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# @(#)europe	7.31

# This data is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
# go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
# tz@elsie.nci.nih.gov for general use in the future).

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (1995-12-19):
# A good source for time zone historical data outside the U.S. is
# Thomas G. Shanks, The International Atlas (3rd edition),
# San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (1991).
# Except where otherwise noted, it is the source for the data below.
#
# Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
# Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
# I found in the UCLA library.
#
# I invented the abbreviations marked `*' in the following table;
# the rest are from earlier versions of this file, or from other sources.
# The starred Russian names are dubious.  Corrections are welcome!
#		std dst
#		LMT	Local Mean Time
#		LST	Local Star Time (Russian ``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'')
#	-4:00	AST	Atlantic
#	-3:00	WGT+DST	Western Greenland*
#	-2:00	MGT+DST	Middle Greenland*
#	-1:00	EGT+DST	Eastern Greenland*
#	-1:00	ACT+DST	Azores and Canaries*
#	-1:00	IST IDT	Iceland (no longer used)*
#	 0:00	GMT BST Greenwich, British Summer
#	 0:00	WET+DST Western Europe
#	 1:00	MET+DST Middle Europe
#	 2:00	EET+DST Eastern Europe
#	 3:00	MSK MSD	Moscow
#	 3:00	TUR+DST	Turkey (no longer used)*
#	 4:00	KSK KSD	Kuybyshev (was 3:00)*
#	 5:00	ESK ESD	Yekaterinburg (was 4:00) (was SSK, SSD)*
#	 6:00	OSK OSD	Omsk (was 5:00)*
#	 6:00	NSK NSD	Novosibirsk (was 7:00)
#	 7:00	TSK TSD	Tomsk (was 6:00)*
#	 8:00	ISK ISD	Irkutsk (was 7:00)*
#	 9:00	YSK YSD	Yakutsk (was 8:00)*
#	10:00	VSK VSD	Vladivostok (was 9:00)*
#	11:00	MSK MSD	Magadan (was 10:00)*
#	12:00	PSK PSD	Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski (was 11:00)*
#	13:00	ASK ASD	Anadyr (was 12:00)*
#
# See the `africa' file for Zone naming conventions.
#
# A reliable and entertaining source about time zones, especially in Britain,
# is Derek Howse, Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude,
# Oxford University Press (1980).

# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
# LST is Local Star Time (``mestnoe zvezdnoe vremya'').

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (December 4, 1994),
# The original six [EU members]: Belgium, France, (West) Germany, Italy,
# Luxembourg, the Netherlands.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 73: Denmark, Ireland, United Kingdom.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 81: Greece.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 86: Spain, Portugal.
# Plus, from 1 Jan 95: Austria, Finland, Sweden. (Norway negotiated terms for
# entry but in a referendum on 28 Nov 94 the people voted No by 52.2% to 47.8%
# on a turnout of 88.6%. This was almost the same result as Norway's previous
# referendum in 1972, they are the only country to have said No twice.
# Referendums in the other three countries voted Yes.)
# ...
# Estonia ... uses EU dates but not at 01:00 GMT, they use midnight GMT.
# I don't think they know yet what they will do from 1996 onwards.
# ...
# There shouldn't be any [current members who are not using EU rules].
# A Directive has the force of law, member states are obliged to enact
# national law to implement it. The only contentious issue was the
# different end date for the UK and Ireland, and this was always allowed
# in the Directive.

###############################################################################

# United Kingdom

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (July 6, 1994):
#
# On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
# historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
# and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
# of the text said:
#
# `An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
# beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longditude
# was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
# this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
# made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
# but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
# along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
#
# I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
# position is 51 deg. 28' 30" N, 0 deg. 18' 45" W. The longditude should
# be within about +-2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
#
# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
#
# Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
# The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
# and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
# The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828);
# it was popularized in 1840 by Capt. Basil Hall, RN (1788-1844),
# famed explorer and former Commissioner for Longitude.
# The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
# in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
# (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847 Sep 22 the
# Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
# adopted at all stations; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists most major
# railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
# clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the Great Clock
# in Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
# one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
# system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading
# to oddities like polls opening at 08:13 and closing at 16:13.
# The legal system finally switched to GMT when the Statutes (Definition
# of Time) Act took effect; it received the Royal Assent on 1880 Aug 2.
#
# In the tables below, we condense this complicated story into a single
# transition date for London, namely 1847 Sep 22.  We don't know as much
# about Dublin, so we use 1880 Aug 2, the legal transition time.

# From Arthur David Olson (January 19, 1989):
#
# A source at the British Information Office in New York avers that it's
# known as "British" Summer Time in all parts of the United Kingdom.

# Date: 4 Jan 89 08:57:25 GMT (Wed)
# From: Jonathan Leffler <nih-csl!uunet!mcvax!sphinx.co.uk!john>
# [British Summer Time] is fixed annually by Act of Parliament.
# If you can predict what Parliament will do, you should be in
# politics making a fortune, not computing.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
#
# Our Government...couldn't...make a decision after the 1989 consultation
# exercise about the UK changing its timezone so it just let things drift
# (different from deciding to keep the status quo).  According to the
# Summer Time Order 1992 (SI 1992/1729) the dates of Summer Time for 1993
# and 1994 are:
#	Start		End
# 1993	28 March	24 October
# 1994	27 March	23 October
# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT.
#
# There [was] an error in your tables for the start and end times prior to 1981.
# The UK always used to change at 02:00 GMT. In 1981 it changed to 01:00 GMT
# as a part of EC harmonisation and has remained at that time since.
#
# I have found the default algorithm for UK Summer Time, it is in the
# Summer Time Act 1972. Section 1 states that in the absence of an Order
# in Council Summer Time starts at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day
# after the third Saturday in March, unless that day is Easter Day, in
# which case it is the morning of the day after the second Saturday.
# It ends at 02:00 GMT on the morning of the day after the fourth Saturday
# in October. (All the redundant `morning of the day ...' is in the Act.)
# This is only of passing interest now as it will always be overridden by
# an Order in Council (a Statutary Instrument, the SI thing mentioned above)
# to specify the EC specified dates.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 18, 1993):
#
# My contact in the Ministry of Defence Public Relations department
# accepted the challenge of looking into this and produced the following,
# from Hansard (the official record of the UK Parliament), Oral Answers,
# 1 March 1945, cols 1559--60:
#
# `58. Major Sir Goronwy Owen asked the Secretary of State for the Home
# Department if he is now able to state the Government's proposals
# regarding double summer time.
#
# [two other similar questions omitted]
#
# Mr. H. Morrison: The Government, in reviewing the matter, have
# considered, [...] the conclusion has been reached that the adoption of
# double summer time from the beginning of April is essential to the
# maintenance of the war effort. [...] As 1st April is Easter Sunday,
# when very early services are held in many churches, it is proposed that
# double summer time shall start not in the night preceding Easter
# Sunday, but in the night of Sunday- Monday so that it will operate from
# Monday, 2nd April.'

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (September 3, 1993):
#
# > # Current rules
# > Rule GB-Eire 1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00s	1:00	BST
# > Rule GB-Eire 1981	max	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00s	0	GMT
#
# The ending rule here doesn't match the EC rules, which specify the fourth
# Sunday in October for the UK and Eire. The `fourth Sunday' rule wasn't
# followed in 1989, but then the sixth EC directive wasn't in force then
# and I don't know what previous ones said. 1995 is the next year with
# the 4th Sun on 22 Oct, but that year isn't covered by the UK Summer Time
# Order or the sixth EC directive. Your Oct Sun>=23 rule matches history
# and with things only announced for 2 years or so in advance who knows
# what will happen.
#
# There are renewed rumours that the Government here will make another
# attempt at resolving this issue, which is what prompted me to start
# asking the Home Office and the EC about it again. The EC categorically
# state they are not asking anybody to change timezone, they only want
# common start/end dates. The UK Govt. seem to want to change our zone
# and blame the resulting fuss on the EC. Me, I think we should scrap
# summer time completely, noon is when the Sun is overhead, and that should
# be the end of it.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 22, 1993):
#
# I now have the text of the Summer Time Act 1916, the granddaddy of them all.
# It is headed: `An Act to provide for the Time in Great Britain and Ireland
# being in advance of Greenwich and Dublin mean time respectively in the
# summer months'.
#
# It specifies 21 May and 1 October for 1916 (both at 02:00 GMT) and whatever
# dates an Order in Council may specify for subsequent years.
#
# Section 4 states: `This act shall apply to Ireland in like manner as it
# applies to Great Britain, with the substitution however of references
# to Dublin mean time for references to Greenwich mean time.'
#
# Lorna, my learned legal friend who supplied it, also offers this quote
# from Halsbury's Statutes on the extent of Acts:
#
# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
#
# She goes on to say the seminal event of 1922 was the establishment of
# the Irish Free State, now called Eire.
#
# The Act doesn't say anything about Wales (or Scotland) so I would assert
# that Shanks is wrong here. I would like to know why he thinks Wales
# was different.
#
# It also confirms the fact that Ireland followed Dublin time back then,
# and 25 minutes behind Greenwich, as Shanks has it, would be correct.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 28, 1993):
#
# I now have before me, thanks to my learned legal friend Lorna, the text of
# the Time (Ireland) Act 1916.
#
# It says that as from 2 AM Dublin Mean Time on 1 October 1916 the time
# for general purposes in Ireland shall be the same as the rest of Great
# Britain (ie. GMT with the Summer Time periods specified by the Summer Time
# Act 1916)....  As Ireland was behind GMT/BST at 02:00 DMT on 1 Oct GB would
# have already put the clocks back. Using DST as Dublin Summer Time the
# sequence would have been:
# Dublin		London
# 02:34 DST	02:59 BST
# 02:35 DST	02:00 GMT
# 02:59 DST	02:24 GMT
# 02:25 GMT	02:25 GMT
# with the transition 03:00 DST -> 02:00 DMT -> 02:25 GMT all at once.
#
# In a table of repeals in the Schedule to the Act it mentions the
# Statutes (Definition of Time) Act 1880. This is presumably the source
# of the 1880 date in Shanks.  The little bit of it that is repealed
# also refers solely to Ireland and Dublin Mean Time.

