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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
	"../../../share/xml/freebsd50.dtd" [
<!ENTITY % release PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES Release Specification//EN" "release.ent">
 %release;
<!ENTITY % sponsor PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES Sponsor Specification//EN" "sponsor.ent">
 %sponsor;
<!ENTITY % vendor PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES Vendor Specification//EN" "vendor.ent">
 %vendor;
<!ENTITY security SYSTEM "../../share/xml/security.xml">
<!ENTITY errata SYSTEM "../../share/xml/errata.xml">
]>
<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0">

  <info>
    <title>&os; &release.current; Release Notes</title>

    <author>
      <orgname>The &os; Project</orgname>
    </author>

    <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>

    <!-- Last rev: 282146 -->

    <copyright>
      <year>2015</year>
      <holder role="mailto:doc@FreeBSD.org">The &os; Documentation
	Project</holder>
    </copyright>

    <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
      &tm-attrib.freebsd;
      &tm-attrib.ibm;
      &tm-attrib.ieee;
      &tm-attrib.intel;
      &tm-attrib.sparc;
      &tm-attrib.general;
    </legalnotice>

    <abstract>
      <para>The release notes for &os; &release.current; contain
	a summary of the changes made to the &os; base system on the
	&release.branch; development line.  This document lists
	applicable security advisories that were issued since the last
	release, as well as significant changes to the &os; kernel and
	userland.  Some brief remarks on upgrading are also
	presented.</para>
    </abstract>
  </info>

  <sect1 xml:id="intro">
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <para>This document contains the release notes for &os;
      &release.current;.  It describes recently added, changed, or
      deleted features of &os;.  It also provides some notes on
      upgrading from previous versions of &os;.</para>

    <para releasetype="current">The &release.type; distribution to
      which these release notes apply represents the latest point
      along the &release.branch; development branch since
      &release.branch; was created.  Information regarding pre-built,
      binary &release.type; distributions along this branch can be
      found at <uri
	xlink:href="&release.url;">&release.url;</uri>.</para>

    <para releasetype="snapshot">The &release.type; distribution to
      which these release notes apply represents a point along the
      &release.branch; development branch between &release.prev; and
      the future &release.next;.  Information regarding pre-built,
      binary &release.type; distributions along this branch can be
      found at <uri
	xlink:href="&release.url;">&release.url;</uri>.</para>

    <para releasetype="release">This distribution of &os;
      &release.current; is a &release.type; distribution.  It can be
      found at <uri xlink:href="&release.url;">&release.url;</uri> or
      any of its mirrors.  More information on obtaining this (or
      other) &release.type; distributions of &os; can be found in the
      <link
	xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/mirrors.html"><quote>Obtaining
	  &os;</quote> appendix</link> to the <link
	xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/">&os;
	Handbook</link>.</para>

    <para>All users are encouraged to consult the release errata
      before installing &os;.  The errata document is updated with
      <quote>late-breaking</quote> information discovered late in the
      release cycle or after the release.  Typically, it contains
      information on known bugs, security advisories, and corrections
      to documentation.  An up-to-date copy of the errata for &os;
      &release.current; can be found on the &os; Web site.</para>

    <para>This document describes the most user-visible new or changed
      features in &os; since &release.prev;.  In general, changes
      described here are unique to the &release.branch; branch unless
      specifically marked as &merged; features.</para>

    <para>Typical release note items document recent security
      advisories issued after &release.prev;, new drivers or hardware
      support, new commands or options, major bug fixes, or
      contributed software upgrades.  They may also list changes to
      major ports/packages or release engineering practices.  Clearly
      the release notes cannot list every single change made to &os;
      between releases; this document focuses primarily on security
      advisories, user-visible changes, and major architectural
      improvements.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="upgrade">
    <title>Upgrading from Previous Releases of &os;</title>

    <para arch="amd64,i386">Binary upgrades between RELEASE versions
      (and snapshots of the various security branches) are supported
      using the &man.freebsd-update.8; utility.  The binary upgrade
      procedure will update unmodified userland utilities, as well as
      unmodified GENERIC kernels distributed as a part of an official
      &os; release.  The &man.freebsd-update.8; utility requires that
      the host being upgraded have Internet connectivity.</para>

    <para>Source-based upgrades (those based on recompiling the &os;
      base system from source code) from previous versions are
      supported, according to the instructions in
      <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename>.</para>

    <important>
      <para>Upgrading &os; should only be attempted after backing up
	<emphasis>all</emphasis> data and configuration files.</para>
    </important>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="security-errata">
    <title>Security and Errata</title>

    <para>This section lists the various Security Advisories and
      Errata Notices since &release.prev;.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="security">
      <title>Security Advisories</title>

      &security;
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="errata">
      <title>Errata Notices</title>

