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.\" Copyright (c) 1988, 1993
.\"	The Regents of the University of California.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
.\"    must display the following acknowledgement:
.\"	This product includes software developed by the University of
.\"	California, Berkeley and its contributors.
.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\"    may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"    without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"	@(#)sail.6	8.2 (Berkeley) 12/30/93
.\"	$FreeBSD$
.\"
.TH SAIL 6 "December 30, 1993"
.UC 4
.SH NAME
sail \- multi-user wooden ships and iron men
.SH SYNOPSIS
.B sail
[
.B \-s
[
.B \-l
] ] [
.B \-x
] [
.B \-b
] [
.B num
]
.br
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
.I Sail
is a computer version of Avalon Hill's game of fighting sail
originally developed by S. Craig Taylor.
.PP
Players of
.I Sail
take command of an old fashioned Man of War and fight other
players or the computer.  They may re-enact one of the many
historical sea battles recorded in the game, or they can choose
a fictional battle.
.PP
As a sea captain in the 
.I Sail
Navy, the player has complete control over the workings of his ship.
He must order every maneuver, change the set of his sails, and judge the
right moment to let loose the terrible destruction of his broadsides.
In addition to fighting the enemy, he must harness the powers of the wind
and sea to make them work for him.  The outcome of many battles during the
age of sail was decided by the ability of one captain to hold the `weather
gage.'
.PP
The flags are:
.TP
.B \-s
Print the names and ships of the top ten sailors.
.TP
.B \-l
Show the login name.  Only effective with \fB-s\fP.
.TP
.B \-x
Play the first available ship instead of prompting for a choice.
.TP
.B \-b
No bells.
.SH IMPLEMENTATION
.I Sail
is really two programs in one.  Each player starts up a process which
runs his own ship.  In addition, a
.I driver
process is forked (by the first player) to run the computer ships
and take care of global bookkeeping.
.PP
Because the
.I driver
must calculate moves for each ship it controls, the
more ships the computer is playing, the slower the game will appear.
.PP
If a player joins a game in progress, he will synchronize
with the other players (a rather slow process for everyone), and 
then he may play along with the rest.
.PP
To implement a multi-user game in Version 7 UNIX, which was the operating
system
.I Sail
was first written under, the communicating processes must use a common
temporary file as a place to read and write messages.  In addition, a
locking mechanism must be provided to ensure exclusive access to the
shared file.  For example,
.I Sail
uses a temporary file named /tmp/#sailsink.21 for scenario 21, and
corresponding file names for the other scenarios.  To provide exclusive
access to the temporary file, 
.I Sail
uses a technique stolen from an old game called "pubcaves" by Jeff Cohen.
Processes do a busy wait in the loop
.br
.sp
.ce 2
	for (n = 0; link(sync_file, sync_lock) < 0 && n < 30; n++)
		sleep(2);
.br
.sp
until they are able to create a link to a file named "/tmp/#saillock.??".
The "??" correspond to the scenario number of the game.  Since UNIX 
guarantees that a link will point to only one file, the process that succeeds
in linking will have exclusive access to the temporary file.
.PP
Whether or not this really works is open to speculation.  When ucbmiro
was rebooted after a crash, the file system check program found 3 links
between the
.I Sail
temporary file and its link file.
.SH CONSEQUENCES OF SEPARATE PLAYER AND DRIVER PROCESSES
When players do something of global interest, such as moving or firing,
the driver must coordinate the action with the other ships in the game.
For example, if a player wants to move in a certain direction, he writes a