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (October 29, 1993):
#
# My case is that, with the sole exception of Ireland in 1916 using Dublin
# Mean Time, Summer Time has been uniform throughout the United Kingdom
# ever since it first started in 1916.
#
# The United Kingdom is England, Wales and Scotland plus all of Ireland from
# 1916 up to and including 1921, or plus Northern Ireland from 1922 to date.
#
# The dates used are those specified in the table in Summer Time: A Consultation
# Document (Cm 722, 1989) that are now included in the europe file, with a
# change to a single date, the start in 1924. I made a typo in my 1989 mail
# and the table itself is also wrong.  The correct date is 13 April.
# The times were 02:00 GMT up to and including 1980, 01:00 GMT from 1981 on,
# except for wartime double summer time.
#
# As evidence I would cite:
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1916.
#
# This specifically states that it applies to Ireland, specifies dates of
# 21 May and 1 October and times of 02:00, and says that in Ireland the
# times relate to Dublin mean time. It specifies an offset of 1 hour.
#
# - The Time (Ireland) Act, 1916
#
# This abolishes Dublin mean time on 02:00 DMT 1 October 1916.
# It repeals that section of the Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880
# that specifies DMT. It is therefore a safe bet that DMT existed at least
# from 1880 and was the only alternative standard time in the UK.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1922
#
# This specifies an offset of 1 hour and dates of the day after the third
# Saturday in April, unless that be Easter, in which case it is the day after
# the second Saturday, and the day after the third Saturday in September.
# The time is 02:00 GMT. It applied in 1922 and 1923, and longer if Parliament
# so approved.
#
# It specifically states that it applies to Northern Ireland, the Channel
# Islands, and the Isle of Man.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1925
#
# This makes the 1922 Act permanent, with a change to the end date to the
# day after the first Saturday in October. It says nothing about extent,
# so that part of the 1922 Act will still apply.
#
# - The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939, SR&O 1939 No. 1379
#   [SR&O == Statutary Regulation and Order]
#
# These were made under the Emergency Powers (Defence) Act, 1939.
# It changes the end date to be the day after the third Saturday in November.
# It makes consequential changes to some vehicle lighting legislation,
# which includes the Motor Vehicles and Road Traffic (Northern Ireland) Act,
# 1934, so it seems clear it applies in Northern Ireland.
#
# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
#   1939, SR&O 1940 No. 1883
#
# This continues summer time throughout the year after it starts in 1940.
# It says nothing about extent and has no consequential changes.
#
# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
#   1939, SR&O 1941 No. 476
#
# This introduces double summer time, starting at 01:00 GMT on the day after
# the first Saturday in May and ending at 01:00 GMT on the day after the
# second Saturday in August, offset another hour from normal summer time,
# which continues throughout the rest of the year. It goes on a lot about
# consequential changes to agricultural wages legislation, and says in part
# `... and in its application to Northern Ireland have effect as
# if for the references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation) Acts, 1924 and
# 1940, there were substituted references to the Agricultural Wages (Regulation)
# Acts (Northern Ireland), 1939 and 1940, ...'. It also has a similar section
# for Scotland. Both sections substitute the local Agricultural Wages Board
# for the Agricultural Wages Board for England and Wales, showing that
# England and Wales were indivisible.
#
# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
#   1939, SR&O 1942 No. 506
#
# This changes the start date of double summer time to the day after the first
# Saturday in April. It says nothing about extent.
#
# - An Order in Council amending the The Defence (Summer Time) Regulations,
#   1939, SR&O 1944 No. 932
#
# This changed the end date of double summer time to 17 September 1944.
# (I don't have the text of this, just a note of what it did, the text almost
# certainly had the `day after the nth Saturday' form.)
#
# (I am missing whatever regulations there were to change things in 1945
# and the Summer Time Act, 1947.)
#
# - The British Standard Time Act, 1968
#
# This came into force on 27 October 1968 and continued summer time throughout
# the year as an experiment until it expired on 31 October 1971.
# There was no double summer time so we didn't have to change the clocks at all.
# It specifically said it applied to Northern Ireland. It also said it
# applied to Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man unless they passed
# measures saying it didn't.
#
# - The Manx Time Act, 1968
#
# This is an Act of Tynwald (the Isle of Man Parliament) that said that
# henceforth Manx time would be the same as the time in Great Britain.
#
# - The Summer Time Act, 1972
#
# This specified a reversion to normal summer time behaviour with a start
# date of the day after the third Saturday in March, unless that is Easter,
# when it is the day after the second Saturday, and an end date of the day
# after the fourth Saturday in October. Times are at 02:00 GMT, offset is
# 1 hour.
#
# It has the same wording about extent as the British Standard Time Act, 1968,
# applying to Northern Ireland unconditionally and to Jersey, Guernsey and the
# Isle of Man if they don't do something about it.
#
# (I am missing various Summer Time Orders that modified the 1972 Act to
# harmonise with the EC since 1981. The major change is that the time changes
# to 01:00 GMT.)
#
# - The Summer Time Order, 1992, SI 1992/1729 [SI == Statutary Instrument]
#
# This specifies dates of:
#       Start       End
# 1993  28 March    24 October
# 1994  27 March    23 October
# All start and end times are at 01:00 GMT....
#
# - Some text on the extent of Acts, from Halsbury's Statutes
#
# `An Act of the United Kingdom Parliament is to be construed prima facie
# to apply to the whole of the United Kingdom and not to any place outside.
# [...] The expression "United Kingdom" for this purpose includes (since
# 1922) Great Britain (ie. England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland,
# but it does not include the Channel Islands or the Isle of Man.'
#
# So, many of these measures specifically include Northern Ireland,
# the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. None of them exclude any
# part of the UK. The default interpretation of Acts is that they apply
# throughout the UK.
#
# With that, I rest my case Milud :-)
#
# Thanks are due to my learned legal friend Lorna Montgomerie, who dug out
# the dusty old statutes, and to Melanie Allison of the Ministry of Defence,
# who provided the wartime regulations and a snippet of Hansard explaining
# why double summer time started on a Monday in 1945 (it was Easter).

