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# @(#)asia	7.23

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
#
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
# Except where otherwise noted, it is the source for the data below.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#		LST	Local Star Time (Russian ``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'')
#	2:00	EET  EET DST	Eastern European Time
#	2:00	IST IDT	Israel
#	3:00	AST ADT	Arabia*
#	3:00	BSK BSD	Baku (was 4:00)*
#	3:30	IST IDT	Iran
#	4:00	AMST AMDT Armenia (was 3:00) (was YSK, YSD)*
#	4:00	TBSK TBSD Tbilisi (was 3:00)*
#	4:00	GST GDT	Gulf*
#	4:30	AFT	Afghanistan*
#	5:00	ASK ASD	Aktau (was SHSK, SHSD)*
#	5:00	ASK ASD	Ashkhabad (was 4:00)*
#	5:00	BSK BSD Bishkek (was 6:00) (was FSK, FSD)*
#	5:00	PKT	Pakistan*
#	5:00	TSK TSD	Tashkent (was 6:00)*
#	5:30	IST IST	India
#	5:45	NPT	Nepal*
#	6:00	AASK AASD Alma-Ata (was 5:00)*
#	6:00	BGT	Bengal, Bangladesh*
#	6:00	DSK DSD	Dushanbe (was 5:00)*
#	6:30	BMT	Burma*
#	7:00	ICT	Indochina*
#	7:00	JVT	Java*
#	8:00	BNT	Borneo, Brunei*
#	8:00	CST CDT	China
#	8:00	HKT HKST Hong Kong
#	8:00	PST PDT	Philippines*
#	8:00	SGT	Singapore
#	8:00	UST UDT	Ulan Bator*
#	9:00	JST JDT	Japan
#	9:00	KST KDT	Korea
#	9:00	MLT	Moluccas*
#	9:30	CST	Australian Central Standard Time
#
# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
#
# See the `africa' file for Zone naming conventions.

# From Guy Harris:
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
# Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.

###############################################################################

# These rules for Russia are stolen from the `europe' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule RussiaAsia 1981	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule RussiaAsia 1981	1983	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	K
Rule RussiaAsia 1984	max	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	0	K
Rule RussiaAsia 1985	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D

# Afghanistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Kabul	4:36:48 -	LMT	1890
			4:00	-	GST	1945
			4:30	-	AFT

# Armenia
# From Paul Eggert (1996-05-04):
# Shanks has Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST) in spring 1991,
# but usno1995 has Armenia at 4:00 (with DST), and Edgar Der-Danieliantz
# <edd@AIC.NET> reported today that Yerevan probably won't use DST this year,
# though it did use DST in 1995.  We guess Yerevan stayed in sync with Moscow
# between 1990 and 1995, but stopped using DST in 1996.
# Der-Danieliantz also asked for a better abbreviation than `YSK'
# after independence.  Apparently no abbreviation is in common use;
# use `AMST/AMDT' since `AM' is the ISO country code for Armenia.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Armenia	1992	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Armenia	1992	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			3:00	-	YSK	1957 Mar
			4:00 RussiaAsia YS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	YSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			3:00	-	AMST	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			4:00	Armenia	AM%sT	1996
			4:00	-	AMST

# Azerbaijan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			3:00	-	BSK	1957 Mar
			4:00 RussiaAsia BS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	BSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			3:00	-	BSK
# Shanks has Baku using Russian DST rules after 1991,
# but usno1995 has Azerbaijan with no DST.  Go with usno1995.