message into the temporary file requesting the driver to move his ship.
Each ``turn,'' the driver reads all the messages sent from the players and
decides what happened.  It then writes back into the temporary file new
values of variables, etc.
.PP
The most noticeable effect this communication has on the game is the
delay in moving.  Suppose a player types a move for his ship and hits
return.  What happens then?  The player process saves up messages to
be written to the temporary file in a buffer.  Every 7 seconds or so, the
player process gets exclusive access to the temporary file and writes 
out its buffer to the file.  The driver, running asynchronously, must
read in the movement command, process it, and write out the results.  This
takes two exclusive accesses to the temporary file.  Finally, when the player 
process gets around to doing another 7 second update, the results of the
move are displayed on the screen.  Hence, every movement requires four
exclusive accesses to the temporary file (anywhere from 7 to 21 seconds
depending upon asynchrony) before the player sees the results of his moves.
.PP
In practice, the delays are not as annoying as they would appear.  There
is room for "pipelining" in the movement.  After the player writes out
a first movement message, a second movement command can then be issued.
The first message will be in the temporary file waiting for the driver, and
the second will be in the file buffer waiting to be written to the file.
Thus, by always typing moves a turn ahead of the time, the player can
sail around quite quickly.
.PP
If the player types several movement commands between two 7 second updates,
only the last movement command typed will be seen by the driver.  Movement
commands within the same update "overwrite" each other, in a sense.
.SH THE HISTORY OF SAIL 
I wrote the first version of
.I Sail
on a PDP 11/70 in the fall of 1980.  Needless to say, the code was horrendous,
not portable in any sense of the word, and didn't work.  The program was not
very modular and had fseeks() and fwrites() every few lines.  After a
tremendous rewrite from the top down, I got the first working version up by
1981.  There were several annoying bugs concerning firing broadsides and
finding angles.
.I Sail
uses no floating point, by the way, so the direction routines are rather 
tricky.
Ed Wang rewrote my angle() routine in 1981 to be more correct (although
it still doesn't work perfectly), and he added code to let a player select
which ship he wanted at the start of the game (instead of the first one
available).
.PP
Captain Happy (Craig Leres) is responsible for making
.I Sail
portable for the first time.  This was no easy task, by the way.  Constants
like 2 and 10 were very frequent in the code.  I also became famous for
using "Riggle Memorial Structures" in
.I Sail.
Many of my structure references are so long that they run off the line
printer page.  Here is an example, if you promise not to laugh.
.br
.sp
.ce
specs[scene[flog.fgamenum].ship[flog.fshipnum].shipnum].pts
.br
.sp
.PP
.I Sail
received its fourth and most thorough rewrite in the summer and fall
of 1983.  Ed Wang rewrote and modularized the code (a monumental feat)
almost from scratch.  Although he introduced many new bugs, the final
result was very much cleaner and (?) faster.  He added window movement
commands and find ship commands.
.SH HISTORICAL INFO
Old Square Riggers were very maneuverable ships capable of intricate
sailing.  Their only disadvantage was an inability to sail very 
close to the wind.  The design of a wooden ship allowed only for the
guns to bear to the left and right sides.  A few guns of small
aspect (usually 6 or 9 pounders) could point forward, but their
effect was small compared to a 68 gun broadside of 24 or 32 pounders.
The guns bear approximately like so:
.nf

