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<H1 class="no-header">terminfo 5   File Formats</H1>
<PRE>
<STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG>                      File Formats                      <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG>




</PRE><H2><a name="h2-NAME">NAME</a></H2><PRE>
       terminfo - terminal capability data base


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></H2><PRE>
       /usr/share/terminfo/*/*


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></H2><PRE>
       <EM>Terminfo</EM>  is  a data base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented
       programs such as <STRONG>nvi(1)</STRONG>, <STRONG>lynx(1)</STRONG>, <STRONG>mutt(1)</STRONG>, and  other  curses  applica-
       tions,  using  high-level calls to libraries such as <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>.  It is
       also used via low-level calls by non-curses applications which  may  be
       screen-oriented (such as <STRONG><A HREF="clear.1.html">clear(1)</A></STRONG>) or non-screen (such as <STRONG><A HREF="tabs.1.html">tabs(1)</A></STRONG>).

       <EM>Terminfo</EM> describes terminals by giving a set of capabilities which they
       have, by specifying how to perform screen operations, and by specifying
       padding requirements and initialization sequences.

       This manual describes <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> version 6.2 (patch 20200215).


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Terminfo-Entry-Syntax">Terminfo Entry Syntax</a></H3><PRE>
       Entries in <EM>terminfo</EM> consist of a sequence of fields:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Each  field  ends  with a comma "," (embedded commas may be escaped
           with a backslash or written as "\054").

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   White space between fields is ignored.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The first field in a <EM>terminfo</EM> entry begins in the first column.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Newlines and leading whitespace (spaces or tabs) may  be  used  for
           formatting  entries for readability.  These are removed from parsed
           entries.

           The <STRONG>infocmp</STRONG> <STRONG>-f</STRONG> and <STRONG>-W</STRONG> options rely on this to  format  if-then-else
           expressions,  or to enforce maximum line-width.  The resulting for-
           matted terminal description can be read by <STRONG>tic</STRONG>.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The first field for each terminal gives the names which  are  known
           for the terminal, separated by "|" characters.

           The first name given is the most common abbreviation for the termi-
           nal (its primary name), the last name given should be a  long  name
           fully  identifying  the terminal (see <STRONG><A HREF="curs_termattrs.3x.html">longname(3x)</A></STRONG>), and all others
           are treated as synonyms (aliases) for the primary terminal name.

           X/Open Curses advises that all names but  the  last  should  be  in
           lower  case  and  contain no blanks; the last name may well contain
           upper case and blanks for readability.

           This implementation is not so strict; it allows mixed case  in  the
           primary name and aliases.  If the last name has no embedded blanks,
           it allows that to be both an alias and a  verbose  name  (but  will
           warn about this ambiguity).

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Lines  beginning with a "#" in the first column are treated as com-
           ments.

           While comment lines are legal at any point, the output of <STRONG>captoinfo</STRONG>
           and  <STRONG>infotocap</STRONG>  (aliases  for <STRONG>tic</STRONG>) will move comments so they occur
           only between entries.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry)  should  be  chosen
       using the following conventions.  The particular piece of hardware mak-
       ing up the terminal should have a root name, thus "hp2621".  This  name
       should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the hardware can be in, or user
       preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode  suf-
       fix.  Thus, a vt100 in 132-column mode would be vt100-w.  The following
       suffixes should be used where possible:

            <STRONG>Suffix</STRONG>                  <STRONG>Meaning</STRONG>                   <STRONG>Example</STRONG>
            -<EM>nn</EM>      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
            -<EM>n</EM>p      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
            -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
            -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
            -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
            -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
            -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
            -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
            -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
            -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
            -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
            -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
            -w       Wide mode (&gt; 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the <STRONG><A HREF="term.7.html">term(7)</A></STRONG> manual page.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Terminfo-Capabilities-Syntax">Terminfo Capabilities Syntax</a></H3><PRE>
       The terminfo entry consists of  several  <EM>capabilities</EM>,  i.e.,  features
       that  the  terminal  has, or methods for exercising the terminal's fea-
       tures.

       After the first field (giving the name(s) of the terminal entry), there
       should be one or more <EM>capability</EM> fields.  These are boolean, numeric or
       string names with corresponding values:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Boolean capabilities are true  when  present,  false  when  absent.
           There is no explicit value for boolean capabilities.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Numeric  capabilities  have  a  "#"  following  the  name,  then an
           unsigned decimal integer value.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   String capabilities have a "=" following the name, then  an  string
           of characters making up the capability value.

           String  capabilities  can be split into multiple lines, just as the
           fields comprising a terminal  entry  can  be  split  into  multiple
           lines.   While  blanks  between fields are ignored, blanks embedded
           within a string value are retained, except for leading blanks on  a
           line.

       Any  capability  can  be  <EM>canceled</EM>,  i.e., suppressed from the terminal
       entry, by following its name with "@" rather than a capability value.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Similar-Terminals">Similar Terminals</a></H3><PRE>
       If there are two very similar  terminals,  one  (the  variant)  can  be
       defined  as  being  just  like the other (the base) with certain excep-
       tions.  In the definition of the variant, the string capability <STRONG>use</STRONG> can
       be given with the name of the base terminal:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  capabilities  given before <STRONG>use</STRONG> override those in the base type
           named by <STRONG>use</STRONG>.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If there are multiple <STRONG>use</STRONG> capabilities, they are merged in  reverse
           order.   That  is,  the rightmost <STRONG>use</STRONG> reference is processed first,
           then the one to its left, and so forth.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Capabilities given explicitly in the entry override  those  brought
           in by <STRONG>use</STRONG> references.

       A capability can be canceled by placing <STRONG>xx@</STRONG> to the left of the use ref-
       erence that imports it, where <EM>xx</EM> is the capability.  For  example,  the
       entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the <STRONG>smkx</STRONG> or <STRONG>rmkx</STRONG> capabilities, and
       hence does not turn on the function key labels  when  in  visual  mode.
       This  is  useful  for  different modes for a terminal, or for different
       user preferences.

       An entry included via <STRONG>use</STRONG> can contain canceled capabilities, which have
       the  same  effect as if those cancels were inline in the using terminal
       entry.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Predefined-Capabilities">Predefined Capabilities</a></H3><PRE>
       The following is a complete table of the  capabilities  included  in  a
       terminfo  description  block  and available to terminfo-using code.  In
       each line of the table,

       The <STRONG>variable</STRONG> is the name by  which  the  programmer  (at  the  terminfo
       level) accesses the capability.

       The  <STRONG>capname</STRONG> is the short name used in the text of the database, and is
       used by a person updating the database.   Whenever  possible,  capnames
       are chosen to be the same as or similar to the ANSI X3.64-1979 standard
       (now superseded by  ECMA-48,  which  uses  identical  or  very  similar
       names).   Semantics  are also intended to match those of the specifica-
       tion.

       The termcap code is the old <STRONG>termcap</STRONG> capability name (some  capabilities
       are new, and have names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability  names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5
       characters has been adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in
       the source file <STRONG>Caps</STRONG> to line up nicely.

       Finally,  the description field attempts to convey the semantics of the
       capability.  You may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that  the  string  is  passed
              through tparm with parms as given (#<EM>i</EM>).

       (P*)   indicates  that  padding may vary in proportion to the number of
              lines affected

       (#<EM>i</EM>)   indicates the <EM>i</EM>th parameter.


       These are the boolean capabilities:


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>      <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>       <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                  <STRONG>Booleans</STRONG>            <STRONG>name</STRONG>      <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          auto_left_margin            bw        bw     cub1 wraps from col-
                                                       umn 0 to last column
          auto_right_margin           am        am     terminal has auto-
                                                       matic margins
          back_color_erase            bce       ut     screen erased with
                                                       background color



          can_change                  ccc       cc     terminal can re-
                                                       define existing col-
                                                       ors
          ceol_standout_glitch        xhp       xs     standout not erased
                                                       by overwriting (hp)
          col_addr_glitch             xhpa      YA     only positive motion
                                                       for hpa/mhpa caps
          cpi_changes_res             cpix      YF     changing character
                                                       pitch changes reso-
                                                       lution
          cr_cancels_micro_mode       crxm      YB     using cr turns off
                                                       micro mode
          dest_tabs_magic_smso        xt        xt     tabs destructive,
                                                       magic so char
                                                       (t1061)
          eat_newline_glitch          xenl      xn     newline ignored
                                                       after 80 cols (con-
                                                       cept)
          erase_overstrike            eo        eo     can erase over-
                                                       strikes with a blank
          generic_type                gn        gn     generic line type
          hard_copy                   hc        hc     hardcopy terminal
          hard_cursor                 chts      HC     cursor is hard to
                                                       see
          has_meta_key                km        km     Has a meta key
                                                       (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
          has_print_wheel             daisy     YC     printer needs opera-
                                                       tor to change char-
                                                       acter set
          has_status_line             hs        hs     has extra status
                                                       line
          hue_lightness_saturation    hls       hl     terminal uses only
                                                       HLS color notation
                                                       (Tektronix)
          insert_null_glitch          in        in     insert mode distin-
                                                       guishes nulls
          lpi_changes_res             lpix      YG     changing line pitch
                                                       changes resolution
          memory_above                da        da     display may be
                                                       retained above the
                                                       screen
          memory_below                db        db     display may be
                                                       retained below the
                                                       screen
          move_insert_mode            mir       mi     safe to move while
                                                       in insert mode
          move_standout_mode          msgr      ms     safe to move while
                                                       in standout mode
          needs_xon_xoff              nxon      nx     padding will not
                                                       work, xon/xoff
                                                       required
          no_esc_ctlc                 xsb       xb     beehive (f1=escape,
                                                       f2=ctrl C)
          no_pad_char                 npc       NP     pad character does
                                                       not exist
          non_dest_scroll_region      ndscr     ND     scrolling region is
                                                       non-destructive
          non_rev_rmcup               nrrmc     NR     smcup does not
                                                       reverse rmcup
          over_strike                 os        os     terminal can over-
                                                       strike
          prtr_silent                 mc5i      5i     printer will not
                                                       echo on screen
          row_addr_glitch             xvpa      YD     only positive motion
                                                       for vpa/mvpa caps

          semi_auto_right_margin      sam       YE     printing in last
                                                       column causes cr
          status_line_esc_ok          eslok     es     escape can be used
                                                       on the status line
          tilde_glitch                hz        hz     cannot print ~'s
                                                       (Hazeltine)
          transparent_underline       ul        ul     underline character
                                                       overstrikes
          xon_xoff                    xon       xo     terminal uses
                                                       xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>      <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>       <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                   <STRONG>Numeric</STRONG>            <STRONG>name</STRONG>      <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          columns                     cols      co     number of columns in
                                                       a line
          init_tabs                   it        it     tabs initially every
                                                       # spaces
          label_height                lh        lh     rows in each label
          label_width                 lw        lw     columns in each
                                                       label
          lines                       lines     li     number of lines on
                                                       screen or page
          lines_of_memory             lm        lm     lines of memory if &gt;
                                                       line. 0 means varies
          magic_cookie_glitch         xmc       sg     number of blank
                                                       characters left by
                                                       smso or rmso
          max_attributes              ma        ma     maximum combined
                                                       attributes terminal
                                                       can handle
          max_colors                  colors    Co     maximum number of
                                                       colors on screen
          max_pairs                   pairs     pa     maximum number of
                                                       color-pairs on the
                                                       screen
          maximum_windows             wnum      MW     maximum number of
                                                       definable windows
          no_color_video              ncv       NC     video attributes
                                                       that cannot be used
                                                       with colors
          num_labels                  nlab      Nl     number of labels on
                                                       screen
          padding_baud_rate           pb        pb     lowest baud rate
                                                       where padding needed
          virtual_terminal            vt        vt     virtual terminal
                                                       number (CB/unix)
          width_status_line           wsl       ws     number of columns in
                                                       status line

       The  following  numeric  capabilities  are  present  in the SVr4.0 term
       structure, but are not yet documented in the man page.   They  came  in
       with SVr4's printer support.


