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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2007 Kenneth D. Merry.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. The name of the author may not be used to endorse or promote products
.\"    derived from this software without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd November 24, 2011
.Dt CAMCONTROL 8
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm camcontrol
.Nd CAM control program
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Nm
.Aq Ar command
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op command args
.Nm
.Ic devlist
.Op Fl v
.Nm
.Ic periphlist
.Op device id
.Op Fl n Ar dev_name
.Op Fl u Ar unit_number
.Nm
.Ic tur
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic inquiry
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl D
.Op Fl S
.Op Fl R
.Nm
.Ic identify
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl v
.Nm
.Ic reportluns
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl c
.Op Fl l
.Op Fl r Ar reporttype
.Nm
.Ic readcap
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl b
.Op Fl h
.Op Fl H
.Op Fl N
.Op Fl q
.Op Fl s
.Nm
.Ic start
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic stop
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic load
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic eject
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic rescan
.Aq all | bus Ns Op :target:lun
.Nm
.Ic reset
.Aq all | bus Ns Op :target:lun
.Nm
.Ic defects
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl f Ar format
.Op Fl P
.Op Fl G
.Nm
.Ic modepage
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl m Ar page | Fl l
.Op Fl P Ar pgctl
.Op Fl b | Fl e
.Op Fl d
.Nm
.Ic cmd
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl a Ar cmd Op args
.Aq Fl c Ar cmd Op args
.Op Fl d
.Op Fl f
.Op Fl i Ar len Ar fmt
.Bk -words
.Op Fl o Ar len Ar fmt Op args
.Op Fl r Ar fmt
.Ek
.Nm
.Ic smpcmd
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl r Ar len Ar fmt Op args
.Aq Fl R Ar len Ar fmt Op args
.Nm
.Ic smprg
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl l
.Nm
.Ic smppc
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl p Ar phy
.Op Fl l
.Op Fl o Ar operation
.Op Fl d Ar name
.Op Fl m Ar rate
.Op Fl M Ar rate
.Op Fl T Ar pp_timeout
.Op Fl a Ar enable|disable
.Op Fl A Ar enable|disable
.Op Fl s Ar enable|disable
.Op Fl S Ar enable|disable
.Nm
.Ic smpphylist
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl l
.Op Fl q
.Nm
.Ic smpmaninfo
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl l
.Nm
.Ic debug
.Op Fl I
.Op Fl P
.Op Fl T
.Op Fl S
.Op Fl X
.Op Fl c
.Aq all|off|bus Ns Op :target Ns Op :lun
.Nm
.Ic tags
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl N Ar tags
.Op Fl q
.Op Fl v
.Nm
.Ic negotiate
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl c
.Op Fl D Ar enable|disable
.Op Fl M Ar mode
.Op Fl O Ar offset
.Op Fl q
.Op Fl R Ar syncrate
.Op Fl T Ar enable|disable
.Op Fl U
.Op Fl W Ar bus_width
.Op Fl v
.Nm
.Ic format
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl q
.Op Fl r
.Op Fl w
.Op Fl y
.Nm
.Ic idle
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl t Ar time
.Nm
.Ic standby
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Op Fl t Ar time
.Nm
.Ic sleep
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Nm
.Ic fwdownload
.Op device id
.Op generic args
.Aq Fl f Ar fw_image
.Op Fl y
.Op Fl s
.Nm
.Ic help
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
utility is designed to provide a way for users to access and control the
.Fx
CAM subsystem.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility
can cause a loss of data and/or system crashes if used improperly.
Even
expert users are encouraged to exercise caution when using this command.
Novice users should stay away from this utility.
.Pp
The
.Nm
utility has a number of primary functions, many of which support an optional
device identifier.
A device identifier can take one of three forms:
.Bl -tag -width 14n
.It deviceUNIT
Specify a device name and unit number combination, like "da5" or "cd3".
.It bus:target
Specify a bus number and target id.
The bus number can be determined from
the output of
.Dq camcontrol devlist .
The lun defaults to 0.
.It bus:target:lun
Specify the bus, target and lun for a device.
(e.g.\& 1:2:0)
.El
.Pp
The device identifier, if it is specified,
.Em must
come immediately after the function name, and before any generic or
function-specific arguments.
