG>PORTABILITY</STRONG>
       sections of the library man pages.

       Unlike other implementations, this one checks parameters such as point-
       ers  to WINDOW structures to ensure they are not null.  The main reason
       for providing this behavior is to guard against programmer error.   The
       standard  interface  does  not provide a way for the library to tell an
       application which of several possible errors were detected.  Relying on
       this (or some other) extension will adversely affect the portability of
       curses applications.

       This implementation also contains several extensions:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routine <STRONG>has_key</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_getch.3x.html">curs_getch(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  routine  <STRONG>slk_attr</STRONG>  is  not  part of XPG4, nor is it present in
           SVr4.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_slk.3x.html">curs_slk(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routines <STRONG>getmouse</STRONG>, <STRONG>mousemask</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ungetmouse</STRONG>,  <STRONG>mouseinterval</STRONG>,  and
           <STRONG>wenclose</STRONG>  relating  to  mouse interfacing are not part of XPG4, nor
           are they present in SVr4.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_mouse.3x.html">curs_mouse(3x)</A></STRONG> manual  page  for
           details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  routine  <STRONG>mcprint</STRONG> was not present in any previous curses imple-
           mentation.  See the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_print.3x.html">curs_print(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The routine <STRONG>wresize</STRONG> is not part of XPG4, nor is it present in SVr4.
           See the <STRONG><A HREF="wresize.3x.html">wresize(3x)</A></STRONG> manual page for details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The WINDOW structure's internal details can be hidden from applica-
           tion programs.  See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_opaque.3x.html">curs_opaque(3x)</A></STRONG> for the discussion of <STRONG>is_scrol-</STRONG>
           <STRONG>lok</STRONG>, etc.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   This  implementation  can be configured to provide rudimentary sup-
           port for multi-threaded  applications.   See  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_threads.3x.html">curs_threads(3x)</A></STRONG>  for
           details.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   This  implementation  can  also  be  configured to provide a set of
           functions which improve the ability  to  manage  multiple  screens.
           See <STRONG><A HREF="curs_sp_funcs.3x.html">curs_sp_funcs(3x)</A></STRONG> for details.

       In  historic  curses  versions, delays embedded in the capabilities <STRONG>cr</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>ind</STRONG>, <STRONG>cub1</STRONG>, <STRONG>ff</STRONG> and <STRONG>tab</STRONG> activated corresponding delay bits  in  the  UNIX
       tty driver.  In this implementation, all padding is done by sending NUL
       bytes.  This method is slightly more expensive, but narrows the  inter-
       face  to  the  UNIX  kernel  significantly  and increases the package's
       portability correspondingly.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></H2><PRE>
       The header file <STRONG>&lt;curses.h&gt;</STRONG>  automatically  includes  the  header  files
       <STRONG>&lt;stdio.h&gt;</STRONG> and <STRONG>&lt;unctrl.h&gt;</STRONG>.

       If  standard  output from a <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> program is re-directed to something
       which is not a tty, screen updates will be directed to standard  error.
       This was an undocumented feature of AT&amp;T System V Release 3 curses.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></H2><PRE>
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                   <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>
</PRE>
<div class="nav">
<ul>
<li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-Initialization">Initialization</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Datatypes">Datatypes</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Environment-variables">Environment variables</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Routine-and-Argument-Names">Routine and Argument Names</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Routine-Name-Index">Routine Name Index</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-ENVIRONMENT">ENVIRONMENT</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-CC-command-character">CC command-character</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-BAUDRATE">BAUDRATE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-COLUMNS">COLUMNS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-ESCDELAY">ESCDELAY</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-HOME">HOME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-LINES">LINES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-MOUSE_BUTTONS_123">MOUSE_BUTTONS_123</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS">NCURSES_ASSUMED_COLORS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_CONSOLE2">NCURSES_CONSOLE2</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_GPM_TERMS">NCURSES_GPM_TERMS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS">NCURSES_NO_HARD_TABS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE">NCURSES_NO_MAGIC_COOKIE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_PADDING">NCURSES_NO_PADDING</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_SETBUF">NCURSES_NO_SETBUF</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS">NCURSES_NO_UTF8_ACS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-NCURSES_TRACE">NCURSES_TRACE</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERM">TERM</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMCAP">TERMCAP</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMINFO">TERMINFO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMINFO_DIRS">TERMINFO_DIRS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-TERMPATH">TERMPATH</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-ALTERNATE-CONFIGURATIONS">ALTERNATE CONFIGURATIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-FILES">FILES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-PORTABILITY">PORTABILITY</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-NOTES">NOTES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></li>
</ul>
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