      &errata;
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="userland">
    <title>Userland</title>

    <para>This section covers changes and additions to userland
      applications, contributed software, and system utilities.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-config">
      <title>Userland Configuration Changes</title>

      <para revision="266463">The default &man.newsyslog.conf.5; now
	includes files in the
	<filename>/etc/newsyslog.conf.d/</filename> and
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/newsyslog.conf.d/</filename>
	directories by default for &man.newsyslog.8;.</para>

      <para revision="270675">The &man.mailwrapper.8; utility has been
	updated to use &man.mailer.conf.5; from the
	<literal>LOCALBASE</literal> environment variable, which
	defaults to <filename class="directory">/usr/local</filename>
	if unset.</para>

      <para revision="272350">The <literal>MK_ARM_EABI</literal>
	&man.src.conf.5; option has been removed.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-programs">
      <title>Userland Application Changes</title>

      <para revision="258838" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;,
	&google;" sponsorurl="">The &man.casperd.8; daemon has been
	added, which provides access to functionality that is not
	available in the <quote>capability mode</quote>
	sandbox.</para>

      <para revision="260594">When unable to load a kernel module with
	&man.kldload.8;, a message informing to view output of
	&man.dmesg.8; is now printed, opposed to the previous output
	<quote>Exec format error.</quote>.</para>

      <para revision="260910">Allow &man.pciconf.8; to identify PCI
	devices that are attached to a driver to be identified by
	their device name instead of just the selector.  Additionally,
	an optional device argument to the <literal>-l</literal> flag
	to restrict the output to only listing details about a single
	device.</para>

      <para revision="260913">A new flag, <quote>onifconsole</quote>
	has been added to <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>.  This allows
	the system to provide a login prompt via serial console if the
	device is an active kernel console, otherwise it is equivalent
	to <literal>off</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="260926">Support for displaying VPD for PCI
	devices via &man.pciconf.8; has been added.</para>

      <para revision="261498">&man.ping.8; protects against malicious
	network packets using the Capsicum framework to drop
	privileges.</para>

      <para revision="265229">The &man.ps.1; utility has been
	updated to include the <literal>-J</literal> flag, used to
	filter output by matching &man.jail.8; IDs and names.
	Additionally, argument <literal>0</literal> can be used to
	<literal>-J</literal> to only list processes running on the
	host system.</para>

      <para revision="265249">The &man.top.1; utility has been updated
	to filter by &man.jail.8; ID or name, in followup to the
	&man.ps.1; change in <literal>r265229</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="265995">The Blowfish &man.crypt.3; default
	format has been changed to
	<literal>&dollar;2b&dollar;</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="266209">The &man.pmcstat.8; utility has been
	updated to include a new flag, <literal>-l</literal>, which
	ends event collection after the specified number of
	seconds.</para>

      <para revision="270745">The &man.ps.1; utility has been updated
	to include a new keyword, <quote>tracer</quote>, which
	displays the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the tracing
	process.</para>

      <para revision="271482">Support for adding empty partitions has
	been added to the &man.mkimg.1; utility.</para>

      <para revision="272166">The &man.primes.6; utility has been
	updated to correctly enumerate prime numbers between
	<literal>4295098369</literal> and
	<literal>3825123056546413050</literal>, which prior to this
	change, it would be possible for returned values to be
	incorrectly identified as prime numbers.</para>

      <para revision="272198">The &man.mkimg.1; utility has been
	updated to include three options used to print information
	about &man.mkimg.1; itself:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="0">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Option</entry>
	      <entry>Output</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>--version</literal></entry>
	      <entry>The current version of the &man.mkimg.1;
		utility</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>--formats</literal></entry>
	      <entry>The disk image file formats supported by
		&man.mkimg.1;</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>--schemes</literal></entry>
	      <entry>The partition schemes supported by
		&man.mkimg.1;</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para revision="272488">Userland &man.ctf.5; support in
	&man.dtrace.1; has been added.  With this change,
	&man.dtrace.1; is able to resolve type info for function and
	<acronym>USDT</acronym> probe arguments, and function return
	values.</para>

      <para revision="274960">The &man.elfdump.1; utility has been
	updated to support capability mode provided by
	&man.capsicum.4;.</para>

      <para revision="275680" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	&man.fstyp.8; utility has been added, which is used to
	determine the filesystem on a specified device.</para>

      <para revision="276881">The <literal>libedit</literal> library
	has been updated to support <acronym>UTF</acronym>-8, which
	additionally provides unicode support to &man.sh.1;.</para>

      <para revision="277166" arch="powerpc">The &man.ptrace.2; system
	call has been updated include support for Altivec registers on
	&os;/&arch.powerpc;.</para>