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (November 18, 1993)
#
# Here is a revised version of my tabrules file for the perl script I sent
# before. I have personally verified the various Orders back to 1953 and
# all the Acts.
#
# There are no changes to the dates we already have.
#
# My doubt about an early start in 1967 on 18 Feb was misplaced, the Order
# does say 18 Feb. This is an interesting case as the first Order gave a
# different date of 7 April 1967 for the Isle of Man but this was changed
# before it came into effect by another Order for the Isle of Man alone.
#
# I don't think I will be able to find any more of the earlier Orders.
# The annual volumes for 1949--52 do not contain the various Summer Time
# Orders. They therefore don't appear in the index. They rate a mention in
# italics in the numerical list at the start but that is all.
# I think what happens is that the annual volume is produced well after the
# end of the year in question, by which time the Summer Time Order is spent.
# They assume that nobody would ever be stupid enough to want to see it
# again so they leave it out.
#
# It might be a good idea to put this table, or the output of tabscript
# showing all the moves because of Easter, in the europe file comments in
# place of my old transcription of the Green Paper table [the UK Government
# paper "Summer Time: A Consultation Document" (HMSO Cm722 June 1989)].
#
#		Peter Ilieve		peter@memex.co.uk
#
#
# ## control file for tabscript, a program to generate UK summer time dates
# ## matching the table in Cm 722, the 1989 Green Paper.
# ## Lines like this are comments.
# ## Lines with a single # at the start are copied into the output
# ## Control lines are of the form
# ## <years> <start date> <end date> <flags> <double start> <double end>
# ## <years> is either a single year or a hyphen separated range, with --
# ## also accepted as I use this in TeX a lot.
# ## <start date> and <end date> are a digit followed bu a month name.
# ## It is either an nth Saturday or an explicit date, depending on <flags>.
# ## 0 and/or none are used when there is no date, as during 1968--71.
# ## <flags> can contain `fixed' to indicate explicit dates and `double'
# ## to indicate double summer time dates are present.
# ## At present double requires fixed as well.
# ## <double start> and <double end> are like the start and end dates, with
# ## the exception of the 0 and/or none feature.
#
# ## Blank lines are also ignored.
#
# ## Places where I am uncertain, not having personally verified the dates
# ## against the Act or Order, are marked ???
# ## These dates are taken from the Cm 722 table.
#
# # Summer Time Act, 1916
# 1916 21 May 1 October fixed
#
# ## I haven't yet looked for Orders for 1916--22 and I doubt I will find them.
# # unknown Order or Orders ???
# 1917 8 apr 17 sep fixed
# 1918 24 mar 30 sep fixed
# 1919 30 mar 29 sep fixed
# # end date extended in 1920 from 27 Sep because of coal strike (from Cm 722)
# 1920 28 mar 25 oct fixed
# 1921 3 apr 3 oct fixed
#
# # Summer Time Act, 1922
# # came into force 22 July 1922, too late for 1922, so missing Order ???
# 1922 26 mar 8 oct fixed
# 1923-1924 3 April 3 September
#
# # Summer Time Act, 1925
# 1925--1938 3 April 1 October
#
# # Defence (Summer Time) Regulations, 1939
# 1939 3 April 3 November
# # 1940 amendment (SR&O 1940 Nos. 172 & 1883)
# 1940 4 feb 0 none
# # 1941 amendment (SR&O 1941 No. 476)
# 1941 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 may 10 aug
# # 1942 amendment (SR&O 1942 No. 506)
# 1942 0 none 0 none fixed,double 5 apr 9 aug
# 1943 0 none 0 none fixed,double 4 apr 15 aug
# # 1944 amendment (SR&O 1944 No. 932)
# 1944 0 none 0 none fixed,double 2 apr 17 sep
# # 1945 dates from Hansard, Oral Answers, 1 March 1945
# 1945 0 none 7 oct fixed,double 2 apr 15 jul
#
# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
# 1946 3 April 1 October
#
# # Summer Time Act, 1947
# # Fixed dates for 1947 only, gives power to have double summer time
# 1947 16 mar 2 nov fixed,double 13 apr 10 aug
# ## I can't find any trace of the Order for 1948.
# # Unknown Order ???
# 1948 14 mar 31 oct fixed
# ## I know the numbers for the 1949--52 ones but the text is missing from the
# ## annual volumes. I also don't know if the 49 Order was for 49 or 50, etc.
# # Summer Time Order, 1949 (SI1949/373) ???
# 1949 3 apr 30 oct fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1950 (SI1950/518) ???
# 1950 16 apr 22 oct fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1951 (SI1951/430) ???
# 1951 15 apr 21 oct fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1952 (SI1952/451) ???
# 1952 20 apr 26 oct fixed
#
# # reversion to Summer Time Act, 1925
# 1953--1960 3 April 1 October
#
# ## All Orders from here on specify fixed dates, not day after nth Sunday
# ## Start pattern looks like Mar lastSun up to 1963, Mar Sun>=19 up to 1967.
# ## End pattern looks like Oct Sun>=23 up to 1967.
# # Summer Time Order, 1961 (SI1961/71)
# 1961 26 March 29 October fixed
# # Summer Time (1962) Order, 1961 (SI1961/2465)
# 1962 25 Mar 28 Oct fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1963 (SI1963/81)
# 1963 31 March 27 October fixed
# # Summer Time (1964) Order, 1963 (SI1963/2101)
# 1964 22 March 25 October fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1964 (SI1964/1201)
# 1965 21 Mar 24 Oct fixed
# 1966 20 Mar 23 Oct fixed
# 1967 19 Mar 29 Oct fixed
# # Summer Time Order, 1967 (SI1967/1148)
# # Specifies different start date of 7 April for Isle of Man
# # Summer Time Order, 1968 (SI1968/117)
# # Changes Isle of Man start date to 18 Feb to match rest of UK
# # British Standard Time Act, 1968
# 1968 18 feb 0 none fixed
# 1969--1970 0 none 0 none
# 1971 0 none 31 oct fixed
#
# # Summer Time Act, 1972
# 1972-1980 3 March 4 October
#
# # The pattern here looks like Last Sun in Mar, day after 4th Sat in Oct
# # First EC Directive ???
# # Summer Time Order, 1980 (SI1980/1089)
# 1981    29 Mar  25 Oct fixed
# 1982    28 Mar  24 Oct fixed
# # Second EC Directive ???
# # Summer Time Order, 1982 (SI1982/1673)
# 1983    27 Mar  23 Oct fixed
# 1984    25 Mar  28 Oct fixed
# 1985    31 Mar  27 Oct fixed
# # Third EC Directive ???
# # Summer Time Order, 1986 (SI1986/223)
# 1986    30 Mar  26 Oct fixed
# 1987    29 Mar  25 Oct fixed
# 1988    27 Mar  23 Oct fixed
# # Fourth EC Directive ???
# # Summer Time Order, 1988 (SI1988/931)
# 1989    26 Mar  29 Oct fixed
# # Fifth EC Directive ???
# # Summer Time Order, 1989 (SI1989/985)
# 1990    25 Mar  28 Oct fixed
# 1991    31 Mar  27 Oct fixed
# 1992    29 Mar  25 Oct fixed
# # Sixth EC Directive
# # Summer Time Order, 1992 (SI1992/1729)
# 1993    28 Mar  24 Oct fixed
# 1994    27 Mar  23 Oct fixed

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (August 18, 1994):
# I now have the text of the 7th EC directive on summer time arrangements
# (94/21/EC), which was approved on 30 May....
# The major changes from existing practice are that 1995 will be the last year
# that the UK and Eire finish on a different date from everyone else,
# and the common end date from 1996 onwards will be the last Sunday in October.
# Year	 Start		End		End (UK & Eire, 1995 only)
# (rule) (last Sun)	(last Sun)	(4th Sun)
# 1995	26 March	24 September	22 October
# 1996	31 March	27 October
# 1997	30 March	26 October
#
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-12-01):
# The final piece of the legislative jigsaw for summer time in the UK for
# 1995-97 is now in place.  The Summer Time Order 1994 (SI 1994/2798)
# came into force on 16 November.  It restates the dates from the EC
# seventh Summer Time Directive....

# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (March 28, 1994):
# The [GB-Eire] end date of 22 October [1995] conflicts with your current rule
# of Oct Sun>=23, and the historical UK formula of Sun after 4th Sat.
# The last time 4th Sun and Sun after 4th Sat differed was in 1989,
# when 29 October was used.  That year was covered by a UK Summer Time Order
# for only a single year and it looks as though there was a matching 4th EC
# directive for just this year.  I don't have the text of the 5th EC
# directive (for 1990--92) but my guess would be it said 4th Sun.
# To maintain strict historical accuracy you could start a new UK ending rule
# of Oct Sun>=22 in 1990.

# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (November 18, 1993):
#
# As Ilieve remarks, the date `20 April 1924' in the table of ``Summer Time: A
# Consultation Document'' (Cm 722, 1989) table is a transcription error;
# 20 April was an Easter Sunday.  Shanks has 13 April, the correct date.
# Also, the table is not quite right for 1925 through 1938; the correct rules
# (which Shanks uses) are given in the Summer Time Acts of 1922 and 1925.
# Shanks and the UK Government paper disagree about the Apr 1956 transition;
# since we have no other data, and since Shanks was correct in the other
# points of disagreement about London, we'll believe Shanks for now.
# Also, for lack of other data, we'll follow Shanks for Eire in 1940-1948.
#
# Given Peter Ilieve's comments, the following claims by Shanks are incorrect:
#     * Wales did not switch from GMT to daylight savings time until
#	1921 Apr 3, when they began to conform with the rest of Great Britain.
# Actually, Wales was identical after 1880.
#     * Eire had two transitions on 1916 Oct 1.
# It actually just had one transition.
#     * Northern Ireland used single daylight savings time throughout WW II.
# Actually, it conformed to Britain.
#
# The following claim by Shanks is possible though doubtful;
# we'll ignore it for now.
#     * Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man did not switch from GMT
#	to daylight savings time until 1921 Apr 3, when they began to
#	conform with Great Britain.
#
# Whitman says Dublin Mean Time was -0:25:21, which is more precise than Shanks.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	GB-Eire 1847	only	-	Sep	22	0:00	0	GMT
# 1916 to 1925--irregular
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	May	21	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Mar	24	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1918	only	-	Sep	30	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1919	only	-	Sep	29	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Mar	28	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1920	only	-	Oct	25	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1923	1924	-	Sep	Sun>=16	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1924	only	-	Apr	13	2:00s	1:00	BST
# 1925 to 1939 start--regular, except for avoiding Easter
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1926	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1925	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1927	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1928	1929	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1930	only	-	Apr	13	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1931	1932	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1933	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1934	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1935	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1936	1937	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1938	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# 1939 end to 1947--irregular, and with double summer time
Rule	GB-Eire	1939	only	-	Nov	19	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1940	only	-	Feb	25	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	only	-	May	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	DST
Rule	GB-Eire	1941	1943	-	Aug	Sun>=9	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1942	1944	-	Apr	Sun>=2	1:00s	2:00	DST
Rule	GB-Eire	1944	only	-	Sep	Sun>=16	1:00s	1:00	BST
# Double daylight starts on a Monday in 1945--see above.
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	1:00s	2:00	DST
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Jul	15	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1945	only	-	Oct	 7	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Mar	16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Apr	13	1:00s	2:00	DST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Aug	10	1:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1947	only	-	Nov	 2	2:00s	0	GMT
# So much for double saving time.  1948 and 1949, irregular.
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	only	-	Mar	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1948	1949	-	Oct	lastSun	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1949	only	-	Apr	 3	2:00s	1:00	BST
# 1950 through start of 1953, regular.
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1953	-	Apr	Sun>=14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1950	1952	-	Oct	Sun>=21	2:00s	0	GMT
# 1954 to 1980, starting rules
Rule	GB-Eire	1954	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1955	1956	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1957	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1958	1959	-	Apr	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1960	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1963	-	Mar	lastSun	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1964	1967	-	Mar	Sun>=19	2:00s	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Mar	Sun>=16	2:00s	1:00	BST
# 1953 to 1980, ending rules
Rule	GB-Eire	1953	1960	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1961	1967	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1971	only	-	Oct	31	3:00	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire	1972	1980	-	Oct	Sun>=23	2:00s	0	GMT
# 1981 on
Rule	GB-Eire	1981	1995	-	Mar	lastSun	1:00u	1:00	BST
Rule	GB-Eire 1981	1989	-	Oct	Sun>=23	1:00u	0	GMT
Rule	GB-Eire 1990	1995	-	Oct	Sun>=22	1:00u	0	GMT
# See EC for rules starting in 1996.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/London	-0:01:15 -	LMT	1847 Sep 22
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Feb 18 2:00
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 2:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EC	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Belfast	-0:23:40 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	DST	1916 Oct  1 3:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Feb 18 2:00
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 3:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EC	GMT/BST
Zone	Europe/Dublin	-0:25:21 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			-0:25:21 -	DMT	1916 May 21 2:00    # Dublin MT
			-0:25:21 1:00	DST	1916 Oct  1 3:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1940 Feb 25 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	BST	1946 Oct  6 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1947 Mar 16 2:00
			 0:00	1:00	BST	1947 Nov  2 2:00
			 0:00	-	GMT	1948 Apr 18 2:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1968 Feb 18 2:00
			 1:00	-	BST	1971 Oct 31 3:00
			 0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1996
			 0:00	EC	GMT/BST

###############################################################################

# Continental Europe

# EC rules are for the European Community.

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	EC	1800	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	EC	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00u	1:00	" DST"
Rule	EC	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EC	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EC	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-
Rule	EC	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00u	1:00	" DST"
Rule	EC	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00u	0	-

# W-Eur differs from EC only in that W-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	W-Eur	1800	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	W-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	W-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	W-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-

# Older M-Eur rules are for convenience in the tables.
# From 1977 on, M-Eur differs from EC only in that M-Eur uses standard time.
Rule	M-Eur	1800	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1916	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1917	1918	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1917	1918	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1940	only	-	Apr	 1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Shanks says DST was continuous from 1940 Apr 1 to 1942 Nov 2; go with Whitman.
Rule	M-Eur	1940	only	-	Dec	31	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1941	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1941	only	-	Oct	 5	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1942	only	-	Jan	 1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	M-Eur	1944	only	-	Oct	 2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1977	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1977	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1979	1995	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	M-Eur	1981	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	M-Eur	1996	max	-	Oct	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-

# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Russia	1880	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Jul	 1	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Russia	1917	only	-	Dec	28	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	May	31	22:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Russia	1918	only	-	Sep	17	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	May	31	23:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Russia	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	K
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	D
# Shanks gives 1921 Mar 21 for the following transition.
# From Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su> (November 12, 1993):
# My sources says, that it is Mar 20, not 21.
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Mar	20	23:00	2:00	DD
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Russia	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	K
Rule	Russia	1981	1984	-	Apr	 1	 0:00	1:00	D
Rule	Russia	1981	1983	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	K
Rule	Russia	1984	max	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	K
Rule	Russia	1985	max	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	D

# These are for backward compatibility with older versions.

# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	WET		0:00	EC	WET%s
Zone	MET		1:00	M-Eur	MET%s
Zone	EET		2:00	EC	EET%s

# Tom Hoffman says that MET is also known as Central European Time

Link	MET	CET

# Albania
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Albania	1940	only	-	Jun	16	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Mar	29	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1943	only	-	Apr	10	3:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1974	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1975	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1976	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	May	 8	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1977	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	May	 6	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	May	 5	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	May	 3	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1980	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Apr	26	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1981	only	-	Sep	27	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	May	 2	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1982	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1983	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Albania	1984	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tirane	1:19:20 -	LMT	1914
			1:00	-	MET	1940 Jun 16
			1:00	Albania	MET%s	1985 Mar 31 1:00
			1:00	W-Eur	MET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Andorra
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Andorra	0:06:04 -	LMT	1901
			0:00	-	WET	1946 Sep 30
			1:00	-	MET	1985 Mar 31 2:00
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Austria
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Austria	1918	only	-	Jun	16	3:00	0	-
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Austria	1920	only	-	Sep	13	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Austria	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Austria	1946	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Austria	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Austria	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vienna	1:05:20 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1918 Jun 16 3:00
			1:00	Austria	MET%s	1940 Apr  1 2:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Austria	MET%s	1981
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Belarus
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Minsk	1:50:16 -	LMT	1880
			2:31	Russia	LST%s	1919 Jul 1 2:00
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1922 Oct
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Belgium
# Whitman and Shanks disagree; go with Shanks, usually.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
# From Whitman:
Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1919	only	-	Oct	 4	23:00s	0	-
# Shanks gives 1920 Feb 14 23:00s; go with Whitman.
Rule	Belgium	1920	1921	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1927 Oct 1 2:00s and 1928 Oct 7 2:00s; go with Shanks.
Rule	Belgium	1922	1928	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1929	only	-	Apr	21	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1929	1938	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1930	only	-	Apr	13	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1931	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1932	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1933	only	-	Mar	26	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1934	only	-	Apr	 8	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1935	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1936	only	-	Apr	19	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman says 1937 Apr 18 2:00s; go with Shanks.
Rule	Belgium	1937	only	-	Apr	 4	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman says 1938 Apr 10 2:00s; go with Shanks.
Rule	Belgium	1938	only	-	Mar	27	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Apr	16	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1939	only	-	Nov	19	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	May	19	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Belgium	1946	only	-	Oct	 7	 2:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Brussels	0:17:20 -	LMT	1880
			0:17	-	BST	1892 May  1 12:00
			0:00	-	WET	1914 Aug  4
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1919 Mar  1 23:00
			0:00	Belgium	WET%s	1940 Feb 24 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Belgium	MET%s	1977
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Bosnia and Herzegovina
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Sarajevo	1:13:40	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	MET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1983
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Bulgaria
# Part switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1915 Nov 14;
# the rest switched on 1920 Sep 17.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Mar	31	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Bulg	1979	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1980	1982	-	Apr	Sat<=7	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Bulg	1980	only	-	Sep	29	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Bulg	1981	only	-	Sep	27	 2:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Sofia	1:33:16 -	LMT	1880
			1:57	-	TST	1894 Nov 30
			2:00	-	EET	1942 Nov  2  3:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2  3:00
			2:00	-	EET	1979 Mar 31 23:00
			2:00	Bulg	EET%s	1982 Sep 26  2:00
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Croatia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Zagreb	1:03:52	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	MET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1983
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Czech Republic
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Czech	1944	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Apr	 8	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Czech	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1946	only	-	May	 6	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Czech	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Czech	1947	only	-	Apr	20	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Czech	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Czech	1949	only	-	Apr	 9	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Prague	0:57:44 -	LMT	1850
			0:58	-	PMT	1891 Oct     # Prague Mean Time
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Sep 17 2:00s
			1:00	Czech	MET%s	1979
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Denmark
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1916	only	-	Sep	30	23:00	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1940	only	-	May	15	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1945	only	-	Aug	15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	May	 1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1946	only	-	Sep	 1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	May	 4	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1947	only	-	Aug	10	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	May	 9	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Denmark	1948	only	-	Aug	 8	 2:00s	0	-
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 to 1949 Oct 1, and disagrees in minor ways
# about many of the above dates; go with Shanks.
#
# For 1894, Shanks says Jan, Whitman Apr; go with Whitman.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Copenhagen	 0:50:20 -	LMT	1890
			 0:50	-	CMT	1894 Apr  # Copenhagen Mean Time
			 1:00	Denmark	MET%s	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			 1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			 1:00	Denmark	MET%s	1980
			 1:00	EC	MET%s
Zone Atlantic/Faeroe	-0:27:04 -	LMT	1908 Jan 11	# Torshavn
			 0:00	-	WET	1981
			 0:00	EC	WET%s
Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:29:00 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
			-2:00	-	MGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-2:00	M-Eur	MGT%s	1981 Mar 29
			-1:00	M-Eur	EGT%s
Zone America/Godthab	-3:26:56 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
			-3:00	-	WGT	1980 Apr  6 2:00
			-3:00	M-Eur	WGT%s
Zone America/Thule	-4:35:08 -	LMT	1916 Jul 28
			-4:00	-	AST

