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.\"Matsushita(Panasonic) / Creative Compact Disc Drive Driver	(matcd)
.\"Authored by Frank Durda IV
.\"
.\"Program and Documentation are Copyright 1994, 1995, 2003, 2003  Frank Durda IV.
.\"All rights reserved.
.\" "FDIV" is a trademark of Frank Durda IV.
.\"
.\"
.\"Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\"modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\"are met:
.\"1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\"2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"3. Neither the name of the author nor the names of their contributors
.\"   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\"   without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\"THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\"ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\"IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\"ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\"FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\"DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\"OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\"HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\"LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\"OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\"SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\"--------------------------------------------------------------------------
.\"Dedicated to:	My family, my grandfather,
.\"			and Max, my Golden Retriever
.\"
.\"	Please note any documentation updates here including your name
.\"	and the date.
.\"<2>	Text brought in sync with changes made in versions 1(17) - 1(21)
.\"	Frank Durda IV	4-Jul-1995
.\"<3>	Text brought in sync with changes made in versions 1(22) - 1(25)
.\"	Frank Durda IV  24-Sep-1995
.\"<4>	Overhaul of man page to match version 3(41) (FreeBSD 5.0 support)
.\"	and style changes noted in other 5.x era man pages.
.\"	Frank Durda IV  17-Apr-2003
.\"<5>  Aligned with version 3(42) (FreeBSD pre5.1 support)
.\"	Frank Durda IV  10-May-2003
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd May 10, 2003
.Dt MATCD 4
.\"Synchronized to Version 3(42) of matcd.c
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm matcd
.Nd Matsushita (Panasonic) Compact Disc drive driver
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Cd "device matcd"
.Pp
In
.Pa /boot/device.hints :
.Bd -unfilled -compact
.Va hint.matcd.[0-3].at Ns = Ns Qq Li isa
.Va hint.matcd.[0-3].port Ns = Ns Qq Ar address
.Ed
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
driver controls the CR-562 and CR-563 Compact Disc drives made by
Matsushita-Kotobuki Electronics Industries, or Matsushita for short.
These drives were sold under the Panasonic (which is a trade
name for Matsushita), Creative Labs (omniCD) and Reveal names, and were
also included in computers that were made by Tandy, GRiD, Victor, AST,
Packard Bell and many other brands.
.Pp
The drives are compatible with the major the Compact Disc standards,
including CD-DA (Red Book - Digital Audio on pressed media), CD-WO (Orange
Book Part II - Write-Once media), CD-ROM (Yellow Book - Data Storage), and
the Kodak Photo-CD system.
The drives have some support related to
CD-ROM XA and CD-I (Green Book) audio and data requirements.
.Pp
These drives connect to the PC ISA bus through a simple (but proprietary) host
interface.
The host interface has been manufactured as a stand-alone adapter
card, or included on a sound card or other multi-function adapter card.
The
.Nm
driver supports up to four host interfaces with up to four drives on each
interface.
CD-DA (digital audio) activity may occur on all drives
simultaneously.
.Pp
The drive hardware supports a
.Dq "bus disconnect"
system similar to that found
in SCSI, and this allows simultaneous data read operations to be in progress
on multiple drives on the same host interface, but the driver currently
limits read operations to one active drive per host interface at a time.
Despite this, all four drives on a given host interface are able deliver
data at their full rated transfer rate for sequential blocks simultaneously,
thanks to a modest read-ahead buffer in each drive.
.Sh DRIVER INSTALLATION
The
.Nm
driver can be directly linked into the
.Fx
kernel, or exist
as a loadable
.Fx
kernel module.
The kernel module can be loaded or unloaded at any time
using the
.Xr kldload 8 Ns / Ns Xr kldunload 8
commands.
.Pp
For most configurations, the
.Nm
driver should be used as a loadable kernel module and need not be linked into
the kernel.
However, if you are attempting to do an install from a
CD-ROM/CD-WO disc that is initiated from a non-FreeBSD operating system or
you have a BIOS boot capability for this type of Compact Disc drive, having
the driver already in the kernel can simplify the installation process.
.Pp
If you determine that you need to have the
.Nm
driver linked into the kernel, it is necessary to add an entry to the kernel
configuration file and generate a new kernel.