# Bahrain
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920		# Al-Manamah
			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
			3:00	-	AST

# Bangladesh
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dacca	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
			5:53	-	CMT	1941 Oct    # Calcutta Mean Time
			6:30	-	BMT	1942 May 15
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			6:30	-	BMT	1951 Sep 30
			6:00	-	BGT

# Bhutan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Thimbu	5:58:36 -	LMT	1947 Aug 15
			5:30	-	IST	1987 Oct
			6:00	-	BGT

# British Indian Ocean Territory
# From Whitman:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Chagos	5:00	-	PKT

# Brunei
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan
			7:30	-	BNT	1933
			8:00	-	BNT

# Burma / Myanmar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Rangoon	6:24:40 -	LMT	1880		# or Yangon
			6:25	-	RMT	1920
			6:30	-	BMT	1942 May
			9:00	-	JST	1945 May 3
			6:30	-	BMT

# Cambodia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Phnom_Penh	6:59:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
			7:06	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01     # Saigon MT
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# People's Republic of China

# From Guy Harris:
# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.

# From Bob Devine (January 28, 1988):
# No they don't.  See TIME mag, February 17, 1986 p.52.  Even though
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
# the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
#
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
#
#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
#     1987 mid-April - ??

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (January 19, 1989):
# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
# Shanks writes that China switched from the Chinese calendar on 1912 Feb 12.
# He also writes that China has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1,
# observing summer DST from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
# Go with Shanks for now.  I made up names for the other pre-1980 time zones.

# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Shang	1940	1941	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Mar	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	PRC	1949	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	PRC	1986	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	PRC	1986	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=11	0:00	0	S
Rule	PRC	1987	1991	-	Apr	Sun>=10	0:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Harbin	8:26:44	-	LMT	1928
			8:30	-	MAT	1932 Mar    # Manchuria
			8:00	-	CST	1940
			9:00	-	KST	1966 May
			8:30	-	MAT	1980 May
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:52	-	LMT	1928
			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Chungking	7:06:20	-	LMT	1928
			7:00	-	ICT	1980 May
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928
			6:00	-	URT	1980 May    # Urumqi
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Kashgar	5:03:56	-	LMT	1928
			5:30	-	ETT	1940	    # Eastern Turkestan
			5:00	-	ETT	1980 May
			8:00	PRC	C%sT

###############################################################################

# Republic of China

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1955	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1980	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1980	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896
			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT

###############################################################################
# Hong Kong
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Apr	20	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Dec	1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Apr	13	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1948	only	-	May	2	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1948	1952	-	Oct	lastSun	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1949	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1953	only	-	Nov	1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1954	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1954	only	-	Oct	31	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1955	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1965	1977	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1965	1977	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1979	1980	-	May	Sun>=8	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1979	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Hong_Kong	7:36:36 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30
			8:00	HK	HK%sT

# Macao
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Macao	1961	1962	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1961	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	S
Rule	Macao	1963	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1964	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1965	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1965	only	-	Oct	31	0:00	0	S
Rule	Macao	1966	1971	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1966	1971	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	S
Rule	Macao	1972	1974	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1972	1973	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	S
Rule	Macao	1974	1977	-	Oct	Sun>=15	3:30	0	S
Rule	Macao	1975	1977	-	Apr	Sun>=15	3:30	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1978	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Macao	1978	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Macao	7:34:20 -	LMT	1912
			8:00	Macao	C%sT


###############################################################################

# Cyprus
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Apr	13	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Oct	12	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	Oct	11	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Cyprus	1977	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1978	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1979	max	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Nicosia	2:13:28 -	LMT	1921 Nov 14
			2:00	Cyprus	EET%s

# Georgia
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1994-11-19):
# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1995-11-13):
# usno1995 has Georgia at 4:00.  Guess that Georgia stopped transitions
# after spring 1994 (thus sticking at 4:00).
# Most likely we're still missing some rule changes between 1991 and 1994.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:16 -	LMT	1880
			2:59	-	LST	1924 May  2
			3:00	-	TBSK	1957 Mar
			4:00 RussiaAsia TBS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	TBSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			3:00 RussiaAsia TBS%s	1994 Sep 25 2:00s
			4:00	-	TBSK

# India
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Calcutta	5:53:28 -	LMT	1880
			5:53	-	CMT	1941 Oct    # Calcutta Mean Time
			6:30	-	BMT	1942 May 15
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
			5:30	-	IST
# The following are like Asia/Calcutta:
#	Andaman Is
#	Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
#	Nicobar Is

# Indonesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Jakarta	7:07:12 -	LMT	1867 Aug 10
			7:07	-	JMT	1924 Jan  1 0:13
			7:20	-	JVT	1932 Nov
			7:30	-	JVT	1942 Mar 23
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug
			7:30	-	JVT	1948 May
			8:00	-	JVT	1950 May
			7:30	-	JVT	1964
			7:00	-	JVT
Zone Asia/Ujung_Pandang 7:57:36 -	LMT	1920
			7:58	-	MMT	1932 Nov    # Macassar Mean Time
			8:00	-	BNT	1942 Feb  9
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug
			8:00	-	BNT
Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
			9:00	-	MLT	1944
			9:30	-	CST	1964
			9:00	-	MLT

# Iran
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iran	1978	1980	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iran	1978	only	-	Oct	21	0:00	0	S
Rule	Iran	1979	only	-	Sep	19	0:00	0	S
Rule	Iran	1980	only	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
			3:26	-	TMT	1946
			3:30	-	IST	1977 Nov
			4:00	Iran	G%sT	1979
			3:30	Iran	I%sT

# Iraq
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1982	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Iraq	1983	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1985	max	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	S
Rule	Iraq	1986	max	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
			2:58	-	BMT	1918	    # Baghdad Mean Time
			3:00	-	AST	1982 May
			3:00	Iraq	A%sT


###############################################################################

# Israel

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (January 19, 1989):
# ISRAEL              2 H  AHEAD OF UTC
# ISRAEL              3 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 10 - SEP 3

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
#
# Shanks gives the following rules for Jerusalem from 1918 through 1991.
# After 1989 Shanks often disagrees with Silverberg; we go with Silverberg.

# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1942	1944	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1943	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1944	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Apr	16	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	May	23	0:00	2:00	DD
Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1948	1949	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1949	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Sep	15	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Nov	11	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Apr	20	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Oct	19	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Apr	12	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Sep	13	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Jun	13	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Sep	12	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Jun	11	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Sep	11	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Oct	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Aug	31	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	May	18	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Apr	 9	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
#Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 2	0:00	0	S
#Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	25	0:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	26	0:00	0	S
#Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	10	0:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	S

# From Ephraim Silverberg (1996-01-02):
#
# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
# Each year they decide anew what havoc to wreak on the country.  However,
# there is a "supposed" set of rules which is subject to change depending
# on the party the Minister of Interior, the size of the coalition
# government, the phase of the moon and the direction of the wind.  Hence,
# changes may need to be made on a semi-annual basis.  One thing is entrenched
# in law, however: that there must be at least 150 days of daylight savings
# time annually.  Ever since 1993, the change to daylight savings time has
# been from midnight Thursday night to 1 a.m. Friday morning and the change
# back to standard time on Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time
# to 11 p.m. standard time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the
# change back to standard time takes place on Sunday night instead of Saturday
# night to avoid conflicts with the Jewish New Year.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0:00	S
Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	25	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	26	0:00	0:00	S
Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	24	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0:00	S
Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Mar	29	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0:00	S
Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0:00	S

# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
# calling the switchboard at 972-2-701411 and asking for the spokeswoman.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0:00    S
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0:00    S

# The dates for 1996-1998 were also obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman
# for the Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The official announcement
# can be viewed (in Hebrew) at the following URL:
#
#   ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/misc/timezones/announcements/1996-1998.ps.gz
#
# Emptor Caveat: The dates for the years 1996-1998 were originally announced
# on August 31, 1995, by the previous Minister of Interior.  The new Minister
# of Interior changed the dates on January 1, 1996, to take into account the
# desires of certain portions of Israeli society (the next election is in the
# Fall of 1996).  After this (1996) year's Daylight Savings Time is over, the
# new minister has announced that a study will be conducted as to the wishes of
# the populace regarding the length of Daylight Savings Time and the Interior
# Committee will meet to review the results of the study and make any necessary
# changes to the 1997-1998 dates.  Never a dull moment in the State of Israel.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1996	1998	-	Mar	Fri>=14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0:00	S
Rule	Zion	1997	1998	-	Oct	Sun>=14	0:00	0:00	S

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:56 -	LMT	1880
			2:21	-	JMT	1918
			2:00	Zion	I%sT