Note that the
.Fl n
and
.Fl u
arguments described below will override any device name or unit number
specified beforehand.
The
.Fl n
and
.Fl u
arguments will
.Em not
override a specified bus:target or bus:target:lun, however.
.Pp
Most of the
.Nm
primary functions support these generic arguments:
.Bl -tag -width 14n
.It Fl C Ar count
SCSI command retry count.
In order for this to work, error recovery
.Pq Fl E
must be turned on.
.It Fl E
Instruct the kernel to perform generic SCSI error recovery for the given
command.
This is needed in order for the retry count
.Pq Fl C
to be honored.
Other than retrying commands, the generic error recovery in
the code will generally attempt to spin up drives that are not spinning.
It may take some other actions, depending upon the sense code returned from
the command.
.It Fl n Ar dev_name
Specify the device type to operate on, e.g.\& "da", "cd".
.It Fl t Ar timeout
SCSI command timeout in seconds.
This overrides the default timeout for
any given command.
.It Fl u Ar unit_number
Specify the device unit number, e.g.\& "1", "5".
.It Fl v
Be verbose, print out sense information for failed SCSI commands.
.El
.Pp
Primary command functions:
.Bl -tag -width periphlist
.It Ic devlist
List all physical devices (logical units) attached to the CAM subsystem.
This also includes a list of peripheral drivers attached to each device.
With the
.Fl v
argument, SCSI bus number, adapter name and unit numbers are printed as
well.
.It Ic periphlist
List all peripheral drivers attached to a given physical device (logical
unit).
.It Ic tur
Send the SCSI test unit ready (0x00) command to the given device.
The
.Nm
utility will report whether the device is ready or not.
.It Ic inquiry
Send a SCSI inquiry command (0x12) to a device.
By default,
.Nm
will print out the standard inquiry data, device serial number, and
transfer rate information.
The user can specify that only certain types of
inquiry data be printed:
.Bl -tag -width 4n
.It Fl D
Get the standard inquiry data.
.It Fl S
Print out the serial number.
If this flag is the only one specified,
.Nm
will not print out "Serial Number" before the value returned by the drive.
This is to aid in script writing.
.It Fl R
Print out transfer rate information.
.El
.It Ic identify
Send a ATA identify command (0xec) to a device.
.It Ic reportluns
Send the SCSI REPORT LUNS (0xA0) command to the given device.
By default,
.Nm
will print out the list of logical units (LUNs) supported by the target device.
There are a couple of options to modify the output:
.Bl -tag -width 14n
.It Fl c
Just print out a count of LUNs, not the actual LUN numbers.
.It Fl l
Just print out the LUNs, and don't print out the count.
.It Fl r Ar reporttype
Specify the type of report to request from the target:
.Bl -tag -width 012345678
.It default
Return the default report.
This is the
.Nm
default.
Most targets will support this report if they support the REPORT LUNS
command.
.It wellknown
Return only well known LUNs.
.It all
Return all available LUNs.
.El
.El
.Pp
.Nm
will try to print out LUN numbers in a reasonable format.
It can understand the peripheral, flat, LUN and extended LUN formats.
.It Ic readcap
Send the SCSI READ CAPACITY command to the given device and display
the results.
If the device is larger than 2TB, the SCSI READ CAPACITY (16) service
action will be sent to obtain the full size of the device.
By default,
.Nm
will print out the last logical block of the device, and the blocksize of
the device in bytes.
To modify the output format, use the following options:
.Bl -tag -width 5n
.It Fl b
Just print out the blocksize, not the last block or device size.
This cannot be used with
.Fl N
or
.Fl s .
.It Fl h
Print out the device size in human readable (base 2, 1K == 1024) format.
This implies
.Fl N
and cannot be used with
.Fl q
or
.Fl b .
.It Fl H
Print out the device size in human readable (base 10, 1K == 1000) format.
.It Fl N
Print out the number of blocks in the device instead of the last logical
block.
.It Fl q
Quiet, print out the numbers only (separated by a comma if
.Fl b
or
.Fl s
are not specified).
.It Fl s
Print out the last logical block or the size of the device only, and omit
the blocksize.