The
.Fx
kernel source tree comes
with the file
.Pa /usr/src/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC .
You should make a copy of this file and give the copy the name of your system,
such as
.Pa MYSYSTEM .
You can then edit the new file to include devices you
want the system to include in the basic kernel and delete the device entries
for drivers that you do not want included.
Eliminating drivers for hardware
that you do not have can reduce the size of the finished kernel.
.Pp
To include the
.Nm
driver to the configuration file, you will need to add this entry:
.Pp
.D1 Cd "device matcd"
.Pp
and after making any other adjustments, save the file.
.Pp
Then generate a new kernel by using the
.Xr config 8
command and follow
all of the instructions that are displayed.
If the kernel completely
builds, use the
.Dq Li "make install"
command and then reboot the system for that
new kernel to become operational.
.Sh DRIVER CONFIGURATION
Regardless of whether the
.Nm
driver is linked into the kernel or is used as a loadable kernel module,
the number of host interfaces that the driver will expect (or search for)
is dictated by the number of entries present in the file
.Pa /boot/device.hints .
For example, in order to support two host
interfaces, you would include entries like:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
hint.matcd.0.at="isa"
hint.matcd.0.port="0x230"

hint.matcd.1.at="isa"
hint.matcd.1.port="0x260"
.Ed
.Pp
Each set of entries designates a different
.Nm
host interface, and where the I/O ports on that host interface adapter
are located.
.Pp
(If you only want a single entry, include only the
.Va hint.matcd.0
items, while add
.Va hint.matcd.2
and
.Va hint.matcd.3
as needed to support
three or four host interfaces.)
.Pp
Note that the two
.Va hint.matcd.0
entries in the
.Pa /boot/device.hints
file are all that you need to support up to four drives on a single host
interface.
.Pp
If the
.Ar address
parameter of a
.Va hint.matcd. Ns Ar n Ns Va .port Ns = Ns Qq Ar address
entry in
.Pa /boot/device.hints
file is set to
.Qq Li \-1 ,
the
.Nm
driver searches for the host interface adapters by using a table
of known I/O ports on Creative host adapters contained in the driver itself
(see
.Pa /usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/options.h ) .
.Pp
Although the multiple port scan allows the
.Nm
driver to work with many different types of host adapters without adjustments,
using this mechanism has the potential to cause problems when your system has
other devices that are located at the I/O ports that the driver will
check for potential
.Nm
host interfaces.
The automatic search also significantly increases the
amount of time it takes to boot or to load the kernel module.
.Pp
If you are having problems with the
.Nm
driver interfering with other adapters while it is probing for hardware, or
you do not like the additional amount of time it takes for the entire search
of I/O ports to complete, you can solve this by explicitly specifying where
all the
.Nm
host interfaces are located.
.Pp
Traditionally, Creative Labs SoundBlaster cards have the Matsushita Compact
Disc drive host interface located at I/O port 0x230, which is always 0x10
above where the first I/O port for the audio section of the card (0x220).
.Pp
If you have determined exactly where the Matsushita I/O ports start on your
system, specify the port by setting the
.Va hint.matcd. Ns Ar n Ns Va .port Ns = Ns Qq Ar address
entry at the kernel boot
prompt, or by editing the entry in the
.Pa /boot/device.hints
file.
.Pp
If you make a change to the
.Pa /boot/device.hints
configuration file
while the system is running, it is currently necessary to reboot the system
before the updated values take effect.
.Sh SUPPORTED HARDWARE
At this time, there are only two known drive models that work with the
.Nm
driver:
.Pp
.Bl -bullet -compact
.It
Matsushita CR-562-x
.It
Matsushita CR-563-x
.El
.Pp
Most resellers leave these original markings on the drives since the label
also has the FCC, VDE, CSA and RU certification marks.
.Pp
Both of these drive models have motorized trays.
There is also a custom
version of these drives that does not have the volume control or headphone
jack (seen on some Tandy computers), but this drive also works with
.Nm .
On drives that lack a front headphone jack, audio from discs can still be
obtained at line level via a connector on the rear of the drive.
.Pp
The Matsushita CR-522-x and CR-523-x Compact Disc drives are not usable with
.Nm .