      <para revision="278320">A new device control utility,
	&man.devctl.8; has been added, which allows making
	administrative changes to individual devices, such as
	attaching and detaching drivers, and enabling and disabling
	devices.  The &man.devctl.8; utility uses the new
	&man.devctl.3; library.</para>

      <para revision="279315" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	&man.uefisign.8; utility has been added.</para>

      <para revision="279571" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&scaleengine;">The &man.freebsd-update.8; utility has
	been updated to prevent fetching updated binary patches when
	a previous upgrade has not been thoroughly completed.</para>

      <para revision="279122" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&juniper;">The &man.netstat.1; utility has been
	updated to link against the &man.libxo.3; shared
	library.</para>

      <para revision="280870">A regression in the &man.libarchive.3;
	library that would prevent a directory from being included in
	the archive when <literal>--one-file-system</literal> is used
	has been fixed.</para>

      <para revision="281311" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	&man.ar.1; utility has been updated to set
	<literal>ARCHIVE_EXTRACT_SECURE_SYMLINKS</literal> and
	<literal>ARCHIVE_EXTRACT_SECURE_NODOTDOT</literal> to disallow
	directory traversal when extracting an archive, similar to
	&man.tar.1;.</para>

      <para revision="282208" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&multiplay;">The &man.chflags.1;, &man.chgrp.1;,
	&man.chmod.1;, and &man.chown.8; utilities now affect symbolic
	links when the <literal>-R</literal> flag is specified, as
	documented in &man.symlink.7;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-contrib">
      <title>Contributed Software</title>

      <para revision="258884" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&darpa_afrl;">&man.lldb.1; has been updated to
	upstream snapshot version r196259.</para>

      <para revision="259626">Timezone data files have been updated to
	version 2013i.</para>

      <para revision="260445">&man.byacc.1; has been updated to
	version 20140101.</para>

      <para revision="261071">&man.jemalloc.3; has been updated to
	version 3.5.0.</para>

      <para revision="261283"><application>libc++</application> has
	been updated to version 3.4.</para>

      <para revision="261320"><application>OpenSSH</application> has
	been updated to 6.5p1.</para>

      <para revision="261344"><application>mdocml</application> has
	been updated to version 1.12.3.</para>

      <para revision="261991"><application>LLVM</application> and
	<application>Clang</application> have been updated to
	version 3.4.</para>

      <para revision="266527"
	role="merged"><application>Sendmail</application> has been
	updated from 8.14.7 to 8.14.9.</para>

      <para revision="276577"><application>file</application> has been
	updated to version 5.22.</para>

      <para revision="275718">The <application>binutils</application>
	suite of utilities has been updated to include upstream
	patches that add new relocations for &arch.powerpc;
	support.</para>

      <para revision="276398" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	<application>ELF Tool Chain</application> has been updated to
	upstream revision r3136.</para>

      <para revision="276551">The <application>texinfo</application>
	utility and <literal>info</literal> pages were removed from
	the base system.  The <filename
	  role="package">print/texinfo</filename> port should be
	installed on systems where <literal>info</literal> pages are
	needed.</para>

      <para revision="276796" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The ELF
	object manipulation tools
	<application>addr2line</application>,
	<application>elfcopy (strip)</application>,
	<application>nm</application>,
	<application>readelf</application>,
	<application>size</application>, and
	<application>strings</application> were switched to the
	versions from the ELF Tool Chain project.</para>

      <para revision="276881">The <literal>libedit</literal> library
	has been updated to include <acronym>UTF-8</acronym> support,
	adding <acronym>UTF-8</acronym> support to the &man.sh.1;
	shell.</para>

      <para revision="278433">The &man.xz.1; utility has been updated
	to support multi-threaded compression.</para>

      <para revision="280297"><application>OpenSSL</application> has
	been updated to version 1.0.1m.</para>

      <para revision="280932" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	<application>elftoolchain</application> utilities have been
	updated to version 3179.</para>

      <para revision="281316">The &man.xz.1; utility has been updated
	to version 5.2.1.</para>

      <para revision="281373">The &man.nvi.1; utility has been updated
	to version 2.1.3.</para>

      <para revision="281396">The &man.acpi.4; subsystem has been
	updated to version 20150410.</para>

      <para revision="281806">The &man.wpa.supplicant.8; and
	&man.hostapd.8; utilities have been updated to version
	2.4.</para>

      <para revision="281812"><application>bmake</application> has
	been updated to version 20150418.</para>

      <para revision="282089">The &man.unbound.8; utility has been
	updated to version 1.5.3.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-installer">
      <title>Installation and Configuration Tools</title>

      <para revision="271539">The &man.bsdinstall.8; partition editor
	and &man.sade.8; utility have been updated to include native
	<acronym>ZFS</acronym> support.</para>