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>      <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>       <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                   <STRONG>Numeric</STRONG>            <STRONG>name</STRONG>      <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          bit_image_entwining         bitwin    Yo     number of passes for
                                                       each bit-image row
          bit_image_type              bitype    Yp     type of bit-image
                                                       device



          buffer_capacity             bufsz     Ya     numbers of bytes
                                                       buffered before
                                                       printing
          buttons                     btns      BT     number of buttons on
                                                       mouse
          dot_horz_spacing            spinh     Yc     spacing of dots hor-
                                                       izontally in dots
                                                       per inch
          dot_vert_spacing            spinv     Yb     spacing of pins ver-
                                                       tically in pins per
                                                       inch
          max_micro_address           maddr     Yd     maximum value in
                                                       micro_..._address
          max_micro_jump              mjump     Ye     maximum value in
                                                       parm_..._micro
          micro_col_size              mcs       Yf     character step size
                                                       when in micro mode
          micro_line_size             mls       Yg     line step size when
                                                       in micro mode
          number_of_pins              npins     Yh     numbers of pins in
                                                       print-head
          output_res_char             orc       Yi     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
                                                       line
          output_res_horz_inch        orhi      Yk     horizontal resolu-
                                                       tion in units per
                                                       inch
          output_res_line             orl       Yj     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per line
          output_res_vert_inch        orvi      Yl     vertical resolution
                                                       in units per inch
          print_rate                  cps       Ym     print rate in char-
                                                       acters per second
          wide_char_size              widcs     Yn     character step size
                                                       when in double wide
                                                       mode

       These are the string capabilities:


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>      <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>       <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                   <STRONG>String</STRONG>             <STRONG>name</STRONG>      <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          acs_chars                   acsc      ac     graphics charset
                                                       pairs, based on
                                                       vt100
          back_tab                    cbt       bt     back tab (P)
          bell                        bel       bl     audible signal
                                                       (bell) (P)
          carriage_return             cr        cr     carriage return (P*)
                                                       (P*)
          change_char_pitch           cpi       ZA     Change number of
                                                       characters per inch
                                                       to #1
          change_line_pitch           lpi       ZB     Change number of
                                                       lines per inch to #1
          change_res_horz             chr       ZC     Change horizontal
                                                       resolution to #1
          change_res_vert             cvr       ZD     Change vertical res-
                                                       olution to #1
          change_scroll_region        csr       cs     change region to
                                                       line #1 to line #2
                                                       (P)
          char_padding                rmp       rP     like ip but when in
                                                       insert mode


          clear_all_tabs              tbc       ct     clear all tab stops
                                                       (P)
          clear_margins               mgc       MC     clear right and left
                                                       soft margins
          clear_screen                clear     cl     clear screen and
                                                       home cursor (P*)
          clr_bol                     el1       cb     Clear to beginning
                                                       of line
          clr_eol                     el        ce     clear to end of line
                                                       (P)
          clr_eos                     ed        cd     clear to end of
                                                       screen (P*)
          column_address              hpa       ch     horizontal position
                                                       #1, absolute (P)
          command_character           cmdch     CC     terminal settable
                                                       cmd character in
                                                       prototype !?
          create_window               cwin      CW     define a window #1
                                                       from #2,#3 to #4,#5
          cursor_address              cup       cm     move to row #1 col-
                                                       umns #2
          cursor_down                 cud1      do     down one line
          cursor_home                 home      ho     home cursor (if no
                                                       cup)
          cursor_invisible            civis     vi     make cursor invisi-
                                                       ble
          cursor_left                 cub1      le     move left one space
          cursor_mem_address          mrcup     CM     memory relative cur-
                                                       sor addressing, move
                                                       to row #1 columns #2
          cursor_normal               cnorm     ve     make cursor appear
                                                       normal (undo
                                                       civis/cvvis)
          cursor_right                cuf1      nd     non-destructive
                                                       space (move right
                                                       one space)
          cursor_to_ll                ll        ll     last line, first
                                                       column (if no cup)
          cursor_up                   cuu1      up     up one line
          cursor_visible              cvvis     vs     make cursor very
                                                       visible
          define_char                 defc      ZE     Define a character
                                                       #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                       descender #3
          delete_character            dch1      dc     delete character
                                                       (P*)
          delete_line                 dl1       dl     delete line (P*)
          dial_phone                  dial      DI     dial number #1
          dis_status_line             dsl       ds     disable status line
          display_clock               dclk      DK     display clock
          down_half_line              hd        hd     half a line down
          ena_acs                     enacs     eA     enable alternate
                                                       char set
          enter_alt_charset_mode      smacs     as     start alternate
                                                       character set (P)
          enter_am_mode               smam      SA     turn on automatic
                                                       margins
          enter_blink_mode            blink     mb     turn on blinking
          enter_bold_mode             bold      md     turn on bold (extra
                                                       bright) mode
          enter_ca_mode               smcup     ti     string to start pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          enter_delete_mode           smdc      dm     enter delete mode
          enter_dim_mode              dim       mh     turn on half-bright
                                                       mode

          enter_doublewide_mode       swidm     ZF     Enter double-wide
                                                       mode
          enter_draft_quality         sdrfq     ZG     Enter draft-quality
                                                       mode
          enter_insert_mode           smir      im     enter insert mode
          enter_italics_mode          sitm      ZH     Enter italic mode
          enter_leftward_mode         slm       ZI     Start leftward car-
                                                       riage motion
          enter_micro_mode            smicm     ZJ     Start micro-motion
                                                       mode
          enter_near_letter_quality   snlq      ZK     Enter NLQ mode
          enter_normal_quality        snrmq     ZL     Enter normal-quality
                                                       mode
          enter_protected_mode        prot      mp     turn on protected
                                                       mode
          enter_reverse_mode          rev       mr     turn on reverse
                                                       video mode
          enter_secure_mode           invis     mk     turn on blank mode
                                                       (characters invisi-
                                                       ble)
          enter_shadow_mode           sshm      ZM     Enter shadow-print
                                                       mode
          enter_standout_mode         smso      so     begin standout mode
          enter_subscript_mode        ssubm     ZN     Enter subscript mode
          enter_superscript_mode      ssupm     ZO     Enter superscript
                                                       mode
          enter_underline_mode        smul      us     begin underline mode
          enter_upward_mode           sum       ZP     Start upward car-
                                                       riage motion
          enter_xon_mode              smxon     SX     turn on xon/xoff
                                                       handshaking
          erase_chars                 ech       ec     erase #1 characters
                                                       (P)
          exit_alt_charset_mode       rmacs     ae     end alternate char-
                                                       acter set (P)
          exit_am_mode                rmam      RA     turn off automatic
                                                       margins
          exit_attribute_mode         sgr0      me     turn off all
                                                       attributes
          exit_ca_mode                rmcup     te     strings to end pro-
                                                       grams using cup
          exit_delete_mode            rmdc      ed     end delete mode
          exit_doublewide_mode        rwidm     ZQ     End double-wide mode
          exit_insert_mode            rmir      ei     exit insert mode
          exit_italics_mode           ritm      ZR     End italic mode
          exit_leftward_mode          rlm       ZS     End left-motion mode
          exit_micro_mode             rmicm     ZT     End micro-motion
                                                       mode
          exit_shadow_mode            rshm      ZU     End shadow-print
                                                       mode
          exit_standout_mode          rmso      se     exit standout mode
          exit_subscript_mode         rsubm     ZV     End subscript mode
          exit_superscript_mode       rsupm     ZW     End superscript mode
          exit_underline_mode         rmul      ue     exit underline mode
          exit_upward_mode            rum       ZX     End reverse charac-
                                                       ter motion
          exit_xon_mode               rmxon     RX     turn off xon/xoff
                                                       handshaking
          fixed_pause                 pause     PA     pause for 2-3 sec-
                                                       onds
          flash_hook                  hook      fh     flash switch hook
          flash_screen                flash     vb     visible bell (may
                                                       not move cursor)
          form_feed                   ff        ff     hardcopy terminal
                                                       page eject (P*)

          from_status_line            fsl       fs     return from status
                                                       line
          goto_window                 wingo     WG     go to window #1
          hangup                      hup       HU     hang-up phone
          init_1string                is1       i1     initialization
                                                       string
          init_2string                is2       is     initialization
                                                       string
          init_3string                is3       i3     initialization
                                                       string
          init_file                   if        if     name of initializa-
                                                       tion file
          init_prog                   iprog     iP     path name of program
                                                       for initialization
          initialize_color            initc     Ic     initialize color #1
                                                       to (#2,#3,#4)
          initialize_pair             initp     Ip     Initialize color
                                                       pair #1 to
                                                       fg=(#2,#3,#4),
                                                       bg=(#5,#6,#7)
          insert_character            ich1      ic     insert character (P)
          insert_line                 il1       al     insert line (P*)
          insert_padding              ip        ip     insert padding after
                                                       inserted character
          key_a1                      ka1       K1     upper left of keypad
          key_a3                      ka3       K3     upper right of key-
                                                       pad
          key_b2                      kb2       K2     center of keypad
          key_backspace               kbs       kb     backspace key
          key_beg                     kbeg      @1     begin key
          key_btab                    kcbt      kB     back-tab key
          key_c1                      kc1       K4     lower left of keypad
          key_c3                      kc3       K5     lower right of key-
                                                       pad
          key_cancel                  kcan      @2     cancel key
          key_catab                   ktbc      ka     clear-all-tabs key
          key_clear                   kclr      kC     clear-screen or
                                                       erase key
          key_close                   kclo      @3     close key
          key_command                 kcmd      @4     command key
          key_copy                    kcpy      @5     copy key
          key_create                  kcrt      @6     create key
          key_ctab                    kctab     kt     clear-tab key
          key_dc                      kdch1     kD     delete-character key
          key_dl                      kdl1      kL     delete-line key
          key_down                    kcud1     kd     down-arrow key
          key_eic                     krmir     kM     sent by rmir or smir
                                                       in insert mode
          key_end                     kend      @7     end key
          key_enter                   kent      @8     enter/send key
          key_eol                     kel       kE     clear-to-end-of-line
                                                       key
          key_eos                     ked       kS     clear-to-end-of-
                                                       screen key
          key_exit                    kext      @9     exit key
          key_f0                      kf0       k0     F0 function key
          key_f1                      kf1       k1     F1 function key
          key_f10                     kf10      k;     F10 function key
          key_f11                     kf11      F1     F11 function key
          key_f12                     kf12      F2     F12 function key
          key_f13                     kf13      F3     F13 function key
          key_f14                     kf14      F4     F14 function key
          key_f15                     kf15      F5     F15 function key
          key_f16                     kf16      F6     F16 function key
          key_f17                     kf17      F7     F17 function key

          key_f18                     kf18      F8     F18 function key
          key_f19                     kf19      F9     F19 function key
          key_f2                      kf2       k2     F2 function key
          key_f20                     kf20      FA     F20 function key
          key_f21                     kf21      FB     F21 function key
          key_f22                     kf22      FC     F22 function key
          key_f23                     kf23      FD     F23 function key
          key_f24                     kf24      FE     F24 function key
          key_f25                     kf25      FF     F25 function key
          key_f26                     kf26      FG     F26 function key
          key_f27                     kf27      FH     F27 function key
          key_f28                     kf28      FI     F28 function key
          key_f29                     kf29      FJ     F29 function key
          key_f3                      kf3       k3     F3 function key
          key_f30                     kf30      FK     F30 function key
          key_f31                     kf31      FL     F31 function key
          key_f32                     kf32      FM     F32 function key
          key_f33                     kf33      FN     F33 function key
          key_f34                     kf34      FO     F34 function key
          key_f35                     kf35      FP     F35 function key
          key_f36                     kf36      FQ     F36 function key
          key_f37                     kf37      FR     F37 function key
          key_f38                     kf38      FS     F38 function key
          key_f39                     kf39      FT     F39 function key
          key_f4                      kf4       k4     F4 function key
          key_f40                     kf40      FU     F40 function key
          key_f41                     kf41      FV     F41 function key
          key_f42                     kf42      FW     F42 function key
          key_f43                     kf43      FX     F43 function key
          key_f44                     kf44      FY     F44 function key
          key_f45                     kf45      FZ     F45 function key
          key_f46                     kf46      Fa     F46 function key
          key_f47                     kf47      Fb     F47 function key
          key_f48                     kf48      Fc     F48 function key
          key_f49                     kf49      Fd     F49 function key
          key_f5                      kf5       k5     F5 function key
          key_f50                     kf50      Fe     F50 function key
          key_f51                     kf51      Ff     F51 function key
          key_f52                     kf52      Fg     F52 function key
          key_f53                     kf53      Fh     F53 function key
          key_f54                     kf54      Fi     F54 function key
          key_f55                     kf55      Fj     F55 function key
          key_f56                     kf56      Fk     F56 function key
          key_f57                     kf57      Fl     F57 function key
          key_f58                     kf58      Fm     F58 function key
          key_f59                     kf59      Fn     F59 function key
          key_f6                      kf6       k6     F6 function key
          key_f60                     kf60      Fo     F60 function key
          key_f61                     kf61      Fp     F61 function key
          key_f62                     kf62      Fq     F62 function key
          key_f63                     kf63      Fr     F63 function key
          key_f7                      kf7       k7     F7 function key
          key_f8                      kf8       k8     F8 function key
          key_f9                      kf9       k9     F9 function key
          key_find                    kfnd      @0     find key
          key_help                    khlp      %1     help key
          key_home                    khome     kh     home key
          key_ic                      kich1     kI     insert-character key
          key_il                      kil1      kA     insert-line key
          key_left                    kcub1     kl     left-arrow key
          key_ll                      kll       kH     lower-left key (home
                                                       down)
          key_mark                    kmrk      %2     mark key
          key_message                 kmsg      %3     message key
          key_move                    kmov      %4     move key

          key_next                    knxt      %5     next key
          key_npage                   knp       kN     next-page key
          key_open                    kopn      %6     open key
          key_options                 kopt      %7     options key
          key_ppage                   kpp       kP     previous-page key
          key_previous                kprv      %8     previous key
          key_print                   kprt      %9     print key
          key_redo                    krdo      %0     redo key
          key_reference               kref      &amp;1     reference key
          key_refresh                 krfr      &amp;2     refresh key
          key_replace                 krpl      &amp;3     replace key
          key_restart                 krst      &amp;4     restart key
          key_resume                  kres      &amp;5     resume key
          key_right                   kcuf1     kr     right-arrow key
          key_save                    ksav      &amp;6     save key
          key_sbeg                    kBEG      &amp;9     shifted begin key
          key_scancel                 kCAN      &amp;0     shifted cancel key
          key_scommand                kCMD      *1     shifted command key
          key_scopy                   kCPY      *2     shifted copy key
          key_screate                 kCRT      *3     shifted create key
          key_sdc                     kDC       *4     shifted delete-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sdl                     kDL       *5     shifted delete-line
                                                       key
          key_select                  kslt      *6     select key
          key_send                    kEND      *7     shifted end key
          key_seol                    kEOL      *8     shifted clear-to-
                                                       end-of-line key
          key_sexit                   kEXT      *9     shifted exit key
          key_sf                      kind      kF     scroll-forward key
          key_sfind                   kFND      *0     shifted find key
          key_shelp                   kHLP      #1     shifted help key
          key_shome                   kHOM      #2     shifted home key
          key_sic                     kIC       #3     shifted insert-char-
                                                       acter key
          key_sleft                   kLFT      #4     shifted left-arrow
                                                       key
          key_smessage                kMSG      %a     shifted message key
          key_smove                   kMOV      %b     shifted move key
          key_snext                   kNXT      %c     shifted next key
          key_soptions                kOPT      %d     shifted options key
          key_sprevious               kPRV      %e     shifted previous key
          key_sprint                  kPRT      %f     shifted print key
          key_sr                      kri       kR     scroll-backward key
          key_sredo                   kRDO      %g     shifted redo key
          key_sreplace                kRPL      %h     shifted replace key
          key_sright                  kRIT      %i     shifted right-arrow
                                                       key
          key_srsume                  kRES      %j     shifted resume key
          key_ssave                   kSAV      !1     shifted save key
          key_ssuspend                kSPD      !2     shifted suspend key
          key_stab                    khts      kT     set-tab key
          key_sundo                   kUND      !3     shifted undo key
          key_suspend                 kspd      &amp;7     suspend key
          key_undo                    kund      &amp;8     undo key
          key_up                      kcuu1     ku     up-arrow key
          keypad_local                rmkx      ke     leave 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          keypad_xmit                 smkx      ks     enter 'key-
                                                       board_transmit' mode
          lab_f0                      lf0       l0     label on function
                                                       key f0 if not f0
          lab_f1                      lf1       l1     label on function
                                                       key f1 if not f1


