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.\" This source code is a product of Sun Microsystems, Inc. and is provided
.\" for unrestricted use provided that this legend is included on all tape
.\" media and as a part of the software program in whole or part.  Users
.\" may copy or modify this source code without charge, but are not authorized
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.\" THIS PROGRAM CONTAINS SOURCE CODE COPYRIGHTED BY SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC.
.\" SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC., MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS ABOUT THE SUITABLITY
.\" OF SUCH SOURCE CODE FOR ANY PURPOSE.  IT IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT
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.\" This source code is provided with no support and without any obligation on
.\" the part of Sun Microsystems, Inc. to assist in its use, correction, 
.\" modification or enhancement.
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.\" SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC. SHALL HAVE NO LIABILITY WITH RESPECT TO THE
.\" INFRINGEMENT OF COPYRIGHTS, TRADE SECRETS OR ANY PATENTS BY THIS
.\" SOURCE CODE OR ANY PART THEREOF.
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.\" Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.\" 2550 Garcia Avenue
.\" Mountain View, California 94043
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1991 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.\"
.\" @(#) dlopen.3 1.6 90/01/31 SMI
.Dd September 24, 1989
.Os FreeBSD
.Dt DLOPEN 3
.Sh NAME
.Nm dlopen, dlsym, dlerror, dlclose
.Nd programmatic interface to the dynamic linker
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Fd #include <dlfcn.h>
.Ft void *
.Fn dlopen "char *path" "int mode"
.Ft void *
.Fn dlsym "void *handle" "char *symbol"
.Ft char *
.Fn dlerror "void"
.Ft int
.Fn dlclose "void *handle"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
These functions provide a simple programmatic interface to the services of the
dynamic linker.
Operations are provided to add new shared objects to a
program's address space, to obtain the address bindings of symbols
defined by such
objects, and to remove such objects when their use is no longer required.
.Pp
.Fn dlopen
provides access to the shared object in 
.Fa path ,
returning a descriptor that can be used for later
references to the object in calls to 
.Fn dlsym
and
.Fn dlclose .
If
.Fa path
was not in the address space prior to the call to
.Fn dlopen ,
it is placed in the address space.
When an object is first loaded into the address space in this way, its
function
.Fn _init ,
if any, is called by the dynamic linker.
(Note that
.Ql _init
is the name as expressed in the C language.
From assembly language, the name would appear as
.Ql __init
instead.)
If
.Fa path
has already been placed in the address space in a previous call to
.Fn dlopen , 
it is not added a second time, although a reference count of 
.Fn dlopen
operations on
.Fa path
is maintained.
A null pointer supplied for 
.Fa path
is interpreted as a reference to the main
executable of the process.
.Fa mode
controls the way in which external function references from the
loaded object are bound to their referents.
It must contains one of the following values:
.Bl -tag -width RTLD_LAZYX
.It Dv RTLD_LAZY
Each external function reference is resolved when the function is first
called.
.It Dv RTLD_NOW
All external function references are bound immediately by
.Fn dlopen .
.El
.Pp
.Dv RTLD_LAZY
is normally preferred, for reasons of efficiency.
However,
.Dv RTLD_NOW
is useful to ensure that any undefined symbols are discovered during the
call to
.Fn dlopen .
If 
.Fn dlopen
fails, it returns a null pointer, and sets an error condition which may
be interrogated with
.Fn dlerror .
.Pp
.Fn dlsym
returns the address binding of the symbol described in the null-terminated
character string
.Fa symbol ,
as it occurs in the shared object identified by
.Fa handle .
Note that
.Fa symbol
is the assembly language representation of the symbol name.
The assembly language representation of a C language symbol contains an
extra underscore at the beginning.
For example, the symbol
.Ql foo
in C would appear as
.Ql _foo
in assembly language, and in the
.Fa symbol
argument to
.Fn dlsym .
The symbols exported by objects added to the address space by 
.Fn dlopen
can be accessed only through calls to
.Fn dlsym .
Such symbols do not supersede any definition of those symbols already present
in the address space when the object is loaded, nor are they available to
satisfy normal dynamic linking references.
A null pointer supplied as the value of 
.Fa handle
is interpreted as a reference to the executable from which the call to 
.Fn dlsym
is being made.  Thus a shared object can reference its own symbols.
.Fn dlsym
returns a null pointer if the symbol cannot be found, and sets an error
condition which may be queried with
.Fn dlerror .
.Pp
.Fn dlerror
returns a null-terminated character string describing the last error that
occurred during a call to
.Fn dlopen ,
.Fn dlsym ,
or
.Fn dlclose .
If no such error has occurred,
.Fn dlerror
returns a null pointer.
At each call to
.Fn dlerror ,
the error indication is reset.  Thus in the case of two calls
to
.Fn dlerror ,
where the second call follows the first immediately, the second call
will always return a null pointer.
.Pp
.Fn dlclose
deletes a reference to the shared object referenced by
.Fa handle .
If the reference count drops to 0, the object is removed from the
address space, and
.Fa handle
is rendered invalid.
Just before removing a shared object in this way, the dynamic linker
calls the object's
.Fn _fini
function, if such a function is defined by the object.
As with
.Ql _init ,
.Ql _fini
is the C language name of the function.
If 
.Fn dlclose
is successful, it returns a value of 0.
Otherwise it returns -1, and sets an error condition that can be
interrogated with
.Fn dlerror .
.Pp
The object-intrinsic functions 
.Fn _init
and
.Fn _fini
are called with no arguments, and are not expected to return values.
.Sh ERRORS
.Fn dlopen
and
.Fn dlsym
return the null pointer in the event of errors.
.Fn dlclose
returns 0 on success, or -1 if an error occurred.
Whenever an error has been detected, a message detailing it can be
retrieved via a call to
.Fn dlerror .
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr ld 1 ,
.Xr link 5 ,
.Xr rtld 1