      <para revision="272274">The &os; installation utility,
	&man.bsdinstall.8;, has been updated to set the
	<literal>canmount</literal> &man.zfs.8; property to
	<literal>off</literal> for the <filename
	  class="directory">/var</filename> dataset, preventing the
	contents of directories within <filename
	  class="directory">/var</filename> from conflicting when
	using multiple boot environments, such as that provided by
	<filename role="package">sysutils/beadm</filename>.</para>

      <para revision="274394">The &man.bsdconfig.8; utility has been
	updated to skip the initial &man.tzsetup.8;
	<acronym>UTC</acronym> versus wall-clock time prompt when run
	in a virtual machine, determined when the
	<literal>kern.vm_guest</literal> &man.sysctl.8; is set to
	<literal>1</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="275874">The &man.bsdinstall.8; utility has been
	updated to use the new &man.dpv.3; library to display progress
	when extracting the &os; distributions.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-rc">
      <title><filename class="directory">/etc/rc.d</filename>
	Scripts</title>

      <para revision="270676">The &man.rc.8; subsystem has been
	updated to allow configuring services in <filename
	  class="directory">&dollar;{LOCALBASE}/etc/rc.conf.d/</filename>.
	If <literal>LOCALBASE</literal> is unset, it defaults to
	<filename class="directory">/usr/local</filename>.</para>

      <para revision="275299">The <filename>mrouted</filename>
	&man.rc.8; script has been removed from the base system.  An
	equivalent script is available from the <filename
	  role="package">net/mrouted</filename> port.</para>

      <para revision="279463" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&sandvine;">A new &man.rc.8; script,
	<filename>iovctl</filename>, has been added, which allows
	automatically starting the &man.iovctl.8; utility at
	boot.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-periodic">
      <title><filename class="directory">/etc/periodic</filename>
	Scripts</title>

      <para revision="271321">The daily &man.periodic.8; script
	<filename>110.clean-tmps</filename> has been updated to avoid
	crossing filesystem mount boundaries when cleaning files in
	<filename class="directory">/tmp</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-libraries">
      <title>Runtime Libraries and API</title>

      <para revision="268461">The &man.readline.3; library is now
	statically linked in software within the base system, and the
	shared library is no longer installed, allowing the Ports
	Collection to use a modern version of the library.</para>

      <para revision="272273">The &man.strptime.3; library has been
	updated to add support for <acronym>POSIX</acronym>-2001
	features <literal>%U</literal> and
	<literal>%W</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="272842,272848" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&ff;">The &man.dl.iterate.phdr.3; library has been
	changed to always return the path name of the
	<acronym>ELF</acronym> object in the
	<literal>dlpi_name</literal> structure member.</para>

      <para revision="273562" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&juniper;">The &man.libxo.3; library has been
	imported to the base system.</para>

      <para revision="273806" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&chelsio;">A
	userland library for Chelsio Terminator 5 based iWARP cards
	has been added, allowing userland <acronym>RDMA</acronym>
	applications to work over compatible
	<acronym>NIC</acronym>s.</para>

      <para revision="274987">The &man.gpio.3; library has been added,
	providing a wrapper around the &man.gpio.4; kernel
	interface.</para>

      <para revision="277610">The <literal>futimens()</literal> and
	<literal>utimensat()</literal> system calls have been
	added.  See &man.utimensat.2; for more information.</para>

      <para revision="278934">The &man.elf.3; compile-time dependency
	has been removed from <filename>dtri.o</filename>, which
	allows adding <application>DTrace</application> probes to
	userland applications and libraries without also linking
	against &man.elf.3;.</para>

      <para revision="279186">The &man.setmode.3; function has been
	updated to consistently set <literal>errno</literal> on
	failure.</para>

      <para revision="279663">The &man.qsort.3; functions have been
	updated to be able to handle 32-bit aligned data on 64-bit
	platforms, also providing a significant improvement in 32-bit
	workloads.</para>

      <para revision="281130">Several standard include headers have
	been updated to use of <application>gcc</application>
	attributes, such as <literal>__result_use_check()</literal>,
	<literal>__alloc_size()</literal>, and
	<literal>__nonnull()</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="281845">Support for file verification in
	<acronym>MAC</acronym> has been added.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="userland-abi">
      <title>ABI Compatibility</title>

      <para revision="271982">The &linux; compatibility version has
	been updated to <literal>2.6.18</literal>.  The
	<literal>compat.linux.osrelease</literal> &man.sysctl.8; is
	evaluated when building the <filename
	  role="package">emulators/linux-c6</filename> and related
	ports.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="kernel">
    <title>Kernel</title>

    <para>This section covers changes to kernel configurations, system
      tuning, and system control parameters that are not otherwise
      categorized.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="kernel-bugfix">
      <title>Kernel Bug Fixes</title>