          lab_f10                     lf10      la     label on function
                                                       key f10 if not f10
          lab_f2                      lf2       l2     label on function
                                                       key f2 if not f2
          lab_f3                      lf3       l3     label on function
                                                       key f3 if not f3
          lab_f4                      lf4       l4     label on function
                                                       key f4 if not f4
          lab_f5                      lf5       l5     label on function
                                                       key f5 if not f5
          lab_f6                      lf6       l6     label on function
                                                       key f6 if not f6
          lab_f7                      lf7       l7     label on function
                                                       key f7 if not f7
          lab_f8                      lf8       l8     label on function
                                                       key f8 if not f8
          lab_f9                      lf9       l9     label on function
                                                       key f9 if not f9
          label_format                fln       Lf     label format
          label_off                   rmln      LF     turn off soft labels
          label_on                    smln      LO     turn on soft labels
          meta_off                    rmm       mo     turn off meta mode
          meta_on                     smm       mm     turn on meta mode
                                                       (8th-bit on)
          micro_column_address        mhpa      ZY     Like column_address
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_down                  mcud1     ZZ     Like cursor_down in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_left                  mcub1     Za     Like cursor_left in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_right                 mcuf1     Zb     Like cursor_right in
                                                       micro mode
          micro_row_address           mvpa      Zc     Like row_address #1
                                                       in micro mode
          micro_up                    mcuu1     Zd     Like cursor_up in
                                                       micro mode
          newline                     nel       nw     newline (behave like
                                                       cr followed by lf)
          order_of_pins               porder    Ze     Match software bits
                                                       to print-head pins
          orig_colors                 oc        oc     Set all color pairs
                                                       to the original ones
          orig_pair                   op        op     Set default pair to
                                                       its original value
          pad_char                    pad       pc     padding char
                                                       (instead of null)
          parm_dch                    dch       DC     delete #1 characters
                                                       (P*)
          parm_delete_line            dl        DL     delete #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_cursor            cud       DO     down #1 lines (P*)
          parm_down_micro             mcud      Zf     Like parm_down_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_ich                    ich       IC     insert #1 characters
                                                       (P*)
          parm_index                  indn      SF     scroll forward #1
                                                       lines (P)
          parm_insert_line            il        AL     insert #1 lines (P*)
          parm_left_cursor            cub       LE     move #1 characters
                                                       to the left (P)
          parm_left_micro             mcub      Zg     Like parm_left_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode
          parm_right_cursor           cuf       RI     move #1 characters
                                                       to the right (P*)
          parm_right_micro            mcuf      Zh     Like parm_right_cur-
                                                       sor in micro mode

          parm_rindex                 rin       SR     scroll back #1 lines
                                                       (P)
          parm_up_cursor              cuu       UP     up #1 lines (P*)
          parm_up_micro               mcuu      Zi     Like parm_up_cursor
                                                       in micro mode
          pkey_key                    pfkey     pk     program function key
                                                       #1 to type string #2
          pkey_local                  pfloc     pl     program function key
                                                       #1 to execute string
                                                       #2
          pkey_xmit                   pfx       px     program function key
                                                       #1 to transmit
                                                       string #2
          plab_norm                   pln       pn     program label #1 to
                                                       show string #2
          print_screen                mc0       ps     print contents of
                                                       screen
          prtr_non                    mc5p      pO     turn on printer for
                                                       #1 bytes
          prtr_off                    mc4       pf     turn off printer
          prtr_on                     mc5       po     turn on printer
          pulse                       pulse     PU     select pulse dialing
          quick_dial                  qdial     QD     dial number #1 with-
                                                       out checking
          remove_clock                rmclk     RC     remove clock
          repeat_char                 rep       rp     repeat char #1 #2
                                                       times (P*)
          req_for_input               rfi       RF     send next input char
                                                       (for ptys)
          reset_1string               rs1       r1     reset string
          reset_2string               rs2       r2     reset string
          reset_3string               rs3       r3     reset string
          reset_file                  rf        rf     name of reset file
          restore_cursor              rc        rc     restore cursor to
                                                       position of last
                                                       save_cursor
          row_address                 vpa       cv     vertical position #1
                                                       absolute (P)
          save_cursor                 sc        sc     save current cursor
                                                       position (P)
          scroll_forward              ind       sf     scroll text up (P)
          scroll_reverse              ri        sr     scroll text down (P)
          select_char_set             scs       Zj     Select character
                                                       set, #1
          set_attributes              sgr       sa     define video
                                                       attributes #1-#9
                                                       (PG9)
          set_background              setb      Sb     Set background color
                                                       #1
          set_bottom_margin           smgb      Zk     Set bottom margin at
                                                       current line
          set_bottom_margin_parm      smgbp     Zl     Set bottom margin at
                                                       line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                       is not given) #2
                                                       lines from bottom
          set_clock                   sclk      SC     set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                       mins #3 secs
          set_color_pair              scp       sp     Set current color
                                                       pair to #1
          set_foreground              setf      Sf     Set foreground color
                                                       #1





          set_left_margin             smgl      ML     set left soft margin
                                                       at current col-
                                                       umn.     See smgl.
                                                       (ML is not in BSD
                                                       termcap).
          set_left_margin_parm        smglp     Zm     Set left (right)
                                                       margin at column #1
          set_right_margin            smgr      MR     set right soft mar-
                                                       gin at current col-
                                                       umn
          set_right_margin_parm       smgrp     Zn     Set right margin at
                                                       column #1
          set_tab                     hts       st     set a tab in every
                                                       row, current columns
          set_top_margin              smgt      Zo     Set top margin at
                                                       current line
          set_top_margin_parm         smgtp     Zp     Set top (bottom)
                                                       margin at row #1
          set_window                  wind      wi     current window is
                                                       lines #1-#2 cols
                                                       #3-#4
          start_bit_image             sbim      Zq     Start printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          start_char_set_def          scsd      Zr     Start character set
                                                       definition #1, with
                                                       #2 characters in the
                                                       set
          stop_bit_image              rbim      Zs     Stop printing bit
                                                       image graphics
          stop_char_set_def           rcsd      Zt     End definition of
                                                       character set #1
          subscript_characters        subcs     Zu     List of subscript-
                                                       able characters
          superscript_characters      supcs     Zv     List of superscript-
                                                       able characters
          tab                         ht        ta     tab to next 8-space
                                                       hardware tab stop
          these_cause_cr              docr      Zw     Printing any of
                                                       these characters
                                                       causes CR
          to_status_line              tsl       ts     move to status line,
                                                       column #1
          tone                        tone      TO     select touch tone
                                                       dialing
          underline_char              uc        uc     underline char and
                                                       move past it
          up_half_line                hu        hu     half a line up
          user0                       u0        u0     User string #0
          user1                       u1        u1     User string #1
          user2                       u2        u2     User string #2
          user3                       u3        u3     User string #3
          user4                       u4        u4     User string #4
          user5                       u5        u5     User string #5
          user6                       u6        u6     User string #6
          user7                       u7        u7     User string #7
          user8                       u8        u8     User string #8
          user9                       u9        u9     User string #9
          wait_tone                   wait      WA     wait for dial-tone
          xoff_character              xoffc     XF     XOFF character
          xon_character               xonc      XN     XON character
          zero_motion                 zerom     Zx     No motion for subse-
                                                       quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term struc-
       ture, but were originally not documented in the man page.


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>       <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>      <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                   <STRONG>String</STRONG>             <STRONG>name</STRONG>       <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          alt_scancode_esc            scesa      S8     Alternate escape
                                                        for scancode emu-
                                                        lation
          bit_image_carriage_return   bicr       Yv     Move to beginning
                                                        of same row
          bit_image_newline           binel      Zz     Move to next row
                                                        of the bit image
          bit_image_repeat            birep      Xy     Repeat bit image
                                                        cell #1 #2 times
          char_set_names              csnm       Zy     Produce #1'th item
                                                        from list of char-
                                                        acter set names
          code_set_init               csin       ci     Init sequence for
                                                        multiple codesets
          color_names                 colornm    Yw     Give name for
                                                        color #1
          define_bit_image_region     defbi      Yx     Define rectangular
                                                        bit image region
          device_type                 devt       dv     Indicate lan-
                                                        guage/codeset sup-
                                                        port
          display_pc_char             dispc      S1     Display PC charac-
                                                        ter #1
          end_bit_image_region        endbi      Yy     End a bit-image
                                                        region
          enter_pc_charset_mode       smpch      S2     Enter PC character
                                                        display mode
          enter_scancode_mode         smsc       S4     Enter PC scancode
                                                        mode
          exit_pc_charset_mode        rmpch      S3     Exit PC character
                                                        display mode
          exit_scancode_mode          rmsc       S5     Exit PC scancode
                                                        mode
          get_mouse                   getm       Gm     Curses should get
                                                        button events,
                                                        parameter #1 not
                                                        documented.
          key_mouse                   kmous      Km     Mouse event has
                                                        occurred
          mouse_info                  minfo      Mi     Mouse status
                                                        information
          pc_term_options             pctrm      S6     PC terminal
                                                        options
          pkey_plab                   pfxl       xl     Program function
                                                        key #1 to type
                                                        string #2 and show
                                                        string #3
          req_mouse_pos               reqmp      RQ     Request mouse
                                                        position
          scancode_escape             scesc      S7     Escape for scan-
                                                        code emulation
          set0_des_seq                s0ds       s0     Shift to codeset 0
                                                        (EUC set 0, ASCII)
          set1_des_seq                s1ds       s1     Shift to codeset 1
          set2_des_seq                s2ds       s2     Shift to codeset 2
          set3_des_seq                s3ds       s3     Shift to codeset 3
          set_a_background            setab      AB     Set background
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape
          set_a_foreground            setaf      AF     Set foreground
                                                        color to #1, using
                                                        ANSI escape

          set_color_band              setcolor   Yz     Change to ribbon
                                                        color #1
          set_lr_margin               smglr      ML     Set both left and
                                                        right margins to
                                                        #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                        not in BSD term-
                                                        cap).
          set_page_length             slines     YZ     Set page length to
                                                        #1 lines
          set_tb_margin               smgtb      MT     Sets both top and
                                                        bottom margins to
                                                        #1, #2

        The  XSI Curses standard added these hardcopy capabilities.  They were
        used in some post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g.,  Solaris  2.5
        and  IRIX  6.x.  Except for <STRONG>YI</STRONG>, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> termcap names for them are
        invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard, they have no  termcap
        names.   If  your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!


                  <STRONG>Variable</STRONG>            <STRONG>Cap-</STRONG>      <STRONG>TCap</STRONG>       <STRONG>Description</STRONG>
                   <STRONG>String</STRONG>             <STRONG>name</STRONG>      <STRONG>Code</STRONG>
          enter_horizontal_hl_mode    ehhlm     Xh     Enter horizontal
                                                       highlight mode
          enter_left_hl_mode          elhlm     Xl     Enter left highlight
                                                       mode
          enter_low_hl_mode           elohlm    Xo     Enter low highlight
                                                       mode
          enter_right_hl_mode         erhlm     Xr     Enter right high-
                                                       light mode
          enter_top_hl_mode           ethlm     Xt     Enter top highlight
                                                       mode
          enter_vertical_hl_mode      evhlm     Xv     Enter vertical high-
                                                       light mode
          set_a_attributes            sgr1      sA     Define second set of
                                                       video attributes
                                                       #1-#6
          set_pglen_inch              slength   YI     Set page length to
                                                       #1 hundredth of an
                                                       inch (some implemen-
                                                       tations use sL for
                                                       termcap).


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-User-Defined-Capabilities">User-Defined Capabilities</a></H3><PRE>
       The preceding section listed the <EM>predefined</EM>  capabilities.   They  deal
       with  some special features for terminals no longer (or possibly never)
       produced.  Occasionally there are special features of  newer  terminals
       which  are awkward or impossible to represent by reusing the predefined
       capabilities.