###############################################################################

# Japan

# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-03-06):
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
# Shanks writes that daylight saving in Japan during those years was as follows:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
#Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=8	2:00	0	S
#Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# but the only locations using it were US military bases.
# We go with Shanks and omit daylight saving in those years for Asia/Tokyo.
#
# The same news article also reports that Japan is likely to go on DST in 1996
# as follows, where I've guessed the AT and LETTER/S columns:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
#Rule	Japan	1996	max	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Japan	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	0	S

# From Shanks (1991):
# Japan switched from the Japanese calendar on 1893 Jan 1.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:19:04	-	LMT	1896
			9:00	-	JST
# If Japan adopts DST in 1996, replace the above line with the following lines:
#			9:00	-	JST	1996
#			9:00	Japan	J%sT
# and uncomment the two `Rule' lines commented out above.

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
# Shanks says that the far southern Ryukyu Is (Nansei-Shoto) are 8:00,
# but we haven't confirmed this.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
#Zone	Asia/Ishigaki	8:16:36	-	LMT	1896
#			8:00	-	CST
# There is no information for Marcus.
# Other Japanese possessions are probably like Asia/Tokyo.

# Jordan
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
# Most likely Shanks is merely guessing dates from 1992 on.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule    Jordan	1973	only	-	Jun	6	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1973	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1974	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1976	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1977	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1985	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1985	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1986	1988	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1986	1990	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1989	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1990	only	-	Apr	27	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1991	only	-	Apr	19	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1991	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule    Jordan	1992	max	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule    Jordan	1992	max	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Amman	2:23:44 -	LMT	1931
			2:00	Jordan	EET%s

# Kazakhstan
# From Paul Eggert (1996-04-19):
# Andrew Evtichov <evti@chevron.com> (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aktau is the biggest city
# in western Kazakhstan.  Follow Shanks before 1991, Evtichov afterwards.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Alma-Ata	5:07:48 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Almaty
			5:00	-	AASK	1957 Mar
			6:00 RussiaAsia AAS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	AASD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			5:00	-	AASK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			6:00 RussiaAsia AAS%s
Zone	Asia/Aktau	3:21:04	-	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Aqtau
			4:00	-	SHSK	1957 Mar # Fort Shevchenko
			5:00 RussiaAsia SHS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			4:00	1:00	ASD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			4:00	-	ASK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			5:00 RussiaAsia AS%s

# Kirgizstan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	FSK	1957 Mar	# Frunze
			6:00 RussiaAsia FS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	FSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			5:00 RussiaAsia BS%s

###############################################################################

# Korea

# From Guy Harris:
# According to someone at the Korean Times in San Francisco,
# Daylight Savings Time was not observed until 1987.  He did not know
# at what time of day DST starts or ends.

# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun<=14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun<=14	0:00	0	S

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1890
			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
			9:00	-	KST	1928
			8:30	-	KST	1932
			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
			8:00	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
			8:30	-	KST	1968 Oct
			9:00	ROK	K%sT
Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1890
			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
			9:00	-	KST	1928
			8:30	-	KST	1932
			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
			8:00	-	KST	1961 Aug 10
			9:00	-	KST

###############################################################################

# Kuwait
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Kuwait	3:11:56 -	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST

# Laos
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Vientiane	6:50:24 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
			7:06	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01     # Saigon MT
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# Lebanon
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1972	only	-	Jun	22	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1972	1977	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1973	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1984	1987	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1984	max	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1988	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1989	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lebanon	1990	max	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Beirut	2:22:00 -	LMT	1880
			2:00	Lebanon	EET%s

# Malaysia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:48 -	LMT	1880
			6:55	-	SMT	1905 Jun
			7:00	-	SGT	1933
			7:20	-	SGT	1942 Feb 15
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 2
			7:20	-	SGT	1950
			7:30	-	SGT	1982 May
			8:00	-	SGT