      <para revision="265876">A kernel bug that inhibited proper
	functionality of the <literal>dev.cpu.0.freq</literal>
	&man.sysctl.8; on &intel; processors with Turbo
	Boost&nbsp;&trade; enabled has been fixed.</para>

      <para revision="271697" arch="powerpc">Support for
	&man.dtrace.1; stack tracing has been fixed for
	&os;/&arch.powerpc;, using the <literal>trapexit()</literal>
	and <literal>asttrapexit()</literal> functions instead of
	checking within addressed kernel space.</para>

      <para revision="272089">A bug in &man.ipfw.4; that could
	potentially lead to a kernel panic when using &man.dummynet.4;
	at layer 2 has been fixed.</para>

      <para revision="280930" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&mitail;">The
	kernel <acronym>RPC</acronym> has been updated to include
	several enhancements:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The 45 MiB limit on requests queued for
	    &man.nfsd.8; threads has been removed.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Avoids unnecessary throttling by not deferring
	    accounting for completed requests.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Fixes an integer overflow and signedness bugs.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para revision="281261" arch="powerpc">Support for
	&man.dtrace.1; has been added for the
	Book-E&nbsp;&trade;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="kernel-config">
      <title>Kernel Configuration</title>

      <para revision="266531">The <literal>IMAGACT_BINMISC</literal>
	kernel configuration option has been enabled by default,
	which enables application execution through emulators, such
	as <application>Qemu</application>.</para>

      <para revision="268045">The <literal>VT</literal> kernel
	configuration file has been removed, and the &man.vt.4;
	driver is included in the <literal>GENERIC</literal> kernel.
	To enable &man.vt.4;, enter <literal>set kern.vty=vt</literal>
	at the &man.loader.8; prompt during boot, or add
	<literal>kern.vty=vt</literal> to &man.loader.conf.5; and
	reboot the system.</para>

      <para revision="277904">The &man.config.8; utility has been
	updated to allow using a non-standard <filename
	  class="directory">src/</filename> tree, specified as an
	argument to the <literal>-s</literal> flag.</para>

      <para revision="277990" arch="powerpc64">The
	&os;/&arch.powerpc64; kernel now builds as
	a position-independent executable, allowing the kernel to be
	loaded into and run from any physical or virtual
	address.</para>

      <important>
	<para>This change requires an update to &man.loader.8;.
	  The userland and kernel must be updated before rebooting the
	  system.</para>
      </important>

      <para revision="279189" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;"
	arch="powerpc">Kernel support for Vector-Scalar eXtension
	(<acronym>VSX</acronym>) found on POWER7 and POWER8 hardware
	has been added.</para>

      <para revision="279252" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;"
	arch="powerpc">The &man.pmap.9; implementation for 64-bit
	&powerpc; processors has been overhaulded to improve
	concurrency.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="kernel-sysctl">
      <title>System Tuning and Controls</title>

      <para revision="275140" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	&man.hwpmc.4; default and maximum callchain depths have been
	increased.  The default has been increased from 16 to 32, and
	the maximum increased from 32 to 128.</para>

      <para revision="279361">The <literal>kern.osrelease</literal>
	and <literal>kern.osreldate</literal> are now configurable
	&man.jail.8; parameters.</para>

      <para revision="280308,280949" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&ix;, &ff;">The &man.devfs.5; device filesystem has
	been changed to update timestamps for read/write operations
	using seconds precision.  A new &man.sysctl.8;,
	<literal>vfs.devfs.dotimes</literal> has been added, which
	when set to a non-zero value, enables default precision
	timestamps for these operations.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="drivers">
    <title>Devices and Drivers</title>

    <para>This section covers changes and additions to devices and
      device drivers since &release.prev;.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="drivers-device">
      <title>Device Drivers</title>

      <para revision="260903">Support for GPS ports has been added to
	&man.uhso.4;.</para>

      <para revision="265132">The &man.full.4; device has been added,
	and the <literal>lindev(4)</literal> device has been removed.
	Prior to this change, <literal>lindev(4)</literal> provided
	only the <filename>/dev/full</filename> character device,
	returning <literal>ENOSPC</literal> on write attempts.  As
	this device is not specific to &linux;, a native &os; version
	has been added.</para>

      <para revision="271705">Hardware context support has been
	added to the <literal>drm/i915</literal> driver, adding
	support for <application>Mesa</application> 9.2 and
	later.</para>

      <para revision="273178">The &man.vt.4; driver has been updated,
	replacing the bitmapped <literal>kern.vt.spclkeys</literal>
	&man.sysctl.8; with individual
	<literal>kern.vt.kbd_*</literal> variants.</para>

      <para revision="273598">The &man.hpet.4; driver has been updated
	to create a
	<filename>/dev/hpet<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>
	device, providing access to <acronym>HPET</acronym> from
	userspace.</para>