       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> addresses this limitation by  allowing  user-defined  capabili-
       ties.  The <STRONG>tic</STRONG> and <STRONG>infocmp</STRONG> programs provide the <STRONG>-x</STRONG> option for this pur-
       pose.  When <STRONG>-x</STRONG> is set, <STRONG>tic</STRONG> treats unknown capabilities as user-defined.
       That  is,  if <STRONG>tic</STRONG> encounters a capability name which it does not recog-
       nize, it infers its type (boolean, number or string)  from  the  syntax
       and   makes   an   extended  table  entry  for  that  capability.   The
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_extend.3x.html">use_extended_names(3x)</A></STRONG> function makes  this  information  conditionally
       available to applications.  The ncurses library provides the data leav-
       ing most of the behavior to applications:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   User-defined capability strings whose  name  begins  with  "k"  are
           treated as function keys.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  types  (boolean,  number,  string)  determined  by  <STRONG>tic</STRONG> can be
           inferred by successful calls on <STRONG>tigetflag</STRONG>, etc.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability
           is also available through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a prede-
       fined set of capabilities, in practice it has been limited to the capa-
       bilities  defined by terminfo implementations.  As a rule, user-defined
       capabilities intended for use by termcap applications should be limited
       to  booleans  and  numbers  to  avoid  running past the 1023 byte limit
       assumed by termcap implementations and their applications.  In particu-
       lar,  providing  extended  sets  of function keys (past the 60 numbered
       keys and the handful of special named keys)  is  best  done  using  the
       longer names available using terminfo.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-A-Sample-Entry">A Sample Entry</a></H3><PRE>
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is represen-
       tative of what a <STRONG>terminfo</STRONG> entry for a modern terminal  typically  looks
       like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               acsc=+\020\,\021-\030.^Y0\333`\004a\261f\370g\361h\260
                    j\331k\277l\332m\300n\305o~p\304q\304r\304s_t\303
                    u\264v\301w\302x\263y\363z\362{\343|\330}\234~\376,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr=\E[0;10%?%p1%t;7%;
                          %?%p2%t;4%;
                          %?%p3%t;7%;
                          %?%p4%t;5%;
                          %?%p6%t;1%;
                          %?%p7%t;8%;
                          %?%p9%t;11%;m,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the
       beginning of each line except the first.  Comments may be  included  on
       lines beginning with "#".  Capabilities in <EM>terminfo</EM> are of three types:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some par-
           ticular feature,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of
           particular delays, and

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   string  capabilities,  which  give  a sequence which can be used to
           perform particular terminal operations.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Types-of-Capabilities">Types of Capabilities</a></H3><PRE>
       All capabilities have names.  For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard
       terminals  have  <EM>automatic</EM> <EM>margins</EM> (i.e., an automatic return and line-
       feed when the end of a line is reached) is indicated by the  capability
       <STRONG>am</STRONG>.   Hence  the description of ansi includes <STRONG>am</STRONG>.  Numeric capabilities
       are followed by the character "#" and  then  a  positive  value.   Thus
       <STRONG>cols</STRONG>, which indicates the number of columns the terminal has, gives the
       value "80" for ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be  specified
       in decimal, octal or hexadecimal, using the C programming language con-
       ventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally, string valued capabilities, such as <STRONG>el</STRONG> (clear to end  of  line
       sequence)  are  given  by  the  two-character  code, an "=", and then a
       string ending at the next following ",".

       A number of escape sequences are provided in the string valued capabil-
       ities for easy encoding of characters there:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Both <STRONG>\E</STRONG> and <STRONG>\e</STRONG> map to an ESCAPE character,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>^x</STRONG> maps to a control-x for any appropriate <EM>x</EM>, and

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the sequences

             <STRONG>\n</STRONG>, <STRONG>\l</STRONG>, <STRONG>\r</STRONG>, <STRONG>\t</STRONG>, <STRONG>\b</STRONG>, <STRONG>\f</STRONG>, and <STRONG>\s</STRONG>

           produce

             <EM>newline</EM>, <EM>line-feed</EM>, <EM>return</EM>, <EM>tab</EM>, <EM>backspace</EM>, <EM>form-feed</EM>, and <EM>space</EM>,

           respectively.

       X/Open Curses does not say what "appropriate <EM>x</EM>" might be.  In practice,
       that is a printable ASCII graphic character.  The special case "^?"  is
       interpreted  as  DEL (127).  In all other cases, the character value is
       AND'd with 0x1f, mapping to ASCII control codes in the range 0  through
       31.

       Other escapes include

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>\^</STRONG> for <STRONG>^</STRONG>,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>\\</STRONG> for <STRONG>\</STRONG>,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>\</STRONG>, for comma,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>\:</STRONG> for <STRONG>:</STRONG>,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   and <STRONG>\0</STRONG> for null.

           <STRONG>\0</STRONG> will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves
           as a null character on most terminals, providing CS7 is  specified.
           See <STRONG>stty(1)</STRONG>.

           The  reason  for  this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of
           the compiled terminfo files with other implementations,  e.g.,  the
           SVr4  systems,  which  document  this.  Compiled terminfo files use
           null-terminated strings, with no  lengths.   Modifying  this  would
           require a new binary format, which would not work with other imple-
           mentations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a <STRONG>\</STRONG>.

       A delay in milliseconds may appear anywhere  in  a  string  capability,
       enclosed  in  $&lt;..&gt;  brackets, as in <STRONG>el</STRONG>=\EK$&lt;5&gt;, and padding characters
       are supplied by <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">tputs(3x)</A></STRONG> to provide this delay.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of preci-
           sion; it may be followed by suffixes "*" or "/" or both.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   A  "*"  indicates  that the padding required is proportional to the
           number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given  is
           the  per-affected-unit  padding  required.   (In the case of insert
           character, the factor is still the number of <EM>lines</EM> affected.)

           Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the <STRONG>xon</STRONG> capability;
           it is used for cost computation but does not trigger delays.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   A  "/"  suffix indicates that the padding is mandatory and forces a
           delay of the given number of milliseconds even on devices for which
           <STRONG>xon</STRONG> is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes  individual  capabilities must be commented out.  To do this,
       put a period before the capability name.  For example, see  the  second
       <STRONG>ind</STRONG> in the example above.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Fetching-Compiled-Descriptions">Fetching Compiled Descriptions</a></H3><PRE>
       The  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  library  searches  for  terminal  descriptions in several
       places.  It uses only the first description found.  The library  has  a
       compiled-in  list  of places to search which can be overridden by envi-
       ronment variables.   Before  starting  to  search,  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  the  environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as
           the pathname of a directory containing the compiled description you
           are working on.  Only that directory is searched.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  TERMINFO is not set, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> will instead look in the directory
           <STRONG>$HOME/.terminfo</STRONG> for a compiled description.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Next, if the environment variable  TERMINFO_DIRS  is  set,  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>
           will  interpret  the  contents of that variable as a list of colon-
           separated directories (or database files) to be searched.

           An empty directory name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends  with
           a  colon, or contains adjacent colons) is interpreted as the system
           location <EM>/usr/share/terminfo</EM>.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Finally, <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> searches these compiled-in locations:

           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   a   list    of    directories    (/usr/local/ncurses/share/ter-
               minfo:/usr/share/terminfo), and

           <STRONG>o</STRONG>   the  system  terminfo  directory, <EM>/usr/share/terminfo</EM> (the com-
               piled-in default).


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Preparing-Descriptions">Preparing Descriptions</a></H3><PRE>
       We now outline how to prepare  descriptions  of  terminals.   The  most
       effective  way  to  prepare  a terminal description is by imitating the
       description of a similar  terminal  in  <EM>terminfo</EM>  and  to  build  up  a
       description gradually, using partial descriptions with <EM>vi</EM> or some other
       screen-oriented program to check that they are correct.  Be aware  that
       a  very  unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the
       <EM>terminfo</EM> file to describe it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the
       test program.

       To  get the padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer
       did not document it) a severe test is to edit  a  large  file  at  9600
       baud, delete 16 or so lines from the middle of the screen, then hit the
       "u" key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes up, more padding
       is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Basic-Capabilities">Basic Capabilities</a></H3><PRE>
       The  number  of  columns  on each line for the terminal is given by the
       <STRONG>cols</STRONG> numeric capability.  If the terminal is a CRT, then the number  of
       lines  on the screen is given by the <STRONG>lines</STRONG> capability.  If the terminal
       wraps around to the beginning of the next  line  when  it  reaches  the
       right  margin,  then it should have the <STRONG>am</STRONG> capability.  If the terminal
       can clear its screen, leaving the cursor in  the  home  position,  then
       this  is  given  by the <STRONG>clear</STRONG> string capability.  If the terminal over-
       strikes (rather than clearing a position when  a  character  is  struck
       over)  then  it  should  have  the <STRONG>os</STRONG> capability.  If the terminal is a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both <STRONG>hc</STRONG> and <STRONG>os</STRONG>.  (<STRONG>os</STRONG>
       applies  to  storage scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as
       well as hard copy and APL terminals.)  If there is a code to  move  the
       cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as <STRONG>cr</STRONG>.  (Normally
       this will be carriage return, control/M.)  If there is a code  to  pro-
       duce an audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as <STRONG>bel</STRONG>.

       If there is a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as
       backspace) that capability should be given as <STRONG>cub1</STRONG>.   Similarly,  codes
       to  move  to the right, up, and down should be given as <STRONG>cuf1</STRONG>, <STRONG>cuu1</STRONG>, and
       <STRONG>cud1</STRONG>.  These local cursor motions should not alter the text  they  pass
       over,  for  example,  you  would  not normally use "<STRONG>cuf1</STRONG>= " because the
       space would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in
       <EM>terminfo</EM>  are  undefined  at  the left and top edges of a CRT terminal.
       Programs should never attempt to backspace around the left edge, unless
       <STRONG>bw</STRONG>  is given, and never attempt to go up locally off the top.  In order
       to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the <STRONG>ind</STRONG> (index) string.

       To  scroll  text  down,  a  program  goes to the top left corner of the
       screen and sends the <STRONG>ri</STRONG> (reverse index) string.  The strings <STRONG>ind</STRONG> and <STRONG>ri</STRONG>
       are undefined when not on their respective corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling  sequences are <STRONG>indn</STRONG> and <STRONG>rin</STRONG>
       which have the same semantics as <STRONG>ind</STRONG> and <STRONG>ri</STRONG> except that they  take  one
       parameter,  and scroll that many lines.  They are also undefined except
       at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The <STRONG>am</STRONG> capability tells whether the cursor sticks at the right edge  of
       the  screen when text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to
       a <STRONG>cuf1</STRONG> from the last column.  The only local motion  which  is  defined
       from  the  left  edge is if <STRONG>bw</STRONG> is given, then a <STRONG>cub1</STRONG> from the left edge
       will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If <STRONG>bw</STRONG> is  not  given,
       the  effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the
       edge of the screen, for example.  If the terminal has switch selectable
       automatic  margins,  the <EM>terminfo</EM> file usually assumes that this is on;
       i.e., <STRONG>am</STRONG>.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the first  col-
       umn  of  the next line, that command can be given as <STRONG>nel</STRONG> (newline).  It
       does not matter if the command clears  the  remainder  of  the  current
       line,  so  if the terminal has no <STRONG>cr</STRONG> and <STRONG>lf</STRONG> it may still be possible to
       craft a working <STRONG>nel</STRONG> out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy and "glass-tty" termi-
       nals.  Thus the model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Parameterized-Strings">Parameterized Strings</a></H3><PRE>
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the termi-
       nal are described by a parameterized string  capability,  with  <EM>printf</EM>-
       like escapes such as <EM>%x</EM> in it.  For example, to address the cursor, the
       <STRONG>cup</STRONG> capability is given, using two parameters: the row  and  column  to
       address  to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the
       physical screen visible to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the
       terminal  has  memory relative cursor addressing, that can be indicated
       by <STRONG>mrcup</STRONG>.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special <STRONG>%</STRONG> codes to  manipulate
       it.   Typically  a  sequence  will  push one of the parameters onto the
       stack and then print it in some format.  Print (e.g., "%d") is  a  spe-
       cial case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their operand from the
       stack.  It is noted that more complex operations are  often  necessary,
       e.g., in the <STRONG>sgr</STRONG> string.

       The <STRONG>%</STRONG> encodings have the following meanings:

       <STRONG>%%</STRONG>   outputs "%"

       <STRONG>%</STRONG><EM>[[</EM>:<EM>]flags][width[.precision]][</EM><STRONG>doxXs</STRONG><EM>]</EM>
            as  in  <STRONG>printf(3)</STRONG>,  flags are <EM>[-+#]</EM> and <EM>space</EM>.  Use a ":" to allow
            the next character to be a "-" flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as
            an operator.

       %c   print <EM>pop()</EM> like %c in <STRONG>printf</STRONG>

       <STRONG>%s</STRONG>   print <EM>pop()</EM> like %s in <STRONG>printf</STRONG>

       <STRONG>%p</STRONG><EM>[1-9]</EM>
            push <EM>i</EM>'th parameter

       <STRONG>%P</STRONG><EM>[a-z]</EM>
            set dynamic variable <EM>[a-z]</EM> to <EM>pop()</EM>

       <STRONG>%g</STRONG><EM>[a-z]/</EM>
            get dynamic variable <EM>[a-z]</EM> and push it

       <STRONG>%P</STRONG><EM>[A-Z]</EM>
            set static variable <EM>[a-z]</EM> to <EM>pop()</EM>

       <STRONG>%g</STRONG><EM>[A-Z]</EM>
            get static variable <EM>[a-z]</EM> and push it

            The  terms  "static"  and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically,
            these are simply two different sets of variables, whose values are
            not  reset  between calls to <STRONG><A HREF="curs_terminfo.3x.html">tparm(3x)</A></STRONG>.  However, that fact is not
            documented in other implementations.  Relying on it will adversely
            impact portability to other implementations.

