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.\" Copyright (c) 2020 Gordon Bergling <gbe@FreeBSD.org>
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\"    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd March 9, 2021
.Dt WG 4
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm wg
.Nd "WireGuard - pseudo-device"
.Sh SYNOPSIS
To load the driver as a module at boot time, place the following line in
.Xr loader.conf 5 :
.Bd -literal -offset indent
if_wg_load="YES"
.Ed
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Nm
driver provides Virtual Private Network (VPN) interfaces for the secure
exchange of layer 3 traffic with other WireGuard peers using the WireGuard
protocol.
.Pp
A
.Nm
interface recognises one or more peers, establishes a secure tunnel with
each on demand, and tracks each peer's UDP endpoint for exchanging encrypted
traffic with.
.Pp
The interfaces can be created at runtime using the
.Ic ifconfig Cm wg Ns Ar N Cm create
command.
The interface itself can be configured with
.Xr ifconfig 8 .
.Pp
The following parameters are available:
.Bl -tag -width indent
.It Cm listen-port
The listing port of the
.Nm
interface.
.It Cm public-key
The public key of the
.Nm
interface.
.It Cm private-key
The private key of the
.Nm
interface.
.It Cm pre-shared-key
Defines a pre-shared key for the
.Nm
interface.
.It Cm allowed-ips
A list of allowed IP addresses.
.It Cm endpoint
The IP address of the WiredGuard to connect to.
.It Cm peer-list
A list of peering IP addresses to connect to.
.It Cm persistent-keepalive
Interval, in seconds, at which to send persistent keepalive packets.
.El
.Pp
The
.Nm
interfaces support the following
.Xr ioctl 2 Ns s :
.Bl -tag -width Ds -offset indent
.It Dv SIOCSWG Fa "struct  wg_device_io *"
Set the device configuration.
.It Dv SIOCGWG Fa "struct wg_device_io *"
Get the device configuration.
.El
.Pp
The following glossary provides a brief overview of WireGuard
terminology:
.Bl -tag -width indent -offset 3n
.It Peer
Peers exchange IPv4 or IPv6 traffic over secure tunnels.
Each
.Nm
interface may be configured to recognise one or more peers.
.It Key
Each peer uses its private key and corresponding public key to
identify itself to others.
A peer configures a
.Nm
interface with its own private key and with the public keys of its peers.
.It Pre-shared key
In addition to the public keys, each peer pair may be configured with a
unique pre-shared symmetric key.
This is used in their handshake to guard against future compromise of the
peers' encrypted tunnel if a quantum-computational attack on their
Diffie-Hellman exchange becomes feasible.
It is optional, but recommended.
.It Allowed IPs
A single
.Nm
interface may maintain concurrent tunnels connecting diverse networks.
The interface therefore implements rudimentary routing and reverse-path
filtering functions for its tunneled traffic.
These functions reference a set of allowed IP ranges configured against
each peer.
.Pp
The interface will route outbound tunneled traffic to the peer configured
with the most specific matching allowed IP address range, or drop it
if no such match exists.
.Pp
The interface will accept tunneled traffic only from the peer
configured with the most specific matching allowed IP address range
for the incoming traffic, or drop it if no such match exists.
That is, tunneled traffic routed to a given peer cannot return through
another peer of the same
.Nm
interface.
This ensures that peers cannot spoof another's traffic.
.It Handshake
Two peers handshake to mutually authenticate each other and to
establish a shared series of secret ephemeral encryption keys.
Any peer may initiate a handshake.
Handshakes occur only when there is traffic to send, and recur every
two minutes during transfers.
.It Connectionless
Due to the handshake behavior, there is no connected or disconnected
state.
.El
.Ss Keys
Private keys for WireGuard can be generated from any sufficiently
secure random source.
The Curve25519 keys and the pre-shared keys are both 32 bytes
long and are commonly encoded in base64 for ease of use.
.Pp
Keys can be generated with
.Xr openssl 1
as follows:
.Pp
.Dl $ openssl rand -base64 32
.Pp
Although a valid Curve25519 key must have 5 bits set to
specific values, this is done by the interface and so it
will accept any random 32-byte base64 string.
.Pp
When an interface has a private key set with
.Nm public-key ,
the corresponding
public key is shown in the status output of the interface:
.Bd -literal -offset indent
# ifconfig wg0 | grep public-key
       public-key:  7lWtsDdqaGB3EY9WNxRN3hVaHMtu1zXw71+bOjNOVUw=
.Ed
.Sh EXAMPLES
Create a
.Nm
interface and set random private key.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
# ifconfig wg0 create listen-port 54321 private-key `openssl rand -base64 32`
.Ed
.Pp
Retrieve the associated public key from a
.Nm
interface.
.Bd -literal -offset indent
$ ifconfig wg0 | awk '/public-key/ { print $2 }'`
.Ed
.Pp
Connect to a specific endpoint using its public-key and set the allowed IP address
.Bd -literal -offset indent
# ifconfig wg0 peer public-key '7lWtsDdqaGB3EY9WNxRN3hVaHMtu1zXw71+bOjNOVUw=' endpoint 10.0.1.100:54321 allowed-ips 192.168.2.100/32
.Ed
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
The
.Nm
interface supports runtime debugging, which can be enabled with:
.Pp
.D1 Ic ifconfig Cm wg Ns Ar N Cm debug
.Pp
Some common error messages include:
.Bl -diag
.It "Handshake for peer X did not complete after 5 seconds, retrying"
Peer X did not reply to our initiation packet, for example because:
.Bl -bullet
.It
The peer does not have the local interface configured as a peer.
Peers must be able to mutually authenticate each other.
.It
The peer endpoint IP address is incorrectly configured.
.It
There are firewall rules preventing communication between hosts.
.El
.It "Invalid handshake initiation"
The incoming handshake packet could not be processed.
This is likely due to the local interface not containing
the correct public key for the peer.
.It "Invalid initiation MAC"
The incoming handshake initiation packet had an invalid MAC.
This is likely because the initiation sender has the wrong public key
for the handshake receiver.
.It "Packet has unallowed src IP from peer X"
After decryption, an incoming data packet has a source IP address that
is not assigned to the allowed IPs of Peer X.
.El
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr inet 4 ,
.Xr ip 4 ,
.Xr netintro 4 ,
.Xr ipf 5 ,
.Xr pf.conf 5 ,
.Xr ifconfig 8 ,
.Xr ipfw 8
.Rs
.%T WireGuard whitepaper
.%U https://www.wireguard.com/papers/wireguard.pdf
.Re
.Sh HISTORY
The
.Nm
device driver first appeared in
.Fx 13.0 .
.Sh AUTHORS
The
.Nm
device driver was originally written for
.Ox
by
.An Matt Dunwoodie Aq Mt ncon@nconroy.net
and ported to
.Fx
by
.An Matt Macy Aq Mt mmacy@FreeBSD.org .
.Pp
This manual page was written by
.An Gordon Bergling Aq Mt gbe@FreeBSD.org
and is based on the
.Ox
manual page written by
.An David Gwynne Aq Mt dlg@openbsd.org .