# Estonia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
#
# From Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk> (1994-10-15):
# A relative in Tallinn confirms the accuracy of the data for 1989 onwards
# [through 1994] and gives the legal authority for it,
# a regulation of the Government of Estonia, No. 111 of 1989....
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Tallinn	1:39:00	-	LMT	1880
			1:39	-	LST	1918 Feb
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1919 Jul
			1:39	-	LST	1921 May
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  6
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Sep 15
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Sep 22
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1989 Mar 26 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1989 Sep 24 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Finland
#
# From Hannu Strang <chs@apu.fi> (25 Sep 1994 06:03:37 UTC):
# Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
# and it's supposed to change at 4am...
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (25 Sep 1994):
# Shanks says Finland has switched at 02:00 standard time since 1981.
# Go with Strang instead.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Finland	1921	only	-	May	1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Apr	3	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Finland	1942	only	-	Oct	3	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Helsinki	1:39:52 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:40	-	HMT	1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
			2:00	Finland	EET%s	1981 Mar 29 2:00
			2:00	EC	EET%s

# France
# Shanks seems to use `24:00' ambiguously; we resolve it with Whitman.
# From Shanks (1991):
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	France	1911	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	France	1916	only	-	Jun	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1916	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	France	1917	only	-	Mar	24	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1920	only	-	Oct	23	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1921	only	-	Oct	25	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1922	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1923	only	-	May	26	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1925	only	-	Apr	 4	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1930	only	-	Apr	12	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1933	only	-	Mar	25	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	France	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	" DST"
# The French rules for 1941-1944 were not used in Paris,
# but were used in other places (e.g. Monaco).
Rule	France	1941	only	-	May	 5	 0:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	France	1941	only	-	Oct	 6	 1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 0:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	France	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	 3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Mar	29	 2:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	France	1943	only	-	Nov	 4	 3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Apr	 3	 2:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	France	1944	only	-	Oct	 8	 1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	 2:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	France	1945	only	-	Sep	16	 3:00	0	-
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Mar	28	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	France	1976	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman gives 0:09:05,
# but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
# Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
# on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Paris	0:09:21 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15 0:01
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	France	WET%s	1940 Jun 14
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Aug 25
			0:00	France	WET%s	1945 Sep 16 3:00
			1:00	France	MET%s	1977
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Germany
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	May	24	2:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Sep	24	3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Germany	1945	only	-	Nov	18	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1946	only	-	Apr	14	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1948 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Germany	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Apr	 6	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	May	11	2:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Germany	1947	only	-	Jun	29	3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Germany	1948	only	-	Apr	18	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Germany	1949	only	-	Apr	10	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Berlin	0:53:28 -	LMT	1893 Apr
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr 2 2:00
			1:00	Germany	MET%s	1980
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Gibraltar
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Gibraltar	-0:21:24 -	LMT	1880 Aug  2
			0:00	GB-Eire	%s	1957 Apr 14 2:00
			1:00	-	MET	1982
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Greece
# They adopted the Julian calendar in 1846.
# Part switched to the Gregorian calendar on 1916 Jul 28.
# The rest switched on 1920 Mar 18.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Greece	1916	only	-	July	28	0:01	0	-
# Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Jul	 7	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1932	only	-	Sep	 1	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1941	only	-	Apr	 7	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1942	only	-	Nov	 2	3:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1943	only	-	Oct	 4	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Jul	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1952	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Apr	12	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1975	only	-	Nov	26	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Apr	11	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1976	only	-	Oct	10	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1977	only	-	Sep	26	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Greece	1978	only	-	Sep	24	4:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Apr	 1	9:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1979	only	-	Sep	29	2:00	0	-
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Greece	1980	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Athens	1:34:52 -	LMT	1895 Sep 14
			1:35	-	AMT	1916 Jul 28 0:01     # Athens MT
			2:00	Greece	EET%s	1941 Apr 30
			1:00	Greece	MET%s	1944 Apr  4
			2:00	Greece	EET%s	1981
			# Shanks says they switched to M-Eur in 1981;
			# go with EC intead, since Greece joined it on Jan 1.
			2:00	EC	EET%s

# Hungary
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Hungary	1918	only	-	Sep	29	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Apr	15	 3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1919	only	-	Sep	15	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Apr	 5	 3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1920	only	-	Sep	30	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	May	 1	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1945	only	-	Nov	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1946	only	-	Mar	31	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1946	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=4	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Apr	17	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1950	only	-	Oct	23	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	May	23	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1954	1955	-	Oct	 3	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1956	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Jun	Sun>=1	 1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Hungary	1957	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Hungary	1980	only	-	Apr	 6	 1:00	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Budapest	1:16:20 -	LMT	1890 Oct
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1918 Jul
			1:00	Hungary	MET%s	1941 Apr  6  2:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  1 23:00
			1:00	Hungary	MET%s	1980 Sep 28  2:00s
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Iceland
#
# From Adam David <adam@veda.is> (November 6, 1993):
# The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
#
# (December 5, 1993):
# This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
# Iceland Almanak.
#
# From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
# behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
# of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
# was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.
#
# "first day of winter" referred to [below] means the first day of the 26 weeks
# of winter, according to the old icelandic calendar that dates back to the
# time the norsemen first settled Iceland.  The first day of winter is always
# Saturday, but is not dependent on the Julian or Gregorian calendars.
#
# (December 10, 1993):
# I have a reference from the Oxford Icelandic-English dictionary for the
# beginning of winter, which ties it to the ecclesiastical calendar (and thus
# to the julian/gregorian calendar) over the period in question.
#	the winter begins on the Saturday next before St. Luke's day
#	(old style), or on St. Luke's day, if a Saturday.
# St. Luke's day ought to be traceable from ecclesiastical sources. "old style"
# might be a reference to the Julian calendar as opposed to Gregorian, or it
# might mean something else (???). The Gregorian calendar was not introduced
# in Iceland until 1700.
#
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (December 9, 1993):
# The Iceland Almanak, Shanks and Whitman disagree on many points.
# We go with the Almanak, except for one claim from Shanks, namely that
# Reykavik was -1:28 from 1837 to 1908, local mean time before that.
#
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Iceland	1908	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1917	1918	-	Feb	19	23:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1917	only	-	Oct	21	 1:00	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1918	only	-	Nov	16	 1:00	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Apr	29	23:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1939	only	-	Nov	29	 2:00	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Feb	25	 2:00	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1940	only	-	Nov	 3	 2:00	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Mar	 2	 1:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1941	only	-	Nov	 2	 1:00s	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Mar	 8	 1:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1942	only	-	Oct	25	 1:00s	0	S
# 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1943	1946	-	Mar	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	D
Rule	Iceland	1943	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	S
# 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
Rule	Iceland	1947	1967	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 1:00s	1:00	D
# 1949 Oct transition delayed by 1 week
Rule	Iceland	1949	only	-	Oct	30	 1:00s	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1950	1966	-	Oct	Sun>=22	 1:00s	0	S
Rule	Iceland	1967	only	-	Oct	29	 1:00s	0	S
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik	-1:27:24 -	LMT	1837
			-1:28	-	RMT	1908	   # Reykjavik Mean Time
			-1:00	Iceland	I%sT	1968 Apr 7 1:00s
			 0:00	-	GMT