       \\
        b----------------
    ---0
        \\
         \\
          \\     up to a range of ten (for round shot)
           \\
            \\
             \\

.fi
An interesting phenomenon occurred when a broadside was fired
down the length of an enemy ship.  The shot tended to bounce along
the deck and did several times more damage.  This phenomenon was called
a rake.  Because the bows of a ship are very strong and present a smaller
target than the stern, a stern rake (firing from the stern to the bow) causes
more damage than a bow rake.
.nf

                        b
                       00   ----  Stern rake!
                         a

.fi
Most ships were equipped with carronades, which were very large, close
range cannons.  American ships from the revolution until the War of 1812
were almost entirely armed with carronades.
.PP
The period of history covered in
.I Sail
is approximately from the 1770's until the end of Napoleonic France in 1815.
There are many excellent books about the age of sail.  My favorite author
is Captain Frederick Marryat.  More contemporary authors include C.S. Forester
and Alexander Kent.
.PP
Fighting ships came in several sizes classed by armament.  The mainstays of
any fleet were its "Ships of the Line", or "Line of Battle Ships".  They
were so named because these ships fought together in great lines.  They were
close enough for mutual support, yet every ship could fire both its broadsides.
We get the modern words "ocean liner," or "liner," and "battleship" from
"ship of the line."  The most common size was the 74 gun two decked
ship of the line.  The two gun decks usually mounted 18 and 24 pounder guns.
.PP
The pride of the fleet were the first rates.  These were huge three decked
ships of the line mounting 80 to 136 guns.  The guns in the three tiers
were usually 18, 24, and 32 pounders in that order from top to bottom.
.PP
Various other ships came next.  They were almost all "razees," or ships
of the line with one deck sawed off.  They mounted 40-64 guns and were
a poor cross between a frigate and a line of battle ship.  They neither
had the speed of the former nor the firepower of the latter.
.PP
Next came the "eyes of the fleet."  Frigates came in many sizes mounting
anywhere from 32 to 44 guns.  They were very handy vessels.  They could
outsail anything bigger and outshoot anything smaller.  Frigates didn't
fight in lines of battle as the much bigger 74's did.  Instead, they
harassed the enemy's rear or captured crippled ships.  They were much
more useful in missions away from the fleet, such as cutting out expeditions
or boat actions.  They could hit hard and get away fast.
.PP
Lastly, there were the corvettes, sloops, and brigs.  These were smaller
ships mounting typically fewer than 20 guns.  A corvette was only slightly
smaller than a frigate, so one might have up to 30 guns.  Sloops were used
for carrying dispatches or passengers.  Brigs were something you built for 
land-locked lakes.
.SH SAIL PARTICULARS
Ships in
.I Sail
are represented by two characters.  One character represents the bow of
the ship, and the other represents the stern.  Ships have nationalities
and numbers.  The first ship of a nationality is number 0, the second
number 1, etc.  Therefore, the first British ship in a game would be
printed as "b0".  The second Brit would be "b1", and the fifth Don
would be "s4".  
.PP
Ships can set normal sails, called Battle Sails, or bend on extra canvas
called Full Sails.  A ship under full sail is a beautiful sight indeed,
and it can move much faster than a ship under Battle Sails.  The only
trouble is, with full sails set, there is so much tension on sail and
rigging that a well aimed round shot can burst a sail into ribbons where
it would only cause a little hole in a loose sail.  For this reason,
rigging damage is doubled on a ship with full sails set.  Don't let
that discourage you from using full sails.  I like to keep them up
right into the heat of battle.  A ship
with full sails set has a capital letter for its nationality.  E.g.,
a Frog, "f0", with full sails set would be printed as "F0".
.PP
When a ship is battered into a listing hulk, the last man aboard "strikes
the colors."  This ceremony is the ship's formal surrender.  The nationality
character
of a surrendered ship is printed as "!".  E.g., the Frog of our last example
would soon be "!0".
.PP
A ship has a random chance of catching fire or sinking when it reaches the
stage of listing hulk.  A sinking ship has a "~" printed for its nationality,
and a ship on fire and about to explode has a "#" printed.
.PP
Captured ships become the nationality of the prize crew.  Therefore, if
an American ship captures a British ship, the British ship will have an
"a" printed for its nationality.  In addition, the ship number is changed
to "&","'", "(", ,")", "*", or "+" depending upon the original number,
be it 0,1,2,3,4, or 5.  E.g., the "b0" captured by an American becomes the
"a&".  The "s4" captured by a Frog becomes the "f*".
.PP
The ultimate example is, of course, an exploding Brit captured by an
American: "#&".
.SH MOVEMENT
Movement is the most confusing part of 
.I Sail
to many.  Ships can head in 8 directions:
.nf

                                 0      0      0
        b       b       b0      b       b       b       0b      b
        0        0                                             0

.fi
The stern of a ship moves when it turns.  The bow remains stationary.
Ships can always turn, regardless of the wind (unless they are becalmed).
All ships drift when they lose headway.  If a ship doesn't move forward
at all for two turns, it will begin to drift.  If a ship has begun to
drift, then it must move forward before it turns, if it plans to do
more than make a right or left turn, which is always possible.
.PP
Movement commands to 
.I Sail
are a string of forward moves and turns.  An example is "l3".  It will
turn a ship left and then move it ahead 3 spaces.  In the drawing above,
the "b0" made 7 successive left turns.  When 
.I Sail
prompts you for a move, it prints three characters of import.  E.g., 
.nf
	move (7, 4): 
.fi
The first number is the maximum number of moves you can make,
including turns.  The second number is the maximum number of turns
you can make.  Between the numbers is sometimes printed a quote "'".
If the quote is present, it means that your ship has been drifting, and
you must move ahead to regain headway before you turn (see note above).
Some of the possible moves for the example above are as follows:
.nf

	move (7, 4): 7
	move (7, 4): 1
	move (7, 4): d		/* drift, or do nothing */
	move (7, 4): 6r
	move (7, 4): 5r1
	move (7, 4): 4r1r
	move (7, 4): l1r1r2
	move (7, 4): 1r1r1r1