       <STRONG>%'</STRONG><EM>c</EM><STRONG>'</STRONG> char constant <EM>c</EM>

       <STRONG>%{</STRONG><EM>nn</EM><STRONG>}</STRONG>
            integer constant <EM>nn</EM>

       <STRONG>%l</STRONG>   push strlen(pop)

       <STRONG>%+</STRONG>, <STRONG>%-</STRONG>, <STRONG>%*</STRONG>, <STRONG>%/</STRONG>, <STRONG>%m</STRONG>
            arithmetic (%m is <EM>mod</EM>): <EM>push(pop()</EM> <EM>op</EM> <EM>pop())</EM>

       <STRONG>%&amp;</STRONG>, <STRONG>%|</STRONG>, <STRONG>%^</STRONG>
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): <EM>push(pop()</EM> <EM>op</EM> <EM>pop())</EM>

       <STRONG>%=</STRONG>, <STRONG>%&gt;</STRONG>, <STRONG>%&lt;</STRONG>
            logical operations: <EM>push(pop()</EM> <EM>op</EM> <EM>pop())</EM>

       <STRONG>%A</STRONG>, <STRONG>%O</STRONG>
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       <STRONG>%!</STRONG>, <STRONG>%~</STRONG>
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): <EM>push(op</EM> <EM>pop())</EM>

       <STRONG>%i</STRONG>   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       <STRONG>%?</STRONG> <EM>expr</EM> <STRONG>%t</STRONG> <EM>thenpart</EM> <STRONG>%e</STRONG> <EM>elsepart</EM> <STRONG>%;</STRONG>
            This forms an if-then-else.  The <STRONG>%e</STRONG> <EM>elsepart</EM> is optional.  Usually
            the <STRONG>%?</STRONG> <EM>expr</EM> part pushes a value onto the stack,  and  <STRONG>%t</STRONG>  pops  it
            from  the  stack,  testing if it is nonzero (true).  If it is zero
            (false), control passes to the <STRONG>%e</STRONG> (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            <STRONG>%?</STRONG> c1 <STRONG>%t</STRONG> b1 <STRONG>%e</STRONG> c2 <STRONG>%t</STRONG> b2 <STRONG>%e</STRONG> c3 <STRONG>%t</STRONG> b3 <STRONG>%e</STRONG> c4 <STRONG>%t</STRONG> b4 <STRONG>%e</STRONG> <STRONG>%;</STRONG>

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the <STRONG>-f</STRONG> option of <STRONG>tic</STRONG> or <STRONG>infocmp</STRONG> to see the  structure  of  if-
            then-else's.  Some strings, e.g., <STRONG>sgr</STRONG> can be very complicated when
            written on one line.  The <STRONG>-f</STRONG> option splits the string  into  lines
            with the parts indented.

       Binary  operations  are  in postfix form with the operands in the usual
       order.  That is, to get x-5 one would use "%gx%{5}%-".  <STRONG>%P</STRONG> and <STRONG>%g</STRONG> vari-
       ables are persistent across escape-string evaluations.

       Consider  the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs to be
       sent \E&amp;a12c03Y padded for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of  the
       rows  and  columns  is  inverted  here, and that the row and column are
       printed   as   two   digits.     Thus    its    <STRONG>cup</STRONG>    capability    is
       "cup=6\E&amp;%p2%2dc%p1%2dY".

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by
       a  <STRONG>^T</STRONG>,  with  the  row   and   column   simply   encoded   in   binary,
       "cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c".   Terminals  which  use  "%c"  need  to  be able to
       backspace the cursor (<STRONG>cub1</STRONG>), and to move the cursor up one line on  the
       screen  (<STRONG>cuu1</STRONG>).   This  is  necessary  because it is not always safe to
       transmit <STRONG>\n</STRONG> <STRONG>^D</STRONG> and <STRONG>\r</STRONG>, as the system may change or discard them.   (The
       library  routines  dealing with terminfo set tty modes so that tabs are
       never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be  essential
       for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by
       a blank character, thus "cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c".  After sending
       "\E=",  this  pushes  the first parameter, pushes the ASCII value for a
       space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in place of the two
       previous  values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same
       is done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is  possible
       using the stack.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Cursor-Motions">Cursor Motions</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  terminal has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left
       corner of screen) then this can be given as <STRONG>home</STRONG>; similarly a fast  way
       of  getting  to the lower left-hand corner can be given as <STRONG>ll</STRONG>; this may
       involve going up with <STRONG>cuu1</STRONG> from the home position, but a program should
       never do this itself (unless <STRONG>ll</STRONG> does) because it can make no assumption
       about the effect of moving up from the home position.   Note  that  the
       home  position is the same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left cor-
       ner of the screen, not of memory.  (Thus, the \EH sequence on HP termi-
       nals cannot be used for <STRONG>home</STRONG>.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can
       be given as single  parameter  capabilities  <STRONG>hpa</STRONG>  (horizontal  position
       absolute)  and  <STRONG>vpa</STRONG>  (vertical position absolute).  Sometimes these are
       shorter than the more general  two  parameter  sequence  (as  with  the
       hp2645)  and can be used in preference to <STRONG>cup</STRONG>.  If there are parameter-
       ized local motions (e.g., move <EM>n</EM> spaces to  the  right)  these  can  be
       given  as <STRONG>cud</STRONG>, <STRONG>cub</STRONG>, <STRONG>cuf</STRONG>, and <STRONG>cuu</STRONG> with a single parameter indicating how
       many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if the  terminal  does
       not have <STRONG>cup</STRONG>, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If  the  terminal  needs to be in a special mode when running a program
       that uses these capabilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can
       be  given as <STRONG>smcup</STRONG> and <STRONG>rmcup</STRONG>.  This arises, for example, from terminals
       like the Concept with more than one page of memory.   If  the  terminal
       has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative cur-
       sor addressing, a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the termi-
       nal  for cursor addressing to work properly.  This is also used for the
       TEKTRONIX 4025, where <STRONG>smcup</STRONG> sets the command character to  be  the  one
       used  by  terminfo.   If the <STRONG>smcup</STRONG> sequence will not restore the screen
       after an <STRONG>rmcup</STRONG> sequence is output (to the  state  prior  to  outputting
       <STRONG>rmcup</STRONG>), specify <STRONG>nrrmc</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Area-Clears">Area Clears</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  terminal can clear from the current position to the end of the
       line, leaving the cursor where it is, this should be given as  <STRONG>el</STRONG>.   If
       the  terminal  can  clear from the beginning of the line to the current
       position inclusive, leaving the cursor where  it  is,  this  should  be
       given  as  <STRONG>el1</STRONG>.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to
       the end of the display, then this should be given as <STRONG>ed</STRONG>.   <STRONG>Ed</STRONG>  is  only
       defined from the first column of a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by
       a request to delete a large number of lines, if a true <STRONG>ed</STRONG> is not avail-
       able.)


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Insert_delete-line-and-vertical-motions">Insert/delete line and vertical motions</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  terminal  can  open a new blank line before the line where the
       cursor is, this should be given as <STRONG>il1</STRONG>; this  is  done  only  from  the
       first  position  of  a  line.  The cursor must then appear on the newly
       blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which  the  cursor  is
       on,  then this should be given as <STRONG>dl1</STRONG>; this is done only from the first
       position on the line to be deleted.  Versions of <STRONG>il1</STRONG> and <STRONG>dl1</STRONG> which take
       a single parameter and insert or delete that many lines can be given as
       <STRONG>il</STRONG> and <STRONG>dl</STRONG>.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like  the  vt100)  the
       command  to  set  this  can be described with the <STRONG>csr</STRONG> capability, which
       takes two parameters: the top and bottom lines of the scrolling region.
       The cursor position is, alas, undefined after using this command.

       It  is possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using <STRONG>csr</STRONG> on
       a properly chosen region; the <STRONG>sc</STRONG> and <STRONG>rc</STRONG> (save and restore cursor)  com-
       mands  may  be  useful for ensuring that your synthesized insert/delete
       string does not move the cursor.  (Note that  the  <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">ncurses(3x)</A></STRONG>  library
       does   this   synthesis   automatically,   so   you  need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with <STRONG>csr</STRONG>).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combi-
       nation  of  index  with the memory-lock feature found on some terminals
       (like the HP-700/90 series, which however also has insert/delete).

       Inserting lines at the top or bottom of the screen  can  also  be  done
       using  <STRONG>ri</STRONG>  or  <STRONG>ind</STRONG> on many terminals without a true insert/delete line,
       and is often faster even on terminals with those features.

       The boolean <STRONG>non_dest_scroll_region</STRONG> should be set if each scrolling win-
       dow  is  effectively a view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test for
       this capability, create a scrolling region in the middle of the screen,
       write  something  to the bottom line, move the cursor to the top of the
       region, and do <STRONG>ri</STRONG> followed by <STRONG>dl1</STRONG> or <STRONG>ind</STRONG>.  If the data scrolled off the
       bottom  of  the  region  by  the  <STRONG>ri</STRONG> re-appears, then scrolling is non-
       destructive.  System V and XSI Curses expect that <STRONG>ind</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ri</STRONG>,  <STRONG>indn</STRONG>,  and
       <STRONG>rin</STRONG>  will  simulate destructive scrolling; their documentation cautions
       you not to define <STRONG>csr</STRONG> unless this is true.  This <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  implementation
       is more liberal and will do explicit erases after scrolling if <STRONG>ndsrc</STRONG> is
       defined.

       If the terminal has the ability to define a window as part  of  memory,
       which  all  commands  affect,  it  should be given as the parameterized
       string <STRONG>wind</STRONG>.  The four parameters are the starting and ending lines  in
       memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that order.

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the <STRONG>da</STRONG> capability
       should be given; if display memory  can  be  retained  below,  then  <STRONG>db</STRONG>
       should  be given.  These indicate that deleting a line or scrolling may
       bring non-blank lines up from below or that scrolling back with <STRONG>ri</STRONG>  may
       bring down non-blank lines.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Insert_Delete-Character">Insert/Delete Character</a></H3><PRE>
       There  are  two  basic  kinds  of intelligent terminals with respect to
       insert/delete character which can be  described  using  <EM>terminfo.</EM>   The
       most  common insert/delete character operations affect only the charac-
       ters on the current line and shift characters off the end of  the  line
       rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer
       Owl, make a distinction between typed and untyped blanks on the screen,
       shifting  upon  an  insert  or  delete  only to an untyped blank on the
       screen which is either eliminated, or expanded to two untyped blanks.

       You can determine the kind of terminal you have by clearing the  screen
       and  then  typing  text separated by cursor motions.  Type "abc    def"
       using local cursor motions (not  spaces)  between  the  "abc"  and  the
       "def".   Then position the cursor before the "abc" and put the terminal
       in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of  the  line  to
       shift  rigidly  and  characters to fall off the end, then your terminal
       does not distinguish between blanks  and  untyped  positions.   If  the
       "abc"  shifts over to the "def" which then move together around the end
       of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have the  sec-
       ond  type  of terminal, and should give the capability <STRONG>in</STRONG>, which stands
       for "insert null".

       While these are two logically  separate  attributes  (one  line  versus
       multi-line  insert  mode,  and  special treatment of untyped spaces) we
       have seen no terminals whose insert mode cannot be described  with  the
       single attribute.

       Terminfo  can  describe  both  terminals which have an insert mode, and
       terminals which send a simple sequence to open a blank position on  the
       current line.  Give as <STRONG>smir</STRONG> the sequence to get into insert mode.  Give
       as <STRONG>rmir</STRONG> the sequence to leave  insert  mode.   Now  give  as  <STRONG>ich1</STRONG>  any
       sequence  needed  to  be  sent  just before sending the character to be
       inserted.  Most terminals with a true insert mode will not  give  <STRONG>ich1</STRONG>;
       terminals  which  send a sequence to open a screen position should give
       it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable  to  <STRONG>ich1</STRONG>.
       Technically,  you  should  not  give  both unless the terminal actually
       requires both to be used in combination.  Accordingly, some  non-curses
       applications  get  confused if both are present; the symptom is doubled
       characters in an update using insert.  This requirement  is  now  rare;
       most  <STRONG>ich</STRONG>  sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert
       modes do not require <STRONG>ich1</STRONG> before each character.   Therefore,  the  new
       <STRONG>curses</STRONG>  actually  assumes this is the case and uses either <STRONG>rmir</STRONG>/<STRONG>smir</STRONG> or
       <STRONG>ich</STRONG>/<STRONG>ich1</STRONG> as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write an  entry
       to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both,
       include the <STRONG>rmir</STRONG>/<STRONG>smir</STRONG> sequences in <STRONG>ich1</STRONG>.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds
       in  <STRONG>ip</STRONG> (a string option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent
       after an insert of a single character may also be given in <STRONG>ip</STRONG>.  If your
       terminal  needs  both  to be placed into an "insert mode" and a special
       code to precede each inserted character, then both <STRONG>smir</STRONG>/<STRONG>rmir</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>ich1</STRONG>
       can  be  given,  and  both  will be used.  The <STRONG>ich</STRONG> capability, with one
       parameter, <EM>n</EM>, will repeat the effects of <STRONG>ich1</STRONG> <EM>n</EM> times.

       If padding is necessary between characters typed while  not  in  insert
       mode, give this as a number of milliseconds padding in <STRONG>rmp</STRONG>.

       It  is  occasionally  necessary  to move around while in insert mode to
       delete characters on the same line (e.g., if there is a tab  after  the
       insertion  position).   If  your terminal allows motion while in insert
       mode you can give the capability <STRONG>mir</STRONG> to  speed  up  inserting  in  this
       case.   Omitting  <STRONG>mir</STRONG>  will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably
       Datamedia's) must not have <STRONG>mir</STRONG> because of the  way  their  insert  mode
       works.

       Finally,  you  can  specify <STRONG>dch1</STRONG> to delete a single character, <STRONG>dch</STRONG> with
       one parameter, <EM>n</EM>, to delete <EM>n</EM> <EM>characters,</EM> and  delete  mode  by  giving
       <STRONG>smdc</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>rmdc</STRONG>  to  enter  and exit delete mode (any mode the terminal
       needs to be placed in for <STRONG>dch1</STRONG> to work).