.El
.It Ic start
Send the SCSI Start/Stop Unit (0x1B) command to the given device with the
start bit set.
.It Ic stop
Send the SCSI Start/Stop Unit (0x1B) command to the given device with the
start bit cleared.
.It Ic load
Send the SCSI Start/Stop Unit (0x1B) command to the given device with the
start bit set and the load/eject bit set.
.It Ic eject
Send the SCSI Start/Stop Unit (0x1B) command to the given device with the
start bit cleared and the load/eject bit set.
.It Ic rescan
Tell the kernel to scan all busses in the system (with the
.Ar all
argument), the given bus (XPT_SCAN_BUS), or bus:target:lun
(XPT_SCAN_LUN) for new devices or devices that have gone away.
The user
may specify a scan of all busses, a single bus, or a lun.
Scanning all luns
on a target is not supported.
.It Ic reset
Tell the kernel to reset all busses in the system (with the
.Ar all
argument) or the given bus (XPT_RESET_BUS) by issuing a SCSI bus
reset for that bus, or to reset the given bus:target:lun
(XPT_RESET_DEV), typically by issuing a BUS DEVICE RESET message after
connecting to that device.
Note that this can have a destructive impact
on the system.
.It Ic defects
Send the SCSI READ DEFECT DATA (10) command (0x37) to the given device, and
print out any combination of: the total number of defects, the primary
defect list (PLIST), and the grown defect list (GLIST).
.Bl -tag -width 11n
.It Fl f Ar format
The three format options are:
.Em block ,
to print out the list as logical blocks,
.Em bfi ,
to print out the list in bytes from index format, and
.Em phys ,
to print out the list in physical sector format.
The format argument is
required.
Most drives support the physical sector format.
Some drives
support the logical block format.
Many drives, if they do not support the
requested format, return the data in an alternate format, along with sense
information indicating that the requested data format is not supported.
The
.Nm
utility
attempts to detect this, and print out whatever format the drive returns.
If the drive uses a non-standard sense code to report that it does not
support the requested format,
.Nm
will probably see the error as a failure to complete the request.
.It Fl G
Print out the grown defect list.
This is a list of bad blocks that have
been remapped since the disk left the factory.
.It Fl P
Print out the primary defect list.
.El
.Pp
If neither
.Fl P
nor
.Fl G
is specified,
.Nm
will print out the number of defects given in the READ DEFECT DATA header
returned from the drive.
.It Ic modepage
Allows the user to display and optionally edit a SCSI mode page.
The mode
page formats are located in
.Pa /usr/share/misc/scsi_modes .
This can be overridden by specifying a different file in the
.Ev SCSI_MODES
environment variable.
The
.Ic modepage
command takes several arguments:
.Bl -tag -width 12n
.It Fl d
Disable block descriptors for mode sense.
.It Fl b
Displays mode page data in binary format.
.It Fl e
This flag allows the user to edit values in the mode page.
The user may
either edit mode page values with the text editor pointed to by his
.Ev EDITOR
environment variable, or supply mode page values via standard input, using
the same format that
.Nm
uses to display mode page values.
The editor will be invoked if
.Nm
detects that standard input is terminal.
.It Fl l
Lists all available mode pages.
.It Fl m Ar mode_page
This specifies the number of the mode page the user would like to view
and/or edit.
This argument is mandatory unless
.Fl l
is specified.
.It Fl P Ar pgctl
This allows the user to specify the page control field.
Possible values are:
.Bl -tag -width xxx -compact
.It 0
Current values
.It 1
Changeable values
.It 2
Default values
.It 3
Saved values
.El
.El
.It Ic cmd
Allows the user to send an arbitrary ATA or SCSI CDB to any device.
The
.Ic cmd
function requires the
.Fl c
argument to specify SCSI CDB or the
.Fl a
argument to specify ATA Command Block registers values.
Other arguments are optional, depending on
the command type.
The command and data specification syntax is documented
in
.Xr cam_cdbparse 3 .
NOTE: If the CDB specified causes data to be transferred to or from the
SCSI device in question, you MUST specify either
.Fl i
or
.Fl o .