# Italy
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Italy	1893	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00s	0	S
# Shanks gives transition times of 1916-1920 as 24:00; go with Whitman.
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1917	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1918	only	-	Mar	 9	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1918	1919	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Mar	20	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Shanks gives 1920 Sep 18; go with Whitman.
Rule	Italy	1920	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1940	only	-	Jun	15	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1945	only	-	Sep	17	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Mar	17	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1946	only	-	Oct	 6	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Mar	16	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1947	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Feb	29	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1948	only	-	Oct	 3	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1966	1968	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1966	1969	-	Sep	Sun>=22	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1969	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	May	31	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1970	only	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1971	1972	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1971	only	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1972	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1973	1974	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Italy	1974	only	-	May	26	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1975	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1975	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1976	only	-	May	30	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1977	1979	-	May	Sun>=22	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Italy	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Italy	1979	only	-	Sep	30	0:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Rome	0:49:56 -	LMT	1866 Sep 22
			0:50	-	RMT	1893 Nov	# Rome Mean Time
			1:00	Italy	MET%s	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
			1:00	Italy	MET%s	1980
			1:00	EC	MET%s

Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/Vatican
Link	Europe/Rome	Europe/San_Marino

# Latvia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Riga	1:36:24	-	LMT	1880
			1:36	-	LST	1918 Apr 15 2:00
			1:36	M-Eur	LST%s	1919 Apr  1 2:00
			1:36	1:00  "LST DST"	1919 May 22 3:00
			1:36	-	LST	1926 May 11
			2:00	-	EET	1940 Aug  5
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jul
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Aug  8
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Liechtenstein
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vaduz	0:38:04 -	LMT	1894 Jun
			1:00	-	MET	1981
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Lithuania
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Feb 15.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Vilnius	1:41:16	-	LMT	1880
			1:24	-	LST	1917		# Kaunas
			1:36	-	LST	1919 Oct 10
			1:00	-	MET	1920 Jul 12
			2:00	-	EET	1920 Oct  9
			1:00	-	MET	1940 Aug  3
			3:00	-	MSK	1941 Jun 24
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Aug
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Luxembourg
# Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways; go with Shanks.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Lux	1904	only	-	Jun	 1	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	May	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Apr	28	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1917	only	-	Sep	17	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Apr	Mon>=15	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1918	only	-	Sep	Mon>=15	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1919	only	-	Oct	 5	 3:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1920	only	-	Oct	24	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Mar	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1921	only	-	Oct	26	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Mar	25	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1922	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Apr	21	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1923	only	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 2:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1924	only	-	Mar	29	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1924	1928	-	Oct	Sun>=2	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Lux	1925	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Lux	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Luxembourg	0:24:36 -	LMT	1904 Jun
			1:00	Lux	MET%s	1918 Nov 25
			0:00	Lux	WET%s	1929 Oct  6 2:00s
			0:00	Belgium	WET%s	1940 May 14 3:00
			1:00	M-Eur	WET%s	1944 Sep 18 3:00
			1:00	Belgium	MET%s	1977
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Macedonia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Skopje	1:25:44	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	MET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1983
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Malta
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Mar	31	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Malta	1973	only	-	Sep	29	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Apr	21	0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Malta	1974	only	-	Sep	16	0:00s	0	-
Rule	Malta	1975	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=15	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Malta	1975	1980	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00	0	-
Rule	Malta	1980	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Malta	0:58:04 -	LMT	1893 Nov  2	# Valletta
			1:00	Italy	MET%s	1942 Nov  2 2:00s
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2 2:00s
			1:00	Italy	MET%s	1973 Mar 31
			1:00	Malta	MET%s	1981
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Moldova
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1919 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Chisinau	1:55:20 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Monaco
# Shanks gives 0:09 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's more precise 0:09:21.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Monaco	0:29:32 -	LMT	1891 Mar 15
			0:09:21	-	PMT	1911 Mar 11    # Paris Mean Time
			0:00	France	WET%s	1945 Sep 16 3:00
			1:00	France	MET%s	1977
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Netherlands
# Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
# but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Neth	1892	only	-	May	 1	0:00	0	AMT
# Shanks gives 1916 May 1 0:00 and 1916 Oct 1 0:00; go with Whitman.
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	May	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1916	only	-	Oct	 2	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Apr	16	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1917	only	-	Sep	17	2:00s	0	AMT
# Whitman gives 1918 Apr 14, 1918 Oct 31, and 1921 Sep 28; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Apr	Mon>=1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1918	1921	-	Sep	Mon>=24	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1922	only	-	Mar	26	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1922	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=2	2:00s	0	AMT
Rule	Neth	1923	only	-	Jun	 1	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1924	only	-	Mar	30	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1925 Apr 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1925	only	-	Jun	 5	2:00s	1:00	NST
# For 1926 through 1930 Whitman gives Apr 15; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1926	1931	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1932	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1933	1936	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1937	only	-	May	22	2:00s	1:00	NST
# Whitman gives 1939 Apr 15 and 1940 Apr 19; go with Shanks.
Rule	Neth	1938	1939	-	May	15	2:00s	1:00	NST
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Neth	1945	only	-	May	20	2:00s	0	-
# Before 1937, Shanks says just `0:20'; we use Whitman's more precise figure.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Amsterdam	0:19:28 -	LMT	1892 May
			0:19:28	Neth	%s	1937 Jul
			0:20	Neth	%s	1940 May 16 0:40
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2 2:00
			1:00	Neth	MET%s	1977
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Norway
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Norway	1892	only	-	May	 1	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1916 May 21 - 1916 Oct 21; go with Shanks.
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	May	22	1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Norway	1916	only	-	Sep	30	0:00	0	-
# Shanks omits the following transition; go with Whitman.
Rule	Norway	1935	only	-	Aug	11	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman says DST observed until 1942 Nov 1, then 1943 Mar 29 - Oct 4,
# 1944 Apr 3 - Oct 2, and 1945 Apr 1 - Oct 1; go with Shanks after 1940.
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Norway	1945	only	-	Oct	 1	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1959	1964	-	Mar	Sun>=15	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Norway	1959	1965	-	Sep	Sun>=15	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Norway	1965	only	-	Apr	25	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Oslo	0:43:00 -	LMT	1895
			1:00	Norway	MET%s	1940 Aug 10 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 Apr  2  2:00
			1:00	Norway	MET%s	1980
			1:00	EC	MET%s
# Svalbard is like Europe/Oslo.
#
# From Whitman:
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Jan_Mayen	-1:00	-	EGT

# Poland
# Austrian and German Poland switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
# on 1582 Oct 15.  Russian Poland switched on 1918 Jan 14.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Poland	1918	1919	-	Sep	16	2:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1919	only	-	Apr	15	2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1944 Nov 30; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1944	only	-	Oct	 4	2:00	0	-
# For 1944-1948 Whitman gives the previous day; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Apr	29	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1945	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Apr	14	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1946	only	-	Sep	 7	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1947	only	-	May	 4	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1947	1948	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Poland	1948	only	-	Apr	18	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman also gives 1949 Apr 9 - 1949 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Poland	1957	only	-	Jun	 2	1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1957	1958	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1958	only	-	Mar	30	1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1959	only	-	May	31	1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1959	1961	-	Oct	Sun>=1	1:00s	0	-
Rule	Poland	1960	only	-	Apr	 3	1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1961	1964	-	May	Sun>=25	1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Poland	1962	1964	-	Sep	lastSun	1:00s	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Warsaw	1:24:00 -	LMT	1880
			1:24	-	WMT	1915 Aug  5   # Warsaw Mean Time
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1918 Sep 16 3:00
			2:00	Poland	EET%s	1922 Jun
			1:00	Poland	MET%s	1940 Jun 23 2:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1944 Oct
			1:00	Poland	MET%s	1977 Apr  3 1:00
			1:00	W-Eur	MET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Portugal
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Port	1911	only	-	May	24	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Jun	17	23:00	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1916 Oct 31; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1916	only	-	Nov	 1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Port	1917	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1917	1921	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1918	only	-	Mar	 1	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1919	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1920	only	-	Feb	29	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1921	only	-	Feb	28	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1924	only	-	Oct	14	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1931	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1931 Oct 8; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1931	1932	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1932	only	-	Apr	 2	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Shanks gives 1934 Apr 4; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1934	only	-	Apr	 7	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1934 Oct 5; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1934	1938	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
# Shanks gives 1935 Apr 30; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1935	only	-	Mar	30	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1936	only	-	Apr	18	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1937 Apr 2; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1937	only	-	Apr	 3	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1938	only	-	Mar	26	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1939 Oct 7; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1939	only	-	Nov	18	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1940	only	-	Feb	24	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Shanks gives 1940 Oct 7; go with Whitman.
Rule	Port	1940	1941	-	Oct	 5	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1941	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Mar	Sat>=8	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Apr	25	22:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Port	1942	only	-	Aug	15	22:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1942	1945	-	Oct	Sat>=24	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1943	only	-	Apr	17	22:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Port	1943	1945	-	Aug	Sat>=25	22:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1944	1945	-	Apr	Sat>=21	22:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Apr	Sat>=1	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1946	only	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1947	1949	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
# Shanks says DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
# Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks.
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1951	1965	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 2:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Mar	27	 0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1977	only	-	Sep	25	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1978	1979	-	Apr	Sun>=1	 0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1979	1982	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00s	0	-
Rule	Port	1980	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	 1:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Port	1983	only	-	Mar	lastSun	 2:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Lisbon	-0:36:32 -	LMT	1884
			-0:37	-	LMT	1911 May 24   # Lisbon Mean Time
			 0:00	Port	WET%s	1966 Apr  3 2:00
			 1:00	-	MET	1976 Sep 26 1:00
			 0:00	Port	WET%s	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	EC	WET%s	1992 Sep 27 1:00s
# From Rui Pedro Salgueiro <rps@inescca.inescc.pt> (November 12, 1992):
# Portugal has recently (September, 27) changed timezone
# (from WET to MET or CET) to harmonize with EEC.
			1:00	EC	MET%s
# We don't know what happened to Madeira or the Azores,
# so we'll just use Shanks for now.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Atlantic/Azores	-1:42:40 -	LMT	1884		# Ponta Delgada
			-1:55	-	HMT	1911 May 24  # Horta Mean Time
			-2:00	Port	ACT%s	1966 Apr  3 2:00
			-1:00	-	ACT	1977 Mar 27
			-1:00	-	ACT	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			-1:00	W-Eur	ACT%s
Zone Atlantic/Madeira	-1:07:36 -	LMT	1884		# Funchal
			-1:08	-	FMT	1911 May 24  # Funchal Mean Time
			-1:00	Port	ACT%s	1966 Apr  3 2:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1977 Mar 27
			 0:00	Port	WET%s	1983 Sep 25 1:00s
			 0:00	EC	WET%s

# Romania
# Catholic Romania switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on
# on 1919 Mar 18.  Greek Orthodox Romania switched on 1920 Mar 18.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Romania	1931	only	-	Jul	24	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1932	only	-	May	21	 0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Romania	1932	1939	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 0:00s	0	-
Rule	Romania	1933	1939	-	Apr	Sun>=2	 0:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	May	27	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Romania	1979	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Romania	1980	only	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Bucharest	1:44:24 -	LMT	1891 Oct
			1:44	-	BMT	1931 Jul 24	# Bucharest MT
			2:00	Romania	EET%s	1981 Mar 29 2:00s
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.

# Russia
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
# Moscow and Novosibirsk time zone names, and Moscow rules after 1991,
# are from Andrew A. Chernov <ache@astral.msk.su>.
# I invented the other time zone names, and (unless otherwise specified)
# guessed what happened after 1991; the clocks were chaotic, and we know little.
# The rest is from Shanks.
#
# From Shanks (1991):
# Western Russia switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar
# on 1918 Jan 14.  Eastern Russia switched on 1920 Mar 18.
# In 1929 the Soviet Union instituted a 5 day week; in 1932 it instituted
# a 6 day week; on 1940 Jun 27 it returned to the Gregorian week.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Moscow	 2:30:20 -	LMT	1880
			 2:31	Russia	LST%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			 3:00	Russia	MS%s	1922 Oct
			 2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			 3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 2:00	-	EET	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 3:00	Russia	MS%s
Zone Europe/Kuybyshev	 3:20:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 3:00	-	KSK	1957 Mar
			 4:00	Russia	KS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 3:00	1:00	KSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 3:00	-	KSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 4:00	Russia	KS%s
Zone Asia/Yekaterinburg	 4:02:34 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 4:00	-	SSK	1957 Mar
			 5:00	Russia	SS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 4:00	1:00	SSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 4:00	-	SSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 5:00	Russia	ES%s	# name change from Sverdlovsk
Zone Asia/Omsk		 4:53:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 5:00	-	OSK	1957 Mar
			 6:00	Russia	OS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 5:00	1:00	OSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 5:00	-	OSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	OS%s
# From Stanislaw A. Kuzikowski <S.A.Kuz@iae.nsk.su> (June 29, 1994):
# But now it is some months since Novosibirsk is 3 hours ahead of Moscow!
# I do not know why they have decided to make this change;
# as far as I remember it was done exactly during winter->summer switching
# so we (Novosibirsk) simply did not switch.
# Tomsk is still 4 hours ahead of Moscow.
Zone Asia/Novosibirsk	 5:31:40 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 6:00	-	NSK	1957 Mar
			 7:00	Russia	NS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	NSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 6:00	-	NSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	NS%s	1994 Mar 27 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	NSD	1994 Sep 25 2:00s
			 6:00	Russia	NS%s
Zone Asia/Tomsk		 5:39:52 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 6:00	-	TSK	1957 Mar
			 7:00	Russia	TS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 6:00	1:00	TSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 6:00	-	TSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 7:00	Russia	TS%s
Zone Asia/Irkutsk	 6:57:20 -	LMT	1880
			 6:57	-	LST	1924 May  2
			 7:00	-	ISK	1957 Mar
			 8:00	Russia	IS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 7:00	1:00	ISD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 7:00	-	ISK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 8:00	Russia	IS%s
Zone Asia/Yakutsk	 8:38:40 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			 8:00	-	YSK	1957 Mar
			 9:00	Russia	YS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 8:00	1:00	YSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 8:00	-	YSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			 9:00	Russia	YS%s
Zone Asia/Vladivostok	 8:47:44 -	LMT	1880
			 8:48	-	LST	1924 May  2
			 9:00	-	VSK	1957 Mar
			10:00	Russia	VS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			 9:00	1:00	VSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			 9:00	-	VSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			10:00	Russia	VS%s
Zone Asia/Magadan	10:03:12 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			10:00	-	MSK	1957 Mar
			11:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			10:00	1:00	MSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			10:00	-	MSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			11:00	Russia	MS%s
# This name should be Asia/Petropavlovsk-Kamchatski, but that's too long.
Zone Asia/Kamchatka	10:34:36 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			11:00	-	PSK	1957 Mar
			12:00	Russia	PS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			11:00	1:00	PSD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			11:00	-	PSK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			12:00	Russia	PS%s
Zone Asia/Anadyr	11:49:56 -	LMT	1924 May  2
			12:00	-	ASK	1957 Mar
			13:00	Russia	AS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			12:00	1:00	ASD	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
			12:00	-	ASK	1992 Jan 19 2:00s
			13:00	Russia	AS%s

# Slovakia
Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava

# Slovenia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Ljubljana	0:58:04	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	MET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1983
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Spain
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Spain	1901	only	-	Jan	 1	 0:00	0	-
# For 1917-1919 Whitman gives Apr Sat>=1 - Oct Sat>=1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1917	only	-	May	 5	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1917	1919	-	Oct	 6	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1918	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1919	only	-	Apr	 5	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1921 Feb 28 - Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Apr	16	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1924 Oct 14; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1924	only	-	Oct	 4	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1926	only	-	Apr	17	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman says no DST in 1929; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1926	1929	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1927	only	-	Apr	 9	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1928	only	-	Apr	14	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1929	only	-	Apr	20	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman gives 1937 Jun 16, 1938 Apr 16, 1940 Apr 13; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1937	only	-	May	22	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1937	1939	-	Oct	Sat>=1	23:00s	0	-
Rule	Spain	1938	only	-	Mar	22	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1939	only	-	Apr	15	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1940	only	-	Mar	16	23:00s	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman says no DST 1942-1945; go with Shanks.
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	May	 2	22:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Spain	1942	only	-	Sep	 1	22:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1943	1946	-	Apr	Sat>=13	22:00s	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Spain	1943	only	-	Oct	 3	22:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1944	only	-	Oct	10	22:00s	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1945	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1946	only	-	Sep	30	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Apr	30	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1949	only	-	Sep	30	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Apr	Sat>=13	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1974	1975	-	Oct	Sun>=1	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1976	only	-	Mar	27	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1976	1977	-	Sep	lastSun	 1:00	0	-
Rule	Spain	1977	1978	-	Apr	 2	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Spain	1978	only	-	Oct	 1	 1:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Madrid	-0:14:44 -	LMT	1901
			 0:00	Spain	WET%s	1946 Sep 30
			 1:00	Spain	MET%s	1979
			 1:00	EC	MET%s
Zone	Atlantic/Canary	-1:01:36 -	LMT	1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
			-1:00	-	ACT	1946 Sep 30 1:00
			 0:00	-	WET	1980 Apr  6 0:00s
			 0:00	1:00  "WET DST"	1980 Sep 28 0:00s
			 0:00	EC	WET%s

# Sweden
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Stockholm	1:12:12 -	LMT	1878 May 31
			1:12	-	SMT	1900 Jan  1  1:00 # Stockholm MT
			1:00	-	MET	1916 Apr 14 23:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1916 Sep 30 23:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1980
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Switzerland
# From Howse (1988), p 82:
# By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
# and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
# mean time in preference to apparent time -- Geneva from 1780 ....
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Swiss	1894	only	-	Jun	1	0:00	0	-
# From Whitman (who writes ``Midnight?''):
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Nov	 2	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Swiss	1940	only	-	Dec	31	0:00	0	-
# From Shanks (1991):
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	May	Sun>=1	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Swiss	1941	1942	-	Oct	Sun>=1	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Zurich	0:34:08 -	LMT	1848 Sep 12
			0:30	-	SST	1894 Jun   # Swiss Standard Time
			1:00	Swiss	MET%s	1981
			1:00	EC	MET%s

# Turkey
# European Turkey switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1908.
# Asian Turkey switched in 1914.
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Turkey	1910	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1916	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Mar	28	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1920	only	-	Oct	25	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Apr	 3	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1921	only	-	Oct	 3	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Mar	26	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1922	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
# Whitman gives 1923 Apr 28 - Sep 16 and no DST in 1924-1925; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1924	only	-	May	13	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1924	1925	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1925	only	-	May	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Shanks omits the first two transitions in 1940; go with Whitman.
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Jun	30	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Oct	 5	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1940	only	-	Dec	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1941	only	-	Sep	21	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Apr	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
# Whitman omits the next two transition and gives 1945 Oct 1; go with Shanks.
Rule	Turkey	1942	only	-	Nov	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Apr	 2	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1945	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1946	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1947	1948	-	Apr	Sun>=16	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1947	1950	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1949	only	-	Apr	10	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1950	only	-	Apr	19	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Apr	22	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1951	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Jul	15	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1962	only	-	Oct	 8	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	May	15	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1964	only	-	Oct	 1	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	May	Sun>=2	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1970	1972	-	Oct	Sun>=2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Jun	 3	1:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1973	only	-	Nov	 4	3:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Mar	31	2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1974	only	-	Nov	 3	5:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1975	only	-	Mar	30	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1975	1976	-	Oct	lastSun	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1976	only	-	Jun	 1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1977	1978	-	Apr	Sun>=1	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1977	only	-	Oct	16	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1979	1980	-	Apr	Sun>=1	3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1979	1982	-	Oct	Mon>=11	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1981	1982	-	Mar	lastSun	3:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Jul	31	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1983	only	-	Oct	 2	0:00	0	-
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Apr	20	0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Turkey	1985	only	-	Sep	28	0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Istanbul	1:55:52 -	LMT	1880
			1:57	-	OMT	1910 Oct     # Ottoman Mean Time
			2:00	Turkey	EET%s	1978 Oct 15
			3:00	Turkey	TUR%s	1985 Apr 20
			2:00	Turkey	EET%s	1986
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.
Link	Europe/Istanbul	Asia/Istanbul	# Istanbul is in both continents.

# Ukraine
# Rule	NAME	FROM	TO	TYPE	IN	ON	AT	SAVE	LETTER/S
Rule	Ukraine	1919	only	-	Jul	 1	 2:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Ukraine	1919	only	-	Aug	16	 0:00	0	-
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Feb	14	23:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Mar	21	23:00	2:00	" DDST"
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Sep	 1	 0:00	1:00	" DST"
Rule	Ukraine	1921	only	-	Oct	 1	 0:00	0	-
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone Europe/Kiev	2:02:04 -	LMT	1880
			2:02	Russia	LST%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			2:02	Ukraine	LST%s	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1990 Jul 17
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s
#			This may change to `EC' soon.
Zone Europe/Simferopol	2:16:24 -	LMT	1880
			2:08	Russia	LST%s	1919 Jul  1 2:00
			2:08	Ukraine	LST%s	1924 May  2
			2:00	-	EET	1930 Jun 21
			3:00	Russia	MS%s	1991 Mar 31 2:00s
			2:00	1:00  "EET DST"	1991 Sep 29 2:00s
# From Paul Eggert <eggert@twinsun.com> (May 28, 1994):
# Today's _Economist_ (p 45) reports that Crimea switched
# from Kiev to Moscow time sometime after the January elections.
# For now, we'll guess that there was a 2-hour leap forward on March 27.
			2:00	M-Eur	EET%s	1994 Mar 27 2:00s
			3:00	Russia	MS%s

# Yugoslavia
# They switched from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar on 1918 Mar 18.
# Zone	NAME		GMTOFF	RULES	FORMAT	[UNTIL]
Zone	Europe/Belgrade	1:22:00	-	LMT	1884
			1:00	-	MET	1941 Apr 18 23:00
			1:00	M-Eur	MET%s	1945 May  8  2:00s
			1:00	1:00  "MET DST"	1945 Sep 16  2:00s
			1:00	-	MET	1983
			1:00	EC	MET%s

###############################################################################

# One source shows that Bulgaria, Cyprus, Finland, and Greece observe DST from
# the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in September in 1986.
# The source shows Romania changing a day later than everybody else.
#
# According to Bernard Sieloff's source, Poland is in the MET time zone but
# uses the WE DST rules.  The Western USSR uses EET+1 and ME DST rules.
# Bernard Sieloff's source claims Romania switches on the same day, but at
# 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST).  It also claims that Turkey
# switches on the same day, but switches on at 01:00 standard time
# and off at 00:00 standard time (i.e., 01:00 DST)

# ...
# Date: Wed, 28 Jan 87 16:56:27 -0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cgcha!wtho (Tom Hofmann)
# Message-Id: <8701281556.AA22174@cgcha.uucp>
# ...
#
# ...the European time rules are...standardized since 1981, when
# most European coun[tr]ies started DST.  Before that year, only
# a few countries (UK, France, Italy) had DST, each according
# to own national rules.  In 1981, however, DST started on
# 'Apr firstSun', and not on 'Mar lastSun' as in the following
# years...
# But also since 1981 there are some more national exceptions
# than listed in 'europe': Switzerland, for example, joined DST
# one year later, Denmark ended DST on 'Oct 1' instead of 'Sep
# lastSun' in 1981---I don't know how they handle now.
#
# Finally, DST ist always from 'Apr 1' to 'Oct 1' in the
# Soviet Union (as far as I know).
#
# Tom Hofmann, Scientific Computer Center, CIBA-GEIGY AG,
# 4002 Basle, Switzerland
# UUCP: ...!mcvax!cernvax!cgcha!wtho

# ...
# Date: Wed, 4 Feb 87 22:35:22 +0100
# From: seismo!mcvax!cwi.nl!dik (Dik T. Winter)
# ...
#
# The information from Tom Hofmann is (as far as I know) not entirely correct.
# After a request from chongo at amdahl I tried to retrieve all information
# about DST in Europe.  I was able to find all from about 1969.
#
# ...standardization on DST in Europe started in about 1977 with switches on
# first Sunday in April and last Sunday in September...
# In 1981 UK joined Europe insofar that
# the starting day for both shifted to last Sunday in March.  And from 1982
# the whole of Europe used DST, with switch dates April 1 and October 1 in
# the Sov[i]et Union.  In 1985 the SU reverted to standard Europe[a]n switch
# dates...
#
# It should also be remembered that time-zones are not constants; e.g.
# Portugal switched in 1976 from MET (or CET) to WET with DST...
# Note also that though there were rules for switch dates not
# all countries abided to these dates, and many individual deviations
# occurred, though not since 1982 I believe.  Another note: it is always
# assumed that DST is 1 hour ahead of normal time, this need not be the
# case; at least in the Netherlands there have been times when DST was 2 hours
# in advance of normal time.
#
# ...
# dik t. winter, cwi, amsterdam, nederland
# INTERNET   : dik@cwi.nl
# BITNET/EARN: dik@mcvax

# From Bob Devine (January 28, 1988):
# ...
# Greece: Last Sunday in April to last Sunday in September (iffy on dates).
# Since 1978.  Change at midnight.
# ...
# Monaco: has same DST as France.
# ...

# ...
# Date: Fri, 3 Sep 93 13:43:41 BST
# From: Peter Ilieve <peter@memex.co.uk>
# ...
# Turning to Europe, I now have a copy of the `Sixth Council Directive 92/20/EEC
# of 26 March 1992 on summertime arrangements'. This only covers 1993 and
# 1994, a seventh one is in the works but I doubt that the algorithm will
# change. This says summertime starts at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March
# and ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in September, except for the UK
# and Eire where it ends at 01:00 GMT on the fourth Sunday in October.
# It says the arrangements for 1995 onwards will be decided by 1 January 1994,
# but as the sixth directive was supposed to appear by 1 Jan 92 and didn't
# arrive til March I wouldn't hold your breath.
#
# The first summertime directive was adopted in 1980, although the UK didn't
# seem to use it until 1981. I suspect it would be safe to move your start
# dates for the -Eur rules back to 1981.