       A command to erase <EM>n</EM> characters  (equivalent  to  outputting  <EM>n</EM>  blanks
       without moving the cursor) can be given as <STRONG>ech</STRONG> with one parameter.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Highlighting_-Underlining_-and-Visible-Bells">Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells</a></H3><PRE>
       If your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can
       be represented in a number of different ways.  You  should  choose  one
       display  form  as  <EM>standout</EM>  <EM>mode</EM>,  representing a good, high contrast,
       easy-on-the-eyes, format for  highlighting  error  messages  and  other
       attention  getters.   (If  you  have a choice, reverse video plus half-
       bright is good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences  to  enter  and
       exit  standout  mode  are given as <STRONG>smso</STRONG> and <STRONG>rmso</STRONG>, respectively.  If the
       code to change into or out of standout mode  leaves  one  or  even  two
       blank  spaces  on  the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then
       <STRONG>xmc</STRONG> should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as <STRONG>smul</STRONG> and
       <STRONG>rmul</STRONG> respectively.  If the terminal has a code to underline the current
       character and move the cursor one space  to  the  right,  such  as  the
       Microterm Mime, this can be given as <STRONG>uc</STRONG>.

       Other  capabilities  to  enter various highlighting modes include <STRONG>blink</STRONG>
       (blinking) <STRONG>bold</STRONG> (bold or extra bright) <STRONG>dim</STRONG> (dim or  half-bright)  <STRONG>invis</STRONG>
       (blanking  or invisible text) <STRONG>prot</STRONG> (protected) <STRONG>rev</STRONG> (reverse video) <STRONG>sgr0</STRONG>
       (turn off <EM>all</EM> attribute modes) <STRONG>smacs</STRONG>  (enter  alternate  character  set
       mode) and <STRONG>rmacs</STRONG> (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary  combinations  of  modes,  this
       should  be  given  as  <STRONG>sgr</STRONG> (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each
       parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the corresponding attribute is  on
       or  off.  The 9 parameters are, in order: standout, underline, reverse,
       blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate  character  set.   Not  all
       modes need be supported by <STRONG>sgr</STRONG>, only those for which corresponding sep-
       arate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

               <STRONG>tparm</STRONG> <STRONG>parameter</STRONG>      <STRONG>attribute</STRONG>        <STRONG>escape</STRONG> <STRONG>sequence</STRONG>

               none                 none             \E[0m
               p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
               p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
               p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
               p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
               p5                   dim              not available
               p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
               p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
               p8                   protect          not used
               p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes,  since
       there  is  no quick way to determine whether they are active.  Standout
       is set up to be the combination of reverse and bold.  The vt220  termi-
       nal  has  a protect mode, though it is not commonly used in sgr because
       it protects characters on the screen from  the  host's  erasures.   The
       altcharset  mode  also  is  different  in  that  it is either ^O or ^N,
       depending on whether it is off or on.  If all modes are turned on,  the
       resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some  sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is out-
       put when either p1 or p3 is  true,  that  is,  if  either  standout  or
       reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

            <STRONG>sequence</STRONG>             <STRONG>when</STRONG> <STRONG>to</STRONG> <STRONG>output</STRONG>      <STRONG>terminfo</STRONG> <STRONG>translation</STRONG>

            \E[0                 always              \E[0
            ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
            ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
            ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
            ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
            ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
            m                    always              m
            ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:

           sgr=\E[0%?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;%?%p2%t;4%;%?%p4%t;5%;
               %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;%?%p7%t;8%;m%?%p9%t\016%e\017%;,

       Remember  that  if  you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also,
       some implementations rely on sgr being given if sgr0 is, Not  all  ter-
       minfo  entries  necessarily have an sgr string, however.  Many terminfo
       entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr string.  The
       only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that
       sgr0 does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the "magic cookie" glitch (<STRONG>xmc</STRONG>) deposit  special  "cook-
       ies" when they receive mode-setting sequences, which affect the display
       algorithm rather than having extra bits for each character.  Some  ter-
       minals,  such  as  the  HP 2621, automatically leave standout mode when
       they move to a new line or the cursor  is  addressed.   Programs  using
       standout  mode  should  exit  standout mode before moving the cursor or
       sending a newline, unless the <STRONG>msgr</STRONG> capability,  asserting  that  it  is
       safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If  the  terminal has a way of flashing the screen to indicate an error
       quietly (a bell replacement) then this can be given as <STRONG>flash</STRONG>;  it  must
       not move the cursor.

       If  the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not
       on the bottom line (to make, for example, a non-blinking underline into
       an  easier  to  find block or blinking underline) give this sequence as
       <STRONG>cvvis</STRONG>.  If there is a way to make the cursor completely invisible, give
       that  as  <STRONG>civis</STRONG>.  The capability <STRONG>cnorm</STRONG> should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates  underlined  characters  (with  no
       special  codes  needed)  even  though  it does not overstrike, then you
       should give the capability <STRONG>ul</STRONG>.  If  a  character  overstriking  another
       leaves  both  characters  on the screen, specify the capability <STRONG>os</STRONG>.  If
       overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by
       giving <STRONG>eo</STRONG>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Keypad-and-Function-Keys">Keypad and Function Keys</a></H3><PRE>
       If  the  terminal  has  a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are
       pressed, this information can be given.  Note that it is  not  possible
       to handle terminals where the keypad only works in local (this applies,
       for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad can be  set
       to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as <STRONG>smkx</STRONG> and <STRONG>rmkx</STRONG>.  Other-
       wise the keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up  arrow,  down  arrow,
       and  home  keys  can  be given as <STRONG>kcub1,</STRONG> <STRONG>kcuf1,</STRONG> <STRONG>kcuu1,</STRONG> <STRONG>kcud1,</STRONG> and <STRONG>khome</STRONG>
       respectively.  If there are function keys such as f0, f1, ..., f10, the
       codes  they  send  can  be given as <STRONG>kf0,</STRONG> <STRONG>kf1,</STRONG> <STRONG>...,</STRONG> <STRONG>kf10</STRONG>.  If these keys
       have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the  labels  can  be
       given as <STRONG>lf0,</STRONG> <STRONG>lf1,</STRONG> <STRONG>...,</STRONG> <STRONG>lf10</STRONG>.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kll</STRONG> (home down),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kbs</STRONG> (backspace),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>ktbc</STRONG> (clear all tabs),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kctab</STRONG> (clear the tab stop in this column),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kclr</STRONG> (clear screen or erase key),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kdch1</STRONG> (delete character),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kdl1</STRONG> (delete line),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>krmir</STRONG> (exit insert mode),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kel</STRONG> (clear to end of line),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>ked</STRONG> (clear to end of screen),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kich1</STRONG> (insert character or enter insert mode),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kil1</STRONG> (insert line),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>knp</STRONG> (next page),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kpp</STRONG> (previous page),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kind</STRONG> (scroll forward/down),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>kri</STRONG> (scroll backward/up),

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>khts</STRONG> (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if  the  keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the
       four arrow keys, the other five keys can be given  as  <STRONG>ka1</STRONG>,  <STRONG>ka3</STRONG>,  <STRONG>kb2</STRONG>,
       <STRONG>kc1</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>kc3</STRONG>.   These  keys  are  useful when the effects of a 3 by 3
       directional pad are needed.

       Strings to program function keys can be given as <STRONG>pfkey</STRONG>, <STRONG>pfloc</STRONG>, and <STRONG>pfx</STRONG>.
       A  string to program screen labels should be specified as <STRONG>pln</STRONG>.  Each of
       these strings takes two parameters: the function key number to  program
       (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.  Function key numbers
       out of this range may program undefined keys in  a  terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that <STRONG>pfkey</STRONG> causes
       pressing the given key to be the same as  the  user  typing  the  given
       string;  <STRONG>pfloc</STRONG>  causes  the  string  to  be executed by the terminal in
       local; and <STRONG>pfx</STRONG> causes the string to be transmitted to the computer.

       The capabilities <STRONG>nlab</STRONG>, <STRONG>lw</STRONG> and <STRONG>lh</STRONG>  define  the  number  of  programmable
       screen  labels  and  their  width and height.  If there are commands to
       turn the labels on and off, give them in <STRONG>smln</STRONG> and <STRONG>rmln</STRONG>.  <STRONG>smln</STRONG>  is  nor-
       mally  output  after  one  or  more pln sequences to make sure that the
       change becomes visible.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Tabs-and-Initialization">Tabs and Initialization</a></H3><PRE>
       A few capabilities are used only for tabs:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If the terminal has hardware tabs, the command to  advance  to  the
           next tab stop can be given as <STRONG>ht</STRONG> (usually control/I).

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   A "back-tab" command which moves leftward to the preceding tab stop
           can be given as <STRONG>cbt</STRONG>.

           By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs  are  being
           expanded  by  the  computer rather than being sent to the terminal,
           programs should not use <STRONG>ht</STRONG> or <STRONG>cbt</STRONG> even if they are  present,  since
           the user may not have the tab stops properly set.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  the  terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set every <EM>n</EM>
           spaces when the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter <STRONG>it</STRONG> is
           given, showing the number of spaces the tabs are set to.

           The <STRONG>it</STRONG> capability is normally used by the <STRONG>tset</STRONG> command to determine
           whether to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether  to
           set the tab stops.  If the terminal has tab stops that can be saved
           in non-volatile memory, the terminfo description  can  assume  that
           they are properly set.

       Other capabilities include

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>is1</STRONG>, <STRONG>is2</STRONG>, and <STRONG>is3</STRONG>, initialization strings for the terminal,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>iprog</STRONG>,  the path name of a program to be run to initialize the ter-
           minal,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   and <STRONG>if</STRONG>, the name of a file containing long initialization strings.

       These strings are expected to set the terminal  into  modes  consistent
       with  the  rest of the terminfo description.  They are normally sent to
       the terminal, by the <EM>init</EM> option of the <STRONG>tput</STRONG>  program,  each  time  the
       user logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program
                     <STRONG>iprog</STRONG>

              output
                     <STRONG>is1</STRONG> and
                     <STRONG>is2</STRONG>

              set the margins using
                     <STRONG>mgc</STRONG> or
                     <STRONG>smglp</STRONG> and <STRONG>smgrp</STRONG> or
                     <STRONG>smgl</STRONG> and <STRONG>smgr</STRONG>

              set tabs using
                     <STRONG>tbc</STRONG> and <STRONG>hts</STRONG>

              print the file
                     <STRONG>if</STRONG>

              and finally output
                     <STRONG>is3</STRONG>.

       Most  initialization  is  done with <STRONG>is2</STRONG>.  Special terminal modes can be
       set up without duplicating strings by putting the common  sequences  in
       <STRONG>is2</STRONG> and special cases in <STRONG>is1</STRONG> and <STRONG>is3</STRONG>.

       A  set  of  sequences  that  does a harder reset from a totally unknown
       state can be given as <STRONG>rs1</STRONG>, <STRONG>rs2</STRONG>, <STRONG>rf</STRONG> and <STRONG>rs3</STRONG>, analogous to <STRONG>is1</STRONG> <STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>is2</STRONG> <STRONG>,</STRONG> <STRONG>if</STRONG>
       and  <STRONG>is3</STRONG>  respectively.   These  strings  are output by <EM>reset</EM> option of
       <STRONG>tput</STRONG>, or by the <STRONG>reset</STRONG> program (an alias of <STRONG>tset</STRONG>), which  is  used  when
       the terminal gets into a wedged state.  Commands are normally placed in
       <STRONG>rs1</STRONG>, <STRONG>rs2</STRONG> <STRONG>rs3</STRONG> and <STRONG>rf</STRONG> only if they produce annoying effects on the screen
       and are not necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set
       the vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part  of  <STRONG>is2</STRONG>,  but  it
       causes  an  annoying  glitch  of  the screen and is not normally needed
       since the terminal is usually already in 80-column mode.

       The <STRONG>reset</STRONG> program writes strings including <STRONG>iprog</STRONG>,  etc.,  in  the  same
       order  as  the  <EM>init</EM> program, using <STRONG>rs1</STRONG>, etc., instead of <STRONG>is1</STRONG>, etc.  If
       any of <STRONG>rs1</STRONG>, <STRONG>rs2</STRONG>, <STRONG>rs3</STRONG>, or <STRONG>rf</STRONG> reset capability strings are  missing,  the
       <STRONG>reset</STRONG> program falls back upon the corresponding initialization capabil-
       ity string.

       If there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given  as
       <STRONG>tbc</STRONG> (clear all tab stops) and <STRONG>hts</STRONG> (set a tab stop in the current column
       of every row).  If a more complex sequence is needed to  set  the  tabs
       than can be described by this, the sequence can be placed in <STRONG>is2</STRONG> or <STRONG>if</STRONG>.

       The  <STRONG>tput</STRONG>  <STRONG>reset</STRONG>  command uses the same capability strings as the <STRONG>reset</STRONG>
       command, although the two programs (<STRONG>tput</STRONG> and <STRONG>reset</STRONG>)  provide  different
       command-line options.

