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# @(#)africa	8.9
# <pre>

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
#
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
#
# Gwillim Law writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks & Pottenger is the source for
# entries through 1990, and IATA SSIM is the source for entries afterwards.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# Previous editions of this database used WAT, CAT, SAT, and EAT
# for +0:00 through +3:00, respectively,
# but Mark R V Murray reports that
# `SAST' is the official abbreviation for +2:00 in the country of South Africa,
# `CAT' is commonly used for +2:00 in countries north of South Africa, and
# `WAT' is probably the best name for +1:00, as the common phrase for
# the area that includes Nigeria is ``West Africa''.
# He has heard of ``Western Sahara Time'' for +0:00 but can find no reference.
#
# To make things confusing, `WAT' seems to have been used for -1:00 long ago;
# I'd guess that this was because people needed _some_ name for -1:00,
# and at the time, far west Africa was the only major land area in -1:00.
# This usage is now obsolete, as the last use of -1:00 on the African
# mainland seems to have been 1976 in Western Sahara.
#
# To summarize, the following abbreviations seem to have some currency:
#	-1:00	WAT	West Africa Time (no longer used)
#	 0:00	GMT	Greenwich Mean Time
#	 2:00	CAT	Central Africa Time
#	 2:00	SAST	South Africa Standard Time
# and Murray suggests the following abbreviation:
#	 1:00	WAT	West Africa Time
# I realize that this leads to `WAT' being used for both -1:00 and 1:00
# for times before 1976, but this is the best I can think of
# until we get more information.
#
# I invented the following abbreviations; corrections are welcome!
#	 2:00	WAST	West Africa Summer Time
#	 2:30	BEAT	British East Africa Time (no longer used)
#	 2:44:45 BEAUT	British East Africa Unified Time (no longer used)
#	 3:00	CAST	Central Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
#	 3:00	SAST	South Africa Summer Time (no longer used)
#	 3:00	EAT	East Africa Time
#	 4:00	EAST	East Africa Summer Time (no longer used)

# Algeria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Algeria	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1921	only	-	Jun	21	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Sep	11	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Apr	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1971	only	-	Sep	26	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	May	 6	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1977	only	-	Oct	21	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Mar	24	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1978	only	-	Sep	22	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Apr	25	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Algeria	1980	only	-	Oct	31	 2:00	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
# more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Algiers	0:12:12 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15 0:01
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1940 Feb 25 2:00
			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1946 Oct  7
			0:00	-	WET	1956 Jan 29
			1:00	-	CET	1963 Apr 14
			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1977 Oct 21
			1:00	Algeria	CE%sT	1979 Oct 26
			0:00	Algeria	WE%sT	1981 May
			1:00	-	CET

# Angola
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Luanda	0:52:56	-	LMT	1892
			0:52:04	-	AOT	1911 May 26 # Angola Time
			1:00	-	WAT

# Benin
# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1946, not 1934;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Porto-Novo	0:10:28	-	LMT	1912
			0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
			1:00	-	WAT

# Botswana
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Gaborone	1:43:40 -	LMT	1885
			2:00	-	CAT	1943 Sep 19 2:00
			2:00	1:00	CAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
			2:00	-	CAT

# Burkina Faso
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Ouagadougou	-0:06:04 -	LMT	1912
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Burundi
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Bujumbura	1:57:28	-	LMT	1890
			2:00	-	CAT

# Cameroon
# Whitman says they switched to 1:00 in 1920; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Douala	0:38:48	-	LMT	1912
			1:00	-	WAT

# Cape Verde
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -	LMT	1907			# Praia
			-2:00	-	CVT	1942 Sep
			-2:00	1:00	CVST	1945 Oct 15
			-2:00	-	CVT	1975 Nov 25 2:00
			-1:00	-	CVT

# Central African Republic
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Bangui	1:14:20	-	LMT	1912
			1:00	-	WAT

# Chad
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Ndjamena	1:00:12 -	LMT	1912
			1:00	-	WAT	1979 Oct 14
			1:00	1:00	WAST	1980 Mar  8
			1:00	-	WAT

# Comoros
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Comoro	2:53:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul   # Moroni, Gran Comoro
			3:00	-	EAT

# Democratic Republic of Congo
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Kinshasa	1:01:12 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
			1:00	-	WAT
Zone Africa/Lubumbashi	1:49:52 -	LMT	1897 Nov 9
			2:00	-	CAT

