aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/share/zoneinfo/australasia
blob: 7e52f181fe5750109cd367d28b7f0ddafcf91b4c (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
# @(#)australasia	7.44
# This file also includes Pacific islands.

# Notes are at the end of this file

###############################################################################

# Australia

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Shanks gives 1917 Jan 1 0:01; go with Whitman (and guess 2:00).
Rule	Aus	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00	1:00	-
Rule	Aus	1917	only	-	Mar	25	2:00	0	-
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	2:00	1:00	-
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	0	-
Rule	Aus	1942	only	-	Sep	27	2:00	1:00	-
Rule	Aus	1943	1944	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00	0	-
Rule	Aus	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00	1:00	-
# Whitman says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944, and that
# 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944; go with Shanks.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
# Northern Territory
Zone Australia/Darwin	 8:43:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			 9:00	-	CST	1899 May
			 9:30	-	CST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			 9:30	Aus	CST
# Western Australia
Zone Australia/Perth	 7:43:24 -	LMT	1895 Dec
			 8:00	-	WST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			 8:00	Aus	WST	1974 Oct lastSun 2:00s
			 8:00	1:00	WST	1975 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s
			 8:00	-	WST	1983 Oct lastSun 2:00s
			 8:00	1:00	WST	1984 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s
			 8:00	-	WST	1991 Nov 17 2:00s
			 8:00	1:00	WST	1992 Mar Sun>=1 2:00s
			 8:00	-	WST
# Queensland
#
# From Alex Livingston <alex@agsm.unsw.edu.au> (1996-11-01):
# I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
# of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
# Queensland ceased to.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
# Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
# Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
# so use Lindeman.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AQ	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AQ	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Holiday	1989	1993	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	Holiday	1990	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Zone Australia/Brisbane	10:12:08 -	LMT	1895
			10:00	-	EST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Oct lastSun 2:00s
			10:00	1:00	EST	1972 Feb lastSun 2:00s
			10:00	AQ	EST
Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -	LMT	1895
			10:00	-	EST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Oct lastSun 2:00s
			10:00	1:00	EST	1972 Feb lastSun 2:00s
			10:00	Holiday	EST

# South Australia
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AS	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AS	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AS	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AS	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AS	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AS	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AS	1990	1994	even	Mar	Sun>=18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AS	1990	1994	odd	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AS	1995	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Adelaide	9:14:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
			9:30	-	CST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			9:30	Aus	CST	1971 Oct lastSun 2:00s
			9:30	AS	CST

# Tasmania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	1	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	31	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AT	1991	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AT	1991	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Hobart	9:49:16	-	LMT	1895 Sep
			10:00	-	EST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			10:00	Aus	EST	1967 Oct 1 2:00s
			10:00	AT	EST

# Victoria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AV	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AV	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AV	1991	1994	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AV	1995	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	EST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Oct 31 2:00s
			10:00	AV	EST

# New South Wales
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	AN	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AN	1972	only	-	Feb	27	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1982	only	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1983	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AN	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	AN	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	AN	1996	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Australia/Sydney	10:04:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	EST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			10:00	Aus	EST	1971 Oct 31 2:00s
			10:00	AN	EST
Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	EST	1896 Aug 23
			9:00	-	CST	1899 May
			9:30	-	CST	1917 Jan 1 0:01
			9:30	Aus	CST	1971 Oct 31 2:00s
			9:30	AN	CST

# Lord Howe Island
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	LH	1981	1984	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	-
Rule	LH	1982	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	LH	1985	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	0:30	-
Rule	LH	1986	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	LH	1986	only	-	Oct	19	2:00s	0:30	-
Rule	LH	1987	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	0:30	-
Rule	LH	1990	1995	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	LH	1996	max	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	0	-
Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			10:00	-	EST	1981 Mar
			10:30	LH	LHST

# Australian miscellany
#
# Ashmore Is, Cartier
# no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
# no information; probably like Australia/Perth
#
# Coral Sea Is
# no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
# no information
#
# Macquarie
# permanent occupation (scientific station) since 1948;
# sealing and penguin oil station operated 1888-1917
# no information
#
# Manihiki, Penrhyn, Rakehanga
# no information

# Christmas
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Indian/Christmas	7:02:52 -	LMT	1895 Feb
			7:00	-	CXT	# Christmas Island Time

# Cook Is
# From Shanks (1995):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Cook	1978	only	-	Nov	12	0:00	0:30	HS
Rule	Cook	1979	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Cook	1979	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0:30	HS
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Rarotonga	-10:39:04 -	LMT	1901		# Avarua
			-10:30	-	CKT	1978 Nov 12	# Cook Is Time
			-10:00	Cook	CK%sT