       In practice, these terminfo capabilities are not often used in initial-
       ization of tabs (though they are required for the <STRONG>tabs</STRONG> program):

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Almost all hardware terminals (at least those which supported tabs)
           initialized those to every <EM>eight</EM> columns:

           The  only  exception  was  the  AT&amp;T 2300 series, which set tabs to
           every <EM>five</EM> columns.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   In particular, developers of the hardware terminals which are  com-
           monly  used  as models for modern terminal emulators provided docu-
           mentation demonstrating that <EM>eight</EM> columns were the standard.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Because of this, the terminal initialization programs <STRONG>tput</STRONG> and <STRONG>tset</STRONG>
           use   the  <STRONG>tbc</STRONG>  (<STRONG>clear_all_tabs</STRONG>)  and  <STRONG>hts</STRONG>  (<STRONG>set_tab</STRONG>)  capabilities
           directly only when the <STRONG>it</STRONG> (<STRONG>init_tabs</STRONG>) capability is set to a  value
           other than <EM>eight</EM>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Delays-and-Padding">Delays and Padding</a></H3><PRE>
       Many  older  and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR
       handshaking, including hard copy terminals and some very  archaic  CRTs
       (including,  for example, DEC VT100s).  These may require padding char-
       acters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow control (that is, it
       automatically  emits  ^S  back  to  the host when its input buffers are
       close to full), set <STRONG>xon</STRONG>.  This capability suppresses  the  emission  of
       padding.   You can also set it for memory-mapped console devices effec-
       tively that do not have a  speed  limit.   Padding  information  should
       still be included so that routines can make better decisions about rel-
       ative costs, but actual pad characters will not be transmitted.

       If <STRONG>pb</STRONG> (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates
       below  the  value  of  <STRONG>pb</STRONG>.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then
       whether padding is emitted or not is completely controlled by <STRONG>xon</STRONG>.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as <STRONG>pad</STRONG>.  Only the first character of the <STRONG>pad</STRONG>
       string is used.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Status-Lines">Status Lines</a></H3><PRE>
       Some terminals have an extra "status line" which is not  normally  used
       by software (and thus not counted in the terminal's <STRONG>lines</STRONG> capability).

       The  simplest case is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not
       part of the main scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a
       status  line  of  this  kind,  as  would a 24-line VT100 with a 23-line
       scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation is indicated
       by the <STRONG>hs</STRONG> capability.

       Some  terminals  with status lines need special sequences to access the
       status line.  These may be expressed as a string with single  parameter
       <STRONG>tsl</STRONG>  which takes the cursor to a given zero-origin column on the status
       line.  The capability <STRONG>fsl</STRONG> must return to the main-screen  cursor  posi-
       tions  before the last <STRONG>tsl</STRONG>.  You may need to embed the string values of
       <STRONG>sc</STRONG> (save cursor) and <STRONG>rc</STRONG> (restore cursor) in <STRONG>tsl</STRONG> and <STRONG>fsl</STRONG>  to  accomplish
       this.

       The  status  line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width
       of the terminal.  If this is  untrue,  you  can  specify  it  with  the
       numeric capability <STRONG>wsl</STRONG>.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as <STRONG>dsl</STRONG>.

       The  boolean  capability  <STRONG>eslok</STRONG>  specifies that escape sequences, tabs,
       etc., work ordinarily in the status line.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> implementation does not yet use any of these  capabilities.
       They are documented here in case they ever become important.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Line-Graphics">Line Graphics</a></H3><PRE>
       Many  terminals have alternate character sets useful for forms-drawing.
       Terminfo and <STRONG>curses</STRONG> have built-in support for most of the drawing char-
       acters  supported  by  the  VT100,  with  some characters from the AT&amp;T
       4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may  be  specified  by  the
       <STRONG>acsc</STRONG> capability.

         <STRONG>Glyph</STRONG>                       <STRONG>ACS</STRONG>            <STRONG>Ascii</STRONG>     <STRONG>acsc</STRONG>     <STRONG>acsc</STRONG>
         <STRONG>Name</STRONG>                        <STRONG>Name</STRONG>           <STRONG>Default</STRONG>   <STRONG>Char</STRONG>     <STRONG>Value</STRONG>
         --------------------------------------------------------------------
         arrow pointing right        ACS_RARROW     &gt;         +        0x2b
         arrow pointing left         ACS_LARROW     &lt;         ,        0x2c
         arrow pointing up           ACS_UARROW     ^         -        0x2d
         arrow pointing down         ACS_DARROW     v         .        0x2e
         solid square block          ACS_BLOCK      #         0        0x30
         diamond                     ACS_DIAMOND    +         `        0x60
         checker board (stipple)     ACS_CKBOARD    :         a        0x61
         degree symbol               ACS_DEGREE     \         f        0x66
         plus/minus                  ACS_PLMINUS    #         g        0x67
         board of squares            ACS_BOARD      #         h        0x68
         lantern symbol              ACS_LANTERN    #         i        0x69
         lower right corner          ACS_LRCORNER   +         j        0x6a
         upper right corner          ACS_URCORNER   +         k        0x6b
         upper left corner           ACS_ULCORNER   +         l        0x6c
         lower left corner           ACS_LLCORNER   +         m        0x6d
         large plus or crossover     ACS_PLUS       +         n        0x6e
         scan line 1                 ACS_S1         ~         o        0x6f
         scan line 3                 ACS_S3         -         p        0x70
         horizontal line             ACS_HLINE      -         q        0x71
         scan line 7                 ACS_S7         -         r        0x72
         scan line 9                 ACS_S9         _         s        0x73
         tee pointing right          ACS_LTEE       +         t        0x74
         tee pointing left           ACS_RTEE       +         u        0x75
         tee pointing up             ACS_BTEE       +         v        0x76
         tee pointing down           ACS_TTEE       +         w        0x77
         vertical line               ACS_VLINE      |         x        0x78
         less-than-or-equal-to       ACS_LEQUAL     &lt;         y        0x79
         greater-than-or-equal-to    ACS_GEQUAL     &gt;         z        0x7a
         greek pi                    ACS_PI         *         {        0x7b
         not-equal                   ACS_NEQUAL     !         |        0x7c
         UK pound sign               ACS_STERLING   f         }        0x7d
         bullet                      ACS_BULLET     o         ~        0x7e

       A few notes apply to the table itself:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   X/Open  Curses  incorrectly  states that the mapping for <EM>lantern</EM> is
           uppercase "I" although Unix implementations use the  lowercase  "i"
           mapping.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The  DEC  VT100  implemented graphics using the alternate character
           set feature, temporarily switching <EM>modes</EM> and sending characters  in
           the range 0x60 (96) to 0x7e (126) (the <STRONG>acsc</STRONG> <STRONG>Value</STRONG> column in the ta-
           ble).

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   The AT&amp;T terminal added graphics characters outside that range.

           Some of the characters within the range do  not  match  the  VT100;
           presumably  they  were  used in the AT&amp;T terminal: <EM>board</EM> <EM>of</EM> <EM>squares</EM>
           replaces the VT100 <EM>newline</EM> symbol, while  <EM>lantern</EM>  <EM>symbol</EM>  replaces
           the VT100 <EM>vertical</EM> <EM>tab</EM> symbol.  The other VT100 symbols for control
           characters (<EM>horizontal</EM> <EM>tab</EM>, <EM>carriage</EM> <EM>return</EM> and <EM>line-feed</EM>) are  not
           (re)used in curses.

       The  best  way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column
       to a copy of this table for your terminal, giving the  character  which
       (when  emitted  between  <STRONG>smacs</STRONG>/<STRONG>rmacs</STRONG>  switches) will be rendered as the
       corresponding graphic.  Then read off the VT100/your terminal character
       pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Color-Handling">Color Handling</a></H3><PRE>
       The  curses  library  functions <STRONG>init_pair</STRONG> and <STRONG>init_color</STRONG> manipulate the
       <EM>color</EM>  <EM>pairs</EM>  and  <EM>color</EM>  <EM>values</EM>  discussed  in   this   section   (see
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG> for details on these and related functions).

       Most color terminals are either "Tektronix-like" or "HP-like":

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   Tektronix-like terminals have a predefined set of <EM>N</EM> colors (where <EM>N</EM>
           is usually 8), and can set character-cell foreground and background
           characters independently, mixing them into <EM>N</EM> * <EM>N</EM> color-pairs.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   On  HP-like  terminals,  the user must set each color pair up sepa-
           rately (foreground and background are not independently  settable).
           Up to <EM>M</EM> color-pairs may be set up from 2*<EM>M</EM> different colors.  ANSI-
           compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The
       numeric  capabilities  <STRONG>colors</STRONG>  and <STRONG>pairs</STRONG> specify the maximum numbers of
       colors and color-pairs that can be displayed  simultaneously.   The  <STRONG>op</STRONG>
       (original pair) string resets foreground and background colors to their
       default values for the terminal.  The <STRONG>oc</STRONG> string resets  all  colors  or
       color-pairs  to  their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals
       (including many PC terminal emulators) erase screen areas with the cur-
       rent  background  color  rather  than  the power-up default background;
       these should have the boolean capability <STRONG>bce</STRONG>.

       While the curses library works with <EM>color</EM> <EM>pairs</EM> (reflecting the inabil-
       ity  of  some  devices to set foreground and background colors indepen-
       dently), there are separate capabilities for setting these features:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   To change the current foreground or  background  color  on  a  Tek-
           tronix-type  terminal,  use  <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>  (set ANSI foreground) and <STRONG>setab</STRONG>
           (set ANSI background) or <STRONG>setf</STRONG> (set foreground) and <STRONG>setb</STRONG> (set  back-
           ground).   These  take  one  parameter, the color number.  The SVr4
           documentation describes only <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>/<STRONG>setab</STRONG>; the XPG4 draft says  that
           "If  the  terminal supports ANSI escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded as <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>setab</STRONG>,  respec-
           tively.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   If  the  terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
           and foreground, they should be coded  as  <STRONG>setf</STRONG>  and  <STRONG>setb</STRONG>,  respec-
           tively.   The  <STRONG>vidputs</STRONG>  and the <STRONG><A HREF="curs_refresh.3x.html">refresh(3x)</A></STRONG> functions use the <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>
           and <STRONG>setab</STRONG> capabilities if they are defined.

       The <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>/<STRONG>setab</STRONG> and <STRONG>setf</STRONG>/<STRONG>setb</STRONG> capabilities take a single numeric  argu-
       ment  each.  Argument values 0-7 of <STRONG>setaf</STRONG>/<STRONG>setab</STRONG> are portably defined as
       follows (the middle column is the symbolic  #define  available  in  the
       header  for the <STRONG>curses</STRONG> or <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> libraries).  The terminal hardware is
       free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal loca-
       tions in color space.

                    <STRONG>Color</STRONG>       <STRONG>#define</STRONG>       <STRONG>Value</STRONG>       <STRONG>RGB</STRONG>
                    black     <STRONG>COLOR_BLACK</STRONG>       0     0, 0, 0
                    red       <STRONG>COLOR_RED</STRONG>         1     max,0,0
                    green     <STRONG>COLOR_GREEN</STRONG>       2     0,max,0
                    yellow    <STRONG>COLOR_YELLOW</STRONG>      3     max,max,0
                    blue      <STRONG>COLOR_BLUE</STRONG>        4     0,0,max
                    magenta   <STRONG>COLOR_MAGENTA</STRONG>     5     max,0,max
                    cyan      <STRONG>COLOR_CYAN</STRONG>        6     0,max,max
                    white     <STRONG>COLOR_WHITE</STRONG>       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of <STRONG>setf</STRONG>/<STRONG>setb</STRONG> historically correspond to a different
       mapping, i.e.,

                    <STRONG>Color</STRONG>       <STRONG>#define</STRONG>       <STRONG>Value</STRONG>       <STRONG>RGB</STRONG>
                    black     <STRONG>COLOR_BLACK</STRONG>       0     0, 0, 0
                    blue      <STRONG>COLOR_BLUE</STRONG>        1     0,0,max
                    green     <STRONG>COLOR_GREEN</STRONG>       2     0,max,0
                    cyan      <STRONG>COLOR_CYAN</STRONG>        3     0,max,max
                    red       <STRONG>COLOR_RED</STRONG>         4     max,0,0
                    magenta   <STRONG>COLOR_MAGENTA</STRONG>     5     max,0,max
                    yellow    <STRONG>COLOR_YELLOW</STRONG>      6     max,max,0
                    white     <STRONG>COLOR_WHITE</STRONG>       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; oth-
       erwise red/blue will be interchanged on the display.

       On  an  HP-like terminal, use <STRONG>scp</STRONG> with a color-pair number parameter to
       set which color pair is current.

       Some terminals allow the <EM>color</EM> <EM>values</EM> to be modified:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   On a Tektronix-like terminal, the capability <STRONG>ccc</STRONG> may be present  to
           indicate  that colors can be modified.  If so, the <STRONG>initc</STRONG> capability
           will take a color number (0 to <STRONG>colors</STRONG> - 1)and three more parameters
           which  describe the color.  These three parameters default to being
           interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If the boolean capa-
           bility  <STRONG>hls</STRONG>  is  present,  they are instead as HLS (Hue, Lightness,
           Saturation) indices.  The ranges are terminal-dependent.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   On an HP-like terminal, <STRONG>initp</STRONG> may give a capability for changing  a
           color-pair value.  It will take seven parameters; a color-pair num-
           ber (0 to <STRONG>max_pairs</STRONG> - 1), and two triples  describing  first  back-
           ground  and then foreground colors.  These parameters must be (Red,
           Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on <STRONG>hls</STRONG>.

       On some color terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can  reg-
       ister  these collisions with the <STRONG>ncv</STRONG> capability.  This is a bit-mask of
       attributes not to be used when colors are enabled.  The  correspondence
       with the attributes understood by <STRONG>curses</STRONG> is as follows:

                  <STRONG>Attribute</STRONG>              <STRONG>Bit</STRONG>   <STRONG>Decimal</STRONG>      <STRONG>Set</STRONG> <STRONG>by</STRONG>
                  A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                  A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                  A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                  A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                  A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                  A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                  A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                  A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr

                  A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                  A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                  A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                  A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                  A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                  A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                  A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                  A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For  example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides
       with the foreground color blue and is  not  available  in  color  mode.
       These should have an <STRONG>ncv</STRONG> capability of 2.

