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.\"-
.\" Copyright (c) 2021 The FreeBSD Foundation
.\"
.\" This documentation was written by Mark Johnston under sponsorship from
.\" the FreeBSD Foundation.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\"    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
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.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
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.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
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.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
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.\" $FreeBSD$
.\"
.Dd April 13, 2021
.Dt KASAN 9
.Os
.Sh NAME
.Nm kasan
.Nd kernel address sanitizer
.Sh SYNOPSIS
To compile KASAN into the kernel, place the following line in your kernel
configuration file:
.Bd -ragged -offset indent
.Cd "options KASAN"
.Ed
.Pp
.Ft void
.Fn kasan_mark "const void *addr" "size_t size" "size_t redzsize" "uint8_t code"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
.Nm
is a subsystem which leverages compiler instrumentation to detect invalid
memory accesses in the kernel.
Currently it is implemented only on the amd64 platform.
.Pp
When
.Nm
is compiled into the kernel, the compiler is configured to emit function
calls upon every memory access.
The functions are implemented by
.Nm
and permit run-time detection of several types of bugs including
use-after-frees, double frees and frees of invalid pointers, and out-of-bounds
accesses.
These protections apply to memory allocated by
.Xr uma 9 ,
.Xr malloc 9
and related functions, and
.Fn kmem_malloc
and related functions,
as well as global variables and kernel stacks.
.Nm
is conservative and will not detect all instances of these types of bugs.
Memory accesses through the kernel map are sanitized, but accesses via the
direct map are not.
When
.Nm
is configured, the kernel aims to minimize its use of the direct map.
.Sh IMPLEMENTATION NOTES
.Nm
is implemented using compiler instrumentation and a kernel runtime.
When a
kernel is built with the KASAN option enabled, the compiler inserts function calls
before most memory accesses in the generated code.
The runtime implements the corresponding functions, which decide whether a
given access is valid.
If not, the runtime prints a warning or panics the kernel, depending on the
value of the
.Sy debug.kasan.panic_on_violation
sysctl/tunable.
.Pp
The
.Nm
runtime works by maintaining a shadow map for the kernel map.
There exists a linear mapping between addresses in the kernel map and addresses
in the shadow map.
The shadow map is used to store information about the current state of
allocations from the kernel map.
For example, when a buffer is returned by
.Xr malloc 9 ,
the corresponding region of the shadow map is marked to indicate that the
buffer is valid.
When it is freed, the shadow map is updated to mark the buffer as invalid.
Accesses to the buffer are intercepted by the
.Nm
runtime and validated using the contents of the shadow map.
.Pp
Upon booting, all kernel memory is marked as valid.
Kernel allocators must mark cached but free buffers as invalid, and must mark
them valid before freeing the kernel virtual address range.
This slightly reduces the effectiveness of
.Nm
but simplifies its maintenance and integration into the kernel.
.Pp
Updates to the shadow map are performed by calling
.Fn kasan_mark .
Parameter
.Fa addr
is the address of the buffer whose shadow is to be updated,
.Fa size
is the usable size of the buffer, and
.Fa redzsize
is the full size of the buffer allocated from lower layers of the system.
.Fa redzsize
must be greater than or equal to
.Fa size .
In some cases kernel allocators will return a buffer larger than that requested
by the consumer; the unused space at the end is referred to as a red zone and is
always marked as invalid.
.Fa code
allows the caller to specify an identifier used when marking a buffer as invalid.
The identifier is included in any reports generated by
.Nm
and helps identify the source of the invalid access.
For instance, when an item is freed to a
.Xr uma 9
zone, the item is marked with
.Dv KASAN_UMA_FREED .
See
.In sys/asan.h
for the available identifiers.
If the entire buffer is to be marked valid, i.e.,
.Fa size
and
.Fa redzsize
are equal,
.Fa code
should be 0.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr malloc 9 ,
.Xr memguard 9 ,
.Xr redzone 9 ,
.Xr uma 9
.Sh HISTORY
.Nm
first appeared in
.Fx 14.0 .
.Sh BUGS
Accesses to kernel memory outside of the kernel map are ignored by the
.Nm
runtime.
When
.Nm
is configured, the kernel memory allocators are configured to use the kernel
map, but some uses of the direct map remain.
For example, on amd64, accesses to page table pages are not tracked.
.Pp
Some kernel memory allocators explicitly permit accesses after an object has
been freed.
These cannot be sanitized by
.Nm .
For example, memory from all
.Xr uma 9
zones initialized with the
.Dv UMA_ZONE_NOFREE
flag are not sanitized.