      <para revision="280183">The <literal>drm</literal> code has
	been updated to match &linux; version 3.8.13.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="drivers-storage">
      <title>Storage Drivers</title>

      <para revision="265236" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&lsi;, &spectralogic;" sponsorurl="">The &man.mpr.4;
	device has been added, providing support for LSI Fusion-MPT
	3 12Gb SCSI/SATA controllers.</para>

      <para revision="265555" contrib="sponsor"
	  sponsor="&lsi;">The &man.mrsas.4; driver has been added,
	providing support for LSI MegaRAID SAS controllers.  The
	&man.mfi.4; driver will attach to the controller, by default.
	To enable &man.mrsas.4; add
	<literal>hw.mfi.mrsas_enable=1</literal> to
	<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, which turns off
	&man.mfi.4; device probing.</para>

      <note>
	<para>At this time, the &man.mfiutil.8; utility and the &os;
	  version of <application>MegaCLI</application> and
	  <application>StorCli</application> do not work with
	  &man.mrsas.4;.</para>
      </note>

      <para revision="275461" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ix;">The
	&man.ctl.4; subsystem has been updated, increasing the ports
	limit from <literal>128</literal> to <literal>256</literal>,
	and <acronym>LUN</acronym> limit from <literal>256</literal>
	to <literal>1024</literal>.</para>

      <para revision="276526">The <literal>asr(4)</literal> driver has
	been removed, and is no longer supported.</para>

      <para revision="281387">The &man.hptnr.4; driver has been
	updated to version 1.1.1.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="drivers-network">
      <title>Network Drivers</title>

      <para revision="258830">Support for Broadcom chipsets BCM57764,
	BCM57767, BCM57782, BCM57786 and BCM57787 has been added to
	&man.bge.4;.</para>

      <para revision="260448">Support for the &intel; Centrino&trade;
	Wireless-N 135 chipset has been added.</para>

      <para revision="260552">Firmware for &intel; Centrino&trade;
	Wireless-N 105 devices has been added to the base
	system.</para>

      <para revision="261975">The deprecated nve(4) driver has been
	removed.  Users of NVIDIA nForce MCP network adapters are
	advised to use the &man.nfe.4; driver instead, which has been
	the default driver for this hardware since
	&os;&nbsp;7.0.</para>

      <para revision="264601" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&darpa_afrl;">The <literal>if_nf10bmac(4)</literal>
	device has been added, providing support for NetFPGA-10G
	Embedded CPU Ethernet Core.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The <literal>if_nf10bmac(4)</literal> driver operates on
	  the FPGA, and is not suited for the PCI host
	  interface.</para>
      </note>

      <para revision="265348" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&netgate;">The &man.ath.hal.4; driver has been
	updated to support the Atheros AR1111 chipset.</para>

      <para revision="266770">Support for the &intel; Centrino&trade;
	Wireless-N 105 chipset has been added.</para>

      <para revision="266757" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&chelsio;">Support for the &man.cxgbe.4; Terminator
	5 (T5) 10G/40G cards has been added to &man.netmap.4;.</para>

      <para revision="272730">The &man.alc.4; driver has been updated
	to support AR816x and AR817x ethernet controllers.</para>

      <para revision="273331">The &man.vxlan.4; driver has been added,
	which creates a virtual Layer 2 (Ethernet) network overlaid in
	a Layer 3 (IP/UDP) network.  The &man.vxlan.4; driver is
	analogous to &man.vlan.4;, but is designed to be better suited
	for large, multiple-tenant datacenter environments.</para>

      <para revision="274246" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&yandex;">The
	&man.gre.4; driver has been significantly overhauled, and has
	been split into two separate modules, &man.gre.4; and
	&man.me.4;.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="hardware">
    <title>Hardware Support</title>

    <para>This section covers general hardware support for physical
      machines, hypervisors, and virtualization environments, as well
      as hardware changes and updates that do not otherwise fit in
      other sections of this document.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="hardware-support">
      <title>Hardware Support</title>

      <para revision="268303">The &man.asmc.4; driver has been
	updated to support the &apple;&nbsp;MacMini 3,1.</para>

      <para revision="268351">Support for &os;/ia64 has been dropped
	as of &os;&nbsp;11.</para>

      <para revision="274386">An issue that could cause a system to
	hang when entering <acronym>ACPI</acronym>
	<literal>S3</literal> state (suspend to
	<acronym>RAM</acronym>) has been corrected in the &man.acpi.4;
	and &man.pci.4; drivers.</para>

      <para revision="274733" arch="powerpc">The power management unit
	subsystem has been updated to support power button events on
	certain &arch.powerpc; hardware, such as aluminum
	PowerBook&nbsp;&reg;.</para>