.fi
Because square riggers performed so poorly sailing into the wind, if at
any point in a movement command you turn into the wind, the movement stops
there.  E.g.,
.nf

	move (7, 4): l1l4
	Movement Error;
	Helm: l1l

.fi
Moreover, whenever you make a turn, your movement allowance drops to
min(what's left, what you would have at the new attitude).  In short,
if you turn closer to the wind, you most likely won't be able to sail the
full allowance printed in the "move" prompt.
.PP
Old sailing captains had to keep an eye constantly on the wind.  Captains
in 
.I Sail
are no different.  A ship's ability to move depends on its attitude to the
wind.  The best angle possible is to have the wind off your quarter, that is,
just off the stern.  The direction rose on the side of the screen gives the
possible movements for your ship at all positions to the wind.  Battle
sail speeds are given first, and full sail speeds are given in parenthesis.
.nf

				 0 1(2)
				\\|/
				-^-3(6)
				/|\\
				 | 4(7)
				3(6)  

.fi
Pretend the bow of your ship (the "^") is pointing upward and the wind is
blowing from the bottom to the top of the page.  The
numbers at the bottom "3(6)" will be your speed under battle or full
sails in such a situation.  If the wind is off your quarter, then you
can move "4(7)".  If the wind is off your beam, "3(6)".  If the wind is
off your bow, then you can only move "1(2)".  Facing into the wind, you
can't move at all.  Ships facing into the wind were said to be "in irons".
.SH WINDSPEED AND DIRECTION
The windspeed and direction is displayed as a little weather vane on the
side of the screen.  The number in the middle of the vane indicates the wind
speed, and the + to - indicates the wind direction.  The wind blows from
the + sign (high pressure) to the - sign (low pressure).  E.g.,
.nf

				|
				3
				+

.fi
.PP
The wind speeds are 0 = becalmed, 1 = light breeze, 2 = moderate breeze,
3 = fresh breeze, 4 = strong breeze, 5 = gale, 6 = full gale, 7 = hurricane.
If a hurricane shows up, all ships are destroyed.
.SH GRAPPLING AND FOULING
If two ships collide, they run the risk of becoming tangled together.  This
is called "fouling."  Fouled ships are stuck together, and neither can move.
They can unfoul each other if they want to.  Boarding parties can only be
sent across to ships when the antagonists are either fouled or grappled.
.PP
Ships can grapple each other by throwing grapnels into the rigging of
the other.
.PP
The number of fouls and grapples you have are displayed on the upper
right of the screen.
.SH BOARDING
Boarding was a very costly venture in terms of human life.  Boarding parties
may be formed in 
.I Sail
to either board an enemy ship or to defend your own ship against attack.
Men organized as Defensive Boarding Parties fight twice as hard to save
their ship as men left unorganized.
.PP
The boarding strength of a crew depends upon its quality and upon the
number of men sent.
.SH CREW QUALITY
The British seaman was world renowned for his sailing abilities.  American
sailors, however, were actually the best seamen in the world.  Because the
American Navy offered twice the wages of the Royal Navy, British seamen 
who liked the sea defected to America by the thousands.
.PP
In 
.I Sail,
crew quality is quantized into 5 energy levels.  "Elite" crews can outshoot
and outfight all other sailors.  "Crack" crews are next.  "Mundane" crews
are average, and "Green" and "Mutinous" crews are below average.  A good
rule of thumb is that "Crack" or "Elite" crews get one extra hit
per broadside compared to "Mundane" crews.  Don't expect too much from
"Green" crews.
.SH BROADSIDES
Your two broadsides may be loaded with four kinds of shot: grape, chain,
round, and double.  You have guns and carronades in both the port and starboard
batteries.  Carronades only have a range of two, so you have to get in
close to be able to fire them.  You have the choice of firing at the hull
or rigging of another ship.  If the range of the ship is greater than 6,
then you may only shoot at the rigging.
.PP
The types of shot and their advantages are:
.SH ROUND
Range of 10.  Good for hull or rigging hits.
.SH DOUBLE
Range of 1.  Extra good for hull or rigging hits.
Double takes two turns to load.
.SH CHAIN
Range of 3.  Excellent for tearing down rigging.
Cannot damage hull or guns, though.
.SH GRAPE
Range of 1.  Sometimes devastating against enemy crews.
.PP
On the side of the screen is displayed some vital information about your
ship:
.nf