# Republic of the Congo
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Brazzaville	1:01:08 -	LMT	1912
			1:00	-	WAT

# Cote D'Ivoire
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Abidjan	-0:16:08 -	LMT	1912
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Djibouti
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Djibouti	2:52:36 -	LMT	1911 Jul
			3:00	-	EAT

###############################################################################

# Egypt

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1940	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1941	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1942	1944	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1942	only	-	Oct	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1943	1945	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1959	1981	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1966	1994	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
Rule	Egypt	1982	only	-	Jul	25	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1983	only	-	Jul	12	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1984	1988	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1989	only	-	May	 6	1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1990	1994	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
# IATA (after 1990) says transitions are at 0:00.
# Go with IATA starting in 1995, except correct 1995 entry from 09-30 to 09-29.
Rule	Egypt	1995	max	-	Apr	lastFri	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Egypt	1995	2005	-	Sep	lastThu	23:00s	0	-
# From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-19):
# The Egyptian Gazette, issue 41,090 (2006-09-18), page 1, reports:
# Egypt will turn back clocks by one hour at the midnight of Thursday
# after observing the daylight saving time since May.
# http://news.gom.com.eg/gazette/pdf/2006/09/18/01.pdf
Rule	Egypt	2006	only	-	Sep	21	23:00s	0	-
# From Dirk Losch (2007-08-14):
# I received a mail from an airline which says that the daylight
# saving time in Egypt will end in the night of 2007-09-06 to 2007-09-07.
# From Jesper Norgaard Welen (2007-08-15): [The following agree:]
# http://www.nentjes.info/Bill/bill5.htm 
# http://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=53
# From Paul Eggert (2007-08-17):
# For lack of better info, assume the new rule is first Thursday.
Rule	Egypt	2007	max	-	Sep	Thu>=1	23:00s	0	-

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Cairo	2:05:00 -	LMT	1900 Oct
			2:00	Egypt	EE%sT

# Equatorial Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Malabo	0:35:08 -	LMT	1912
			0:00	-	GMT	1963 Dec 15
			1:00	-	WAT

# Eritrea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Asmara	2:35:32 -	LMT	1870
			2:35:32	-	AMT	1890	      # Asmara Mean Time
			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
			3:00	-	EAT

# Ethiopia
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# Shanks & Pottenger write that Ethiopia had six narrowly-spaced time zones
# between 1870 and 1890, and that they merged to 38E50 (2:35:20) in 1890.
# We'll guess that 38E50 is for Adis Dera.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Addis_Ababa	2:34:48 -	LMT	1870
			2:35:20	-	ADMT	1936 May 5    # Adis Dera MT
			3:00	-	EAT

# Gabon
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Libreville	0:37:48 -	LMT	1912
			1:00	-	WAT

# Gambia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Banjul	-1:06:36 -	LMT	1912
			-1:06:36 -	BMT	1935	# Banjul Mean Time
			-1:00	-	WAT	1964
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Ghana
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to ``the present'';
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:20	GHST
Rule	Ghana	1936	1942	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	GMT
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Accra	-0:00:52 -	LMT	1918
			 0:00	Ghana	%s

# Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Conakry	-0:54:52 -	LMT	1912
			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
			-1:00	-	WAT	1960
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Guinea-Bissau
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Bissau	-1:02:20 -	LMT	1911 May 26
			-1:00	-	WAT	1975
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Kenya
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Nairobi	2:27:16	-	LMT	1928 Jul
			3:00	-	EAT	1930
			2:30	-	BEAT	1940
			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1960
			3:00	-	EAT

# Lesotho
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Maseru	1:50:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	SAST	1943 Sep 19 2:00
			2:00	1:00	SAST	1944 Mar 19 2:00
			2:00	-	SAST

# Liberia
# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
# In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch
# from a UTC offset that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.
# Howse reports that it was in honor of their president's birthday.
# Shank & Pottenger report the date as May 1, whereas Howse reports Jan;
# go with Shanks & Pottenger.
# For Liberia before 1972, Shanks & Pottenger report -0:44, whereas Howse and
# Whitman each report -0:44:30; go with the more precise figure.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Monrovia	-0:43:08 -	LMT	1882
			-0:43:08 -	MMT	1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
			-0:44:30 -	LRT	1972 May # Liberia Time
			 0:00	-	GMT

###############################################################################

# Libya

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Libya	1951	only	-	Oct	14	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1952	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Libya	1953	only	-	Oct	 9	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1954	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Libya	1955	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1956	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Libya	1982	1984	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1982	1985	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Libya	1985	only	-	Apr	 6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Apr	 4	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1986	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Libya	1987	1989	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Tripoli	0:52:44 -	LMT	1920
			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1959
			2:00	-	EET	1982
			1:00	Libya	CE%sT	1990 May  4
# The following entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
# the IATA SSIM data contain some obvious errors.
			2:00	-	EET	1996 Sep 30
			1:00	-	CET	1997 Apr  4
			1:00	1:00	CEST	1997 Oct  4
			2:00	-	EET

# Madagascar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Antananarivo 3:10:04 -	LMT	1911 Jul
			3:00	-	EAT	1954 Feb 27 23:00s
			3:00	1:00	EAST	1954 May 29 23:00s
			3:00	-	EAT

# Malawi
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Blantyre	2:20:00 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	CAT

# Mali
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Bamako	-0:32:00 -	LMT	1912
			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Jun 20
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Mauritania
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Nouakchott	-1:03:48 -	LMT	1912
			 0:00	-	GMT	1934 Feb 26
			-1:00	-	WAT	1960 Nov 28
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Mauritius
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Mauritius	3:50:00 -	LMT	1907		# Port Louis
			4:00	-	MUT	# Mauritius Time
# Agalega Is, Rodriguez
# no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius

# Mayotte
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Mayotte	3:00:56 -	LMT	1911 Jul	# Mamoutzou
			3:00	-	EAT

# Morocco
# See the `europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Sep	12	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1945	only	-	Nov	18	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Jun	11	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1950	only	-	Oct	29	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Jun	 3	12:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1967	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Jun	24	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1974	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1976	1977	-	May	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1976	only	-	Aug	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1977	only	-	Sep	28	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Morocco	1978	only	-	Aug	 4	 0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Casablanca	-0:30:20 -	LMT	1913 Oct 26
			 0:00	Morocco	WE%sT	1984 Mar 16
			 1:00	-	CET	1986
			 0:00	-	WET
# Western Sahara
Zone Africa/El_Aaiun	-0:52:48 -	LMT	1934 Jan
			-1:00	-	WAT	1976 Apr 14
			 0:00	-	WET

# Mozambique
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Maputo	2:10:20 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	CAT

# Namibia
# The 1994-04-03 transition is from Shanks & Pottenger.
# Shanks & Pottenger report no DST after 1998-04; go with IATA.

# From Petronella Sibeene (2007-03-30) in
# <http://allafrica.com/stories/200703300178.html>:
# While the entire country changes its time, Katima Mulilo and other
# settlements in Caprivi unofficially will not because the sun there
# rises and sets earlier compared to other regions.  Chief of
# Forecasting Riaan van Zyl explained that the far eastern parts of
# the country are close to 40 minutes earlier in sunrise than the rest
# of the country.
# 
# From Paul Eggert (2007-03-31):
# Apparently the Caprivi Strip informally observes Botswana time, but
# we have no details.  In the meantime people there can use Africa/Gaborone.

# RULE	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Namibia	1994	max	-	Sep	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Namibia	1995	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Windhoek	1:08:24 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
			1:30	-	SWAT	1903 Mar	# SW Africa Time
			2:00	-	SAST	1942 Sep 20 2:00
			2:00	1:00	SAST	1943 Mar 21 2:00
			2:00	-	SAST	1990 Mar 21 # independence
			2:00	-	CAT	1994 Apr  3
			1:00	Namibia	WA%sT

# Niger
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Niamey	 0:08:28 -	LMT	1912
			-1:00	-	WAT	1934 Feb 26
			 0:00	-	GMT	1960
			 1:00	-	WAT

# Nigeria
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Lagos	0:13:36 -	LMT	1919 Sep
			1:00	-	WAT

# Reunion
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Reunion	3:41:52 -	LMT	1911 Jun	# Saint-Denis
			4:00	-	RET	# Reunion Time
#
# Scattered Islands (Iles Eparses) administered from Reunion are as follows.
# The following information about them is taken from
# Iles Eparses (www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm, 1997-07-22, in French;
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
# We have no info about their time zone histories.
#
# Bassas da India - uninhabited
# Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
# Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
# Juan de Nova - uninhabited
# Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958

# Rwanda
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Kigali	2:00:16 -	LMT	1935 Jun
			2:00	-	CAT

# St Helena
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/St_Helena	-0:22:48 -	LMT	1890		# Jamestown
			-0:22:48 -	JMT	1951	# Jamestown Mean Time
			 0:00	-	GMT
# The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
#	Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
#	Ascension: on GMT, says usno1995 and the CIA
#	Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
#		on GMT, says the CIA
#	Inaccessible, Nightingale: no information, but probably GMT

# Sao Tome and Principe
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Sao_Tome	 0:26:56 -	LMT	1884
			-0:36:32 -	LMT	1912	# Lisbon Mean Time
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Senegal
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Dakar	-1:09:44 -	LMT	1912
			-1:00	-	WAT	1941 Jun
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Seychelles
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Mahe	3:41:48 -	LMT	1906 Jun	# Victoria
			4:00	-	SCT	# Seychelles Time
# From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
# Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
# Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
# in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
# whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
# Possibly the islands were uninhabited.

# Sierra Leone
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Whitman gives Mar 31 - Aug 31 for 1931 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Jun	 1	0:00	0:40	SLST
Rule	SL	1935	1942	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	WAT
Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	SLST
Rule	SL	1957	1962	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	GMT
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Freetown	-0:53:00 -	LMT	1882
			-0:53:00 -	FMT	1913 Jun # Freetown Mean Time
			-1:00	SL	%s	1957
			 0:00	SL	%s

# Somalia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Mogadishu	3:01:28 -	LMT	1893 Nov
			3:00	-	EAT	1931
			2:30	-	BEAT	1957
			3:00	-	EAT

# South Africa
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	SA	1942	1943	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	-
Rule	SA	1943	1944	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -	LMT	1892 Feb 8
			1:30	-	SAST	1903 Mar
			2:00	SA	SAST
# Marion and Prince Edward Is
# scientific station since 1947
# no information

# Sudan
#
# From <a href="http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html">
# Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13)
# </a>, also reported by Michael De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
# Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
# Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
# Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Sudan	1970	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Sudan	1970	1985	-	Oct	15	0:00	0	-
Rule	Sudan	1971	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Sudan	1972	1985	-	Apr	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Khartoum	2:10:08 -	LMT	1931
			2:00	Sudan	CA%sT	2000 Jan 15 12:00
			3:00	-	EAT

# Swaziland
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Mbabane	2:04:24 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	SAST

# Tanzania
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Africa/Dar_es_Salaam 2:37:08 -	LMT	1931
			3:00	-	EAT	1948
			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1961
			3:00	-	EAT

# Togo
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Lome	0:04:52 -	LMT	1893
			0:00	-	GMT

# Tunisia

# From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
# My correspondent, Risto Nykanen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
# this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
# <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
# and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
# one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
# UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
# Saturday."  (My translation)
#
# From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
# LaPresse, the first national daily newspaper ...
# <http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html>
# ... DST for 2005: on: Sun May 1 0h standard time, off: Fri Sept. 30,
# 1h standard time.
#
# From Atef Loukil (2006-03-28):
# The daylight saving time will be the same each year:
# Beginning      : the last Sunday of March at 02:00
# Ending         : the last Sunday of October at 03:00 ...
# http://www.tap.info.tn/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1188&Itemid=50

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1940	only	-	Feb	25	23:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Mar	 9	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Apr	25	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1944	1945	-	Apr	Mon>=1	 2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Apr	30	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1977	only	-	Sep	24	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1988	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1988	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	1989	only	-	Mar	26	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	1990	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	May	 1	 0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	2005	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Tunisia	2006	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Tunisia	2006	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
# more precise 0:09:21.
# Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Tunis	0:40:44 -	LMT	1881 May 12
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			1:00	Tunisia	CE%sT

# Uganda
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Kampala	2:09:40 -	LMT	1928 Jul
			3:00	-	EAT	1930
			2:30	-	BEAT	1948
			2:44:45	-	BEAUT	1957
			3:00	-	EAT

# Zambia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Lusaka	1:53:08 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	CAT

# Zimbabwe
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Africa/Harare	2:04:12 -	LMT	1903 Mar
			2:00	-	CAT