       SVr4  curses does nothing with <STRONG>ncv</STRONG>, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes
       the output in favor of colors.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Miscellaneous">Miscellaneous</a></H3><PRE>
       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as  a  pad,
       then  this  can  be  given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad
       string is used.  If the terminal does not have a pad character, specify
       npc.   Note that ncurses implements the termcap-compatible <STRONG>PC</STRONG> variable;
       though the application may set this value to  something  other  than  a
       null,  ncurses will test <STRONG>npc</STRONG> first and use napms if the terminal has no
       pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be  indicated
       with <STRONG>hu</STRONG> (half-line up) and <STRONG>hd</STRONG> (half-line down).  This is primarily use-
       ful for superscripts and subscripts on hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-
       copy  terminal  can eject to the next page (form feed), give this as <STRONG>ff</STRONG>
       (usually control/L).

       If there is a command to repeat a given character  a  given  number  of
       times  (to  save  time transmitting a large number of identical charac-
       ters) this can be indicated with the  parameterized  string  <STRONG>rep</STRONG>.   The
       first  parameter  is the character to be repeated and the second is the
       number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10) is the
       same as "xxxxxxxxxx".

       If the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX
       4025, this can be indicated with <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG>.  A prototype command  character
       is  chosen  which is used in all capabilities.  This character is given
       in the <STRONG>cmdch</STRONG> capability to identify it.  The  following  convention  is
       supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for a
       <STRONG>CC</STRONG> variable, and if found, all occurrences of the  prototype  character
       are replaced with the character in the environment variable.

       Terminal  descriptions  that  do not represent a specific kind of known
       terminal, such as <EM>switch</EM>, <EM>dialup</EM>, <EM>patch</EM>, and  <EM>network</EM>,  should  include
       the  <STRONG>gn</STRONG> (generic) capability so that programs can complain that they do
       not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability does not  apply
       to  <EM>virtual</EM>  terminal  descriptions  for which the escape sequences are
       known.)

       If the terminal has a "meta key" which acts as a shift key, setting the
       8th  bit  of any character transmitted, this fact can be indicated with
       <STRONG>km</STRONG>.  Otherwise, software will assume that the 8th bit is parity and  it
       will  usually be cleared.  If strings exist to turn this "meta mode" on
       and off, they can be given as <STRONG>smm</STRONG> and <STRONG>rmm</STRONG>.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at
       once,  the number of lines of memory can be indicated with <STRONG>lm</STRONG>.  A value
       of <STRONG>lm</STRONG>#0 indicates that the number of lines is not fixed, but that there
       is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If  the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal
       protocol, the terminal number can be given as <STRONG>vt</STRONG>.

       Media copy strings which control an auxiliary printer connected to  the
       terminal  can  be  given as <STRONG>mc0</STRONG>: print the contents of the screen, <STRONG>mc4</STRONG>:
       turn off the printer, and <STRONG>mc5</STRONG>: turn on the printer.  When  the  printer
       is  on,  all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the printer.  It
       is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal  screen
       when  the  printer  is  on.   A variation <STRONG>mc5p</STRONG> takes one parameter, and
       leaves the printer on for as many characters as the value of the param-
       eter, then turns the printer off.  The parameter should not exceed 255.
       All text, including <STRONG>mc4</STRONG>, is transparently passed to the  printer  while
       an <STRONG>mc5p</STRONG> is in effect.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Glitches-and-Braindamage">Glitches and Braindamage</a></H3><PRE>
       Hazeltine  terminals, which do not allow "~" characters to be displayed
       should indicate <STRONG>hz</STRONG>.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an <STRONG>am</STRONG>  wrap,  such
       as the Concept and vt100, should indicate <STRONG>xenl</STRONG>.

       If  <STRONG>el</STRONG>  is  required  to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing
       normal text on top of it), <STRONG>xhp</STRONG> should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks,
       should  indicate  <STRONG>xt</STRONG> (destructive tabs).  Note: the variable indicating
       this is now "dest_tabs_magic_smso"; in  older  versions,  it  was  tel-
       eray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it is not possible
       to position the cursor on top of a "magic cookie", that to erase stand-
       out  mode  it  is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.  The
       ncurses implementation ignores this glitch.

       The Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the  escape
       or  control/C  characters,  has <STRONG>xsb</STRONG>, indicating that the f1 key is used
       for escape and f2 for control/C.  (Only  certain  Superbees  have  this
       problem,  depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older terminfo versions,
       this capability was called "beehive_glitch"; it is now "no_esc_ctl_c".

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more  capa-
       bilities of the form <STRONG>x</STRONG><EM>x</EM>.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Pitfalls-of-Long-Entries">Pitfalls of Long Entries</a></H3><PRE>
       Long  terminfo  entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry
       has even approached terminfo's 4096-byte string-table maximum.   Unfor-
       tunately,  the  termcap translations are much more strictly limited (to
       1023 bytes), thus termcap translations of  long  terminfo  entries  can
       cause problems.

       The  man  pages  for  4.3BSD and older versions of <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG> instruct the
       user to allocate a 1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.   The  entry
       gets  null-terminated by the termcap library, so that makes the maximum
       safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.  Depending  on  what
       the  application  and the termcap library being used does, and where in
       the termcap file the terminal type that <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG> is  searching  for  is,
       several bad things can happen.

       Some  termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an
       entry that's longer than 1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the
       entries  to  1023  bytes.  Some application programs allocate more than
       the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with  it:  before
       "tc"  expansion, and after "tc" expansion.  "tc" is the capability that
       tacks on another termcap entry to the end of the current one, to add on
       its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not use the "tc" capability,
       then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The "before tc expansion" length is the most important one, because  it
       affects  more than just users of that particular terminal.  This is the
       length of the entry as it exists in /etc/termcap, minus the  backslash-
       newline pairs, which <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG> strips out while reading it.  Some termcap
       libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).  Now
       suppose:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   and  the termcap library (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads
           the whole entry into the buffer, no matter what its length, to  see
           if it is the entry it wants,

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   and  <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG>  is  searching  for a terminal type that either is the
           long entry, appears in the termcap file after the  long  entry,  or
           does  not  appear in the file at all (so that <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG> has to search
           the whole termcap file).

       Then <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG> will overwrite memory, perhaps  its  stack,  and  probably
       core  dump the program.  Programs like telnet are particularly vulnera-
       ble; modern telnets pass along values like the terminal type  automati-
       cally.   The  results are almost as undesirable with a termcap library,
       like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages  when  it
       reads  an  overly  long  termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates
       long entries, like OSF/1 3.0, it is  immune  to  dying  here  but  will
       return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The  "after  tc  expansion"  length  will  have a similar effect to the
       above, but only for people who actually set TERM to that terminal type,
       since  <STRONG>tgetent</STRONG>  only  does "tc" expansion once it is found the terminal
       type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes  can  cause,
       on  various  combinations of termcap libraries and applications, a core
       dump, warnings, or incorrect operation.  If it is too long even  before
       "tc"  expansion,  it will have this effect even for users of some other
       terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not  have  a  termcap
       entry.

       When  in  -C (translate to termcap) mode, the <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> implementation of
       <STRONG><A HREF="tic.1m.html">tic(1m)</A></STRONG> issues warning messages when the pre-tc  length  of  a  termcap
       translation  is  too  long.  The -c (check) option also checks resolved
       (after tc expansion) lengths.


</PRE><H3><a name="h3-Binary-Compatibility">Binary Compatibility</a></H3><PRE>
       It is not wise to count  on  portability  of  binary  terminfo  entries
       between  commercial  UNIX  versions.   The problem is that there are at
       least two versions of terminfo (under HP-UX  and  AIX)  which  diverged
       from  System  V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capabili-
       ties to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  Sys-
       tem V and XSI Curses extensions.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></H2><PRE>
       Searching   for  terminal  descriptions  in  <STRONG>$HOME/.terminfo</STRONG>  and  TER-
       MINFO_DIRS is not supported by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 <STRONG>curses</STRONG> implementations, and all  previous  to  SVr4,  do  not
       interpret the %A and %O operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not  specify  whether <STRONG>msgr</STRONG> licenses movement while in an
       alternate-character-set mode (such modes may, among other  things,  map
       CR  and  NL  to  characters  that  do  not trigger local motions).  The
       <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> implementation ignores <STRONG>msgr</STRONG> in <STRONG>ALTCHARSET</STRONG>  mode.   This  raises
       the  possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite inter-
       pretation may need terminfo entries  made  for  <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG>  to  have  <STRONG>msgr</STRONG>
       turned off.

       The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library handles insert-character and insert-character modes
       in a slightly non-standard way to get better  update  efficiency.   See
       the <STRONG>Insert/Delete</STRONG> <STRONG>Character</STRONG> subsection above.

       The  parameter  substitutions  for  <STRONG>set_clock</STRONG> and <STRONG>display_clock</STRONG> are not
       documented in SVr4 or the XSI Curses standard.  They are  deduced  from
       the documentation for the AT&amp;T 505 terminal.

       Be  careful  assigning the <STRONG>kmous</STRONG> capability.  The <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> library wants
       to interpret it as <STRONG>KEY_MOUSE</STRONG>, for use by terminals and  emulators  like
       xterm  that can return mouse-tracking information in the keyboard-input
       stream.

       X/Open Curses does not mention  italics.   Portable  applications  must
       assume  that  numeric  capabilities  are  signed  16-bit  values.  This
       includes the <EM>no</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG><EM>color</EM><STRONG>_</STRONG><EM>video</EM> (ncv) capability.   The  32768  mask  value
       used  for  italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv  value  must  be
       specified, even if it is zero.

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different
       subsets of the XSI Curses standard and (in some cases) different exten-
       sion sets.  Here is a summary, accurate as of October 1995:

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>SVR4,</STRONG> <STRONG>Solaris,</STRONG> <STRONG>ncurses</STRONG> -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>SGI</STRONG> -- Supports the SVr4 set, adds one undocumented extended string
           capability (<STRONG>set_pglen</STRONG>).

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>SVr1,</STRONG> <STRONG>Ultrix</STRONG> -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capa-
           bilities.   The  booleans  end  with  <STRONG>xon_xoff</STRONG>;  the  numerics with
           <STRONG>width_status_line</STRONG>; and the strings with <STRONG>prtr_non</STRONG>.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>HP/UX</STRONG> -- Supports the  SVr1  subset,  plus  the  SVr[234]  numerics
           <STRONG>num_labels</STRONG>,   <STRONG>label_height</STRONG>,  <STRONG>label_width</STRONG>,  plus  function  keys  11
           through 63, plus <STRONG>plab_norm</STRONG>,  <STRONG>label_on</STRONG>,  and  <STRONG>label_off</STRONG>,  plus  some
           incompatible extensions in the string table.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>AIX</STRONG>  -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63,
           plus a number of incompatible string table extensions.

       <STRONG>o</STRONG>   <STRONG>OSF</STRONG> -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-FILES">FILES</a></H2><PRE>
       /usr/share/terminfo/?/*  files containing terminal descriptions


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></H2><PRE>
       <STRONG><A HREF="tabs.1.html">tabs(1)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="tic.1m.html">tic(1m)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="infocmp.1m.html">infocmp(1m)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="ncurses.3x.html">curses(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG><A HREF="curs_color.3x.html">curs_color(3x)</A></STRONG>,  <STRONG>curs_vari-</STRONG>
       <STRONG><A HREF="curs_variables.3x.html">ables(3x)</A></STRONG>, <STRONG>printf(3)</STRONG>, <STRONG><A HREF="term.5.html">term(5)</A></STRONG>.  <STRONG><A HREF="term_variables.3x.html">term_variables(3x)</A></STRONG>.  <STRONG><A HREF="user_caps.5.html">user_caps(5)</A></STRONG>.


</PRE><H2><a name="h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></H2><PRE>
       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses
       by Pavel Curtis.



                                                                   <STRONG><A HREF="terminfo.5.html">terminfo(5)</A></STRONG>
</PRE>
<div class="nav">
<ul>
<li><a href="#h2-NAME">NAME</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a>
<ul>
<li><a href="#h3-Terminfo-Entry-Syntax">Terminfo Entry Syntax</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Terminfo-Capabilities-Syntax">Terminfo Capabilities Syntax</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Similar-Terminals">Similar Terminals</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Predefined-Capabilities">Predefined Capabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-User-Defined-Capabilities">User-Defined Capabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-A-Sample-Entry">A Sample Entry</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Types-of-Capabilities">Types of Capabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Fetching-Compiled-Descriptions">Fetching Compiled Descriptions</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Preparing-Descriptions">Preparing Descriptions</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Basic-Capabilities">Basic Capabilities</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Parameterized-Strings">Parameterized Strings</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Cursor-Motions">Cursor Motions</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Area-Clears">Area Clears</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Insert_delete-line-and-vertical-motions">Insert/delete line and vertical motions</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Insert_Delete-Character">Insert/Delete Character</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Highlighting_-Underlining_-and-Visible-Bells">Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Keypad-and-Function-Keys">Keypad and Function Keys</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Tabs-and-Initialization">Tabs and Initialization</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Delays-and-Padding">Delays and Padding</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Status-Lines">Status Lines</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Line-Graphics">Line Graphics</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Color-Handling">Color Handling</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Miscellaneous">Miscellaneous</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Glitches-and-Braindamage">Glitches and Braindamage</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Pitfalls-of-Long-Entries">Pitfalls of Long Entries</a></li>
<li><a href="#h3-Binary-Compatibility">Binary Compatibility</a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><a href="#h2-EXTENSIONS">EXTENSIONS</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-FILES">FILES</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
<li><a href="#h2-AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></li>
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