			Load  D! R!
			Hull  9  
			Crew  4  4  2
			Guns  4  4  
			Carr  2  2 
			Rigg  5 5 5 5

.fi
"Load" shows what your port (left) and starboard (right) broadsides are
loaded with.  A "!" after the type of shot indicates that it is an initial
broadside.  Initial broadside were loaded with care before battle and before
the decks ran red with blood.  As a consequence, initial broadsides are a
little more effective than broadsides loaded later.  A "*" after the type of
shot indicates that the gun
crews are still loading it, and you cannot fire yet.  "Hull" shows how much
hull you have left.  "Crew" shows your three sections of crew.  As your
crew dies off, your ability to fire decreases.  "Guns" and "Carr" show
your port and starboard guns.  As you lose guns, your ability to fire
decreases.  "Rigg" shows how much rigging you have on your 3 or 4 masts.
As rigging is shot away, you lose mobility.
.SH EFFECTIVENESS OF FIRE
It is very dramatic when a ship fires its thunderous broadsides, but the
mere opportunity to fire them does not guarantee any hits.  Many factors
influence the destructive force of a broadside.  First of all, and the chief
factor, is distance.  It is harder to hit a ship at range ten than it is
to hit one sloshing alongside.  Next is raking.  Raking fire, as
mentioned before, 
can sometimes dismast a ship at range ten.  Next, crew size and quality affects
the damage done by a broadside.   The number of guns firing also bears on the
point,
so to speak.  Lastly, weather affects the accuracy of a broadside.  If the
seas are high (5 or 6), then the lower gunports of ships of the line can't
even be opened to run out the guns.  This gives frigates and other flush
decked vessels an advantage in a storm.  The scenario 
.I Pellew vs. The Droits de L'Homme
takes advantage of this peculiar circumstance.
.SH REPAIRS
Repairs may be made to your Hull, Guns, and Rigging at the slow rate of
two points per three turns.  The message "Repairs Completed" will be
printed if no more repairs can be made.
.SH PECULIARITIES OF COMPUTER SHIPS
Computer ships in 
.I Sail
follow all the rules above with a few exceptions.  Computer ships never
repair damage.  If they did, the players could never beat them.  They
play well enough as it is.  As a consolation, the computer ships can fire double
shot every turn.  That fluke is a good reason to keep your distance.  The
.I
Driver
figures out the moves of the computer ships.   It computes them with a typical
A.I. distance function and a depth first search to find the maximum "score."
It seems to work fairly well, although I'll be the first to admit it isn't
perfect.
.SH HOW TO PLAY
Commands are given to 
.I Sail
by typing a single character.  You will then be prompted for further
input.  A brief summary of the commands follows.
.br
.SH COMMAND SUMMARY
.nf

    'f'  Fire broadsides if they bear
    'l'  Reload
    'L'  Unload broadsides (to change ammo)
    'm'  Move 
    'i'  Print the closest ship
    'I'  Print all ships
    'F'  Find a particular ship or ships (e.g. "a?" for all Americans)
    's'  Send a message around the fleet
    'b'  Attempt to board an enemy ship
    'B'  Recall boarding parties
    'c'  Change set of sail
    'r'  Repair
    'u'  Attempt to unfoul
    'g'  Grapple/ungrapple
    'v'  Print version number of game
   '^L'  Redraw screen
    'Q'  Quit

    'C'      Center your ship in the window
    'U'	     Move window up
    'D','N'  Move window down
    'H'	     Move window left
    'J'	     Move window right
    'S'      Toggle window to follow your ship or stay where it is

.fi
.bg
.SH SCENARIOS
Here is a summary of the scenarios in 
.I Sail:

.br
.SH Ranger vs. Drake:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Ranger            19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
(b) Drake             17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
.SH The Battle of Flamborough Head:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

.fi
This is John Paul Jones' first famous battle.  Aboard the Bonhomme
Richard, he was able to overcome the Serapis's greater firepower
by quickly boarding her.
.nf

(a) Bonhomme Rich     42 gun Corvette (crack crew) (11 pts)
(b) Serapis           44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (12 pts)
.SH Arbuthnot and Des Touches:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

(b) America           64 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (20 pts)
(b) Befford           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(b) Adamant           50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
(b) London            98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
(b) Royal Oak         74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(f) Neptune           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(f) Duc de Bourgogne  80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
(f) Conquerant        74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(f) Provence          64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
(f) Romulus           44 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (10 pts)
.SH Suffren and Hughes:
.nf

Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(b) Monmouth          74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(b) Hero              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(b) Isis              50 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (17 pts)
(b) Superb            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
(b) Burford           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(f) Flamband          50 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (14 pts)
(f) Annibal           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(f) Severe            64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
(f) Brilliant         80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
(f) Sphinx            80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
.SH Nymphe vs. Cleopatre:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(b) Nymphe            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (11 pts)
(f) Cleopatre         36 gun Frigate (average crew) (10 pts)
.SH Mars vs. Hercule:
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.
.nf
(b) Mars              74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(f) Hercule           74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (23 pts)
.SH Ambuscade vs. Baionnaise:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

(b) Ambuscade         32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
(f) Baionnaise        24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
.SH Constellation vs. Insurgent:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a gale.

(a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
(f) Insurgent         36 gun Corvette (average crew) (11 pts)
.SH Constellation vs. Vengeance:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Constellation     38 gun Corvette (elite crew) (17 pts)
(f) Vengeance         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
.SH The Battle of Lissa:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(b) Amphion           32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
(b) Active            38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (18 pts)
(b) Volage            22 gun Frigate (elite crew) (11 pts)
(b) Cerberus          32 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
(f) Favorite          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
(f) Flore             40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
(f) Danae             40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
(f) Bellona           32 gun Frigate (green crew) (9 pts)
(f) Corona            40 gun Frigate (green crew) (12 pts)
(f) Carolina          32 gun Frigate (green crew) (7 pts)
.SH Constitution vs. Guerriere:
.nf
Wind from the SW, blowing a gale.

(a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
(b) Guerriere         38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
.SH United States vs. Macedonian:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) United States     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
(b) Macedonian        38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
.SH Constitution vs. Java:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
(b) Java              38 gun Corvette (crack crew) (19 pts)
.SH Chesapeake vs. Shannon:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Chesapeake        38 gun Frigate (average crew) (14 pts)
(b) Shannon           38 gun Frigate (elite crew) (17 pts)
.SH The Battle of Lake Erie:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

(a) Lawrence          20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
(a) Niagara           20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
(b) Lady Prevost      13 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
(b) Detroit           19 gun Sloop (crack crew) (7 pts)
(b) Q. Charlotte      17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (6 pts)
.SH Wasp vs. Reindeer:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a light breeze.

(a) Wasp              20 gun Sloop (elite crew) (12 pts)
(b) Reindeer          18 gun Sloop (elite crew) (9 pts)
.SH Constitution vs. Cyane and Levant:
.br
Wind from the S, blowing a moderate breeze.

(a) Constitution      44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
(b) Cyane             24 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
(b) Levant            20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (10 pts)
.br
.SH Pellew vs. Droits de L'Homme:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a gale.

(b) Indefatigable     44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
(b) Amazon            36 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
(f) Droits L'Hom      74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
.SH Algeciras:
.nf
Wind from the SW, blowing a moderate breeze.

(b) Caesar            80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
(b) Pompee            74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
(b) Spencer           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(b) Hannibal          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
(s) Real-Carlos       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
(s) San Fernando      96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
(s) Argonauta         80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)
(s) San Augustine     74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
(f) Indomptable       80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
(f) Desaix            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
.SH Lake Champlain:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Saratoga          26 gun Sloop (crack crew) (12 pts)
(a) Eagle             20 gun Sloop (crack crew) (11 pts)
(a) Ticonderoga       17 gun Sloop (crack crew) (9 pts)
(a) Preble            7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
(b) Confiance         37 gun Frigate (crack crew) (14 pts)
(b) Linnet            16 gun Sloop (elite crew) (10 pts)
(b) Chubb             11 gun Brig (crack crew) (5 pts)
.SH Last Voyage of the USS President:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) President         44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
(b) Endymion          40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
(b) Pomone            44 gun Frigate (crack crew) (20 pts)
(b) Tenedos           38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (15 pts)
.SH Hornblower and the Natividad:
.nf
Wind from the E, blowing a gale.

.fi
A scenario for you Horny fans.  Remember, he sank the Natividad
against heavy odds and winds.  Hint: don't try to board the Natividad,
her crew is much bigger, albeit green.
.nf

(b) Lydia             36 gun Frigate (elite crew) (13 pts)
(s) Natividad         50 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (14 pts)
.SH Curse of the Flying Dutchman:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

Just for fun, take the Piece of cake.