      <para revision="275171,275190" arch="powerpc">The &man.hwpmc.4;
	driver has been updated to correct performance counter
	sampling on G4 (MPC74xxx) and G5 class processors.</para>

      <para revision="281713" arch="powerpc">The &man.hwpmc.4;
	driver has been updated to support the Freescale e500
	core.</para>

      <para revision="275732" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&ff;,&netgate;">The
	<application>OpenCrypto</application> framework has been
	updated to include <literal>AES-ICM</literal> and
	<literal>AES-GCM</literal> modes, both of which have also been
	added to the &man.aesni.4; driver.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="hardware-virtualization">
      <title>Virtualization Support</title>

      <para revision="260410">Support for the <quote>Virtual Interrupt
	  Delivery</quote> feature of &intel;&nbsp;VT-x is enabled if
	supported by the CPU.  This feature can be disabled by running
	<literal>sysctl hw.vmm.vmx.use_apic_vid=0</literal>.
	Additionally, to persist this setting across reboots, add
	<literal>hw.vmm.vmx.use_apic_vid=0</literal> to
	<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>

      <para revision="260532">Support for <quote>Posted Interrupt
	  Processing</quote> is enabled if supported by the CPU.  This
	feature can be disabled by running <literal>sysctl
	  hw.vmm.vmx.use_apic_pir=0</literal>.  Additionally, to
	persist this setting across reboots, add
	<literal>hw.vmm.vmx.use_apic_pir=0</literal> to
	<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>

      <para revision="260582">Unmapped IO support has been added to
	&man.virtio_blk.4;.</para>

      <para revision="260583">Unmapped IO support has been added to
	&man.virtio_scsi.4;.</para>

      <para revision="260847">The &man.virtio_random.4; driver has
	been added to harvest entropy from the host system.</para>

      <para revision="261504">&os;/&arch.i386; guests can be run under
	bhyve.</para>

      <para revision="267536" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&citrix.rd;">Support for running a &os;/&arch.amd64;
	<application>Xen</application> guest instance as
	<acronym>PVH</acronym> guest has been added.
	<acronym>PVH</acronym> mode, short for <quote>Para-Virtualized
	  Hardware</quote>, uses para-virtualized drivers for boot and
	I/O, and uses hardware virtualization extensions for all other
	tasks, without the need for emulation.</para>

      <para revision="273515">The &man.virtio.console.4; driver has
	been added, which provides an interface to VirtIO console
	devices through a &man.tty.4; device.</para>

      <para revision="279957">The &man.bhyve.8; hypervisor has been
	updated to support <literal>DSM TRIM</literal> commands for
	virtual <acronym>AHCI</acronym> disks.</para>

      <para revision="281439" arch="arm">Support for the
	<application>QEMU</application> <literal>virt</literal> system
	has been added.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="hardware-arm">
      <title>ARM Support</title>

      <para revision="260921">The &man.nand.4; device is enabled for
	ARM devices by default.</para>

      <para revision="273264" arch="armv6">An issue that could cause
	instability when detecting <acronym>SD</acronym> cards on the
	Raspberry Pi <acronym>SOC</acronym> has been fixed.</para>

      <para revision="275963">The <literal>bcm2835_cpufreq</literal>
	driver has been added, which supports <acronym>CPU</acronym>
	frequency and voltage control on the Raspberry Pi
	<acronym>SOC</acronym>.</para>

      <para revision="280259" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">Initial
	support for the ARM AArch64 architecture has been
	added.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="storage">
    <title>Storage</title>

    <para>This section covers changes and additions to file systems
      and other storage subsystems, both local and networked.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="storage-general">
      <title>General Storage</title>

      <para revision="278037" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ix;">The
	&man.ctl.4; <acronym>LUN</acronym> mapping has been rewritten,
	replacing <acronym>iSCSI</acronym>-specific mapping mechanisms
	with a new mechanism that works for any port.</para>

      <para revision="278354" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ix;">The
	&man.ctld.8; utility has been updated to allow controlling
	non-<acronym>iSCSI</acronym> &man.ctl.4; ports.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="storage-net">
      <title>Networked Storage</title>

      <para revision="270096" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The new
	filesystem automount facility, &man.autofs.5;, has been added.
	The new &man.autofs.5; facility is similar to that found in
	other &unix;-like operating systems, such as OS&nbsp;X&trade;
	and Solaris&trade;.  The &man.autofs.5; facility uses
	a &sun;-compatible &man.auto.master.5; configuration file, and
	is administered with the &man.automount.8; userland utility,
	and the &man.automountd.8; and &man.autounmountd.8;
	daemons.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="storage-zfs">
      <title>ZFS</title>

