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.\" Copyright (c) 1998 Terry Lambert
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd January 2, 2021
.Dt AIO_READ 2
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm aio_read ,
.Nm aio_readv
.Nd asynchronous read from a file (REALTIME)
.Sh LIBRARY
.Lb libc
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.In aio.h
.Ft int
.Fn aio_read "struct aiocb *iocb"
.In sys/uio.h
.Ft int
.Fn aio_readv "struct aiocb *iocb"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Fn aio_read
and
.Fn aio_readv
system calls allow the calling process to read
from the descriptor
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes
beginning at the offset
.Fa iocb->aio_offset .
.Fn aio_read
will read
.Fa iocb->aio_nbytes
from the buffer pointed to by
.Fa iocb->aio_buf ,
whereas
.Fn aio_readv
reads the data into the
.Fa iocb->aio_iovcnt
buffers specified by the members of the
.Fa iocb->aio_iov
array.
Both syscalls return immediately after the read request has
been enqueued to the descriptor; the read may or may not have
completed at the time the call returns.
.Pp
For
.Fn aio_readv
the
.Fa iovec
structure is defined in
.Xr readv 2 .
.Pp
If _POSIX_PRIORITIZED_IO is defined, and the descriptor supports it,
then the enqueued operation is submitted at a priority equal to that
of the calling process minus
.Fa iocb->aio_reqprio .
.Pp
The
.Fa iocb->aio_lio_opcode
argument
is ignored by the
.Fn aio_read
and
.Fn aio_readv
system calls.
.Pp
The
.Fa iocb
pointer may be subsequently used as an argument to
.Fn aio_return
and
.Fn aio_error
in order to determine return or error status for the enqueued operation
while it is in progress.
.Pp
If the request could not be enqueued (generally due to invalid arguments),
then the call returns without having enqueued the request.
.Pp
If the request is successfully enqueued, the value of
.Fa iocb->aio_offset
can be modified during the request as context, so this value must
not be referenced after the request is enqueued.
.Pp
The
.Fa iocb->aio_sigevent
structure can be used to request notification of the operation's
completion as described in
.Xr aio 4 .
.Sh RESTRICTIONS
The Asynchronous I/O Control Block structure pointed to by
.Fa iocb
and the buffer that the
.Fa iocb->aio_buf
member of that structure references must remain valid until the
operation has completed.
.Pp
The asynchronous I/O control buffer
.Fa iocb
should be zeroed before the
.Fn aio_read
call to avoid passing bogus context information to the kernel.
.Pp
Modifications of the Asynchronous I/O Control Block structure or the
buffer contents are not allowed while the request is queued.
.Pp
If the file offset in
.Fa iocb->aio_offset
is past the offset maximum for
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes ,
no I/O will occur.
.Sh RETURN VALUES
.Rv -std aio_read aio_readv
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
None.
.Sh ERRORS
The
.Fn aio_read
and
.Fn aio_readv
system calls will fail if:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EAGAIN
The request was not queued because of system resource limitations.
.It Bq Er EFAULT
Part of
.Fa aio_iov
points outside the process's allocated address space.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The asynchronous notification method in
.Fa iocb->aio_sigevent.sigev_notify
is invalid or not supported.
.It Bq Er EOPNOTSUPP
Asynchronous read operations on the file descriptor
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes
are unsafe and unsafe asynchronous I/O operations are disabled.
.El
.Pp
The following conditions may be synchronously detected when the
.Fn aio_read
or
.Fn aio_readv
system call is made, or asynchronously, at any time thereafter.
If they
are detected at call time,
.Fn aio_read
or
.Fn aio_readv
returns -1 and sets
.Va errno
appropriately; otherwise the
.Fn aio_return
system call must be called, and will return -1, and
.Fn aio_error
must be called to determine the actual value that would have been
returned in
.Va errno .
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EBADF
The
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes
argument
is invalid.
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The offset
.Fa iocb->aio_offset
is not valid, the priority specified by
.Fa iocb->aio_reqprio
is not a valid priority, or the number of bytes specified by
.Fa iocb->aio_nbytes
is not valid.
.It Bq Er EOVERFLOW
The file is a regular file,
.Fa iocb->aio_nbytes
is greater than zero, the starting offset in
.Fa iocb->aio_offset
is before the end of the file, but is at or beyond the
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes
offset maximum.
.El
.Pp
If the request is successfully enqueued, but subsequently cancelled
or an error occurs, the value returned by the
.Fn aio_return
system call is per the
.Xr read 2
system call, and the value returned by the
.Fn aio_error
system call is either one of the error returns from the
.Xr read 2
system call, or one of:
.Bl -tag -width Er
.It Bq Er EBADF
The
.Fa iocb->aio_fildes
argument
is invalid for reading.
.It Bq Er ECANCELED
The request was explicitly cancelled via a call to
.Fn aio_cancel .
.It Bq Er EINVAL
The offset
.Fa iocb->aio_offset
would be invalid.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr aio_cancel 2 ,
.Xr aio_error 2 ,
.Xr aio_return 2 ,
.Xr aio_suspend 2 ,
.Xr aio_waitcomplete 2 ,
.Xr aio_write 2 ,
.Xr sigevent 3 ,
.Xr siginfo 3 ,
.Xr aio 4
.Sh STANDARDS
The
.Fn aio_read
system call is expected to conform to the
.St -p1003.1
standard.
The
.Fn aio_readv
system call is a FreeBSD extension, and should not be used in portable code.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Fn aio_read
system call first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
The
.Fn aio_readv
system call first appeared in
.Fx 13.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
This
manual page was written by
.An Terry Lambert Aq Mt terry@whistle.com .
.Sh BUGS
Invalid information in
.Fa iocb->_aiocb_private
may confuse the kernel.