(s) Piece of Cake     24 gun Corvette (average crew) (9 pts)
(f) Flying Dutchy     120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
.SH The South Pacific:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a strong breeze.

(a) USS Scurvy        136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
(b) HMS Tahiti        120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
(s) Australian        32 gun Frigate (average crew) (9 pts)
(f) Bikini Atoll      7 gun Brig (crack crew) (4 pts)
.SH Hornblower and the battle of Rosas bay:
.nf
Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

The only battle Hornblower ever lost.  He was able to dismast one
ship and stern rake the others though.  See if you can do as well.
.nf

(b) Sutherland        74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (26 pts)
(f) Turenne           80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
(f) Nightmare         74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(f) Paris             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
(f) Napoleon          74 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (20 pts)
.SH Cape Horn:
.nf
Wind from the NE, blowing a strong breeze.

(a) Concord           80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
(a) Berkeley          98 gun 3 Decker SOL (crack crew) (28 pts)
(b) Thames            120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
(s) Madrid            112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
(f) Musket            80 gun 3 Decker SOL (average crew) (27 pts)
.SH New Orleans:
.nf
Wind from the SE, blowing a fresh breeze.

Watch that little Cypress go!

(a) Alligator         120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
(b) Firefly           74 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (27 pts)
(b) Cypress           44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (14 pts)
.SH Botany Bay:
.nf
Wind from the N, blowing a fresh breeze.

(b) Shark             64 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (18 pts)
(f) Coral Snake       44 gun Corvette (elite crew) (24 pts)
(f) Sea Lion          44 gun Frigate (elite crew) (24 pts)
.SH Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea:
.nf
Wind from the NW, blowing a fresh breeze.

This one is dedicated to Richard Basehart and David Hedison.

(a) Seaview           120 gun 3 Decker SOL (elite crew) (43 pts)
(a) Flying Sub        40 gun Frigate (crack crew) (17 pts)
(b) Mermaid           136 gun 3 Decker SOL (mutinous crew) (27 pts)
(s) Giant Squid       112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
.SH Frigate Action:
.nf
Wind from the E, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Killdeer          40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
(b) Sandpiper         40 gun Frigate (average crew) (15 pts)
(s) Curlew            38 gun Frigate (crack crew) (16 pts)
.SH The Battle of Midway:
.nf
Wind from the E, blowing a moderate breeze.

(a) Enterprise        80 gun Ship of the Line (crack crew) (31 pts)
(a) Yorktown          80 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (27 pts)
(a) Hornet            74 gun Ship of the Line (average crew) (24 pts)
(j) Akagi             112 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (27 pts)
(j) Kaga              96 gun 3 Decker SOL (green crew) (24 pts)
(j) Soryu             80 gun Ship of the Line (green crew) (23 pts)

.SH Star Trek:
.nf
Wind from the S, blowing a fresh breeze.

(a) Enterprise        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(a) Yorktown          450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(a) Reliant           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(a) Galileo           450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(k) Kobayashi Maru    450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(k) Klingon II        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(o) Red Orion         450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)
(o) Blue Orion        450 gun Ship of the Line (elite crew) (75 pts)

.SH CONCLUSION

.I Sail
has been a group effort.

.SH AUTHOR
Dave Riggle
.SH CO-AUTHOR
Ed Wang 
.SH REFITTING
Craig Leres
.SH CONSULTANTS
.nf
Chris Guthrie
Captain Happy
Horatio Nelson
	and many valiant others...
.fi
.SH "REFERENCES"
.nf
Wooden Ships & Iron Men, by Avalon Hill
Captain Horatio Hornblower Novels, (13 of them) by C.S. Forester
Captain Richard Bolitho Novels, (12 of them) by Alexander Kent
The Complete Works of Captain Frederick Marryat, (about 20) especially
.in +6n
Mr. Midshipman Easy
Peter Simple
Jacob Faithful
Japhet in Search of a Father
Snarleyyow, or The Dog Fiend
Frank Mildmay, or The Naval Officer
.in -6n
.SH BUGS
Probably a few, and please report them to "riggle@ernie.berkeley.edu" and
"edward@ucbarpa.berkeley.edu"