      <para revision="275748">The <literal>arc_meta_limit</literal>
	statistics are now visible through the
	<literal>kstat</literal> &man.sysctl.8;.  As a result of this
	change, the <literal>vfs.zfs.arc_meta_used</literal>
	&man.sysctl.8; has been removed, and replaced with the
	<literal>kstat.zfs.misc.arcstats.arc_meta_used</literal>
	&man.sysctl.8;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="storage-geom">
      <title>&man.geom.4;</title>

      <para revision="267359">Support for the
	<literal>disklabel64</literal> partitioning scheme has been
	added to &man.gpart.8;.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="boot">
    <title>Boot Loader Changes</title>

    <para>This section covers the boot loader, boot menu, and other
      boot-related changes.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="boot-loader">
      <title>Boot Loader Changes</title>

      <para revision="274085">The &man.vt.4; driver has been made the
	default system console driver.  The &man.syscons.4; driver is
	still available, and can be enabled by adding
	<literal>kern.vty=sc</literal> in &man.loader.conf.5;.
	Alternatively, &man.syscons.4; can be enabled at boot time by
	entering <literal>set kern.vty=sc</literal> at the
	&man.loader.8; prompt.</para>

      <para revision="281616">The boot loader has been updated to
	support entering the <acronym>GELI</acronym> passphrase before
	loading the kernel.  To enable this behavior, add
	<literal>geom_eli_passphrase_prompt="YES"</literal> to
	&man.loader.conf.5;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="boot-menu">
      <title>Boot Menu Changes</title>

      <para>&nbsp;</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="network">
    <title>Networking</title>

    <para>This section describes changes that affect networking in
      &os;.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="network-protocols">
      <title>Network Procols</title>

      <para revision="263140">Support for the IPX network transport
	protocol has been removed, and will not be supported in
	&os;&nbsp;11 and later releases.</para>

      <para revision="272720" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&limelight;">Support for <acronym>PLPMTUD</acronym>
	blackhole detection (<acronym>RFC</acronym> 4821) has been
	added to the &man.tcp.4; stack, disabled by default.  New
	control tunables have been added:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="0">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Tunable</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.pmtud_blackhole_detection</literal></entry>
	      <entry>Enables or disables <acronym>PLPMTUD</acronym>
		blackhole detection</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.pmtud_blackhole_mss</literal></entry>
	      <entry><acronym>MSS</acronym> to try for IPv4</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.v6pmtud_blackhole_mss</literal></entry>
	      <entry><acronym>MSS to try for IPv6</acronym></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>New monitoring &man.sysctl.8;s haven been added:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="0">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Tunable</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.pmtud_blackhole_activated</literal></entry>
	      <entry>Number of times the code was activated to attempt
		downshifting the <acronym>MSS</acronym></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.pmtud_blackhole_min_activated</literal></entry>
	      <entry>Number of times the blackhole
		<acronym>MSS</acronym> was used in an attempt to
		downshift</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><literal>net.inet.tcp.pmtud_blackhole_failed</literal></entry>
	      <entry>Number of times that the blackhole failed to
		connect after downshifting the
		<acronym>MSS</acronym></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para revision="280971" contrib="sponsor"
	sponsor="&netflix;, &nginx;">Support for <acronym>IP</acronym>
	identification for atomic datagrams (<acronym>RFC</acronym>
	6864) has been added.  Support for this feature can be toggled
	with the <literal>net.inet.ip.rfc6864</literal>
	&man.sysctl.8;, which is enabled by default.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="ports">
    <title>Ports Collection and Package Infrastructure</title>

    <para>This section covers changes to the &os;&nbsp;Ports
      Collection, package infrastructure, and package maintenance and
      installation tools.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="ports-infrastructure">
      <title>Infrastructure Changes</title>

      <para>&nbsp;</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="ports-packages ">
      <title>Packaging Changes</title>

      <para>&nbsp;</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="doc">
    <title>Documentation</title>

    <para>This section covers changes to the &os;&nbsp;Documentation
      Project sources and toolchain.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="doc-sources">
      <title>Documentation Source Changes</title>

      <para>&nbsp;</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="doc-toolchain">
      <title>Documentation Toolchain Changes</title>

      <para>&nbsp;</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="releng">
    <title>Release Engineering and Integration</title>

    <para>This section convers changes that are specific to the
      &os;&nbsp;Release Engineering processes.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="releng-changes">
      <title>Integration Changes</title>

      <para revision="277458" contrib="sponsor" sponsor="&ff;">The
	Release Engineering build tools have been updated to include
	support for producing virtual machine disk images for various
	cloud hosting providers.</para>

      <para revision="278926">The Release Engineering build tools have
	been updated to use multi-threaded &man.xz.1;.  By default,
	the number of &man.xz.1; threads is set to the number of cores
	available.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</article>