.Bl -tag -width 17n
.It Fl a Ar cmd Op args
This specifies the content of 12 ATA Command Block registers (command,
features, lba_low, lba_mid, lba_high, device, lba_low_exp, lba_mid_exp.
lba_high_exp, features_exp, sector_count, sector_count_exp).
.It Fl c Ar cmd Op args
This specifies the SCSI CDB.
SCSI CDBs may be 6, 10, 12 or 16 bytes.
.It Fl d
Specifies DMA protocol to be used for ATA command.
.It Fl f
Specifies FPDMA (NCQ) protocol to be used for ATA command.
.It Fl i Ar len Ar fmt
This specifies the amount of data to read, and how it should be displayed.
If the format is
.Sq - ,
.Ar len
bytes of data will be read from the device and written to standard output.
.It Fl o Ar len Ar fmt Op args
This specifies the amount of data to be written to a device, and the data
that is to be written.
If the format is
.Sq - ,
.Ar len
bytes of data will be read from standard input and written to the device.
.It Fl r Ar fmt
This specifies that 11 result ATA Command Block registers should be displayed
(status, error, lba_low, lba_mid, lba_high, device, lba_low_exp, lba_mid_exp,
lba_high_exp, sector_count, sector_count_exp), and how.
If the format is
.Sq - ,
11 result registers will be written to standard output in hex.
.El
.It Ic smpcmd
Allows the user to send an arbitrary Serial
Management Protocol (SMP) command to a device.
The
.Ic smpcmd
function requires the
.Fl r
argument to specify the SMP request to be sent, and the
.Fl R
argument to specify the format of the SMP response.
The syntax for the SMP request and response arguments is documented in
.Xr cam_cdbparse 3 .
.Pp
Note that SAS adapters that support SMP passthrough (at least the currently
known adapters) do not accept CRC bytes from the user in the request and do
not pass CRC bytes back to the user in the response.
Therefore users should not include the CRC bytes in the length of the
request and not expect CRC bytes to be returned in the response.
.Bl -tag -width 17n
.It Fl r Ar len Ar fmt Op args
This specifies the size of the SMP request, without the CRC bytes, and the
SMP request format.  If the format is
.Sq - ,
.Ar len
bytes of data will be read from standard input and written as the SMP
request.
.It Fl R Ar len Ar fmt Op args
This specifies the size of the buffer allocated for the SMP response, and
the SMP response format.
If the format is
.Sq - ,
.Ar len
bytes of data will be allocated for the response and the response will be
written to standard output.
.El
.It Ic smprg
Allows the user to send the Serial Management Protocol (SMP) Report General
command to a device.
.Nm
will display the data returned by the Report General command.
If the SMP target supports the long response format, the additional data
will be requested and displayed automatically.
.Bl -tag -width 8n
.It Fl l
Request the long response format only.
Not all SMP targets support the long response format.
This option causes
.Nm
to skip sending the initial report general request without the long bit set
and only issue a report general request with the long bit set.
.El
.It Ic smppc
Allows the user to issue the Serial Management Protocol (SMP) PHY Control
command to a device.
This function should be used with some caution, as it can render devices
inaccessible, and could potentially cause data corruption as well.
The
.Fl p
argument is required to specify the PHY to operate on.
.Bl -tag -width 17n
.It Fl p Ar phy
Specify the PHY to operate on.
This argument is required.
.It Fl l
Request the long request/response format.
Not all SMP targets support the long response format.
For the PHY Control command, this currently only affects whether the
request length is set to a value other than 0.
.It Fl o Ar operation
Specify a PHY control operation.
Only one
.Fl o
operation may be specified.
The operation may be specified numerically (in decimal, hexadecimal, or octal)
or one of the following operation names may be specified:
.Bl -tag -width 16n
.It nop
No operation.
It is not necessary to specify this argument.
.It linkreset
Send the LINK RESET command to the phy.
.It hardreset
Send the HARD RESET command to the phy.
.It disable
Send the DISABLE command to the phy.
Note that the LINK RESET or HARD RESET commands should re-enable the phy.
.It clearerrlog
Send the CLEAR ERROR LOG command.
This clears the error log counters for the specified phy.
.It clearaffiliation
Send the CLEAR AFFILIATION command.
