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.\"***************************************************************************
.\" Copyright (c) 1998-2017,2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.              *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a  *
.\" copy of this software and associated documentation files (the            *
.\" "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including      *
.\" without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,      *
.\" distribute, distribute with modifications, sublicense, and/or sell       *
.\" copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is    *
.\" furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:                 *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included  *
.\" in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.                   *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS  *
.\" OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF               *
.\" MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.   *
.\" IN NO EVENT SHALL THE ABOVE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,   *
.\" DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR    *
.\" OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR    *
.\" THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.                               *
.\"                                                                          *
.\" Except as contained in this notice, the name(s) of the above copyright   *
.\" holders shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the     *
.\" sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written       *
.\" authorization.                                                           *
.\"***************************************************************************
.\"
.\" $Id: curs_initscr.3x,v 1.31 2018/07/28 22:15:59 tom Exp $
.TH curs_initscr 3X ""
.de bP
.ie n  .IP \(bu 4
.el    .IP \(bu 2
..
.ie \n(.g .ds `` \(lq
.el       .ds `` ``
.ie \n(.g .ds '' \(rq
.el       .ds '' ''
.na
.hy 0
.SH NAME
\fBinitscr\fR,
\fBnewterm\fR,
\fBendwin\fR,
\fBisendwin\fR,
\fBset_term\fR,
\fBdelscreen\fR \- \fBcurses\fR screen initialization and manipulation routines
.ad
.hy
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fB#include <curses.h>\fR
.sp
\fBWINDOW *initscr(void);\fR
.br
\fBint endwin(void);\fR
.br
\fBbool isendwin(void);\fR
.br
\fBSCREEN *newterm(const char *\fP\fItype\fP\fB, FILE *\fP\fIoutfd\fP\fB, FILE *\fP\fIinfd\fP\fB);\fR
.br
\fBSCREEN *set_term(SCREEN *\fP\fInew\fP\fB);\fR
.br
\fBvoid delscreen(SCREEN* \fP\fIsp\fP\fB);\fR
.br
.SH DESCRIPTION
.SS initscr
\fBinitscr\fR is normally the first \fBcurses\fR routine to call when
initializing a program.
A few special routines sometimes need to be called before it;
these are \fBslk_init\fR(3X), \fBfilter\fR, \fBripoffline\fR,
\fBuse_env\fR.
For multiple-terminal applications,
\fBnewterm\fR may be called before \fBinitscr\fR.
.PP
The initscr code determines the terminal type and initializes all \fBcurses\fR
data structures.
\fBinitscr\fR also causes the first call to \fBrefresh\fR(3X)
to clear the screen.
If errors occur, \fBinitscr\fR writes an appropriate error
message to standard error and exits;
otherwise, a pointer is returned to \fBstdscr\fR.
.SS newterm
.PP
A program that outputs to more than one terminal should use the \fBnewterm\fR
routine for each terminal instead of \fBinitscr\fR.
A program that needs to inspect capabilities,
so it can continue to run in a line-oriented mode if the
terminal cannot support a screen-oriented program, would also use
\fBnewterm\fR.
The routine \fBnewterm\fR should be called once for each terminal.
It returns a variable of type \fBSCREEN *\fR which should be saved
as a reference to that terminal.
\fBnewterm\fP's arguments are
.bP
the \fItype\fR of the terminal to be used in place of \fB$TERM\fR,
.bP
a file pointer for output to the terminal, and
.bP
another file pointer for input from the terminal
.PP
If the \fItype\fR parameter is \fBNULL\fR, \fB$TERM\fR will be used.
.SS endwin
.PP
The program must also call
\fBendwin\fR for each terminal being used before exiting from \fBcurses\fR.
If \fBnewterm\fR is called more than once for the same terminal, the first
terminal referred to must be the last one for which \fBendwin\fR is called.
.PP
A program should always call \fBendwin\fR before exiting or escaping from
\fBcurses\fR mode temporarily.
This routine
.bP
resets colors to correspond with the default color pair 0,
.bP
moves the cursor to the lower left-hand corner of the screen,
.bP
clears the remainder of the line so that it uses the default colors,
.bP
sets the cursor to normal visibility (see \fBcurs_set\fP(3X)),
.bP
stops cursor-addressing mode using the \fIexit_ca_mode\fP terminal capability,
.bP
restores tty modes (see \fBreset_shell_mode\fP(3X)).
.PP
Calling \fBrefresh\fR(3X) or \fBdoupdate\fR(3X) after a
temporary escape causes the program to resume visual mode.
.SS isendwin
.PP
The \fBisendwin\fR routine returns \fBTRUE\fR if \fBendwin\fR has been
called without any subsequent calls to \fBwrefresh\fR,
and \fBFALSE\fR otherwise.
.SS set_term
.PP
The \fBset_term\fR routine is used to switch between different terminals.
The screen reference \fBnew\fR becomes the new current terminal.
