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.Dd April 7, 1993
.Dt KEYBOARD 4
.Os FreeBSD
.Sh NAME
.Nm keyboard
.Nd pc keyboard interface
.Sh DESCRIPTION

The PC keyboard is used as the console character input device. The keyboard
is owned by the current virtual console.
To switch between the virtual consoles use the sequence 
.Ar ALT+Fn
, which means hold down ALT and press one of the function keys. The 
virtual console with the same number as the function key is then
selected as the current virtual console, and given exclusive use of
the keyboard and display.

The console allows entering values that are not physically
present on the keyboard via a special keysequence.
To use this facility press and hold down ALT,
then enter a decimal number from 0-255 via the numerical keypad, then
release ALT. The entered value is then used as the ASCII value for one
character. This way it is possible to enter any ASCII value, not present
on the keyboard.
The keyboard is configurable to suit the individual user and the different
national layout.

The keys on the keyboard can have any of the following functions:

	Normal key	- Enter the ASCII value associated with the key.

	Function key	- Enter a string of ASCII values.

	Switch Key	- Switch virtual console.

	Modifier Key	- Change the meaning of another key.


The keyboard is seen as a number of keys numbered from 1 to n. This 
number is often referred to as the "scancode" for a given key. The number
of the key is transmitted as an 8 bit char with bit 7 as 0 when a key is 
pressed, and the number with bit 7 as 1 when released. This makes it 
possible to make the mapping of the keys fully configurable.

The meaning of every key is programmable via the PIO_KEYMAP ioctl call, that
takes a structure keymap_t as argument. The layout of this structure is as
follows:
.Pp
.Bd -literal -offset indent
		struct keymap {
			u_short	n_keys;
			struct key_t {
				u_char map[NUM_STATES];
				u_char spcl;
				u_char flgs;
			} key[NUM_KEYS];
		};
.Ed
.Pp
The field n_keys tells the system how many keydefinitions (scancodes)
follows. Each scancode is then specified in the key_t substructure.

Each scancode can be translated to any of 8 different values, depending
on the shift, control, and alt state. These eight possibilities is 
represented by the map array, as shown below:

                                                            alt
 scan                          cntrl          alt    alt   cntrl
 code     base   shift  cntrl  shift   alt   shift  cntrl  shift
 map[n]      0       1      2      3     4       5      6      7
 ----     ------------------------------------------------------
 0x1E      'a'     'A'   0x01   0x01    'a'    'A'   0x01   0x01

This is the default mapping for the key labelled 'A' wich normally has 
scancode 0x1E. The eight states is as shown, giving the 'A' key its 
normal behavior. 
The spcl field is used to give the key "special" treatment, and is
interpreted as follows. 
Each bit correspond to one of the states above. If the bit is 0 the 
key emits the number defined in the corresponding map[] entry. 
If the bit is 1 the key is "special". This means it does not emit 
anything, instead it changes the "state". That means it is a shift, 
control, alt, lock, switch-screen, function-key or no-op key. 
The bitmap is backwards ie. 7 for base, 6 for shift etc.

The flgs field defines if the key should react on caps-lock (1),
num-lock (2), both (3) or ignore both (0). 

The mapkbd utility is used to load such a description into/outof
the kernel at runtime. This make it possible to change the key
assignments at runtime, or more important to get (GIO_KEYMAP ioctl)
the exact key meanings from the kernel (fx. used by the X server).

The function keys can be programmed using the PIO_STRMAP ioctl call.

This ioctl takes a argument of the type fkeyarg_t:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
		struct fkeyarg {
			u_short	keynum;
			char	keydef[MAXFK];
			char	flen;
		};
.Ed
.Pp
The field keynum defines which function key that is programmed.
The array keydef should contain the new string to be used (MAXFK long),
and the length should be entered in flen.

The GIO_STRMAP ioctl call works in a semilar manner, execpt it returns
the current setting of keynum.

The function keys are numbered like this:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
	F1-F12 			key 1 - 12
	Shift F1-F12		key 13 - 24
	Ctrl F1-F12		key 25 - 36
	Ctrl+shift F1-F12	key 37 - 48
	
	Home			key 49
	Up arrow		key 50
	Page Up			key 51
	(keypad) -		key 52
	Left arrow		key 53
	(keypad) 5		key 54
	Right arrow		key 55
	(keypad) +		key 56
	End			key 57
	Down arrow		key 58
	Page down		key 59
	Insert 			key 60
.Ed
.Pp
.Sh AUTHOR
 Sren Schmidt 
 Email: (sos@login.dkuug.dk -or- sos@kmd-ac.dk)