This clears the affiliation from the STP initiator port with the same SAS
address as the SMP initiator that requests the clear operation.
.It sataportsel
Send the TRANSMIT SATA PORT SELECTION SIGNAL command to the phy.
This will cause a SATA port selector to use the given phy as its active phy
and make the other phy inactive.
.It clearitnl
Send the CLEAR STP I_T NEXUS LOSS command to the PHY.
.It setdevname
Send the SET ATTACHED DEVICE NAME command to the PHY.
This requires the
.Fl d
argument to specify the device name.
.El
.It Fl d Ar name
Specify the attached device name.
This option is needed with the
.Fl o Ar setdevname
phy operation.
The name is a 64-bit number, and can be specified in decimal, hexadecimal
or octal format.
.It Fl m Ar rate
Set the minimum physical link rate for the phy.
This is a numeric argument.
Currently known link rates are:
.Bl -tag -width 5n
.It 0x0
Do not change current value.
.It 0x8
1.5 Gbps
.It 0x9
3 Gbps
.It 0xa
6 Gbps
.El
.Pp
Other values may be specified for newer physical link rates.
.It Fl M Ar rate
Set the maximum physical link rate for the phy.
This is a numeric argument.
See the
.Fl m
argument description for known link rate arguments.
.It Fl T Ar pp_timeout
Set the partial pathway timeout value, in microseconds.
See the
.Tn ANSI
.Tn SAS
Protcol Layer (SPL)
specification for more information on this field.
.It Fl a Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable SATA slumber phy power conditions.
.It Fl A Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable SATA partial power conditions.
.It Fl s Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable SAS slumber phy power conditions.
.It Fl S Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable SAS partial phy power conditions.
.El
.It Ic smpphylist
List phys attached to a SAS expander, the address of the end device
attached to the phy, and the inquiry data for that device and peripheral
devices attached to that device.
The inquiry data and peripheral devices are displayed if available.
.Bl -tag -width 5n
.It Fl l
Turn on the long response format for the underlying SMP commands used for
this command.
.It Fl q
Only print out phys that are attached to a device in the CAM EDT (Existing
Device Table).
.El
.It Ic smpmaninfo
Send the SMP Report Manufacturer Information command to the device and
display the response.
.Bl -tag -width 5n
.It Fl l
Turn on the long response format for the underlying SMP commands used for
this command.
.El
.It Ic debug
Turn on CAM debugging printfs in the kernel.
This requires options CAMDEBUG
in your kernel config file.
WARNING: enabling debugging printfs currently
causes an EXTREME number of kernel printfs.
You may have difficulty
turning off the debugging printfs once they start, since the kernel will be
busy printing messages and unable to service other requests quickly.
The
.Ic debug
function takes a number of arguments:
.Bl -tag -width 18n
.It Fl I
Enable CAM_DEBUG_INFO printfs.
.It Fl P
Enable CAM_DEBUG_PERIPH printfs.
.It Fl T
Enable CAM_DEBUG_TRACE printfs.
.It Fl S
Enable CAM_DEBUG_SUBTRACE printfs.
.It Fl X
Enable CAM_DEBUG_XPT printfs.
.It Fl c
Enable CAM_DEBUG_CDB printfs.
This will cause the kernel to print out the
SCSI CDBs sent to the specified device(s).
.It all
Enable debugging for all devices.
.It off
Turn off debugging for all devices
.It bus Ns Op :target Ns Op :lun
Turn on debugging for the given bus, target or lun.
If the lun or target
and lun are not specified, they are wildcarded.
(i.e., just specifying a
bus turns on debugging printfs for all devices on that bus.)
.El
.It Ic tags
Show or set the number of "tagged openings" or simultaneous transactions
we attempt to queue to a particular device.
By default, the
.Ic tags
command, with no command-specific arguments (i.e., only generic arguments)
prints out the "soft" maximum number of transactions that can be queued to
the device in question.
For more detailed information, use the
.Fl v
argument described below.
.Bl -tag -width 7n
.It Fl N Ar tags
Set the number of tags for the given device.
This must be between the
minimum and maximum number set in the kernel quirk table.
The default for
most devices that support tagged queueing is a minimum of 2 and a maximum
of 255.