# Maldives
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880			# Male
			4:54	-	MMT	1960
			5:00	-	PKT

# Mongolia
# Shanks says that Mongolia has three time zones,
# but usno1995 and http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/802389h.gif
# both say that it has just one.
# Let's comment out the western and eastern Mongolian time zones
# till we know what their principal towns are.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Mongol	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	T
Rule	Mongol	1981	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Mongol	1985	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	T
Rule	Mongol	1985	max	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
#Zone	Asia/Dariv	6:14:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
#			6:00	-	DST	1978
#			7:00	Mongol	D%sT
Zone	Asia/Ulan_Bator	7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
			7:00	-	UST	1978
			8:00	Mongol	U%sT
#Zone Asia/Baruun-Urt	7:33:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
#			8:00	-	BST	1978
#			9:00	Mongol	B%sT

# Nepal
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Katmandu	5:41:16 -	LMT	1920
			5:30	-	IST	1986
			5:45	-	NPT

# Oman
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Muscat	3:54:20 -	LMT	1920
			4:00	-	GST

# Pakistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
			5:30	-	IST	1951 Sep 30
			5:00	-	PKT

# Palestine
# These rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule EgyptAsia	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule EgyptAsia	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule EgyptAsia	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1981	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
Rule EgyptAsia	1966	max	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Gaza	2:17:52	-	LMT	1900 Oct
			2:00	-	EET	1957 May 10
			2:00 EgyptAsia	EET%s	1967 Jun 30
			2:00	Zion	I%sT
# This will undoubtedly change soon.

# Paracel Is
# no information

# Philippines
# Howse writes (p 162) that until 1844 the Philippines kept American date.
# The rest of this data is from Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Apr	12	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Manila	-15:56:00 -	LMT	1844
			8:04:00 -	LMT	1899 May 11
			8:00	Phil	P%sT	1942 May
			9:00	-	JST	1944 Nov
			8:00	Phil	P%sT

# Qatar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920		# Al Dawhah
			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
			3:00	-	AST

# Saudi Arabia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST

# Singapore
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:24 -	LMT	1880
			6:55	-	SMT	1905 Jun
			7:00	-	SGT	1933
			7:20	-	SGT	1942 Feb 15
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep  2
			7:20	-	SGT	1950
			7:30	-	SGT	1982 May
			8:00	-	SGT

# Spratly Is
# no information

# Sri Lanka
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
			5:20	-	JMT	1906
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Jan  5
			5:30	0:30	IHST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 16 2:00
			5:30	-	IST

# Syria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1963	1965	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1963	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1964	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1965	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1966	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1966	1976	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1967	1978	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1977	1978	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Apr	9	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Feb	16	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Oct	9	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1987	only	-	Mar	1	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1987	1988	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1988	only	-	Mar	15	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1990	max	-	Apr	1	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Syria	1990	max	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920
			2:00	Syria	EET%s

# Tajikistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	DSK	1957 Mar
			6:00 RussiaAsia DS%s	1991
			6:00	-	DSK
# Shanks has Dushanbe at 5:00 (6:00 summer) after 1991 Sep 29 3:00,
# but usno1995 has it at 6:00.  Go with usno1995.

# Thailand
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bangkok	6:42:04	-	LMT	1880
			6:42	-	BMT	1920 Apr
			7:00	-	ICT

# Turkmenistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Ashkhabad	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			4:00	-	ASK	1957 Mar
			5:00 RussiaAsia AS%s	1991
			5:00	-	ASK
# Shanks has Ashkhabad at 4:00 (5:00 summer) after 1991 Sep 20 3:00,
# but usno has it at 5:00.  Go with usno1995.

# United Arab Emirates
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
			4:00	-	GST

# Uzbekistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	TSK	1957 Mar
			6:00 RussiaAsia TS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	TSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			5:00	-	TSK
# Shanks has Tashkent using DST after 1991, but usno1995 says they don't.
# Go with usno1995.
# http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/95fact/802389h.gif claims that
# Uzbekistan has two time zones, but we lack data about this.

# Vietnam
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
# Saigon's official name is Thanh-Pho Ho Chi Minh, but it's too long.
# We'll stick with the traditional name for now.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Saigon	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
			7:06	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01     # Saigon MT
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# Yemen
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Aden	3:00:48	-	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST