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# @(#)asia	7.63

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1999-03-22):
#
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (5th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1999).
#
# Gwillim Law <Gwil_Law@bridge-point.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990,
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#	2:00	EET EEST Eastern European Time
#	2:00	IST IDT	Israel
#	3:00	AST ADT	Arabia*
#	4:00	GST	Gulf*
#	5:30	IST	India
#	7:00	ICT	Indochina*
#	8:00	CST	China
#	9:00	CJT	Central Japanese Time (1896/1937)*
#	9:00	JST	Japan
#	9:00	KST	Korea
#	9:30	CST	(Australian) Central Standard Time
#
# See the `europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.

# From Guy Harris:
# Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
# additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
# Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
# Worldwide Edition).  The names for time zones are guesses.

###############################################################################

# These rules are stolen from the `europe' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	EUAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	S
Rule	EUAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule E-EurAsia	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule E-EurAsia	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule E-EurAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	 0:00	1:00	S
Rule RussiaAsia	1981	1983	-	Oct	1	 0:00	0	-
Rule RussiaAsia	1984	1991	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule RussiaAsia	1985	1991	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule RussiaAsia	1992	only	-	Mar	lastSat	23:00	1:00	S
Rule RussiaAsia	1992	only	-	Sep	lastSat	23:00	0	-
Rule RussiaAsia	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	S
Rule RussiaAsia	1993	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule RussiaAsia	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# Afghanistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Kabul	4:36:48 -	LMT	1890
			4:00	-	AFT	1945
			4:30	-	AFT

# Armenia
# From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
# Shanks has Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST) in spring 1991,
# then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then readopting Russian DST in 1997.
# Go with Shanks, even when he disagrees with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
# <edd@AIC.NET> reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
# in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
# Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
# but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Yerevan	2:58:00 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			3:00	-	YERT	1957 Mar    # Yerevan Time
			4:00 RussiaAsia YER%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	YERST	1991 Sep 23 # independence
			3:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT	1995 Sep 24 2:00s
			4:00	-	AMT	1997
			4:00 RussiaAsia	AM%sT

# Azerbaijan
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Azer	1997	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00	1:00	S
Rule	Azer	1997	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Baku	3:19:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			3:00	-	BAKT	1957 Mar    # Baku Time
			4:00 RussiaAsia BAK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	BAKST	1991 Aug 30 # independence
			3:00 RussiaAsia	AZ%sT	1992 Sep lastSun 2:00s
			4:00	-	AZT	1996 # Azerbaijan time
			4:00	EUAsia	AZ%sT	1997
			4:00	Azer	AZ%sT

# Bahrain
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bahrain	3:22:20 -	LMT	1920		# Al Manamah
			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
			3:00	-	AST

# Bangladesh
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dhaka	6:01:40 -	LMT	1890
			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May 15 # Burma Time
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			6:30	-	BURT	1951 Sep 30
			6:00	-	DACT	1971 Mar 26 # Dacca Time
			6:00	-	BDT	# Bangladesh Time

# Bhutan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Thimphu	5:58:36 -	LMT	1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
			5:30	-	IST	1987 Oct
			6:00	-	BTT	# Bhutan Time

# British Indian Ocean Territory
# From Whitman:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Chagos	5:00	-	IOT	# BIOT Time

# Brunei
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Brunei	7:39:40 -	LMT	1926 Mar   # Bandar Seri Begawan
			7:30	-	BNT	1933
			8:00	-	BNT

# Burma / Myanmar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Rangoon	6:24:40 -	LMT	1880		# or Yangon
			6:24:36	-	RMT	1920	   # Rangoon Mean Time?
			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May   # Burma Time
			9:00	-	JST	1945 May 3
			6:30	-	MMT		   # Myanmar Time

# Cambodia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Phnom_Penh	6:59:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# China

# From Guy Harris:
# People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.

# From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
# No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
# China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
# Peking (Bejing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
# has two of 'em -- Peking's and Urumqi (named after the capital of
# the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
#
# . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
# painful to suck in another copy..  So, here is what I have for
# DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
#
#     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
#     1987 mid-April - ??

# From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
# CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
# CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
# Shanks writes that China has had a single time zone since 1980 May 1,
# observing summer DST from 1986 through 1991; this contradicts Devine's
# note about Time magazine, though apparently _something_ happened in 1986.
# Go with Shanks for now.  I made up names for the other pre-1980 time zones.

# From Shanks:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Shang	1940	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Shang	1940	1941	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Shang	1941	only	-	Mar	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	PRC	1949	only	-	Jan	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	PRC	1986	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	PRC	1986	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=11	0:00	0	S
Rule	PRC	1987	1991	-	Apr	Sun>=10	0:00	1:00	D
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Harbin	8:26:44	-	LMT	1928 # or Haerbin
			8:30	-	HART	1932 Mar # Harbin Time
			8:00	-	CST	1940
			9:00	-	HART	1966 May
			8:30	-	HART	1980 May
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Shanghai	8:05:52	-	LMT	1928
			8:00	Shang	C%sT	1949
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Chungking	7:06:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Chongqing
			7:00	-	CHUT	1980 May # Chungking Time
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Urumqi	5:50:20	-	LMT	1928 # or Urumchi
			6:00	-	URUT	1980 May # Urumqi Time
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
Zone	Asia/Kashgar	5:03:56	-	LMT	1928 # or Kashi or Kaxgar
			5:30	-	KAST	1940	 # Kashgar Time
			5:00	-	KAST	1980 May
			8:00	PRC	C%sT
# Hong Kong (Xianggang)
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Apr	20	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1946	only	-	Dec	1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Apr	13	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1947	only	-	Dec	30	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1948	only	-	May	2	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1948	1952	-	Oct	lastSun	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1949	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1953	only	-	Nov	1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1954	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=18	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1954	only	-	Oct	31	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1955	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1965	1977	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1965	1977	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
Rule	HK	1979	1980	-	May	Sun>=8	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	HK	1979	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Hong_Kong	7:36:36 -	LMT	1904 Oct 30
			8:00	HK	HK%sT


###############################################################################

# Taiwan

# Shanks writes that Taiwan observed DST during 1945, when it
# was still controlled by Japan.  This is hard to believe, but we don't
# have any other information.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1945	1951	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1952	only	-	Mar	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1952	1954	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1953	1959	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1955	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1960	1961	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1974	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Taiwan	1980	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Taiwan	1980	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Taipei	8:06:00 -	LMT	1896
			8:00	Taiwan	C%sT

# Macao (Macau, Aomen)
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Macao	1961	1962	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1961	1964	-	Nov	Sun>=1	3:30	0	-
Rule	Macao	1963	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1964	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1965	only	-	Mar	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1965	only	-	Oct	31	0:00	0	-
Rule	Macao	1966	1971	-	Apr	Sun>=16	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1966	1971	-	Oct	Sun>=16	3:30	0	-
Rule	Macao	1972	1974	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1972	1973	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	-
Rule	Macao	1974	1977	-	Oct	Sun>=15	3:30	0	-
Rule	Macao	1975	1977	-	Apr	Sun>=15	3:30	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1978	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Macao	1978	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=15	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Macao	7:34:20 -	LMT	1912
			8:00	Macao	MO%sT	1999 Dec 20 # return to China
			8:00	PRC	C%sT


###############################################################################

# Cyprus
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Apr	13	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Cyprus	1975	only	-	Oct	12	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Cyprus	1976	only	-	Oct	11	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Cyprus	1977	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1978	only	-	Oct	2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1979	1997	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cyprus	1981	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Nicosia	2:13:28 -	LMT	1921 Nov 14
			2:00	Cyprus	EE%sT	1998 Sep
			2:00	EUAsia	EE%sT
# IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.

# Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
# However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
Link	Asia/Nicosia	Europe/Nicosia

# Georgia
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1994-11-19):
# Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
# an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
# an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
# We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
#
# From Mathew Englander <mathew@io.org>, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
# Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
# will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
# President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tbilisi	2:59:16 -	LMT	1880
			2:59:16	-	TBMT	1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
			3:00	-	TBIT	1957 Mar    # Tbilisi Time
			4:00 RussiaAsia TBI%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			3:00	1:00	TBIST	1991 Apr  9 # independence
			3:00 RussiaAsia GE%sT	1992 # Georgia Time
			3:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1994 Sep lastSun
			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT	1996 Oct lastSun
			4:00	1:00	GEST	1997 Mar lastSun
			4:00 E-EurAsia	GE%sT

# East Timor

# From Joao Carrascalao, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
# <a href="http://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm">
# East Timor may be late for its millennium
# </a> (1999-12-26/31):
# Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
# rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
# Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
# conflicts with their way of life.

# From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
# We don't have any record of the above attempt.
# Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.

# <a href="http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/last/00-08-16.undh.html">
# From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
# (2000-08-16)</a>:
# The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
# today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
# which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
# midnight on Saturday, September 16.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dili	8:22:20 -	LMT	1912
			8:00	-	TPT	1942 Feb 21 23:00 # E Timor Time
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug
			9:00	-	TPT	1976 May  3
			8:00	-	TPT	2000 Sep 17 00:00
			9:00	-	TPT

# India
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Calcutta	5:53:28 -	LMT	1880
			5:53:20	-	HMT	1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
			6:30	-	BURT	1942 May 15 # Burma Time
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
			5:30	-	IST
# The following are like Asia/Calcutta:
#	Andaman Is
#	Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
#	Nicobar Is

# Indonesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Jakarta	7:07:12 -	LMT	1867 Aug 10
# Shanks says the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
# but this must be a typo.
			7:07:12	-	JMT	1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Jakarta
			7:20	-	JAVT	1932 Nov	 # Java Time
			7:30	-	JAVT	1942 Mar 23
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug
			7:30	-	JAVT	1948 May
			8:00	-	JAVT	1950 May
			7:30	-	JAVT	1964
			7:00	-	JAVT
Zone Asia/Ujung_Pandang 7:57:36 -	LMT	1920
			7:57:36	-	MMT	1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
			8:00	-	BORT	1942 Feb  9 # Borneo Time
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Aug
			8:00	-	BORT
Zone Asia/Jayapura	9:22:48 -	LMT	1932 Nov
			9:00	-	JAYT	1944	    # Jayapura Time
			9:30	-	CST	1964
			9:00	-	JAYT

# Iran
# From Paul Eggert (2000-06-12), following up a suggestion by Rich Wales:
# Ahmea Alavi in
# <a href="http://www.persia.org/Iran_Lib/Calendar/taghveem.txt">
# TAGHVEEM (1993-07-12)
# </a>
# writes ``Daylight saving time in Iran starts from the first day
# of Farvardin and ends the first day of Mehr.''  This disagrees with the SSIM:
#
#		   DST start	   DST end
#	year	SSIM	Alavi	SSIM	Alavi
#	1991	05-03!=	03-21	09-20!=	09-23
#	1992	03-22!=	03-21	09-23	09-23
#	1993	03-21	03-21	09-23	09-23
#	1994	03-21	03-21	09-22!= 09-23
#	1995	03-21	03-21	09-22!= 09-23
#	1996	03-21!=	03-20	09-22   09-22
#	1997	03-22!=	03-21	09-22!= 09-23
#	1998	03-21	03-21	09-21!= 09-23
#	1999	03-22!=	03-21	09-22!= 09-23
#	2000	03-21!=	03-20	09-21!= 09-22
#	2001	03-19!=	03-21	09-19!= 09-23
#	2002	03-18!=	03-21	09-18!= 09-23
#
# Go with Alavi starting with 1992.
# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 19.34 to compute Persian dates.
# The Persian calendar is based on the sun, and dates after around 2050
# are approximate; stop after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iran	1978	1980	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	1978	only	-	Oct	21	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	1979	only	-	Sep	19	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	1980	only	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	1991	only	-	May	 3	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	1991	only	-	Sep	20	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Iran	1992	1995	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	1992	1995	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	1996	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	1997	1999	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2000	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2001	2003	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2004	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2005	2007	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2005	2007	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2008	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2009	2011	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2012	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2013	2015	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2016	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2017	2019	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2020	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2021	2023	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2024	2025	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2024	2025	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2026	2027	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2026	2027	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2028	2029	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2030	2031	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2032	2033	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2034	2035	-	Sep	23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Iran	2036	2037	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tehran	3:25:44	-	LMT	1916
			3:25:44	-	TMT	1946	# Tehran Mean Time
			3:30	-	IRT	1977 Nov
			4:00	Iran	IR%sT	1979
			3:30	Iran	IR%sT


# Iraq
#
# From Jonathan Lennox <lennox@cs.columbia.edu> (2000-06-12):
# An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
# the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
# "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
# are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
#
# But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
# In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
# Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
# to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
# in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
#
# So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iraq	1982	only	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1982	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Iraq	1983	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1984	1985	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	S
Rule	Iraq	1986	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	D
# IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the `:01' is a typo.
# Shanks says Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997 or 1999 on; ignore this.
Rule	Iraq	1991	max	-	Apr	 1	3:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Iraq	1991	max	-	Oct	 1	3:00s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Baghdad	2:57:40	-	LMT	1890
			2:57:36	-	BMT	1918	    # Baghdad Mean Time?
			3:00	-	AST	1982 May
			3:00	Iraq	A%sT


###############################################################################

# Israel

# From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
#
# I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
# different abbreviations in use:
#
# JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
# IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
# EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
#
# Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
# I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
# EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
# any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
# and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
# settings in Israeli computers.
#
# In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
# high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
# family is from India).

# From Shanks:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1940	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1942	1944	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1943	only	-	Apr	 1	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1944	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Apr	16	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1946	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	May	23	0:00	2:00	DD
Rule	Zion	1948	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1948	1949	-	Nov	 1	2:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1949	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Apr	16	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1950	only	-	Sep	15	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1951	only	-	Nov	11	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Apr	20	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1952	only	-	Oct	19	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Apr	12	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1953	only	-	Sep	13	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Jun	13	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1954	only	-	Sep	12	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Jun	11	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1955	only	-	Sep	11	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1956	only	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1957	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1974	only	-	Oct	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1975	only	-	Aug	31	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1985	only	-	Sep	15	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	May	18	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1986	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Apr	15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1987	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Apr	 9	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1988	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S

# From Ephraim Silverberg <ephraim@cs.huji.ac.il>
# (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17 and 2000-07-25):

# According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
# Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
# One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
# days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
# daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
# 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
# Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
# time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
# time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
# conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
# daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
# 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
# was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
# 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
# similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
# will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
# changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
# rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
# (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
# of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
# (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
# (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1989	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Mar	25	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1990	only	-	Aug	26	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Mar	24	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1991	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Mar	29	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1992	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1993	only	-	Sep	 5	0:00	0	S

# The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
# Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
# calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.

# Rule	NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1994	only	-	Aug	28	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Mar	31	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1995	only	-	Sep	 3	0:00	0	S

# The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
# time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
# (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
#
#   ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
#
# The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
#
# The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
#
#   ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
#
#       where YYYY is the relevant year.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Mar	15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1996	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Mar	21	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1997	only	-	Sep	14	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Mar	20	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1998	only	-	Sep	 6	0:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	1999	only	-	Sep	 3	2:00	0	S

# The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
# the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
# years 2001-2004 as well.
#
# The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
#
#	ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
#
# The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
# for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
#
#	ftp://ftp.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Apr	14	2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2000	only	-	Oct	 6	1:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Apr	 9	1:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2001	only	-	Sep	24	1:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Mar	29	1:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2002	only	-	Oct	 7	1:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Mar	28	1:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2003	only	-	Oct	 3	1:00	0	S
Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Apr	 7	1:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2004	only	-	Sep	22	1:00	0	S

# From Paul Eggert (2000-07-25):
# Here are guesses for rules after 2004.
# They are probably wrong, but they are more likely than no DST at all.
# Rule	NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
Rule	Zion	2005	max	-	Apr	 1	1:00	1:00	D
Rule	Zion	2005	max	-	Oct	 1	1:00	0	S

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Jerusalem	2:20:56 -	LMT	1880
			2:20:40	-	JMT	1918	# Jerusalem Mean Time?
			2:00	Zion	I%sT


###############################################################################

# Japan

# `9:00' and `JST' is from Guy Harris.

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-03-06):
# Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
# daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but ``the system was discontinued
# because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours.''
# Shanks writes that daylight saving in Japan during those years was as follows:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
#Rule	Japan	1948	only	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Japan	1948	1951	-	Sep	Sat>=8	2:00	0	S
#Rule	Japan	1949	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
#Rule	Japan	1950	1951	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# but the only locations using it were US military bases.
# We go with Shanks and omit daylight saving in those years for Asia/Tokyo.

# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
# 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
# Observatory: E 139 44' 40".90 (9h 18m 58s.727), N 35 39' 16".0.
# This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
# edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
# JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
# The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.

# From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
# The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
# which stands for the time on E 135 degree.
# In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
# standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
# time", which stands for the time on E 120 degree....  But "western standard
# time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
# 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
# standard....
#
# I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
# In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.

# Shanks claims JST in use since 1896, and that a few places (e.g. Ishigaki)
# use +0800; go with Suzuki.  Guess that all ordinances took effect on Jan 1.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Tokyo	9:18:59	-	LMT	1887 Dec 31 15:00u
			9:00	-	JST	1896
			9:00	-	CJT	1938
			9:00	-	JST
# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.

# Jordan
#
# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html">
# Jordan Week (1999-07-01) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
# Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
# in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
# all year round.
#
# From <a href="http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html">
# Jordan Week (1999-09-30) </a> via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
# Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
# by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
# The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
# government's departments from six to seven hours.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Jordan	1973	only	-	Jun	6	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1973	1975	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1974	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1976	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1977	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1985	only	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1986	1988	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1986	1990	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1989	only	-	May	8	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1990	only	-	Apr	27	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Apr	17	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1991	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1992	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1992	1993	-	Oct	Fri>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1993	1998	-	Apr	Fri>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1994	only	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1995	1998	-	Sep	Fri>=15	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Jordan	1999	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00s	1:00	S
Rule	Jordan	1999	max	-	Sep	lastThu	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Jordan	2000	max	-	Mar	lastThu	0:00s	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Amman	2:23:44 -	LMT	1931
			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT

# Kazakhstan
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# Andrew Evtichov <evti@chevron.com> (1996-04-13) writes that Kazakhstan
# stayed in sync with Moscow after 1990, and that Aqtobe (formerly Aktyubinsk)
# and Aqtau (formerly Shevchenko) are the largest cities in their zones.
# Guess that Aqtau and Aqtobe diverged in 1995, since that's the first time
# IATA SSIM mentions a third time zone in Kazakhstan.
#
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Almaty	5:07:48 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
			5:00	-	ALMT	1957 Mar # Alma-Ata Time
			6:00 RussiaAsia ALM%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	ALMST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			5:00	-	ALMT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			6:00 E-EurAsia	ALM%sT
Zone	Asia/Aqtobe	3:48:40	-	LMT	1924 May  2
			4:00	-	AKT	1957 Mar # Aktyubinsk Time
			5:00 RussiaAsia AK%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			4:00	1:00	AKTST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			4:00	-	AQTT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Aqtobe Time
			5:00 E-EurAsia	AQT%sT
Zone	Asia/Aqtau	3:21:04	-	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Aktau
			4:00	-	SHET	1957 Mar # Fort Shevchenko Time
			5:00 RussiaAsia SHE%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			4:00	1:00	AQTST	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			4:00	-	AQTT	1992 Jan 19 2:00s # Aqtau Time
			5:00 E-EurAsia	AQT%sT	1995 Sep lastSun
			4:00 E-EurAsia	AQT%sT

# Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
# Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Kirgiz	1992	1996	-	Apr	Sun>=7	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Kirgiz	1992	1996	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Kirgiz	1997	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:30	1:00	S
Rule	Kirgiz	1997	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:30	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bishkek	4:58:24 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	FRUT	1930 Jun 21 # Frunze Time
			6:00 RussiaAsia FRU%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	FRUST	1991 Aug 31 2:00 # independence
			5:00	Kirgiz	KG%sT		    # Kirgizstan Time

###############################################################################

# Korea (North and South)

# From Guy Harris:
# According to someone at the Korean Times in San Francisco,
# Daylight Savings Time was not observed until 1987.  He did not know
# at what time of day DST starts or ends.

# From Shanks:
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	ROK	1960	only	-	Sep	13	0:00	0	S
Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	May	Sun<=14	0:00	1:00	D
Rule	ROK	1987	1988	-	Oct	Sun<=14	0:00	0	S

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Seoul	8:27:52	-	LMT	1890
			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
			9:00	-	KST	1928
			8:30	-	KST	1932
			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
			8:00	ROK	K%sT	1961 Aug 10
			8:30	-	KST	1968 Oct
			9:00	ROK	K%sT
Zone	Asia/Pyongyang	8:23:00 -	LMT	1890
			8:30	-	KST	1904 Dec
			9:00	-	KST	1928
			8:30	-	KST	1932
			9:00	-	KST	1954 Mar 21
			8:00	-	KST	1961 Aug 10
			9:00	-	KST

###############################################################################

# Kuwait
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Kuwait	3:11:56 -	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST

# Laos
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Vientiane	6:50:24 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9 # or Viangchan
			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# Lebanon
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1921	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1922	only	-	Oct	8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1923	only	-	Sep	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1957	1961	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1972	only	-	Jun	22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1972	1977	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1973	1977	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Apr	30	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1978	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1984	1987	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1984	1991	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1988	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1989	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1990	1992	-	May	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1992	only	-	Oct	4	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1993	max	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Lebanon	1993	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Lebanon	1999	max	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Beirut	2:22:00 -	LMT	1880
			2:00	Lebanon	EE%sT

# Malaysia
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Sep	14	0:00	0:20	TS
Rule	NBorneo	1935	1941	-	Dec	14	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur	6:46:48 -	LMT	1880
			6:55:24	-	SMT	1905 Jun # Singapore Mean Time
			7:00	-	MALT	1933	 # Malaya Time
			7:20	-	MALT	1942 Feb 15
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 2
			7:20	-	MALT	1950
			7:30	-	MALT	1982 May
			8:00	-	MYT	# Malaysia Time
Zone Asia/Kuching	7:21:20	-	LMT	1926 Mar
			7:30	-	BORT	1933	# Borneo Time
			8:00	NBorneo	BOR%sT	1942
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep 2
			8:00	-	BORT	1982 May
			8:00	-	MYT

# Maldives
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Maldives	4:54:00 -	LMT	1880	# Male
			4:54:00	-	MMT	1960	# Male Mean Time
			5:00	-	MVT		# Maldives Time

# Mongolia

# Shanks says that Mongolia has three time zones, but usno1995 and the CIA map
# Standard Time Zones of the World (1997-01)
# both say that it has just one.

# From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
# <a href="http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm">
# General Information Mongolia
# </a> (1999-09)
# "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
# Bayan-Ulgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
# the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
# eight hours."

# From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
# Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
# being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
# unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
# of implementation may have been different....
# Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
# zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
# Suhbaatar, and possibly Khentij.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
# For now, we'll comment out the east zone (Choybalsan)
# and use Shanks's and the IATA's data for the daylight-saving rules.
# Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
# We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
# the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
# and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
# is good enough for our purposes.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Mongol	1981	1984	-	Apr	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Mongol	1981	1984	-	Oct	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Mongol	1985	1990	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Mongol	1985	1990	-	Sep	lastSun	3:00	0	-
Rule	Mongol	1991	1998	-	Mar	lastSun	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Mongol	1991	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
# IATA SSIM (1996-09) says 1996-10-25; go with Shanks.
Rule	Mongol	1996	only	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Mongol	1997	1998	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
# IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Hovd	6:06:36 -	LMT	1905 Aug
			6:00	-	HOVT	1978	# Hovd Time
			7:00	Mongol	HOV%sT
Zone	Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -	LMT	1905 Aug
			7:00	-	ULAT	1978	# Ulaanbaatar Time
			8:00	Mongol	ULA%sT
# We're not sure about this entry yet, so we'll omit it for now.
#Zone Asia/Choybalsan	7:38:00 -	LMT	1905 Aug
#			8:00	-	CHOT	1978	# Choybalsan Time
#			9:00	Mongol	CHO%sT	19??
#			8:00	Mongol	ULA%sT

# Nepal
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Katmandu	5:41:16 -	LMT	1920
			5:30	-	IST	1986
			5:45	-	NPT	# Nepal Time

# Oman
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Muscat	3:54:20 -	LMT	1920
			4:00	-	GST

# Pakistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Karachi	4:28:12 -	LMT	1907
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 15
			5:30	-	IST	1951 Sep 30
			5:00	-	KART	1971 Mar 26 # Karachi Time
			5:00	-	PKT	# Pakistan Time

# Palestine

# From Amos Shapir <amos@nsof.co.il> (1998-02-15):
#
# From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
# known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
# Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
#
# The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
# (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
# time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
# though.
#
# The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
# annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
# the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
# Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
# towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
# East Jerusalem.
#
# Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
# for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
# have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
# of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
# time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
#
# The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
# towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
# demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
# summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
# know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
# Jordanian one).
#
# To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
#
# Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
# ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
# Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
# West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
# Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
#
# I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
# have one).

# From Paul Eggert (1998-02-25):
# Shanks writes that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but we'll go
# with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
# and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
# We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
# the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
# occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
# However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
# for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
# to Palestine's rules.  If you have more info about this, please
# send it to tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for incorporation into future editions.

# From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
# forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
#
# Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
# last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
# one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
# the PA has decided to implement DST in April.

# From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
# Daoud Kuttab writes in
# <a href="http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html">
# Holiday havoc
# </a> (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
# the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
# I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
# For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
# and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.

# The rules for Egypt are stolen from the `africa' file.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule EgyptAsia	1957	only	-	May	10	0:00	1:00	S
Rule EgyptAsia	1957	1958	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule EgyptAsia	1958	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1967	-	May	 1	1:00	1:00	S
Rule EgyptAsia	1959	1965	-	Sep	30	3:00	0	-
Rule EgyptAsia	1966	only	-	Oct	 1	3:00	0	-

Rule Palestine	1999	max	-	Apr	Fri>=15	0:00	1:00	S
Rule Palestine	1999	max	-	Oct	Fri>=15	0:00	0	-

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Gaza	2:17:52	-	LMT	1900 Oct
			2:00	Zion	EET	1948 May 15
			2:00 EgyptAsia	EE%sT	1967 Jun  5
			2:00	Zion	I%sT	1996
			2:00	Jordan	EE%sT	1999
			2:00 Palestine	EE%sT

# Paracel Is
# no information

# Philippines
# On 1844-08-16, Narciso Claveria, governor-general of the
# Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
# be immediately followed by 1845-01-01.  Robert H. van Gent has a
# transcript of the decree in <http://www.phys.uu.nl/~vgent/idl/idl.htm>.
# The rest of this data is from Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Phil	1936	only	-	Nov	1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Phil	1937	only	-	Feb	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Apr	12	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Phil	1954	only	-	Jul	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Mar	22	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Phil	1978	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Manila	-15:56:00 -	LMT	1844 Dec 31
			8:04:00 -	LMT	1899 May 11
			8:00	Phil	PH%sT	1942 May
			9:00	-	JST	1944 Nov
			8:00	Phil	PH%sT

# Qatar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Qatar	3:26:08 -	LMT	1920	# Al Dawhah / Doha
			4:00	-	GST	1972 Jun
			3:00	-	AST

# Saudi Arabia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Riyadh	3:06:52 -	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST

# Singapore
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Singapore	6:55:24 -	LMT	1880
			6:55:24	-	SMT	1905 Jun # Singapore Mean Time
			7:00	-	MALT	1933	 # Malaya Time
			7:20	-	MALT	1942 Feb 15
			9:00	-	JST	1945 Sep  2
			7:20	-	MALT	1950
			7:30	-	MALT	1965 Aug  9 # independence
			7:30	-	SGT	1982 May # Singapore Time
			8:00	-	SGT

# Spratly Is
# no information

# Sri Lanka
# From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
# "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
# (www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html, 1996-05-24,
# no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
# reported ``the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
# midnight Friday (1830 GMT) `in the light of the present power crisis'.''
#
# From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
# by Shamindra in
# <a href="news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net">
# Daily News - Hot News Section (1996-10-26)
# </a>:
# With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
# Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Colombo	5:19:24 -	LMT	1880
			5:19:32	-	MMT	1906	# Moratuwa Mean Time
			5:30	-	IST	1942 Jan  5
			5:30	0:30	IHST	1942 Sep
			5:30	1:00	IST	1945 Oct 16 2:00
			5:30	-	IST	1996 May 25 0:00
			6:30	-	LKT	1996 Oct 26 0:30
			6:00	-	LKT

# Syria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1920	1923	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Apr	29	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1962	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1963	1965	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1963	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1964	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1965	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1966	only	-	Apr	24	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1966	1976	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1967	1978	-	May	1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1977	1978	-	Sep	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Apr	9	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1983	1984	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Feb	16	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1986	only	-	Oct	9	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1987	only	-	Mar	1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1987	1988	-	Oct	31	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1988	only	-	Mar	15	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1989	only	-	Oct	1	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Apr	1	2:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1990	only	-	Sep	30	2:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1991	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1991	1992	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1992	only	-	Apr	 8	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1993	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	0	-
# IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
# (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
# 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
# ignore all these claims and go with Shanks.
Rule	Syria	1994	1996	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1994	max	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Syria	1997	1998	-	Mar	lastMon	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Syria	1999	max	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Damascus	2:25:12 -	LMT	1920	# Dimashq
			2:00	Syria	EE%sT

# Tajikistan
# From Shanks.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dushanbe	4:35:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	DUST	1930 Jun 21 # Dushanbe Time
			6:00 RussiaAsia DUS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00	1:00	DUSST	1991 Sep  9 2:00s
			5:00	-	TJT		    # Tajikistan Time

# Thailand
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Bangkok	6:42:04	-	LMT	1880
			6:42:04	-	BMT	1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
			7:00	-	ICT

# Turkmenistan
# From Shanks.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Ashgabat	3:53:32 -	LMT	1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
			4:00	-	ASHT	1930 Jun 21 # Ashkhabad Time
			5:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00
			4:00 RussiaAsia	ASH%sT	1991 Oct 27 # independence
			4:00 RussiaAsia TM%sT	1992 Jan 19 2:00
			5:00	-	TMT

# United Arab Emirates
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Dubai	3:41:12 -	LMT	1920
			4:00	-	GST

# Uzbekistan
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Samarkand	4:27:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			4:00	-	SAMT	1930 Jun 21 # Samarkand Time
			5:00	-	SAMT	1981 Apr  1
			5:00	1:00	SAMST	1981 Oct  1
			6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00 # Tashkent Time
			5:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1993
			5:00	-	UZT
Zone	Asia/Tashkent	4:37:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			5:00	-	TAST	1930 Jun 21 # Tashkent Time
			6:00 RussiaAsia TAS%sT	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			5:00 RussiaAsia	TAS%sT	1991 Sep  1 # independence
			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1992
			5:00 RussiaAsia	UZ%sT	1993
			5:00	-	UZT

# Vietnam
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1993-11-18):
# Saigon's official name is Thanh-Pho Ho Chi Minh, but it's too long.
# We'll stick with the traditional name for now.
# From Shanks:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Saigon	7:06:40 -	LMT	1906 Jun  9
			7:06:20	-	SMT	1911 Mar 11 0:01 # Saigon MT?
			7:00	-	ICT	1912 May
			8:00	-	ICT	1931 May
			7:00	-	ICT

# Yemen
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Asia/Aden	3:00:48	-	LMT	1950
			3:00	-	AST