The minimum and maximum values for a given device may be
determined by using the
.Fl v
switch.
The meaning of the
.Fl v
switch for this
.Nm
subcommand is described below.
.It Fl q
Be quiet, and do not report the number of tags.
This is generally used when
setting the number of tags.
.It Fl v
The verbose flag has special functionality for the
.Em tags
argument.
It causes
.Nm
to print out the tagged queueing related fields of the XPT_GDEV_TYPE CCB:
.Bl -tag -width 13n
.It dev_openings
This is the amount of capacity for transactions queued to a given device.
.It dev_active
This is the number of transactions currently queued to a device.
.It devq_openings
This is the kernel queue space for transactions.
This count usually mirrors
dev_openings except during error recovery operations when
the device queue is frozen (device is not allowed to receive
commands), the number of dev_openings is reduced, or transaction
replay is occurring.
.It devq_queued
This is the number of transactions waiting in the kernel queue for capacity
on the device.
This number is usually zero unless error recovery is in
progress.
.It held
The held count is the number of CCBs held by peripheral drivers that have
either just been completed or are about to be released to the transport
layer for service by a device.
Held CCBs reserve capacity on a given
device.
.It mintags
This is the current "hard" minimum number of transactions that can be
queued to a device at once.
The
.Ar dev_openings
value above cannot go below this number.
The default value for
.Ar mintags
is 2, although it may be set higher or lower for various devices.
.It maxtags
This is the "hard" maximum number of transactions that can be queued to a
device at one time.
The
.Ar dev_openings
value cannot go above this number.
The default value for
.Ar maxtags
is 255, although it may be set higher or lower for various devices.
.El
.El
.It Ic negotiate
Show or negotiate various communication parameters.
Some controllers may
not support setting or changing some of these values.
For instance, the
Adaptec 174x controllers do not support changing a device's sync rate or
offset.
The
.Nm
utility
will not attempt to set the parameter if the controller indicates that it
does not support setting the parameter.
To find out what the controller
supports, use the
.Fl v
flag.
The meaning of the
.Fl v
flag for the
.Ic negotiate
command is described below.
Also, some controller drivers do not support
setting negotiation parameters, even if the underlying controller supports
negotiation changes.
Some controllers, such as the Advansys wide
controllers, support enabling and disabling synchronous negotiation for
a device, but do not support setting the synchronous negotiation rate.
.Bl -tag -width 17n
.It Fl a
Attempt to make the negotiation settings take effect immediately by sending
a Test Unit Ready command to the device.
.It Fl c
Show or set current negotiation settings.
This is the default.
.It Fl D Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable disconnection.
.It Fl M Ar mode
Set ATA mode.
.It Fl O Ar offset
Set the command delay offset.
.It Fl q
Be quiet, do not print anything.
This is generally useful when you want to
set a parameter, but do not want any status information.
.It Fl R Ar syncrate
Change the synchronization rate for a device.
The sync rate is a floating
point value specified in MHz.
So, for instance,
.Sq 20.000
is a legal value, as is
.Sq 20 .
.It Fl T Ar enable|disable
Enable or disable tagged queueing for a device.
.It Fl U
Show or set user negotiation settings.
The default is to show or set
current negotiation settings.
.It Fl v
The verbose switch has special meaning for the
.Ic negotiate
subcommand.
It causes
.Nm
to print out the contents of a Path Inquiry (XPT_PATH_INQ) CCB sent to the
controller driver.
.It Fl W Ar bus_width
Specify the bus width to negotiate with a device.
The bus width is
specified in bits.
The only useful values to specify are 8, 16, and 32
bits.
The controller must support the bus width in question in order for
the setting to take effect.
.El
.Pp
In general, sync rate and offset settings will not take effect for a
device until a command has been sent to the device.
The
.Fl a
switch above will automatically send a Test Unit Ready to the device so
negotiation parameters will take effect.
.It Ic format
Issue the
.Tn SCSI
FORMAT UNIT command to the named device.
.Pp
.Em WARNING! WARNING! WARNING!
.Pp
Low level formatting a disk will destroy ALL data on the disk.
Use
extreme caution when issuing this command.
Many users low-level format
disks that do not really need to be low-level formatted.
There are
relatively few scenarios that call for low-level formatting a disk.
One reason for
low-level formatting a disk is to initialize the disk after changing
its physical sector size.
Another reason for low-level formatting a disk
is to revive the disk if you are getting "medium format corrupted" errors
from the disk in response to read and write requests.
.Pp
Some disks take longer than others to format.
Users should specify a
timeout long enough to allow the format to complete.
The default format
timeout is 3 hours, which should be long enough for most disks.
Some hard
disks will complete a format operation in a very short period of time
(on the order of 5 minutes or less).
This is often because the drive
does not really support the FORMAT UNIT command -- it just accepts the
command, waits a few minutes and then returns it.
.Pp
The
.Sq format
subcommand takes several arguments that modify its default behavior.
The
.Fl q
and
.Fl y
arguments can be useful for scripts.
.Bl -tag -width 6n
.It Fl q
Be quiet, do not print any status messages.
This option will not disable
the questions, however.
To disable questions, use the
.Fl y
argument, below.
.It Fl r
Run in
.Dq report only
mode.
This will report status on a format that is already running on the drive.
.It Fl w
Issue a non-immediate format command.
By default,
.Nm
issues the FORMAT UNIT command with the immediate bit set.
This tells the
device to immediately return the format command, before the format has
actually completed.
Then,
.Nm
gathers
.Tn SCSI
sense information from the device every second to determine how far along
in the format process it is.
If the
.Fl w
argument is specified,
.Nm
will issue a non-immediate format command, and will be unable to print any
information to let the user know what percentage of the disk has been
formatted.
.It Fl y
Do not ask any questions.
By default,
.Nm
will ask the user if he/she really wants to format the disk in question,
and also if the default format command timeout is acceptable.
The user
will not be asked about the timeout if a timeout is specified on the
command line.
.El
.It Ic idle
Put ATA device into IDLE state. Optional parameter
.Pq Fl t
specifies automatic standby timer value in seconds. Value 0 disables timer.
.It Ic standby
Put ATA device into STANDBY state. Optional parameter
.Pq Fl t
specifies automatic standby timer value in seconds. Value 0 disables timer.
.It Ic sleep
Put ATA device into SLEEP state. Note that the only way get device out of
this state may be reset.
.It Ic fwdownload
Program firmware of the named SCSI device using the image file provided.
.Pp
Current list of supported vendors:
.Bl -bullet -offset indent -compact
.It
HITACHI
.It
HP
.It
IBM
.It
PLEXTOR
.It
QUANTUM
.It
SEAGATE
.El
.Pp
.Em WARNING! WARNING! WARNING!
.Pp
Little testing has been done to make sure that different device models from
each vendor work correctly with the fwdownload command.
A vendor name appearing in the supported list means only that firmware of at
least one device type from that vendor has successfully been programmed with
the fwdownload command.
Extra caution should be taken when using this command since there is no
guarantee it will not break a device from the listed vendors.
Ensure that you have a recent backup of the data on the device before
performing a firmware update.
.Bl -tag -width 11n
.It Fl f Ar fw_image
Path to the firmware image file to be downloaded to the specified device.
.It Fl y
Do not ask for confirmation.
.It Fl s
Run in simulation mode.
Packet sizes that will be sent are shown, but no actual packet is sent to the
device.
No confimation is asked in simulation mode.
.It Fl v
Besides showing sense information in case of a failure, the verbose option
causes
.Nm
to output a line for every firmware segment that is sent to the device by the
fwdownload command
-- the same as the ones shown in simulation mode.
.El
.It Ic help
Print out verbose usage information.
.El
.Sh ENVIRONMENT
The
.Ev SCSI_MODES
variable allows the user to specify an alternate mode page format file.
.Pp
The
.Ev EDITOR
variable determines which text editor
.Nm
starts when editing mode pages.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width /usr/share/misc/scsi_modes -compact
.It Pa /usr/share/misc/scsi_modes
is the SCSI mode format database.
.It Pa /dev/xpt0
is the transport layer device.
.It Pa /dev/pass*
are the CAM application passthrough devices.
.El
.Sh EXAMPLES
.Dl camcontrol eject -n cd -u 1 -v
.Pp
Eject the CD from cd1, and print SCSI sense information if the command
fails.