The CR-522 and CR-523 models can also be identified from the front as they
both require a CD-caddy.
.Pp
Later versions of Matsushita and Creative Compact Disc drives use a
basic IDE interface, so these other drives must use an IDE driver, such
as
.Xr acd 4 .
.Pp
The TEAC CD-55 4X Compact Disc drive also uses the same Creative/Panasonic
electrical interface, but the TEAC drive is not command set compatible with
the Matsushita CR-56x drives.
The TEAC drive cannot be used with
.Nm .
.Pp
The most common source of host interface adapters for the Panasonic drives
was found in products from Creative Labs, including SoundBlaster sound
cards.
There are numerous models of SoundBlaster sound cards, and most
of the newer cards provide the appropriate interface, sometimes labeled as
the
.Dq Creative/Panasonic
interface.
.Pp
The following host interface adapters are known to work with the
.Nm
driver:
.Pp
.Bl -bullet -compact
.It
Creative Sound Blaster Pro (SBPRO) (CT1330A)
.It
Creative Sound Blaster 16 (CT1730)
.It
Creative Sound Blaster 16 - cost-reduced (CT1740)
.It
Creative OmniCD upgrade kit adapter card - stand-alone CD (CT1810)
.It
Creative Sound Blaster 16 - 2-layer, cost-reduced (CT2230)
.It
Creative Sound Blaster 16 (Vibra16) - 2-layer, single-chip (CT2260)
.It
Creative Sound Blaster 16 Value (SB16) - 2-layer, cost-reduced (CT2770)
.It
Creative PhoneBlaster SB16 + Sierra 14.4K Voice/FAX/Data/Speakerphone modem combo (CT3100)
.It
Reveal (SC400)
.El
.Pp
Caution: Some of these sound boards can be optionally manufactured to not
include the Panasonic/Creative interface connector and electronics, so check
the board visually to verify that the
.Dq Creative
or
.Dq Panasonic
drive connector
is actually there before buying the card solely based on model number.
.Pp
This is by no means a complete list as Creative Labs and other vendors
that produce sound cards with an identical Creative/Panasonic drive
interface released many versions of compatible adapters.
.Pp
In addition to Creative Labs adapters, adapters that are compatible with
Media Vision, IBM and Lasermate adapters are also supported.
However,
these adapters use a wide range of I/O port addresses, so the driver
must be reconfigured to locate these adapters, at least initially.
.Sh SUPPORTED OPERATIONS
The
.Nm
driver supports block and character access.
Partition
.Pa a
returns
2048-byte User Data blocks from data CDs.
Partition
.Pa c
returns the full
2352-byte Frames from any type of CD, including audio CDs.
(Partition
.Pa c
cannot be
.Dq mounted
with cd9660 or other standard file system emulators.)
No other partitions are supported.
.Pp
The
.Pa matcdl
devices work the same as the normal
.Pa matcd
devices except that the drive trays are locked and
remain locked until all of the devs on that drive are closed.
.Pp
The
.Nm
driver
accepts numerous
.Xr ioctl 2
commands, including functions related to Compact Disc audio and
drive tray control features.
The commands are:
.Pp
.Bl -tag -width CDIOCREADSUBCHANNELXXX -compact -offset indent
.It Dv DIOCGDINFO
get disklabel.
.It Dv CDIOCREADSUBCHANNEL
report the current optical pick-up position and sub channel data.
.It Dv CDIOCREADTOCHEADER
reads table of contents summary from the disc.
.It Dv CDIOCREADTOCENTRYS
reads length/size and other control information for an individual track.
.It Dv CDIOCPLAYTRACKS
plays audio starting at a track/index and stopping at a track/index.
.It Dv CDIOCPLAYBLOCKS
plays audio starting at a block and stopping at a block.
.It Dv CDIOCPLAYMSF
plays audio starting at a particular time offset.
.It Dv CDIOCPAUSE
pauses a playing disc.
.It Dv CDIOCRESUME
resumes playing a previously paused disc.
Ignored if the drive is
already playing.
.It Dv CDIOCSTOP
stops playing a disc.
.It Dv CDIOCEJECT
opens the disc tray.
.It Dv CDIOCCLOSE
closes the disc tray.
.It Dv CDIOCPREVENT
blocks further attempts to open the drive door until all devices close
or a
.Dv CDIOCALLOW
ioctl is issued.
.It Dv CDIOCALLOW
unlocks the drive door if it was locked.
This ioctl is rejected if
any locking devices are open, so it must be issued via a non-locking
device.
.It Dv CDIOCGETVOL
returns the current volume settings of the drive.
.It Dv CDIOCSETVOL
sets the volume settings of the drive.
.It Dv CDIOCSETSTEREO
the left channel audio is sent to the left channel output and the
right channel audio is sent to the right channel output.
This is the
default state.
(Note that the drive does not have a documented
.Dq Mono
mode,
where L combined with R audio from the disc is sent to both the left and right
output channels.)
.It Dv CDIOCSETMUTE
the audio output is to be turned off.
The drive continues to read
the audio on the disc and that audio is discarded until the audio routing is
turned back on.
.It Dv CDIOCSETLEFT
the left channel audio is to be sent to the left and right channel outputs.
The right channel audio signal is discarded.
.It Dv CDIOCSETRIGHT
the right channel audio is to be sent to the left and right channel
outputs.
The left channel audio signal is discarded.
.It Dv CDIOCSETPATCH
the audio is to be routed as specified in the provided bit maps.
.It Dv CDIOCSETPITCH
the playback speed of the audio is increased or decreased
(for Karaoke
.Dq off-key
applications).
Speed can be adjusted +/-13%.
.It Dv CDIOCCAPABILITY
report the capabilities of the drive and driver.
Results are returned
as shown in
.In sys/cdio.h .
.El
.Pp
The
.Xr ioctl 2
commands defined above are the only ones that the
.Nm
driver supports.
.Sh FILES
.Bl -tag -width ".Pa /usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/options.h" -compact
.It Pa /dev/matcd[0-15]a
Used to access 2048-byte blocks of data on a Compact Disc
that is recorded in the Mode 1 Form 1 format.
.It Pa /dev/matcd[0-15]la
Used to access 2048-byte blocks of data on a Compact Disc
that is recorded in the Mode 1 Form 1 format and disables the disc
eject controls.
.It Pa /dev/matcd[0-15]c
Used to access 2352-byte frames on a Compact Disc
recorded in any format.
.It Pa /dev/matcd[0-15]lc
Used to access 2352-byte frames on a Compact Disc
recorded in any format and disables the disc eject controls.
.It Pa /boot/devices.hints
Specify the number of host interfaces and host adapter I/O port locations
that
.Nm
should examine.
.It Pa /usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/*
Source code for
.Nm .
.It Pa /usr/src/sys/dev/matcd/options.h
Contains all of the compilation options for
.Nm .
.El
.Sh NOTES
The various Creative/Panasonic host interface adapters do not use interrupts
or DMA although the drives themselves are equipped to allow both to be used.
.Pp
If the disc tray is opened while one or more partitions are open, further
I/O to all partitions on the drive will be rejected until all partitions
are closed.
This prevents a disc change from going undetected by higher
levels of the operating system.
.Pp
There must be a drive on each host interface that is addressed as
physical drive 0.
(Jumpers on the back of the drive control this setting.)
If there is no physical drive 0, the
.Nm
driver will be unable to detect that host interface or any of the drives
connected to that host interface.
.Pp
It is not necessary to have four drives attached
to the first host interface before being able to activate a second host
interface, but each interface must have at least one drive jumpered to be
drive 0.
.Pp
Drives on a second host interface are considered logical
drive numbers 4 through 7, drives 8 through 11 are on the third interface
and 12 through 15 are on the fourth.
The first drive on the second host
interface is always logical drive 4 regardless of how many drives are
present on the first host interface.
.Pp
Host interfaces are numbered as specified in the
.Pa /boot/devices.hints
file.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.In sys/cdio.h
.Pp
.Xr kldload 8 ,
.Xr kldunload 8
.Sh AUTHORS
The driver and documentation was written by
.An Frank Durda IV .
.Pp
Program and Documentation are Copyright 1994, 1995, 2002, 2003.
All rights reserved.
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
driver originally appeared in
.Fx 2.0.5 .
The
.Fx 5.1
compatible implementation described here appeared in
.Fx 5.2 .