# Cocos
# From USNO (1989):
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Indian/Cocos	6:30	-	CCT	# Cocos Islands Time

# Fiji
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Fiji	11:53:40 -	LMT	1915 Oct 26	# Suva
			12:00	-	FJT	# Fiji Time

# French Polynesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Gambier	 -8:59:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Rikitea
			 -9:00	-	GAMT	# Gambier Time
Zone	Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -	LMT	1912 Oct
			 -9:30	-	MART	# Marquesas Time
Zone	Pacific/Tahiti	 -9:58:16 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Papeete
			-10:00	-	TAHT	# Tahiti Time
# Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
# it is uninhabited.

# Guam
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Guam	 9:39:00 -	LMT	1901		# Agana
			10:00	-	GST

# Kiribati
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Tarawa	 11:32:04 -	LMT	1901		# Bairiki
			 12:00	-	GILT		 # Gilbert Is Time
Zone Pacific/Enderbury	-11:24:20 -	LMT	1901
			-12:00	-	PHOT	1979 Oct # Phoenix Is Time
			-11:00	-	PHOT	1995
			 13:00	-	PHOT
Zone Pacific/Kiritimati	-10:29:20 -	LMT	1901
			-10:40	-	LINT	1979 Oct # Line Is Time
			-10:00	-	LINT	1995
			 14:00	-	LINT

# N Mariana Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Saipan	 9:43:00 -	LMT	1901
			 9:00	-	MPT	1969 Oct # N Mariana Is Time
			10:00	-	MPT

# Marshall Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Majuro	11:24:48 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct # Marshall Islands Time
			12:00	-	MHT
Zone Pacific/Kwajalein	11:09:20 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	MHT	1969 Oct
			-12:00	-	KWAT	1993 Aug 20	# Kwajalein Time
			12:00	-	MHT

# Micronesia
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Yap	9:12:32	-	LMT	1901		# Colonia
			9:00	-	YAPT	1969 Oct	# Yap Time
			10:00	-	YAPT
Zone Pacific/Truk	10:07:08 -	LMT	1901
			10:00	-	TRUT			# Truk Time
Zone Pacific/Ponape	10:32:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kolonia
			11:00	-	PONT			# Ponape Time
Zone Pacific/Kosrae	10:51:56 -	LMT	1901
			11:00	-	PONT	1969 Oct
			12:00	-	KOST			# Kosrae Time

# Nauru
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Nauru	11:07:40 -	LMT	1921 Jan 15	# Uaobe
			11:30	-	NRT	1942 Mar 15	# Nauru Time
			9:00	-	JST	1944 Aug 15
			11:30	-	NRT	1979 May
			12:00	-	NRT

# New Caledonia
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	NC	1977	1978	-	Dec	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	NC	1978	1979	-	Feb	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	NC	1996	only	-	Dec	 1	2:00s	1:00	S
Rule	NC	1997	only	-	Mar	 2	2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Noumea	11:05:48 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13
			11:00	NC	NC%sT


###############################################################################

# New Zealand

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# Shanks gives 1927 Nov 6 - 1928 Mar 4, 1928 Oct 14 - 1929 Mar 17,
# 1929 Oct 13 - 1930 Mar 16; go with Whitman.
Rule	NZ	1927	only	-	Nov	26	2:00	0:30	HD
Rule	NZ	1928	1929	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00	0	S
Rule	NZ	1928	only	-	Nov	 4	2:00	0:30	HD
Rule	NZ	1929	only	-	Oct	30	2:00	0:30	HD
Rule	NZ	1930	1933	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00	0	S
Rule	NZ	1930	1933	-	Oct	Sun>=8	2:00	0:30	HD
# Whitman says DST went on and off during war years, and the base UT offset
# didn't change until 1945 Apr 30; go with Shanks.
Rule	NZ	1934	1940	-	Apr	lastSun	2:00	0	S
Rule	NZ	1934	1939	-	Sep	lastSun	2:00	0:30	HD
Rule	NZ	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1975	1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1989	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	D
Rule	NZ	1975	only	-	Feb	23	2:00s	0	S
Rule	NZ	1976	1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	S
Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	S
Rule	Chatham	1990	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:45s	1:00	D
Rule	Chatham	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:45s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Auckland	11:39:04 -	LMT	1868
			11:30	NZ	NZ%sT	1940 Sep 29 2:00
			12:00	NZ	NZ%sT
Zone Pacific/Chatham	12:45	Chatham	CHA%sT


# Auckland Is
# uninhabited

# Campbell I
# minor whaling stations operated 1909-14
# scientific station operated 1941-1995
# was probably like Pacific/Auckland

###############################################################################


# Niue
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Niue	-11:19:40 -	LMT	1901		# Alofi
			-11:20	-	NUT	1951	# Niue Time
			-11:30	-	NUT	1978 Oct 1
			-11:00	-	NUT

# Norfolk
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Norfolk	11:11:52 -	LMT	1901		# Kingston
			11:12	-	NMT	1951	# Norfolk Mean Time
			11:30	-	NFT		# Norfolk Time

# Palau
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Palau	8:57:56 -	LMT	1901		# Koror
			9:00	-	PWT	# Palau Time

# Papua New Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -	LMT	1880
			9:48:40	-	PMMT	1895	# Port Moresby Mean Time
			10:00	-	PGT		# Papua New Guinea Time

# Pitcairn
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Pitcairn	-8:40:20 -	LMT	1901		# Adamstown
			-8:30	-	PNT	# Pitcairn Time

# American Samoa
Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago	 12:37:12 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
			-11:22:48 -	LMT	1911
			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa

# W Samoa
Zone Pacific/Apia	 12:33:04 -	LMT	1879 Jul  5
			-11:26:56 -	LMT	1911
			-11:30	-	SAMT	1950		# Samoa Time
			-11:00	-	WST			# W Samoa Time

# Solomon Is
# excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -	LMT	1912 Oct	# Honiara
			11:00	-	SBT	# Solomon Is Time

# Tokelau Is
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Fakaofo	-11:24:56 -	LMT	1901
			-10:00	-	TKT	# Tokelau Time

# Tonga
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Tongatapu	12:19:20 -	LMT	1901
			12:20	-	TOT	1968 Oct # Tonga Time
			13:00	-	TOT

# Tuvalu
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Funafuti	11:56:52 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	TVT	# Tuvalu Time


# US minor outlying islands

# Howland, Baker
# uninhabited since World War II
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Pago_Pago

# Jarvis
# uninhabited since 1958
# no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati

# Johnston
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Pacific/Johnston	-10:00	-	HST

# Kingman
# uninhabited

# Midway
Zone Pacific/Midway	-11:49:28 -	LMT	1901
			-11:00	-	NST	1967 Apr	# N=Nome
			-11:00	-	BST	1983 Nov 30	# B=Bering
			-11:00	-	SST			# S=Samoa

# Palmyra
# uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati

# Wake
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Wake	11:06:28 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	WAKT	# Wake Time


# Vanuatu
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Vanuatu	1983	only	-	Sep	25	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1984	1991	-	Mar	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Vanuatu	1984	only	-	Oct	23	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1985	1991	-	Sep	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
Rule	Vanuatu	1992	1993	-	Jan	Sun>=23	0:00	0	-
Rule	Vanuatu	1992	only	-	Oct	Sun>=23	0:00	1:00	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Efate	11:13:16 -	LMT	1912 Jan 13		# Vila
			11:00	Vanuatu	VU%sT	# Vanuatu Time

# Wallis and Futuna
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Pacific/Wallis	12:15:20 -	LMT	1901
			12:00	-	WFT	# Wallis & Futuna Time

###############################################################################

# NOTES

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1996-11-22):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (4th edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1995).
#
# Gwillim Law <LAW@encmail.encompass.com> writes that a good source
# for recent time zone data is the International Air Transport
# Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
# published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
# of the IATA's data after 1990.
#
# Except where otherwise noted, Shanks is the source for entries through 1990,
# and IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
# Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#	  8:00	WST WST	Western Australia
#	  9:00	JST	Japan
#	  9:30	CST CST	Central Australia
#	 10:00	EST EST	Eastern Australia
#	 10:00	GST	Guam
#	 10:30	LHST LHST Lord Howe*
#	 12:00	NZST NZDT New Zealand
#	 12:45	CHAST CHADT Chatham*
#	-11:00	SST	Samoa
#	-10:00	HST	Hawaii
#
# See the `northamerica' file for Hawaii.
# See the `southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galapagos Is.

###############################################################################

# Australia

# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
# We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as `daylight' time.
# It is called `summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, `summer'
# and `standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
# abbreviation does _not_ change...
# The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
# in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
# initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
# the phrase `summer time' and does not use the phrase `daylight
# time'.
# Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
# Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases `Eastern Standard Time'
# or `Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
# current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
# on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
# prefixed by the word `Australian' when referring to local times;
# time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.

# From Arthur David Olson (March 8 1992):
# Given the above, what's chosen for year-round use is:
#	CST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 9:30
#	WST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 8:00
#	EST	for any place operating at a GMTOFF of 10:00

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand.
# Mark Prior <mrp@itd.adelaide.edu.au> writes that his newspaper
# reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
# but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
# and perhaps the newspaper's `2:00' is referring to standard time.
# For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.

# From Eric Ulevik <eau@zip.com.au> (1998-01-05):
# 
# Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
# and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
# relevant entries in this database.
# 
# NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html">
# Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
# </a>
# ACT
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html">
# Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
# </a>
# SA
# <a href="http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html">
# Standard Time Act, 1898
# </a>

# Northern Territory

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
# #	N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
# ...
# Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.

# Western Australia

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
# #	W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
# #	DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
# #	usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
# #	before reaching parliament.
# ...
# Zone	Australia/West		8:00	AW	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AW	1974	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AW	1975	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W
# Rule	AW	1983	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AW	1984	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	W

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.

# From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
# Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
# rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
# work at 9.00am.)
# W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
# everybody again.

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
# it matches what was used in the past.

# Queensland
# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
# #						[ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/Queensland	10:00	AQ	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AQ	1971	only	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AQ	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AQ	1989	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AQ	1990	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E

# From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
# "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
# October 1989).

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
# I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
# end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
# me.)

# From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
# ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
# in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
# ...
# Rule	QLD	1989	1991	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	QLD	1990	1992	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
# ...

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.

# South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The rules from version 7.1 follow.
# There are lots of differences between these rules and
# the Shepherd et al. rules.  Since the Shepherd et al. rules
# and Bradley White's newspaper article are in agreement on
# current DST ending dates, no worries.
#
# Rule	Oz	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	-
# Rule	Oz	1986	max	-	Oct	Sun<=24	2:00	1:00	-
# Rule	Oz	1972	only	-	Feb	27	3:00	0	-
# Rule	Oz	1973	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	-
# Rule	Oz	1987	max	-	Mar	Sun<=21	3:00	0	-
# Zone	Australia/Tasmania	10:00	Oz	EST
# Zone	Australia/South		9:30	Oz	CST
# Zone	Australia/Victoria	10:00	Oz	EST	1985 Oct lastSun 2:00
#				10:00	1:00	EST	1986 Mar Sun<=21 3:00
#				10:00	Oz	EST

# From Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# I believe that the current start date for DST is "lastSun" in Oct...
# that changed Oct 89.  That is, we're back to the
# original rule, and that rule currently applies in all the states
# that have dst, incl Qld.  (Certainly it was true in Vic).
# The file I'm including says that happened in 1988, I think
# that's incorrect, but I'm not 100% certain.

# South Australia

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
# at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/South		9:30	AS	%sST
# ...
# Rule	 AS	1971	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	 AS	1972	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C
# Rule	 AS	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun<=21	3:00	0	C
# Rule	 AS	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	C

# From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
# Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
# contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
# South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."

# From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
# I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
# South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
# numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
# is on...

# From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
# DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
# But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
# (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).

# From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
# If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
# 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
# only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....

# From John Warburton <jwarb@SACBH.com.au> (1994-10-07):
# The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
# was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
# start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.

# Tasmania

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...Tasmania will revert to Australian Eastern Standard Time on March 31...

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
# #					[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/Tasmania	10:00	AT	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AT	1967	only	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1968	only	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1968	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1969	1971	-	Mar	Sun>=8	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1973	1981	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1982	1983	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1984	1986	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1986	only	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1987	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AT	1987	only	-	Oct	Sun>=22	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1988	1990	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1991	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AT	1991	max	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	E

# From Bill Hart via Alexander Dupuy and Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
# My state Government in there eagerness to get a few more bucks for the
# tourist industry industry decided to change the daylight savings times
# yet again (we now have almost 6 months per year)...
# ...
# Rule  Oz      1986    1990    -       Oct     Sun<=24 2:00    1:00    -
# Rule  Oz      1991    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    -
# ...
# Rule  Oz      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun<=21 3:00    0       -
# Rule  Oz      1991    max     -       Mar     Sun<=31 3:00    0       -

# From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
# Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
# 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
# (but nothing new about that).

# Victoria

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# ...Victoria...[has] agreed to end daylight saving at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
# #						[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Zone	Australia/Victoria	10:00	AV	%sST
# ...
# Rule	AV	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AV	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AV	1973	1985	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AV	1986	1990	-	Mar	Sun>=15	3:00	0	E
# Rule	AV	1986	1987	-	Oct	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AV	1988	max	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	AV	1991	max	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	E

# New South Wales

# From Arthur David Olson:
# New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
# Based on law library research by John Mackin (john@basser.cs.su.oz),
# who notes:
#	In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
#	individual states.  Thus, while such terms as ``Eastern Standard Time''
#	[I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
#	use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
#	legislation.  This is very important to understand.
#	I have researched New South Wales time only...

# From Dave Davey (1990-03-03):
# Rule	NSW	1988	only	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	-
# Rule	NSW	1989	only	-	Mar	Sun<=21	3:00	0	-

# From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
# A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
# NSW...[has] agreed to end daylight saving at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The state of NEW SOUTH WALES.. [confirmed by Attorney General's Dept N.S.W]
# #					[ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
# Rule	 AN	1988	1989	-	Mar	Sun<=21	3:00	0	E
# ...

# From John Mackin (1991-03-09)
# I have confirmed the accuracy of the historical data for NSW in the
# file Robert forwarded

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# Sources differ on whether DST ended March 6 or March 20 in 1988;
# March 20 (the "confirmed" date) is in the chosen rules.

# From Bradley White (1995-05-20):
# Prem Bob Carr announced NSW will fall into line with other E states
# and SA and continue daylight savings to the last Sun in Mar.

# From Eric Ulevik <eau@ozemail.com.au> (1997-06-12):
# The NSW state government in Australia is talking about bringing the start
# of daylight savings time forward in the year 2000 to cater for the Olympics.
# This is going to take some time to be negotiated, because the plan is to do
# this in multiple states due to soccer games (which are not just in Sydney).

# Yancowinna

# From John Basser (1989-01-04):
# `Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
# #					[ Dec 1990 ]
# ...
# # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
# # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
# # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
# # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
# # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
# # presently available.
# Zone	Australia/Yancowinna	9:30	 AY	%sST
# ...
# Rule	 AY	1971	1985	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	 AY	1972	only	-	Feb	lastSun	3:00	0	C
# [followed by other Rules]

# Lord Howe Island

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# LHI...		[ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen.. pauline@Aus ]
#					[ Dec 1990 ]
# Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
# hour ahead of NSW time.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
# For Lord Howe we use Shanks through 1991.
# Lord Howe is part of NSW, so we'll guess it has used the same transition
# times as NSW since 1991, even though Shanks writes that Lord Howe went
# with Victoria when NSW and Victoria disagreed in 1982.

###############################################################################

# New Zealand, from Elz' asia 1.1
# Elz says "no guarantees"

# From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
# the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
# This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
# subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
# source -- phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.

# From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
# # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
# #				   or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
# #	[ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Geofft@Aus.. Auckland N.Z. ]
# #				[ Nov 1990 ]
# ...
# Rule	NZ      1974    1988	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	NZ	1989	max	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	D
# Rule	NZ      1975    1989	-	Mar	Sun>=1	3:00	0	S
# Rule	NZ	1990	max	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	0	S
# ...
# Zone	NZ			12:00	NZ		NZ%sT	# New Zealand
# Zone	NZ-CHAT			12:45	-		NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island

# From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
# The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
# rather than the October 1 value.

# From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
# Shanks reports 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and New Zealand.
# Robert Uzgalis <buz@cs.aukuni.ac.nz> writes that the New Zealand Daylight
# Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
# time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
# As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
#
# From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
# Shanks gives no data for Chatham; usno1989 says it's +12:45,
# usno1995 says it's +12:45/+13:45, and IATA SSIM (1991/1996)
# gives the NZ rules but with transitions at 2:45 local standard time.
# Guess that they adopted DST in 1990.

###############################################################################

# Fiji

# Howse writes (p 162) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
# enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on +12:00.
# Perhaps it didn't take.  We go with Shanks's more precise date in 1915.

# Johnston

# Johnston data is from usno1995.

# Kiribati

# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
# ``declared it the same day throught the country as of Jan. 1, 1995''
# as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.

# Kwajalein

# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.

# N Mariana Is, Guam

# Howse writes (p 162) ``The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
# Philippines and the Ladrones from America,'' and implies that the Ladrones
# (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
# Ignore this for now, as we have no hard data.  See also Asia/Manila.

# Micronesia

# Alan Eugene Davis <adavis@kuentos.guam.net> writes (1996-03-16),
# ``I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that "Truk"
# (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10.''
#
# Shanks writes that Truk switched from GMT+10 to GMT+11 on 1978-10-01;
# ignore this for now.

# Samoa

# Howse writes that in 1879 the King of Samoa decided to change
# ``the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
# ordaining -- by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery -- that
# the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year.''

# Tonga

# From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
# Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that ``Tonga has been plotting
# to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time.''
# Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.