The previous terminal is returned by the routine.
This is the only routine which manipulates \fBSCREEN\fR pointers;
all other routines affect only the current terminal.
.SS delscreen
.PP
The \fBdelscreen\fR routine frees storage associated with the
\fBSCREEN\fR data structure.
The \fBendwin\fR routine does not do
this, so \fBdelscreen\fR should be called after \fBendwin\fR if a
particular \fBSCREEN\fR is no longer needed.
.SH RETURN VALUE
\fBendwin\fR returns the integer \fBERR\fR upon failure and \fBOK\fR
upon successful completion.
.PP
Routines that return pointers always return \fBNULL\fR on error.
.PP
X/Open defines no error conditions.
In this implementation
.bP
\fBendwin\fP returns an error if the terminal was not initialized.
.bP
\fBnewterm\fP
returns an error if it cannot allocate the data structures for the screen,
or for the top-level windows within the screen,
i.e.,
\fBcurscr\fP, \fBnewscr\fP, or \fBstdscr\fP.
.bP
\fBset_term\fP
returns no error.
.SH PORTABILITY
These functions were described in the XSI Curses standard, Issue 4.
As of 2015, the current document is X/Open Curses, Issue 7.
.SS Differences
X/Open specifies that portable applications must not
call \fBinitscr\fR more than once:
.bP
The portable way to use \fBinitscr\fP is once only,
using \fBrefresh\fP (see curs_refresh(3X))
to restore the screen after \fBendwin\fP.
.bP
This implementation allows using \fBinitscr\fP after \fBendwin\fP.
.PP
Old versions of curses, e.g., BSD 4.4, may have returned a null pointer
from \fBinitscr\fR when an error is detected, rather than exiting.
It is safe but redundant to check the return value of \fBinitscr\fR
in XSI Curses.
.SS Unset TERM Variable
.PP
If the TERM variable is missing or empty, \fBinitscr\fP uses the
value \*(``unknown\*('',
which normally corresponds to a terminal entry with the \fIgeneric\fP
(\fIgn\fP) capability.
Generic entries are detected by \fBsetupterm\fP
(see curs_terminfo(3X)) and cannot be used for full-screen operation.
Other implementations may handle a missing/empty TERM variable differently.
.SS Signal Handlers
.PP
Quoting from X/Open Curses, section 3.1.1:
.RS 5
.PP
\fICurses implementations may provide for special handling of the \fBSIGINT\fP,
\fBSIGQUIT\fP and \fBSIGTSTP\fP signals
if their disposition is \fBSIG_DFL\fP at the time
\fBinitscr\fP is called \fP...
.PP
\fIAny special handling for these signals may remain in effect for the
life of the process or until the process changes the disposition of
the signal.\fP
.PP
\fINone of the Curses functions are required to be safe
with respect to signals \fP...
.RE
.PP
This implementation establishes signal handlers during initialization,
e.g., \fBinitscr\fP or \fBnewterm\fP.
Applications which must handle these signals should set up the corresponding
handlers \fIafter\fP initializing the library:
.TP 5
.B SIGINT
The handler \fIattempts\fP to cleanup the screen on exit.
Although it \fIusually\fP works as expected, there are limitations:
.RS 5
.bP
Walking the \fBSCREEN\fP list is unsafe, since all list management
is done without any signal blocking.
.bP
On systems which have \fBREENTRANT\fP turned on, \fBset_term\fP uses
functions which could deadlock or misbehave in other ways.
.bP
\fBendwin\fP calls other functions, many of which use stdio or
other library functions which are clearly unsafe.
.RE
.TP 5
.B SIGTERM
This uses the same handler as \fBSIGINT\fP, with the same limitations.
It is not mentioned in X/Open Curses, but is more suitable for this
purpose than \fBSIGQUIT\fP (which is used in debugging).
.TP 5
.B SIGTSTP
This handles the \fIstop\fP signal, used in job control.
When resuming the process, this implementation discards pending
input with \fBflushinput\fP (see curs_util(3X)), and repaints the screen
assuming that it has been completely altered.
It also updates the saved terminal modes with \fBdef_shell_mode\fP
(see \fBcurs_kernel\fR(3X)).
.TP 5
.B SIGWINCH
This handles the window-size changes which were ignored in
the standardization efforts.
The handler sets a (signal-safe) variable
which is later tested in \fBwgetch\fP (see curs_getch(3X)).
If \fBkeypad\fP has been enabled for the corresponding window,
\fBwgetch\fP returns the key symbol \fBKEY_RESIZE\fP.
At the same time, \fBwgetch\fP calls \fBresizeterm\fP to adjust the
standard screen \fBstdscr\fP,
and update other data such as \fBLINES\fP and \fBCOLS\fP.
.SH SEE ALSO
\fBcurses\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_kernel\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_refresh\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_slk\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_terminfo\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_util\fR(3X),
\fBcurs_variables\fR(3X).