.Pp
.Dl camcontrol tur da0
.Pp
Send the SCSI test unit ready command to da0.
The
.Nm
utility will report whether the disk is ready, but will not display sense
information if the command fails since the
.Fl v
switch was not specified.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol tur da1 -E -C 4 -t 50 -v
.Ed
.Pp
Send a test unit ready command to da1.
Enable kernel error recovery.
Specify a retry count of 4, and a timeout of 50 seconds.
Enable sense
printing (with the
.Fl v
flag) if the command fails.
Since error recovery is turned on, the
disk will be spun up if it is not currently spinning.
The
.Nm
utility will report whether the disk is ready.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol cmd -n cd -u 1 -v -c "3C 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0e 00" \e
	-i 0xe "s1 i3 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1 i1"
.Ed
.Pp
Issue a READ BUFFER command (0x3C) to cd1.
Display the buffer size of cd1,
and display the first 10 bytes from the cache on cd1.
Display SCSI sense
information if the command fails.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol cmd -n cd -u 1 -v -c "3B 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0e 00" \e
	-o 14 "00 00 00 00 1 2 3 4 5 6 v v v v" 7 8 9 8
.Ed
.Pp
Issue a WRITE BUFFER (0x3B) command to cd1.
Write out 10 bytes of data,
not including the (reserved) 4 byte header.
Print out sense information if
the command fails.
Be very careful with this command, improper use may
cause data corruption.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol modepage da3 -m 1 -e -P 3
.Ed
.Pp
Edit mode page 1 (the Read-Write Error Recover page) for da3, and save the
settings on the drive.
Mode page 1 contains a disk drive's auto read and
write reallocation settings, among other things.
.Pp
.Dl camcontrol rescan all
.Pp
Rescan all SCSI busses in the system for devices that have been added,
removed or changed.
.Pp
.Dl camcontrol rescan 0
.Pp
Rescan SCSI bus 0 for devices that have been added, removed or changed.
.Pp
.Dl camcontrol rescan 0:1:0
.Pp
Rescan SCSI bus 0, target 1, lun 0 to see if it has been added, removed, or
changed.
.Pp
.Dl camcontrol tags da5 -N 24
.Pp
Set the number of concurrent transactions for da5 to 24.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol negotiate -n da -u 4 -T disable
.Ed
.Pp
Disable tagged queueing for da4.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol negotiate -n da -u 3 -R 20.000 -O 15 -a
.Ed
.Pp
Negotiate a sync rate of 20MHz and an offset of 15 with da3.
Then send a
Test Unit Ready command to make the settings take effect.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol smpcmd ses0 -v -r 4 "40 0 00 0" -R 1020 "s9 i1"
.Ed
.Pp
Send the SMP REPORT GENERAL command to ses0, and display the number of PHYs
it contains.
Display SMP errors if the command fails.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr cam 3 ,
.Xr cam_cdbparse 3 ,
.Xr cam 4 ,
.Xr pass 4 ,
.Xr xpt 4
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
utility first appeared in
.Fx 3.0 .
.Pp
The mode page editing code and arbitrary SCSI command code are based upon
code in the old
.Xr scsi 8
utility and
.Xr scsi 3
library, written by Julian Elischer and Peter Dufault.
The
.Xr scsi 8
program first appeared in
.Bx 386 0.1.2.4 ,
and first appeared in
.Fx
in
.Fx 2.0.5 .
.Sh AUTHORS
.An Kenneth Merry Aq ken@FreeBSD.org
.Sh BUGS
The code that parses the generic command line arguments does not know that
some of the subcommands take multiple arguments.
So if, for instance, you
tried something like this:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
camcontrol cmd -n da -u 1 -c "00 00 00 00 00 v" 0x00 -v
.Ed
.Pp
The sense information from the test unit ready command would not get
printed out, since the first
.Xr getopt 3
call in
.Nm
bails out when it sees the second argument to
.Fl c
(0x00),
above.
Fixing this behavior would take some gross code, or changes to the
.Xr getopt 3
interface.
The best way to circumvent this problem is to always make sure
to specify generic
.Nm
arguments before any command-specific arguments.